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A Text Book of Psychology

INTRODUCTION-PHYCHOLOGY
ORIGIN

In earlier time there was a belief that psychology is nothing but mind reading there
was also another notion that Psychologist were Black Magicians, and they could cure mental
problems. There was a time where there was no subject as Psychology. ‘Mental Philosophy’
was covering the study of the mind. Thus Psychology is legitimate child of philosophy.

It was in the year 1590 that Rudolf Geockle used the word psychology for the first
time .It come from the Greek words ‘PSYCHE’ and ‘LOGOS’ .Psyche means soul or spirit
and logos means knowledge or Science OF THE SOUL.

Psychology is a very young sciences having separated from philosophy in 1879


.When WILHELM WOUNDT established the first psychological laboratory at LIPZING in
GERMANY .He was called the ‘FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY’ because he was the first
person to measure human behaviour accurately.

Field of Psychology has three distinct Eras.

I. Pre modern psychology (Pre-scientific Age)


II. Modern psychology (The modern age of scientific psychology)
III. Post modern psychology(Recent Trends in contemporary psychology)

Pre modern psychology (Pre-scientific Age): This era take us back many centuries to a
time when psychology was viewed as a philosophy & not a science. In the psychology
there was a natural ties in with the times & intellectual elite of Greece & Egypt.

At the earlier time psychology took its identification from the school of philosophy.

Socrates, Plato & Descartes believed that the mind & body were separate entities
(dualism) and that most idea, thought, traits etc, were inborn
(Nature over Nurture )
Aristotle and Locke believed that the mind & body were connected (monism) & that
the mind was a “blank slate” upon which experiences writes (Nature over Nurture )
It was around 1870 that the focus on the psychology of the human mind
shifted from the pre-modern view of it being a philosophy of the more current theory
of conscious & unconscious level of functioning.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

Modern psychology (The modern age of scientific psychology): Around 1890 a steady
stream of what since then was considered radical ideas & theories began to appear.
Psychology roots are in medicine & philosophy, from the late 1800’s until the 1950s.
psychologist were divided about what they should study & how they should study it. As a
result, it gave birth to different idealogies these different idealogies are regarded as schools.
Main school are

I. Structuralism theory: an early school of psychology that used objective


introspection to explore the structural elements of the mind.
Wilhelm wundt start first psychological laboratory for the work with their associates.
The structuralism attempted to give a scientific analysis of conscious
experience by breaking down into its specific components or structures. For
examples, they identify four basic skin sensation of wetness as the combined
experiences of cold and smoothness.
II. Behaviourism theory: was introduced in 1913 by John B Watson, an American
psychologist. Behaviourism is a systematic approach to the understanding of human
& animal behaviour. It assumes that all behaviour are either reflexes produced by a
response to certain stimuli in the environment or a consequences of that individual’s
history, including specially reinforcement and punishment together with the
individual’s current motivational state & controlling stimuli.
During the first half of the twentieth century, John B. Watson devised
methodological Behaviourism, which rejected introspective methods & sought to
understand Behaviour by only measuring observable Behaviour & events. B.F.
Skinner suggested that private events that including thoughts & feeling are to be
subjected to the same controlling variables as observable behaviour which became
the basis for his philosophy called radical behaviourism.
Watson & Evan Pavlov investigated the stimulus – response procedures of classical
conditioning.
III. Functionalism: Is a school of psychology that focused on how mental and
behavioural process function and how they enable the organism to flourish adapt and
survive.

Structuralism was soon challenged by William James & some other psychologist who
felt that their new field should not focus on the structure of consciousness, but on its
function.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

Functionalism was strongly influenced by Drawin theory, theory of natural


selection. Only those species will survive which have to strong will/desire to
survive or the species which have a power to fight with the natural problems
or cope up the problem in their survival.

(IV) Psychoanalysis: psychoanalysis is a therapeutic techniques related to the study of the


unconscious mind. Psychoanalysis was established in the early 1890s by Austrian neurologist
Sigmund Freud.

Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in 1896 Freud retained the term psychoanalysis
for his own school of thought. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed
emotion & experiences, that is make the unconscious or conscious

In psychoanalysis Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind
them taking notes while they instruct him about their dreams and childhood memories.
Psychoanalysis is involving many sessions with the psychoanalyst.

Post modern psychology: (recent trends in contemporary psychology): psychology as


the study of the soul has fallen on hard times. Traditionally we identified our personal
identity as what we are born with a stable, unified soul including mind and heart.

According to philosopher Allan Bloom, the self is the modern substitute of the soul.
In other words, the traditionally idea of an immaterial soul as being the seat of our personal
identity has been replaced with the post modern psychology of socially constructed one’s
own self.

Once Post modern psychology is mastered the mental ill health prevalent within society will
dissipate through a concise and accurate treatment available through integrated intervention
into the human mind and body enterprise, as no condition without cures can actually exist.

History of psychology (387 BC to present): -

387 BC- Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes.

335 BC- Aristotle suggested that the heart is mechanism of mental processes.

1861- French physician Paul broke discovered an area in the left frontal lobe that plays a key

role in language development.

1879- Wilhelm Wundt founded first formal laboratory of psychology at the university of

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

Leipzig marking the formal beginning of the study of human emotions, behavior &

cognitions.

1883- The first laboratory of psychology in America is established at johns Hopkins

university.

1886- Sigmund freed began performing therapy in Vienna marking the beginning of

personality theory.

1890- The term mental test was coined by James Cattell, beginning the specialization in

psychology now known as psychological assessment.

1900- Sigmund Freud published interpretation of dream marking the beginning of

psychoanalytic thought.

1905-Alfred binit’s intelligence test was published in France.

1911-Edward Thorndike published 1st article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of

operant conditioning.

1912- William stern developed the original formula for the IQ after studying the scored on

binit’s intelligence test. The formula is

IQ = Mental Age x 100 / chronological age

1927- Anna Freud daughter of Sigmund Freud published her first book expanding her

Father’s idea in the treatment of children.

1935- (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test was published by hen Murray.

1942- Carl Rogers published ‘counselling & psychotherapy’

1950- Erik Erikson published ‘childhood & society’ Where he expands Freud’s theory to

include social aspects of personality. Development across the lifespan.

1952-The diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorder (dsm) was published by the

American psychiatric association.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

1954-Abrahan Maslow helped to found humanistic psychology & later developed his famous

hierarchy of needs.

1998-Psychology advances to the theological age with the emergence of e-therapy.

2002-New Mexico becomes the first state to pass legislation allowing licensed psychologists

to prescribe psychotropic medication.

DEFINATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY:

The literal meaning of the term psychology is science of the soul . Soul being vague and
ambiguous this definition was discarded because it would come in the way of the progress of
psychology.

Later on WILLIAM JAMES substituted soul for the mind .Thus, psychology came to be
known as STUDY OF THE MIND .Again,the term mind being vague and ambiguous,this
definition too was discarded.

1.WILHELM WUNDT – SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE.

2.J.B. WATSON defined psychology as SCIENCE OF BEAHAVIOUR.

OTHER IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS:

3.WOODWORTH AND MARQUIS- Psychology is the scientific study of the activities of


the individual in relation to his environment.

The activities include ,

CONATIVE ACTIVITY (MOTOR)-walking ,talking.

COGNITIVE ACTIVITY (MENTAL)-thinking,perceiving,reasoning.

AFFECTIVE ACTIVITY (EMOTIONAL)-Laughing,crying.

4.WILLIAM M.C DOUGALL – The positive sciences of the behaviour of living beings .

5.MUNN – Science of experience and behaviour.

(experience being internal and subjective can be understood only by the


individual behaviour being overt and objective is observable and verifiable ).

