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MSD VISION

TO BE THE PREFERRED SOLUTION


PROVIDER FOR ACHIEVING COMMERCIAL
EXCELLENCE ACROSS THE
ADITYA BIRLA GROUP

MSD MISSION
CREATE VALUE BY INSTITUTIONALISING
SYSTEMS, INTRODUCING BEST PRACTICES
AND REALISING GROUP SYNERGY
GROUP VALUES

SOP Coal Loss Accounting has been developed on the foundation of following group values –

INTEGRITY

We define Integrity as honesty in every action. Each one of the Coal Management team should act and take
decisions in a manner that are fair, honest and following the highest standards of professionalism. ‘Integrity’
should be the cornerstone for all the dealings, be it with customers, employees, suppliers, partners, shareholders,
the communities or the government.

COMMITMENT

On the foundation of Integrity, Commitment should be seen as “Doing whatever it takes to deliver as
promised”. Each one of the Coal Management team should take ownership for their work, teams and the
part of the organization they are responsible for. Through this value they shall build an even sharper results
oriented culture that is high on reliability and accountability. Their commitment is likely to make them a
formidable leader and competitor in every market that they are in.

PASSION

Passion is defined as a missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work, which inspires
each one to give his or her best. Each one of the Coal Management team are expected to be energetic and
enthusiastic in the pursuit of their goals and objectives. They should recruit and actively encourage employees
with a ‘Fire in the belly’. With this Value, they would build a culture of innovation and break-through thinking
leading to superior customer satisfaction and Value creation.

SEAMLESSNESS

Seamlessness is understood as thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, across
business lines and geographies. Each one of the Coal Management team shall demonstrate high level of
teamwork through sharing and collaborative efforts and garner the synergy benefits from working together.
Before they can truly benefit from a borderless world, they need to build a borderless organization. They
should visualize free flow of knowledge and information across the Group.

SPEED

Speed is looked upon as responding to internal and external customers with a sense of urgency. They should
continuously seek to crash timelines and ensure expeditious completion of their tasks. Each one of the Coal
Management team should aim on time service to the present and future needs of their customers.

l Integrity l Commitment l Passion l Seamlessness l Speed


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to put on record our deep appreciation for the valuable
inputs received during visit to the following units:

l Hindalco – Renusagar Power Division

l Hindalco – Renukoot

l Awarpur Cement Works

l Rajashree Cement

l Hirmi Cement Works

l Bihar Caustic & Chemicals Limited

We would like to give special thanks to the entire CTC team for discussing the report and in
providing value added suggestions to improve this SOP
Finally, we would like to thank the following people who gave valuable views and showed proactive
approach in the feedback meetings.

l Shri NK Sharma – Renusagar Power Division


l Shri HK Panda – Hindalco Renukoot
l Shri A Kumar – Hindalco Muri
l Shri Umakant Mohanty – Hindalco Hirakud
l Shri Sunil Kothari – Rajashree Cement
l Shri VN Srivastava & Shri CN Kaul – Awarpur Cement Works
l Shri SK Tiwari – Aditya Cement
l Shri AK Mishra & Shri PCS Rao – AP Cement Works
l Shri D P Verma & Shri Jitendra Shende – Hirmi Cement Works
l Shri Ramesh Agarwal – Grasim Rawan
l Shri UK Chauhan – Gujarat Cement Works
l Shri Rakesh Gattani & Shri D K Sharma – Vikram Cement
l Shri DP Modani – IRIL Veraval
l Shri SK Dhanuka & Shri Rajiv Kaul – SFD Nagda
l Shri Sanjay Kulkarni – Birla Cellulosic
l Shri HK Goyal – Harihar Polyfibres
l Shri Abani Ghosh & Shri Utpal Bose – Jayshree Textiles
l Shri UN Pandey – BCCL
l Shri Vijay Bansal – Central Technical Centre
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
ON
COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING

MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION


March 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Preamble ...................................................................................................................... 1
2. Coal Loss - Introduction ............................................................................................. 3
3. Coal Handling ........................................................................................................... 4
3.1 Coal Loss Matrix ........................................................................................... 5
3.2 Flow Chart – Coal Handling .......................................................................... 6
3.3 Flow Chart – Coal Handling Schematic ...................................................... 7
4. Coal Loss – Control Points ........................................................................................ 8
4.1 Carpet Loss ..................................................................................................... 8
4.1.1. Loss During Stacking and Reclaiming ................................................. 8
4.1.2. Accountability of Carpet Loss .............................................................. 8
4.1.2.1. Procedure ........................................................................... 8
4.1.2.2 Procedure of Measuring the Bulk Density ......................... 9
4.1.2.3 Calculation for Carpet Loss ............................................... 9
4.1.3 Checklist – Carpet Loss ....................................................................... 10
4.2 Handling Loss ................................................................................................. 11
4.2.1. Loss During Unloading Process ........................................................... 11
4.2.2 Loss During Stacking and Reclaiming Process .................................. 11
4.2.3 Loss During Crushing & Screening .................................................... 12
4.2.4 Loss During Feeding ........................................................................... 12
4.2.5 Accountability of Handling Loss ........................................................ 12
4.2.6 Checklist – Handling Loss .................................................................. 13
4.3 Moisture Loss ................................................................................................ 14
4.3.1. Moisture Determination – Sampling & Sample Preparation ............... 14
4.3.2. Procedure for Determination of Total Moisture .................................. 17
4.3.3. Work Instruction ................................................................................... 19
4.3.4. Accountability of Moisture Loss ......................................................... 21
4.3.5. Checklist – Moisture Loss ................................................................... 22
4.4 Windage Loss ................................................................................................. 22
4.4.1. Work Instruction .................................................................................. 23
4.5 Loss Due to Shale & Stone ............................................................................ 24
4.5.1. Work Instruction .................................................................................. 24
5. Weighing Process ....................................................................................................... 25
5.1. Checklist - Weighment ................................................................................. 30
6. Case Study .................................................................................................................. 31
7. Equipment .................................................................................................................. 42
8. Glossary ...................................................................................................................... 44
Annexure – 1: Procedure for determination of Inherent Moisture ....................... 46
Annexure – 2 : Checklist ........................................................................................... 49
Annexure – 3 : Reporting Format ............................................................................ 52
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

1.0 PREAMBLE

Background to the study

Coal is turning out to be a critical resource for the group. The annual spend of the group is
approx. Rs 2000 crores with over 12 Million MT of coal being consumed annually. With expansion
plans the group will be consuming nearly 20 Million MT by 2010 with an approximate spend
of over Rs 3000 crores

The coal which is purchased from various sources like mines, traders, e-auction are unloaded in
the factory and stored in coal yards for consumption. Once the coal is in the plant it is subject
to non-optimum handling, storing etc which leads to losses such as carpet loss, handling loss,
windage loss etc. Variation in quality of coal also leads to units facing quantitative losses in the
nature of moisture loss, shale & stone loss etc.

Measuring qualitative losses related to energy and boiler parameters are not considered in this
document. The exhibit below will provide a broad view on the coverage.

Loss of coal has multiple effects considering the ‘rising cost of coal’ and ‘uncertain availability
within the country on a priority basis’. With this as a backdrop, a standard guideline on coal loss
accounting can ensure better control and accountability of coal for various units of our group.

The study was initiated based on the observation that all the units were accounting for coal losses
in a different way and hence there was no uniformity in accounting of coal losses.

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On discussions with some of the major units on methodology used for calculation of various
losses, it was revealed that there is a lack of commonality in identification of certain losses for
e.g some units book loss on a fixed percentage whereas some of the units are booking losses on
actual calculations.

Most of the units lacked a comprehensive formal document on procedures and norms for coal
loss accounting. The process of standardization in procedures of assessing coal losses will help
attain transparency and authenticity in assessing coal losses and practice of notional booking of
coal could be avoided by all the coal consuming units.

Methodology

1. Formats were circulated to all coal consuming units to provide details on coal in January
2005 including details on coal loss accounting procedure/ norms.

2. Visits were made to the following plants to gain first hand view on coal loss accounting/
handling systems

z Hindalco - Renukoot & Renusagar


z Ultra Tech - Awarpur & Hirmi Cement Works
z Grasim – Rajashree Cement
z Bihar Caustic & Chemicals Limited

3. Expert Assistance in certain technical areas for understanding outside good practices in loss
assessment was undertaken for preparing this document

In this report, the various coal losses and the reasons for these losses have been reviewed.
Storage methods, losses arising out of ineffective stacking and reclaiming, wind loss, carpet loss
or bed loss, losses arising due to spontaneous combustion and losses due to foreign matter in the
coal like shale and stone is addressed in this report

Industrial practices have been discussed for each of the handling steps and the losses that happen
on each account described. Preventive measures to minimize such losses have been elaborated.
Standard operating procedures for the main handling steps such as receipt of coal, stacking and
reclaiming of coal, and feeding of coal have been laid down. It is important to mention here that
the scope of this report was only to focus on quantity losses that occur in handling operations;
from the time coal is received in the factory to the time it is fed to the boilers/kiln.

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2.0 COAL LOSS – INTRODUCTION

Coal is a major raw material or fuel in most industrial units, especially thermal power plants,
cement plants and aluminium plants. In all of the above industrial units, coal – be it thermal coal
or coking coal – represents a major cost outlay. As a result, monitoring of the usage of coal or
in other words, estimating losses that occur is of critical importance.

Loss of coal from the time it is produced to the time it is consumed can happen in several ways.
For the purpose of this study, the losses emanating at the various steps from the time coal is
received at the plant to its consumption are covered.

One of the most important causes of coal losses is inefficient handling of the material. This may
include the following:

z Poor storage methods


z Ineffective stacking and reclaiming procedures employed at the plants
z Wind losses
z Carpet losses
z Losses due to spontaneous combustion
z Losses due to shales and stones etc.

However, in addition to the above, another type of loss comes into factor while calculating the
loss that occurs. This is “virtual loss” or “calculation loss”, which occurs due to inaccurate
measurements, calculation errors such as round-off errors, etc. However, this is not a real loss
of material.

Review of losses

a. Storage Losses – Losses on account of poor storage arise when coal is stored in the yard with
insufficient soling, or in high wind areas. Coal, being a dirty commodity, is often stored away
from the main plant area and sometimes, suffers from inadequate attention from management.

b. Stacking and reclaiming – Losses often arise due to improper procedures being adopted for
stacking and reclaiming of the coal. This may arise from inadequate awareness about coal yard
management.

c. Wind Losses – Wind loss is an important component of the total loss, and one that is often not
taken into account. The extent of wind loss depends upon the weather conditions prevailing at
the plant, the stacking process employed and also is a function of the coal size.

d. Carpet Losses – This type of loss is another type of storage loss that occurs due to insufficient
planning. When coal is stacked on a plot, which is not prepared and is made up of raw soil,
such losses can be quite high.

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

3.0 COAL HANDLING

The following steps are the main components of the coal handling process:

a) Unloading
b) Stacking and reclaiming
c) Crushing and screening
d) Feeding

a) Unloading – Traditionally coal is received at the plant by rake or by trucks and in some cases
through cable car from captive mine. Unloading from rakes typically occurs by manual or
mechanical (tippler) methods. Mechanical unloading methods are increasingly becoming
common in the bigger units, while traditionally unloading from rakes and trucks have occurred
manually.

b) Stacking and reclaiming – Coal, after unloading at the yard, needs to be stacked properly.
Typically, in most units, this is carried out by means of payloaders or dozers, which stack
the coal in one or more stockpiles in the yard. Mechanical stacking and reclaiming systems
are usually not found in small to medium-sized plants. Once the coal is stacked, reclaiming
is also done in the same way, i.e., using pay loaders and truck dumpers. After reclaiming,
the coal is then fed into conveyor belts through feed hoppers. Losses arise out of stacking
due to the following factors:

z Height of stack
z Weather conditions
z Stockyard conditions especially the bed conditions

c) Crushing and screening operations – Coal as received from mines/washeries may need to be
crushed and screened in order to ensure that feed size meets boiler feed requirements.
Several types of crushing operations are used based on different crushing principles: Crushing
by impact, Crushing by attrition, Crushing by shear and Crushing by compression. Losses
arising from crushing depend upon the type of crusher used and the crushed coal size. Finer
the product size losses tend to be more. Some losses also arise from screening operations,
especially where dry screening operations are employed.

d) Feeding – This is the final step before the crushed/pulverized coal is fed to the boiler.
Feeding units typically consist of bunkers, conveyor belts that carry the material from the
bunkers to the feeding system and the feeder. Various types of feeders are utilized, such as:

z Apron feeder
z Belt feeder
z Rotary feeder

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

z Reciprocating feeder
z Screw feeder
z Revolving disc feeder
z Vibrating feeder

Extent of losses in the feeding section depends upon the configuration of the feeding system including
type of belt and feeder.

3.1 Coal Loss Matrix

Unloading Stacking Reclaiming Crushing & Feeding


Screening
Carpet Loss X √ √ X X
Handling Loss √ √ √ √ √
Moisture Loss √ √ X √ √
Windage Loss X √ √ √ √
Loss Due to √ X X X X
Shale & Stone

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

3.2 Flow Chart - Coal Handling

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

3.3 Flow Chart - Coal Handling Schematic

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

4.0 COAL LOSS – CONTROL POINTS

4.1 Carpet Loss

Carpet loss is a type of storage loss that occurs due to insufficient planning or premature
coal bed. When coal is stacked on a plot, which is not prepared and is made of raw or
loose soil, losses can be quite high. In the rainy season carpet loss may increase due to
erosion of soil and/or the coal itself by rainwater.

4.1.1 Loss During Stacking and Reclaiming Process

Before unloading of any coal, the condition of the ground / coal yard is very important
to prevent carpet loss.

Before stacking the coal, a pre-bed is necessary. Pre-bed is prepared either by concrete
or by embedding inferior quality coal with about 2 ft depth of the pre-bed being ideal.
The depth of the pre-bed can be measured at a regular interval (say 30 days) and can
be kept constant.

During the rainy season the percentage of erosion of soil bed increases. So, after this
season the depth of the pre-bed decreases and hence it is advisable to determine the
carpet loss at a frequent interval (say 7 days) and prepare the coal bed accordingly.