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

SCOPES OF PSYCHOLOGY {WORK OF PSYCHOLOGY/BRANCHES OF


PSYCHOLOGY}

The scopes of psychology is wide and varied as human activities .The aim of psychologists is
to make a better man .the findings of psychology was to improve efficiency of individuals in
all walks of life.Psychology can be divided into two main branches:-

(1)Theoretical field (2)Applied field .

1.Theoreitical field:-

1)General psychology –

it is concerned with establishment of basic principles of human behaviour .It studies


activities of man like attention ,perception ,emotions,memory,etc .It evolves principles .

2]Social psychology-

Individual is born into the society .culture ,tradition,custom,religion,and other factors leaves a
deep impression on the individual and determine his conative,cognitive and affective activity

Social psychologiest studies individual in context of the society to which he belongs .It
studies problems like socialization ,inter group and intra group relations ,attitudes etc .

Imp:social psychologiest are KIMBAL YOUNG,


BOGARDUS,MURPHY,ALLPORT,KUPPASWAMY.

3] Child psychology –

studies individual form birth to puberty .studies develop in behaviour such as sensory
,motor,emotional,motivational,social,intellectual,and personality development .

It is a critical period ,which can have a lasting influence.hence heredity and environment are
also taken into account

Studies childs success and failures ,adjustment and maladjustments.

Child psychologist-E.B HURLOCK,HAVIGHURST,GESSELL,THOMPSON.

4}DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-

Studies the factor that shape human behaviour from conception to death .attempts to
understand complex behaviour by studying the beginning .

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Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

Developmental changes in behaviour occure rapidly in early years of life


,adolescence,adulthood, and adulthood and oldage.so,the study of these changes is also a part
of developmental psychology . Adolescence is a transition from child to adult,hence .more
attention is given tothis period .

The role of heredity and environment starting form conception till death is given a lot of
emphasis.

Psychologiest- ELIZABETH B.HURLOCK,BROOKS

5]Abnormal psychology:

• Studies why individual deviates from normal behaviour .


• Studies abnormality of the individual .
• Deals with theoretical aspect of abnormality .abnormal persons deals difer in degree
than in kind from normal person .
• deals with differential diagnosis (study of differentiating between the symptoms of
various mental disorders )
• Help to understand nature and cause of abnormal behaviour.
• It has helped to destroy the wrong notions people have about mental patients.
• Important Psychologists- SIGMUND FREUD,ADLER,CARL JUNG

6) animal psychology:

• studies behaviour of animal. Data collected on animal behaviour is found to be useful


to understand of human behaviour.
• men are called is rational animal.

(7) para psychology:

• deals with extra sensory preception (e.s.p. – telepathy, cleairvoyance, extra cortical
memory etc.)
• telepathy – (thought transference) action of one mind on the other at a distance
through emotional experience. Without communication through senses.
• Clairvoyance – ability of seeing mentally what is happening or existing out of sight.
• Extra cortical memory – memory of previous birth.

Applied field:

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Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

1) clinical psychology:
• clinical psychology involves applications of principles and theory of abnormal
psychology in the diagnosis and trestment of emotions and behaviour problems. Such
as mental disorders, drug addicition, alcoholisam, mental retardation and so on.
• Clinical psychology are doctors who diagnosis behaves. Disorders and treatment them
by means of psychotherapy. They use psychological tests, interview, case histories to
diagnose the disorder. They adopt appropriate therapeutic technique (behaviour
therapy, psychotherapy) to treat patients.
2) Counselling psychology:
• Helps people with mile emotional and personal problems.
• Deals with family problems, marriage problems and choosing carrier. Adopts
psychotheraphy.
3) Educational psychology:
• School or educational psycholists are involved in testing and guidance of individual
students who need special attentions.
• They are concerned with increasing the effiency of learning in school through
application of psychological knowledge about learning and motivation through
curriculam.
• They sometime evaluate and administer admission examinations. Some may do
vocational counselling.
4) Experimental psychology:
• One of the oldest branches. Began in 1879 at Leipzig by Wilhelm wundt.
• Attempts to understand the fundamental cause of behaviour.
• Started studying sensory processes learning , memory.
• Attempts to study how behaviour can be modified.
5) Industrial & organizational psychology:
• Progress of industry depends on personal not only machines or raw materials. Hence
concerned with personnel.
• Selects right man for the right job. Selection is made on basis of aptitude, attitude,
interest, intelligence.