4.1.2 Accountability of Carpet Loss

Carpet loss can be determined by measuring the volume of the coal yard and depth
of the coal bed regularly (say 30 days). The following procedure specifies a method
for the determination of the coal bed thickness in a rectangular plot.

4.1.2.1 Procedure

Measure the length and breadth of the coal plot. Divide the whole plot into
20 imaginary boxes. Dig at least 2 holes in each box till soling surface will
come. Measure the depth of these holes and take the average of these depths
by using steel tape.

Calculate the volume of the embedded plot by multiplying area with average
depth.

Collect the coal from each of the hole and measure the bulk density and
moisture as per Procedure Reference 4.1.2.2 below.

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4.1.2.2 Procedure of Measuring the Bulk Density

Principle

A weighed container of known volume is filled with coal and the increase in
mass is determined.

Apparatus

a) Cubical Container of capacity 0.2m3 and internal dimension 585mm,


with a smooth inner surface, rigidly constructed and fitted with handle.

b) Weighing machine, Spring Balance or Platform balance with an accuracy


of 50 gms.

Procedure

Place the container on the weighing machine and record its mass. Charge the
coal slowly into the container until pieces of coal project above the top of the
container across the whole surface. The height of drop of the coal shall not
exceed 250 mm.

Slide a straight edge across the top of the container and remove any pieces
of coal, which obstruct its passage. Weigh the charged container.

Calculation

The bulk density in a small container (ρs) of the coal, in Kg per m3, on dry
basis is given by the equation:
ρs = (m2 – m1) X (100 – M) / (100V)
Where,
m1 is the mass in kg, of the empty container;
m2 is the mass in kg, of the container plus coal;
V is the inner volume in m3, of the container;
M is the total moisture content of the coal determined in accordance with
ISO 589.
4.1.2.3 Calculation for Carpet Loss

Measure the depth of these holes by using steel tape and take the average of
these depths.

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

Average Depth of Coal Bed, D = (∑d1 + d2 +………..+ dn) / n


where,
d1 is the depth in meter (m), of the 1st hole;
n is the number of holes.

The Volume of Coal Bed, V = L X B X D


where,
L is the length in m, of the plot;
B is the breadth in m, of the plot;
D is the depth in m, of the plot.

The Quantity of Embedded Coal, M = V X B.D


where,
B.D is the Bulk Density in MT/m, of the embedded coal

In a regular interval (say 30 days) measure again the quantity of the embedded
coal and the difference in quantity will reflect the total carpet loss.

Let M1 and M2 be the embedded quantity of coal for two different periods
and let Q1 be the total stacking quantity then

% of carpet loss = (M1 – M2) X 100 / (Total /Q1)

Carpet Loss – One time loss

Generally carpet loss is a one time loss and should not occur regularly once a coal bed is
formed. Units should look at monitoring carpet based on above procedures and any
significant variation should be viewed as an indication towards need of a detailed study to
improve the coal bed .

4.1.3 Checklist – Carpet Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Answer


1 Were the operators of the grabs √
Impart proper training
and dozers trained enough to prevent
to the operators.
the carpeting loss during spreading
of the material?

Case Study Ref. No.: 6.3.5.4

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4.2 Handling Loss

One of the most important causes of coal losses is insufficient handling of the material.
This may include the following:

z Poor storage methods

z Ineffective stacking and reclaiming procedure employed at the plant

4.2.1. Loss During Unloading Process

During unloading, losses arise out due to the following reasons:

z Improper stacking.

z Improper checking system of the complete discharge from wagons or truck.

z Spillages of the material during unloading.

Improper Stacking: During unloading it is better to maintain a stack height of not


more than 3-4 m in stock yard. This will provide easy access for reclaiming and
sampling and also minimize wind loss and spontaneous combustion, which is common
with coal. The length and width of the stack is to be maintained in such a way that
it is accessible and visible easily. Spraying of water along with surface-active chemicals
is also required to prevent or minimize loss.

Improper Checking System of Complete Discharge: Complete discharge of coal


from truck or wagon is to be monitored regularly. Tare weighing system of each
empty truck or wagon is also important to get exact weight of the unloading material.

Spillage of the Material: It is necessary to monitor the spillage during movement of


the truck or wagon before unloading.

4.2.2 Loss During Stacking and Reclaiming Process

After unloading, required quantity of coal is to be bunkered. The remaining quantity


of coal is required to be stored. This stored coal can be reclaimed as per requirement.
In the stacking process the stack height and pre-bed condition are important for coal
losses, which are already discussed in 4.1.1 and 4.2.1.

During reclaiming the following points may be considered to prevent / minimize the
handling loss.

z Spread the coal into the minimum area.

z Minimize the spillage of the coal during movement of dozers / grabs.

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Stacking Practices
Harihar Polyfibres is stacking coal to a height of not more than 2 to 3 metres, grade wise and
colliery wise. The stacks are being sprayed with waste water to avoid any windage loss. This
also helps in prevention of any spontaneous combustion.
Birla Cellulosic maintains coal stack not more than 2 to 3 meters. The inventory level is not
above 10 days requirement.

4.2.3 Loss During Crushing and Screening

During crushing coal dust is generated and if the reclaiming process is not effective
then at that time there may be a chance of coal loss. This type of loss can be measured
by introducing belt-weighing system, which is to be arranged before and after crushing
and screening stage.

4.2.4 Loss During Feeding

Before or during feeding the following points must be considered:

During the feeding process the coal loss mainly occurs due to presence of fines / dust
and improper feeding. So, at that time if the dust percentage is high then spraying of
water is necessary to prevent this type of loss. At the time of feeding it is necessary
to ensure the complete transfer of coal from dozers or mobile equipment.

Before doing any type of weighment ensure the calibration status of the scale. During
the calculation of the quantity of the coal error percentage should be considered to
correct the weight obtained from the belt weighing scale.

4.2.5 Accountability of Handling Loss

Total handling loss can be determined by monitoring the following measurements and
keeping the records.

z Determine the exact unloading quantity from weighbridge records.

z Measure the Total Moisture of unloading quantity.

z Determine the exact crushing quantity and feeding quantity from belt weighing
records.

z Stock assessment.

z Calculate the Weight in dry basis and determine the actual loss percentage.

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4.2.6 Checklist – Handling Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Answer


1 Was the unloading system done Check the empty truck or rakes and
manually? √
ensure the complete discharge of
the material.
2 Prior to unloading was there any system to √ Initiate this checking system and
check the plot in respect of bed thickness, maintain the records.
foreign material, mud, water and area?
3 Was there any identification system to √ Initiate the above system and
separate the received material partywise maintain the records.
and daywise?
Maintain the stack height
4 Was stack height of 3 to 4 metres √
maintained during the unloading process? accordingly.
Implement and maintain the system
5 Was there any system to check the tare √
weight of each truck or rake? accordingly.
6 Was the reclaiming system done manually √ Check and maintain the least
by grabs or dozers? spreading area during this
reclaiming process.
Were there any spillages during the If spillages observed, inform the
7 √
reclaiming process from grabs or dozers? concerned person and try to either
recover or estimate the total
spillages on day basis.

8 Was there any supervision by trained √ Implement the same and impart the
personnel during the feeding of material to awareness training to the
observe the feeding loss? supervisor.
9 Was there any recovery process of feeding √ Implement the recovery process
material? after 3 months intervals.

10 Was the stock assessment done at a regular √ Do it.


interval?
Was the measurement of stock assessment Try to implement the system.
11 √
done by using theodolite?
Were the supervisors trained enough to do Either impart proper training to the
12 √ supervisors or appoint the
the stock assessment?
specialized agency for this stock
assessment.

13
Were all the measuring equipment like √ Always make practice to use
tape, Theodolite etc. calibrated at regular calibrated equipment.
interval?

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4.3 Moisture Loss

The determination of moisture in coal is critical in any commercial transaction. Moisture


content affects the settlement weight and slight variances in the calculated level of moisture
can quickly translate into very significant financial losses.

Samples for moisture determination must be fully representative of material. The precision
of the moisture determination is affected by the quality of the sampling and the precision
of the measurements carried out.

Because of its importance to the commercial transaction, moisture determination must be


carefully performed and / monitored. For these reasons, the following points should be
given due importantance.

z The procedure for determining moisture


z Potential problems
z Practical precautions to ensure an accurate determination

4.3.1 Moisture Determination – Sampling & Sample Preparation

Samples collected for moisture determination must be representative of the lot as a


whole. They must be taken as close to the position and time of weight determination
as possible. Any free water containing in the material should be drained off, weighed
and sampled.

To improve sampling and analytical precision the recommended practice is to carry


out duplicate moisture determinations on sub-lot samples. Sub-lot should be of
appropriate size for the material and the flow rate of the handling system.

Sample increments must be placed into suitable containers to prevent changes in


moisture prior to moisture determination. Care must be taken such that there is no
evaporation of moisture from the sample prior to the actual determination of moisture.

Procedure
Sampling & Sample Preparation of Coal
Reference : IS 436 (Part I/ Sec 1 - 1964)
Number And Weight of Increment

A. The lot size approximately upto 500 MT


A.1 Sampling is carried out manually at the time of unloading of truck at Coal
Plot.
A.2 The lot is divided into 2 sub lots.

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A.3 Generally the Top size of Coal here is 0-250 mm. Hence the following table
is followed to collect the sample.

Top Size 250 mm


Minimum number of increment 50
Minimum weight of the increment. 7 Kgs
Minimum Weight of Gross Sample 350 Kgs.

A.4 The sample is taken by scoop / shovel.


B. The lot size approximately Over 500 - 1000 MT
B.1 Sampling is carried out manually at the time of unloading of truck at Coal
Plot.
B.2 Sample to be taken considering the sub-lot number 3.
B.3 Generally the Top size of Coal here is 0-250 mm. Hence the following table
is followed to collect the sample.

Top Size 250 mm


Minimum number of increment 50
Minimum weight of the increment. 7 Kgs
Minimum Weight of Gross Sample 350 Kgs.

B.4 The sample is taken by scoop / shovel.


Sample Collection Procedure
A. Formation of Stock Pile
A.1 For the sampling, coal is to be unloaded in such a way that a rectangular
stockpile shall be formed.
A.2 The surface of the stockpile shall be leveled.
A.3 The height of the stockpile shall be maintained not more than 3- 4 meters.
B. Sampling from Stock Pile
B.1 Natural Segregation: Due to gravitational forces the larger particles
(above 150 mm) of coal tends to accumulate at the base or bottom part of the
stack, medium particles and dust as well as lower particles of coal tends to
accumulate on the top and center of the pile.
B.2 For sampling from each sub-lot the stockpile shall be divided into 14 equidistant
vertical bands.

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B.3 The total height of the stockpile shall be divided into 4 equal part and 4 increments
shall be taken by shovel from all 4 positions of each band.

Sample Preparation

Preparation of Moisture Sample

A.1 The gross sample of each sub-lot shall be crushed to 12.5 mm by a jaw
crusher. Take care regarding the generation of heat in the crusher. Ideally, it
should not exceed 400 C.

A.2 Mixed thoroughly and quartered. Two opposite quarters shall be retained and
the rest rejected.

A.3 The retained material shall be further mixed together and spread. Level the
sample in 50 mm height by using tray of 3’ x 2½” x 50 mm. The spread
sample shall be divided into 20 boxes.

A.4 Take 200 gm sample by using the scoop from each and every boxes. This 4
kgs sample shall be preserved for moisture testing in an air tight container.

Packing and marking of samples :

a. Pack the samples in sealed airtight container.

b. Label and mark the samples with the following information:

z Type, grade and identification of the lot (name of mine, supplier, type,
grade, etc.);

z Weight of the lot or sub-lot;

z Weight of total sample;

z Place, date and time of sampling;

z Size of the sample;

z Any additional/special remarks or comments.

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Flow Chart

If lot size 500 MT, Sub-lot size 2/ if lot size 1000MT, sub-lot size 3.

Sub Lot (250 - 350) MT

Gross sample of minimum 350 kilograms per sub-lot @ 56 increments of minimum


7 kilograms each per increment

Crush & Screen the sample to 12.5 mm size

Mix gross sample thoroughly

Reduced Sample Size by Coning &


Quartering Method

Sample reduced to not less than 85 kilograms

Increment Reduction I/C.

Take 4 Kgs sample For Total Moisture @ 200 gms from each 20 boxes.

4.3.2 Procedure for Determination of Total Moisture

Reference : ISO 589 – 1981 (E).


Scope
This test method covers determination of total moisture content of coal.
Preparation of Sample

a) Samples for the determination of moisture shall be received in sealed


airtight containers.

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b) This method is normally applicable to samples with a maximum top size of


about 20 mm. There is the following relation in between particle size and
the mass of the sample in kgs.
Sample mass (in Kgs.) = 0.06 X Top Size
c) If the sample is 3 mm top size not less than 10 gms sample be taken.
d) If the sample is 12.5 mm top size not less than 0.750 Kgs sample be taken.

Procedure

Weigh the sample (as mentioned in the preparation of sample) and container, as
received to the nearest 0.1%. Weigh a dry empty tray, transfer the sample as completely
as possible to the tray and spread evenly, allowing about 1 cm2 of surface area to 1g
of sample.

Place the charged tray in the oven, controlled at 105 to 110 0 C. Heat the tray and its
contents until constant in mass (Constancy in mass is defined as a change not exceeding
0.2% of the total loss in mass during a further period of heating of not less than 30
minutes), weighing while hot to avoid absorption of moisture during cooling. The
time required may be from 3 to 6 hours, or more, depending on the particle size of
the coal.

Calculation And Reporting Of Results

Express the loss in mass due to drying as a percentage of the total mass of the sample
and report the result as the percentage moisture in the sample.

Moisture percent in the sample = ( W2 - W3 )x 100


(W2 - W1)

where,
W1 = Mass in gram of empty tray.
W2 = Mass in gram of the tray including sample
W3 = Mass in gram of the tray after drying

Precision of the Method

Maximum acceptable differences between duplicate results


Moisture Content Different Laboratories
Same Laboratory (Repeatability)
(Reproducibility)
Less than 10 % 0.5 % absolute. N.A.
10% and above 1/20th of the mean result. N.A.