6) Market or consumer psychology:

Evaluates attitude of the consumer of specific products.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

• Makes suggestions to manufacturers to improve their products.


• Works with advertisers to improve sale of products.

7) Community psychology:

• Applies psychological principle, idea & point of view to help, solve social problems
and help to individuals to adept to their work and live in groups.
• They are part of community mental health movement.
• Concurred with problems of hostility which can pose a problem on community.
• Encourage people to participate in community decisions.

8) Military psychology:

• Began with introduction of psychological tests for army personnel during first world
war.
• Non-verbal intelligence test was used with illiterate soldiers.
• Used in selection of securitise to various ranks.
• Treats war neurites & rehabilitates service men after war in vocational readjustment
and family problems.
• Protects people against psychological shocks.

9) Psychology of crime:

• Treats criminal behaviour and anti social conduct.


• Deals with juvenile delinquents.
• Crime may be due to family disruption, social disorganisation, economic and
psychological factors, provides reformation and retraining.
• Juvenile courts, remand homes, guidance clinics, training schools are an impact of
this branch of psychology.

Methods of psychology:

Psychology has developed its own methods, according to its needs.

1. Introspection or self-observation method:


this method was suggested by EDWARD BRADFORD TITCHNER.
Introspection is composed of two words ‘intro’ and ‘inspection’.
Intro means within or inward and inspection means looking.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

It means looking within or looking inward to experience one’s own mental state.it
means looking into one’s own thoughts, feelings and experiences at the time of living
through the experiences in a given situation, at the given time, and to a given
stimulus. It is internal perception or self-observation. It is indispensable for the study
of internal behaviour. ex. A patient after an operation may be asked to report how to
feels. The patient will try to look within and recall what happened and how he is
feeling now.
Here the individual directs his attention inward to find out exactly what is happening
in his mind in a given situation. Here either the spy. himself look into one’s own mind
or he may ask his subject to look into himself and to report the working to his mind
while undergoing a particular experience. In order t obtain an accurate data (report) of
one’s own experience, subjects will have to be given intense training. If this method is
strictly followed, it provides most valuable data to study spy. Of an individual and to
predict behaviour.

MERITS:

1) Does not involve expenditure –no lab or apparatus required.


2) this method can used anytine and anywhere.
3) this is the easiest method and readily available to the individual .
4) we get a direct knowledge of the mental experience of the individual

DEMERITS :

1) Data collection by the observation method can not be verified .


2) lack of scientific validity.
3) feelings cannot be verbalized due to language .
4) use by only highly trained and skilled worker.

2. Systematic observation:

• It has been defined as measurement without instrument


• it consist of collection of data by means of observing behaviour by somebody other
than that person.
• in this method attention is focus on gestures ,behaviour,social adaptations and bodily
changes of people.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

• observed the behaviour according to a pre arranged scheduled and under control
condition

Advantages:

1. Being a record of the actual behaviour of the child, it is more reliable and
objective.
2. Used in animal and child psych. Successfully.
3. Data collected is accurate and objective, as it is done under natural setting and will
give a realistic touch.
4. The method has been found very useful with shy children.
5. It can be used with a little training. It does not require any special tool or
equipment.
6. When situations cannot be studied experimentally, observation is an important
tool.