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Auto Sampler – Leveraging technology for accuracy

SFD Nagda has installed auto sampler for coal received in rakes. The following are
the key features

z The sample is collected through Auto coal sampler from the running conveyor
and collected in locked bins.

z The scoop collects the samples at an interval of 5 minutes which can be adjusted
as per requirement.

z Auto coal sampler can be purchased from M/s Sunrise Technologies Ltd., B-15/
16,Ramin Park, Old Padra Road,Vadodra. At app. Cost Rs. 8 Lacs.

4.3.3 Work Instruction

A. Work Instruction For Collection of Coal Sample From Stock Pile During Discharge

z Step – I : Count the number of trucks and take the weight of the coal of same
suppliers.

z Step – II : Check the cleanliness of the place where coal will be discharged.

z Step - III : Discharge the coal from truck and form a stock pile of height not more
than 3-4 meters. Level the upper suface of the stock pile.

z Step – IV : Divide the stock pile into 2 or 3 sublot for 500 MT or 1000 MT lot
respectively.

z Step – V : Select equidistant 14 vertical bands and divide the height into 4 equal
parts.

z Step – VI : Take one increment from each 4 parts of every bands by using 7 kgs.
scoop or shovel as dimension mentioned in the IS 436 part – I.

z Step - VII : Preserve all the sample in pre-cleaned polythene bag and not expose the
material in sunlight.

B. Work Instruction For Crushing / Pulverising of sample

z Step – I : Clean the crusher or pulveriser thoroughly by wire brush.

z Step - II : Charge the few portion of coal to be crushed or pulverised and crush
/ pulverise the coal and discard the total material and wash the
crusher / pulveriser again.

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z Step - III : Put the sample part by part into the crusher / pulveriser and after
discharging the full part from it, put another part into the crusher /
pulveriser.

z Step - IV : Care must be taken regarding that the crusher / pulveriser is not
heated up above 40 – 600C.

z Step - V : Collect the crushed / pulverised sample after cleaning the crusher /
pulveriser.

C. Work Instruction For Collection of Increment of Moisture Sample By Increment


Reduction Method

z Step – I : Spread the coal of 10 mm size after thoroughly mixing, on a smooth,


clean SS – tray of 3′ x 2 ½ ′ x 2″ and maintain the level of the tray.
z Step - II : Push the 5X4 sample divider and withdraw it.
z Step - III : Insert a flat bump plate vertically through the spread coal until it
comes into contact with the end surface of the tray.
z Step - IV : Insert the ISO scoop No. 15 to the bottom of the spreaded coal and
take the increment by moving the scoop horizontally until its open
end comes into contact with the bump plate.
z Step - V : Lift the scoop and bump plate together so that the bump plate
prevents the coal from falling from the open end of the scoop.
D. Work Instruction for Determination of Total Moisture
Scope: Where air drying was not carried out during the preparation of the sample,
the moisture in the the coal as analysed, M, shall be reported as the Total Moisture.

z Step – I : Heat the empty tray (16”X10”X1.5”) (under which the sample to be
dried) at 105 – 1100C and weigh after cooling. Let it be W1 gm. Tare
it.
z Step - II : Take about 1 Kg (nearest 0.1%) of coal of Top size 12.5 mm and
spread it uniformly in the tray in the proportion of approximately 1
gm sample per sq. cm of surface area. Let the actual weight of the
sample be W2 gm.
z Step - III : Note the total weight of the Tray and sample. Let it be W3 gm.
z Step – IV : Place the Tray in the hot air oven at 105 – 1100C. Note the time and
oven number.
z Step – V : After 3 hrs. remove the tray from the air oven and weigh in hot. Let
it be W4 gm.

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z Step – VI : Place the Tray in the hot air oven for another 1 hr. and then remove
it and again weigh in hot. Let it be W5 gm. If (W4 – W5) is less than
0.2% of W2 (For when W2 = 1 Kg sample, it is 2 gms) then follow
the next step, otherwise repeat step VI until there is no further loss
in mass.
z Step – VII : Calculate the final weight loss.
Final Weight Loss = (W3 – W5) gms.
z Step – VIII : Calculate the % of Total Moisture (M).
% M = 100 X (W3 – W5)/ (W2).
For procedures to determine inherent moisture please refer to Annexure - 1

4.3.4 Accountability of Moisture Loss

Moisture loss can be determined by the following way.

Let us consider a discharge qty 10000 MT and % of TM is 10.00. Hence the


DMT quantity is 10000-1000 = 9000 MT.

Now these 10000 WMT material has been consumed in following manner:

Day QTY(WMT) %TM DMT


Day 1 2000 9.50 1810
Day 2 5500 9.07 5001
Day 3 2392 8.50 2189
Total 9892 9.02 9000

So, 9.02 is weighted average of Total Moisture.


Hence the Moisture loss = 10-9.02 = 0.98%
But if we calculate it on weight basis the moisture loss may be calculated as:
The initial WMT = 10000MT
After consumption WMT = 9892 MT
Hence the Loss = (10000 – 9892)X 100/10000 = 1.08%.

Moisture loss depends on atmospheric condition and stacking period (number of


days). In summer season the loss is increased. So, in that case consume the material
as early as possible. Decrease of stacking period can minimize the loss.

Use of Same Application Equipment

Units could move towards using same application equipment for sample analysis at
the time of receipt and at the time of feeding.

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4.3.5 Checklist – Moisture Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Answer


1. Were representative samples √ Follow the described
collected and tested? procedure to collect
representative sample.
2. Did weather, environmental or Use close type metal or
sample storage/ handling conditions √
polythene container and
cause any addition or loss of do not expose the sample
moisture to/ from the sample? in the sunlight directly.
Prepare the sample as
early as possible.
3. Was there any system to consume √ Initiate the system.
the material on first received basis?
4. Was the sample clearly identified Maintain a unique
and handled in such a way to ensure √ identification system.
that it will not be confused during
preparation and moisture
determination process?
5. Was all equipment calibrated √ Always use calibrated
and working correctly? equipment.

Case Study Ref. No.: 6.2, 6.3.

4.4 Windage Loss


Generally the dust part of coal comes on the top portion of the stack. If the dust percentage
is high then there may be a chance of high windage loss. Windage loss may be measured
by using dust collector. This collector arrests the solid particles from the air. At 2 months
interval the carbon percentage of the catcher bed can be analysed and from this data the
approximate windage loss may be calculated.

Dust Binders
Chemical suppression can efficiently control dust and simultaneously reduce
oxidation/ wind losses. Chemical binder can be applied to keep the dust particles
attached to the coal after the water has evaporated. Birla Cellulosic is using chemical
D-Force to bind fine dust particles with coal.