Disadvantages:

1. It is time consuming as the observer has to wait for the behaviour under study to
occur.
2. There is great scope for personal prejudices and bias of the observer.
3. Only overt behaviour can be studied and not feeling and experiences.
4. Not possible to control all variables that determine behaviour hence generalization
is difficult.
2. Case study or case history method:

Case study method implies a detailed study of the children or patients or individual
over a limited period of time. Case history is detailed description of a particular
individual. It based on careful observation or formal psychological testing.

Careful study includes an account of child’s family, social environment, his physical
condition, history of development, his educational and economical experience, his
present habits, adjustment, satisfaction, and anything that will increase insight into the
person behaviour.

Case study will be made by a well-trained, educated, social physical worker, clinical
psychologist who has an impartial and objective point of view. Data will be collected
from the records available, parents, teachers, and associates of the patient.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

In addition to the above sources of data, observation, interview questionnaires, tests


and measurement are also used to supplement the information. After data is collected,
detailed case history is prepared, analysed and interpreted.

Used to study abnormal and anti-social behaviour, neurosis, psychosis, delinquency,


crime.

Advantages:

1. It may be called the clinical method.


2. It is very useful if data is collected carefully and objectively.

Disadvantages:

1. As part of the data is collected from family, it is subjected to omissions and


commissions.
2. Being individual method consumes a lot of time.
3. As it focuses on individual, generalizations about human behaviour is very much
limited.

3. survey or field investigation method:

In recent years, the application of physical principles to various aspects is increasing. It is


necessary to collect data from large groups of people about various aspects like attitudes,
beliefs, prejudices etc. to collect such data from various methods known as interview,
questionnaires’ rating scales etc. are used.

It is used in social psychology and educational psychology. statistics will be used to select the
sample, to administer the test, analyse data and interpret the results.

Advantages: Data can be collected from a large number simultaneously.

Disadvantages: Experimenter has to accept the answers given by the subjects without
questioning.

4. Experimental method: (experiment is a question asked from nature)

According to Festinger, “the essence of an experiment may be described as observing the


effect on a dependent variable of the manipulation of an independent variable”

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

It is a highly developed, formulised and accurate of all scientific methods. The essence of an
experiment in psychology consists of controlling the conditions under which the behaviour
occurs. This method of experimentation is nothing but observation of the behaviour under
controlled conditions.

Here the experimenter will not wait for the behaviour to occur in nature, rather the behaviour
to be studied will be produced “at will” by creating an appropriate situation and by presenting
a stimulus, to an organism.

Here it is possible to predict the nature and type of response or response which may occur to
a given stimulus. Experiment can be repeated at will. It enables the observation being made
under varying conditions.

In an experiment the investigator arranges the experimental situations in such a way that
creation factors are kept constant and one or two factors are varied. Thus, the experimenter
will have a perfect control of the whole situation.

The following are the steps in experiment.:

1. Identifying a problem.
2. Formulation of the hypothesis (tentative answer to the problem)
3. Distinction between independent & dependent variables.
4. Arranging the environment.
5. Analysis of the result.
6. Testing of the hypothesis by the results of the experiment.

Every experiment will have two groups of subjects: -

1. Controlled group 2. Experimental group

Both group must be matched with regard to age, intelligence, background, sex ,Ex. Identical
twins.

Controlled group will not be exposed to any experimental variation, but will be held
constant. Experimental group will be exposed to some variable and the behavioural changes
if any will be noted and correlated with the varied factor.

In practice it is difficult to match the subject in every respect. Therefore, subjects are taken at
random in two groups in order to neutralize or equalize the factors that affect the
experimental results.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

Another way, is to use the same group on different occasions and see the performance of the
subject. If the matched groups are not available the experiment will be conducted only on one
group under two conditions viz. controlled condition there will be no change. under
experimental condition there will be predetermined change in the stimulus situation.

The factors with which the experiment is concerned are called variables. It is a characteristic
of a situation or person that is subject to change. It can be measured quantitatively.