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4.4.1 Work Instruction for Determination of Wind Loss

z Step – I : Place the dust collector in several position of the plot.


z Step - II : Keep it for atleast 30 days and after that take the dust from the
dust bag.
z Step - III : Mix the material thoroughly and prepare the laboratory sample
by increment reduction method.
z Step – IV : Place the ash dish in the muffle furnace at 8150C for atleast 30
minutes.
z Step – V : Remove the ash dish from the muffle, cool the dish first on
outside of the furnace for 5 minutes on metal plate or asbestos
disc and then in a desicator for 10 minutes.
z Step – VI : Weigh the empty dish with lid. Tare it. Let it be W1gm.
z Step – VII : Take about 5 gm of Analysed Sample (nearest +0.01gm.) and
spread it so that the spread does not exceed 0.15 gm per cm2. Let
the actual weight of the sample be W2 gm.
z Step - VIII : Note the total weight of the dish with lid and sample. Let it be
W3 gm.
z Step - IX : Note the time and place the uncovered crucible in the muffle
furnace at room temperature.
z Step - X : Raise the temperature to 5000C in 30 minutes and to 815±100C
in a further 30 to 60 minutes and maintain at this temperature for
60 minutes.
z Step - XI : After 60 minutes, remove the dish from the muffle, replace the
cover, allow to cool, first on asbestos slab for 10 minutes and
finally in a desiccator and weigh. Let it be W4 gm.
z Step - XII : Re-ignite at the same temperature until the change in mass of the
ash is less than 0.001 gms.
z Step - XIII : Calculate the final weight loss.
Final weight loss = (W3- W4) gms.
z Step - XIV : Calculate the % of Carbon.
% of Carbon, C = {100 X (W3 – W4)/ (W2)}
z Step - XV : In case of Indian Coal consider the Fixed Carbon 35%, and in
that way calculate the % of coal Loss
% of Coal Loss = 100 X %C/35

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4.5 Loss Due to Shale & Stone

Coal is found in beds or seams interstratified with shales, clays, sandstones, or (rarely)
limestones. It is usually underlain by an under clay (a layer of clay containing roots of
plants). The coal is removed by strip (surface) mining or underground mining methods.

In case of ROM (Run of Mines) coal the probability of getting shale and stone is higher
than washed coal. The availability of shale and stone in coal also depends on the origin
of coal. In case of Indian coal the percentage of shale & stone is higher than imported
one.

4.5.1 Work Instruction for Determination of Loss due to Shale & Stone

z Step – I : Take the gross weight of coal unloaded, let it be W1 (MT)


z Step - II : Separate the shale, stone and foreign material manually. Weigh
the shale, stone and other foreign material. Let it be W2 (MT)
Appropriate mechanical system, if feasible to segregate shale &
stone can be installed.
z Step - III : Then % of Loss due to shale & stone = W2 / W1X 100.

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5.0 WEIGHING PROCESS

There are two types of weighing system namely static and dynamic. Both static and dynamic
weighing systems directly measure the mass of an applied load, in most cases by either a load
cell or a balance beam. Static weighing devices measure the mass of an applied load and
dynamic weighing devices measure the total mass passing over the weighing system over a time
period.

In general, static weighing systems provide higher accuracy and precision than dynamic systems.
But both require regular calibration, maintenance and correct operating conditions to ensure
optimum accuracy.

Static Weighing System

z Weighbridges
z Hopper Scales
z Static belt weighers
z Platform scales
z Laboratory balances
Dynamic Weighing System

z Belt weighers
z Hopper flow scale
z In-motion weighbridges

In weighing device load cell mechanism is very common. A load cell is an electronic device,
which converts an applied force into an electrical signal. Load cell can be affected by changes
in temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. Shock loading, vibration and over-loading
can also damage the load cells, which can lead to biased weight results.

In weighing systems a commonly used term is accuracy. Accuracy is a scale’s ability to measure
a mass within certain acceptable tolerance of a certified international standard. The most important
calibration activity is testing the scale using appropriate reference weights, in a constant
environment, at the location where it is to be used.

The major components, which contribute to the accuracy of a weighing system, are resolution,
repeatability and linearity. A weighing scale (balance) can be inaccurate, due to poor calibration
but it may have excellent resolution, linearity and repeatability.

Resolution (or division) is the number of divisions into which the total capacity is broken down
for the purpose of displaying the weight value. This is normally expressed in grams. Thus a
balance may be described as 1 kg capacity with 0.1 g resolution.

Repeatability basically means that in stable environmental conditions the same weight placed
on a balance should give the same reading each time, given. Repeatability is closely tied to
resolution and is generally quoted as plus or minus a given number of scale divisions.

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Linearity is the ability of the balance to respond consistently throughout its capacity range. It
should weigh within the acceptable tolerances at all points in its capacity, not just at the calibration
points.

For e.g. for a 50 Ton of weighing system, first load is to be increased in incremental of say 10
ton every step and in the same manner load is to be reduced. The following table can be used
to determine linearity.

Sr. No Approved Load Actual weight % deviation


1 nil
2 10
3 20
4 30

Calibration Checks

Before carrying out any type of weighment, the calibration status of the scale needs to be
checked. In case of motion weighbridge, calibration is very important because the variation is
much higher in such types of weigh bridge. Also, for such weighbridges, it is important that
proper conditions is maintained. Weigh scales that are not properly and regularly calibrated and
checked can contribute to inaccurate measurements that will contribute to total loss. During the
calculation of the quantity of the coal, error percentage should be considered.

The last official calibration information should always be recorded and, if there is any doubt it
is essential to check the scale with certified weights. Two similar scales and comparisons between
the two can be made at regular intervals for accuracy. With large platforms, the bulk of the weight
should be at the centre of the platform to ensure it is spread evenly across the load cells. The
edges of the sunken platforms (level with ground) should be inspected and shown to be free of
any materials which may have become jammed or interfere with the movement of the platform.

Dynamic belt scales can be calibrated using one of the following methods:

Dead weight - certified weight measured on load cells and independent speed calibration on the
belt. This rarely produces a reliable calibration result.

Material test - loads of known mass (measured using a static weigher of known accuracy) are
run across the belt weigher at different speeds and the scale calibrated accordingly – this is the
most reliable and accurate method and allows calibration across the weighing range of the scale.
But it will only be possible where the equipment exists in close proximity to the belt scale, and
significant changes in material moisture have to be considered between the two weighing operations.

Dead weights provides a reasonable test of the linearity of the scale, but does not replicate the
actual operating conditions of the belt.

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Regular Inspection /checking of weighing system


The main objective of this system is to ensure proper working of weighing system and to
avoid any data modification from security point of view.
1. A team comprising of four members from different areas of plant is to be formed.
2. Any team member will cross check the weighing system reading and verify the same in
written format.
3. All the records of daily check up are to be maintained.
4. Concerned head will make a surprise check Random inspection once in a month to ensure
that system is working accurately.
5. Login access to modify the data and calibration deviation should be provided only to
authorized persons.
6. Report generation for all the logins for data modification/altered can be generated by the
IT department as and when required.
7. Concerned HOD will be made responsible to make the weighing system in running
condition. Maintenance department can be made responsible to maintain the healthy status
of all the equipment by doing periodical maintenance.