The variables involved in an experiment are:

1) Independent variable (IV)

2) Dependent variable (DV)

3) Relevant variable (RV)

Independent variable -it is factor selected by the experimenter to see whether it has an
effect on behaviour. In other word it is a factor whose effects are studied. It might be a
stimulus presented ex. Drugs administered to some subjects in order to see the effects on
learning. Here the experimenter gives the drug to experimental group and not to controlled
group.

Dependent variable- it is the behaviour of a person or animal which the experimenter


predicts will change in some way as a result of changing the independent variable. The
dependent variable so called because its value depends upon the value of the independent
variable. Dependent variable is the subject’s reaction.

Relevant variable- are other factors which could affect the dependent variable. The effects
of independent variable can be determined only when the possible effects of all other factors
which might produce a change in dependent variable are controlled. these factors are known
as relevant variable. They are usually kept constant or controlled to avoid any misleading
results. Thereby any change in the dependent variable can be attributed only to the
independents variable.

Merits:

1. The results are exact, objective, quantitative.


2. The findings of the experimental method are verifiable by other experimenters under
identical conditions.
3. Repetition is possible. Repeated by different people.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

4. It is possible to investigate the effect of not only one but serval independent variables.
5. The experimenter can produce the behaviour ‘at will’.

Demerits:

1. Human nature is changing. One may not act exactly in the same manner even in
identical situations.
2. Cannot be used when dangerous to the subjects.
3. Experimental method is time-consuming &expensive.
4. There are difficulties in measuring the dependent variable.
5. Attitude of the subject will influence the result.
6. It is artificial and cannot be applied to natural situation.
7. It is not possible to control all the relevant variables which might influence the
dependent variable.
8. It is not possible to manipulate human beings all the time.

Psychology and the student nurse.

1. It will enable to understand to herself:


• Understanding of motives, drives, emotions, personality, ambitions etc.
• Realise how her personality is different Frome another one.
• How she feels, thinks and reasons.
• How she arrives at decisions and solve problems.
• Identify her defence mechanism and have a control over them.
• What are the factors that influenced her to choose the nursing professions?
• Help her to understand the need for economic self-stuffiness.
• Assessing her abilities, limitations, weakness.
• Understanding her strength & weakness, like & dislike interest & disinterest, abilities
& disabilities.
• Give an insight into her own behaviour.
• Attain self-discipline.
• Develop attitude of tolerance
2. psychology will help student nurse in understanding others:
• knowledge of human nature will help her to be in position to understand them better
& achieve greater success in interpersonal relationship.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur
A Text Book of Psychology

• People come from different background, culture, religion, tradition, have different
value, attitudes, custom etc. she has to learn to interest with them.
• She has to work, study & live with others nurses, doctors, patients, and their families.
She has to make a good adjustment.
• Learn about individual differences.
• Learn why other are different from her understand their likes, dislike abilities,
disabilities, strength and weakness.
• Learn how customs or beliefs or cultural factors affect behave.
• Understand others short comings.
3. Study of psychology will help the student nose to appreciate the necessity of
changing the environment or surroundings:
• Change of environment is important and necessary for better adjustment and
happiness. Ex. A boy who is denied of love, affection & care of parents will do better
if given the care of foster parents.
• She has to maintain a pleasant atmosphere in the hospital to ensure the patient speedy
recovery.
4. Psychology will throw light on the interdependences of body, mind and spirit in
each individual:
• When a nurse is worried about an important examination for which she feels fill
prepared she soon loses her appetite. Thus, mind affect the body.
• When a person is met with an accident, he might have suffered multiple injuries to his
body and thus his mind does not work. He might get angry at everyone. Thus, body
affects the mind.
• In an atmosphere of tension and criticism, she cannot give in to her full capacity. Her
mind and body work differently.
• Thus, healthy mind in a healthy body should be given priority.

Omprakash Swami (Author) - Associate Professor, Mahatma Gandhi Nursing College,


Jaipur