Weighing supervision – Weighbridges


Individual trucks or rail wagons are weighed for their gross & tare weights as coal is delivered.
The load must be stationary as it is weighed. Shock loads, vibration and sideways movement of
the weighing platform caused by strong wind can produce unreliable weights.
Positioning of load is important. With large platforms the bulk of the weight should be as close
as possible to the centre of the platform to prevent overloading of single load cells. Report
whether rail trucks were uncoupled for weighing.
As with other weighing systems the supervisor will check that the weighbridge has been recently
calibrated by a certification body and may arrange to have certified weights applied to the
weighbridge to check for drift since the last official calibration.
Where calibration weights are not available it may be possible to check the weighbridge by
duplicate weighing a single truck on two or more scales.
Test accuracy & precision using certified weights across the full weighing range of the scale.
ISO12745:1996 shows detailed procedure to test precision & bias of weighbridges. Well-maintained
weighbridges should provide precision (measured by the coefficient of variation) of around ±0.1%
to ±0.3%.
Check edges of weighing platform, should be clean & free of any objects that may stop the
platform moving freely. Check pit under weighbridge – ensure it is clean.
Weighing supervision – Truck weighing
Ideally, truck drivers should stand down off the weigh bridge on each weighing. In practice, this
does not work because of delay and adding to congestion of the weigh bridge, drivers can be

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allowed to remain in the vehicle, but only one system must be used, with the preferred method
being conducting weighments without the driver.
Double Weighing – In case the bridges to short for the wheel base of the vehicle or the bridge
capacity is too low for the total weight of the vehicle then double weighing should be undertaken.
The front wheels are placed in the centre of the weigh bridge and weighed, then the vehicle is
moved forward until the rear wheels are in the centre of the platform. The two weights are added
together for total weight. This method should only be used when there are no other possibilities.
When large numbers of trucks are to be weighed, a tracking system can be developed to prevent
un- intentional mistake. A simple solution is to hand a uniquely numbered paper ticket to drivers
at loading point, who must hand it to the supervisor at the weigh bridge. This ensures that every
truck loaded is weighed.
Weighing supervision – Static belt weighers
Material flows from a hopper onto a short weighing belt which is stopped when fully loaded. The
load is measured in a stationary state, this should provide precision and accuracy equivalent to
a normal weighbridge scale. After weighing the belt discharges its load into a hopper or separate
belt.
As with other weighing systems the supervisor will check that the scale has been recently calibrated
by a certification body and may arrange to have certified weights applied to the scale to check
for drift since the last official calibration.
Weighing supervision – Hopper scales
It is possible to dynamically weigh material passing through a hopper using continuous weighing
equipment, in a similar fashion to dynamic belt scales. It is more accurate to use surge bins to
control and pause the feed into a hopper so that a static weight can be measured. After discharging
each load the hopper scale should be re-Zeroed to prevent any bias caused by a build-up of wet
material in the bin. Check beneath and around all bins for indications of leakage and spillage.
Hoppers are normally supported by 3 or 4 load cells, their total output is measured giving the
weight of material in the hopper. As with other load cell systems the forces acting on the cell
should be directly in line with the axis of the device, and the load should be distributed evenly
across all the load cells. An uneven distribution of material inside the hopper, or even a breeze
blowing onto the side of the hopper bin can cause overloading of one or more cells and may lead
to biasing of the weight measurement.
Hopper scales are normally calibrated by hanging certified weights from the frame, covering the
normal working range of weights. ISO12745:1996 shows detailed procedure to test precision
& bias of hopper scales. Correctly calibrated and maintained static hopper scales should provide
weighing precision of around ±0.1% to ±0.3% (coefficient of variation).
Weighing supervision – Dynamic belt scales
Dynamic belt scales is continuous mass measurement device that integrates the total mass of
material on a conveyor belt that passes over a load cell over time. The system measures weight,
time and the speed of the belt to derive the total mass loaded or discharged. Belt speed is
commonly measured using a wheel rotating with the belt, this device is normally located near the
load cells to minimise the effects of elastic stretching of the belt. Some belt weighment systems

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assume a constant speed but these are rarely accurate due to motor speed variations, belt stretch
and slip between the belt and rollers.
Weighing precision can be affected by a number of factors including build up of spillage in the
weighing mechanism, misalignment of the belt and idlers, belt tension and stiffness. Well maintained
modern belt weighers can produce accurate, precise results under optimum conditions (e.g. ±0.4%
precision). But under normal operating conditions the precision of older dynamic belt weighers
can be up to ±3%, such equipment should not normally be used for commercial settlement.
ISO12745:1996 shows detailed procedure to test precision & bias of belt weighers.

SCHENK Weighing Mechanism


At Awarpur Cement Works Fine coal ground in coal mill is stored in fine coal bin of approx.
95 & 145 MT capacity respectively for kiln and calciner.
Extraction of fine coal is done at the bottom of bin where flow promoting devices are provided
for easy extraction of coal and flow is controlled with the speed of screw. These bins are provided
with three load cells at bottom aligned at 120 O to each other. Load cell provides indication for
quantity of fine coal in bin during operation.
Weighing system called SCHENK is provided at the discharge of screw to measure the quantity
of fine coal fired in terms of TPH. Measurement is based on impact system in which impact on
deflection plate is directly proportional to the quantity of coal metered. This deflection plate is
attached with load cell for giving indication.
These bins are calibrated once a year to rectify the inaccuracy if any. However coal extracted
from the bin can be cross checked with drop in bin weight during operation

Fine coal Bin Explosion flaps

Load Cell
Flow promoting
Device (2 No)
Screw (2 No )

SCHENK

This system of measuring dry coal consumption is reliable and accurate. Consumption of dry
coal is converted to wet coal on the basis of free moisture measured when this coal is received
in the plant. Difference between the weights of coal (wet) received and Consumed (calculated
wet) shall be the loss if any or stock in hand.

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5.1 Checklist - Weighment

Sl. No. Question Yes No Answer


1 Was the coal weighed by weighbridge, Describe scales, weighing

belt weigher or hopper load cell? capacity and least count of
the scale.
2 Prior to weighment, was the weighing √ Certified weighing
equipment calibrated and tested by equipment be made
independent certification authority and available.
valid certificate sighted?
3 Was there stamped and calibrated Arrange the calibrated and
weights available to check the √ stamped weight for the
performance of the weighbridge, belt above purpose.
weigher or hopper load cell?
4 Was the material transported to any
distance after weighing? √
• By road -
- Note the weather conditions
- Was material covered Maintain a system.
- Was there any spillages
observed during
transportation?
- When and how often were the
vehicles tare weighed?
• By conveyor belt –
5 - Describe the conveyor length
- Was the conveyor covered?
Maintain a system.
- Was there any spillages or √
losses observed at belt
crossover points or elsewhere?
• By hopper –
6
- Can the pit and the hopper tops √ Inform the responsible and
be sighted for signs of leakage take immediate corrective
or seepage of material? actions.

Note : If spillages or losses are observed bring them to attention of the responsible person on
site either to recover the lost material or estimate the amount of material lost.
Case Study Ref. No.: 6.1.

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6.0 CASE STUDY

A study on actual assessment of coal loss was carried out in a major paper mill. Brief out come
of this study is presented below as a case.

The mill procured coal from domestic and imported sources to use in its 30 MW CFBC boiler
in their power plant.

One of the main objectives of this study was to determine technical methods to assess and
account for coal. Studying and reviewing the existing processes/ systems of weighing method (at
weigh bridge and at conveyor belt), calibration of equipment and accessories, their performance
and efficiency and also minimize the various losses of coal due to weighment, combustion, wind,
moisture, and embedded (carpet) loss was addressed.

One of the initial tasks of this study was to evaluate and analyze the data on weighment available
at the plant. This lead in identifying the problematic areas and subsequently help formulate the
test plans. Two main areas of data evaluation were

z Calibration of weighing equipment


z Difference in quantity (both in WMT & DMT) observed by the plant between coal weight
at the stack (weighbridge result) and that at the conveyor (belt weighing system).
The following items pertaining to coal weighment, which required calibration was as under.
z Standard weights
z Belt weighing scale
z Weigh bridge

6.1 Details
A. Standard Weight Box
Instrument : Standard Weight.
Make : Local
Model No. : Nil

a. Calibration Authority : Departments of Weights and Measures of India.


b. Date of calibration : 09.05.2003.
c. Frequency of calibration : Once in a year.
d. Remarks : The error of the weight is not significant.

B. Belt weighing scale


Instrument : Belt weighing scale.
Make : Avery India Ltd.
Model No. : 475 MC2.

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a. Calibration Authority : Avery India Ltd.


b. Date of calibration : 07.05.2003
c. Frequency of calibration : Once in every 6 month.
d. Remarks : The report showed the following :

% Input Standard Output indication


Output Error
Indication Initial Final (After Adjustment)

Kg MT Incr Decr Incr (A) Incr (B) Specified Actual


0 0 0 1 1 0.3 0.3 0.25% 0.19%
SPAN 30 206.3 210 210 206.7 206.7

z At the start of calibration the error was 2% which was 8 times higher than that specified.

z After adjustments were made to the system the error remained 0.19 % which is within
acceptable limit.

z The repeatability of the readings was not measured at the time of calibration.

After 2 months the Belt scale required further adjustment. This time a quantity of coal that
was pre-weighed was conveyed through the belt and a 7.24% error was found. After correction
the final error was 1.69 %.

At that time no calibration was carried out. Throughout August 2003, a trial was carried out
to compare the stack quantity and the belt scale readings, the details of which are as follows:

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A. QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON IN BETWEEN STACK AND BELT CONVEYOR MONTH : AUGUST 2003.

Sr. No. Date Stack No. Actual Weight % Moisture DMT BC2 Weight BC2 Moisture DMT BC2 DMT Difference %Difference

1 01.08.03 682 73.615 10.09 66.187 73.615 9.30 66.769 -0.582 -0.879
2 01.08.03 2536 665.200 6.71 620.565 677.580 8.97 616.801 3.764 0.607
3 02.08.03 2541 550.398 6.20 516.273 569.270 9.20 516.897 -0.624 -0.121
4 03.08.03 1532 465.505 8.76 424.727 450.670 9.65 407.180 17.547 4.131
5 03.08.03 684 535.665 8.87 488.152 540.361 7.19 501.509 -13.357 -2.736
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

6 04.08.03 2539 1247.980 9.26 1132.417 1258.030 12.04 1106.563 25.854 2.283

Management Services Division


7 06.08.03 2540 1137.758 8.30 1043.324 1178.660 12.67 1029.324 14.000 1.342
8 08.08.04 2538/38 1065.135 8.72 972.255 1033.670 10.66 923.481 48.774 5.017
9 10.08.03 685 482.800 8.91 439.783 488.000 10.82 435.198 4.585 1.043
10 10.08.03 683 686.900 9.95 618.553 645.440 11.21 573.086 45.467 7.351
11 11.08.03 1531 643.300 9.37 583.023 664.780 11.47 588.530 -5.507 -0.945
12 12.08.03 682 917.560 10.09 824.978 934.910 9.65 844.691 -19.713 -2.390
13 14.08.03 687 715.820 8.20 657.123 693.710 8.65 633.704 23.419 3.564
14 15.08.03 1533 448.980 8.47 410.951 437.270 8.27 401.108 9.843 2.395
15 15.08.03 1534 807.565 9.68 729.393 795.000 9.80 717.090 12.303 1.687
16 16.08.03 2533 785.590 8.16 721.486 814.000 7.11 756.125 -34.639 -4.801
17 18.08.03 2543 812.603 8.52 743.369 836.970 10.61 748.167 -4.798 -0.645
18 18.08.03 690 621.330 9.51 562.242 613.020 9.78 553.067 9.175 1.632
19 19.08.03 2546 568.380 9.51 514.327 673.070 9.78 607.244 -92.917 -18.066
20 20.08.03 2542 593.200 5.71 559.328 566.930 7.49 524.467 34.861 6.233
21 20.08.03 691 776.530 7.46 718.601 773.830 8.18 710.531 8.070 1.123
22 21.08.03 689 796.105 9.43 721.032 809.180 7.19 751.000 -29.968 -4.156
23 23.08.03 2545 738.750 10.28 662.807 747.230 6.90 695.671 -32.864 -4.958
24 24.08.03 688 803.110 6.02 754.763 852.670 8.71 778.402 -23.639 -3.132
25 25.08.03 692 799.430 7.53 739.233 780.990 6.57 729.679 9.554 1.292
26 26.08.03 694 499.765 9.11 454.236 526.000 10.13 472.716 -18.480 -4.068
27 27.08.03 693 698.170 8.18 641.060 801.400 8.86 730.396 -89.336 -13.936
28 28.08.03 698 228.470 7.89 210.444 236.700 9.68 213.787 -3.343 -1.589
29 29.08.03 697 664.865 7.77 613.205 678.470 8.35 621.818 -8.613 -1.405
30 29.08.03 699 802.330 10.50 718.085 816.770 8.88 744.241 -26.156 -3.642
31 30.08.03 695 415.360 10.22 372.910 366.590 10.19 329.234 43.676 11.712
32 31.08.03 696 397.000 11.16 352.695 436.930 10.38 391.577 -38.882 -11.024
33 31.08.03 2544 57.420 11.04 51.081 57.190 10.36 51.265 -0.184 -0.360
21502.589 19638.608 21828.906 19771.318 -132.710 -0.676

33
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

The difference in dry metric tonne between the stack and belt was found to be 0.676%, with
the dry weight of BC2 material being higher than stack. Although the average difference was
low but the range of difference (0.1 to 18%) was quite high. The reason of this was either due
to poor handling or instrumental error.

C. Weigh Bridge
Instrument : Weigh Bridge Scale.
Make : Avery India Ltd.
Model No. : -.

Weigh Bridge –I
Capacity : 0 – 30 MT.
Least Count : 5 Kgs.

Weigh Bridge –II


Capacity : 0 – 60 MT.
Least Count : 10 Kgs.

The paper mill had 472 nos of 20-kg mass certified by Dept. of Weights & Measures. They
normally verified the performance of the weigh bridge by using this. The accuracy of the
weigh bridge is 100% as per above procedure.

Remarks : The capacity of calibration mass is 9.44 MT which covers only 15 .73 % of the
full scale (60 MT). It was recommended to cover at least the working range i.e. 25 – 40 MT
to test linearity.

This is a common problem experienced in most weighbridges.

6.2 Coal Loss Analysis

To study coal loss comparison report between the weighment of coal and moisture at Stack
and the Belt conveyor from June to September 03 was carried out.

A. The summary sheet of that is as follows:


SUMMARY SHEET OF LOSS ANALYSIS - STACK VS. CONVEYOR BELT

Stack BC2
Sr. No. Month
%Moisture %Moisture DMT
2003 WMT DMT WMT
(Wt. Avg.) (Wt. Avg.)
1 JUNE 18509.172 7.16 17183.536 17775.930 8.61 16245.443
2 JULY 16849.115 8.70 15383.363 15789.961 9.52 14286.064
3 AUGUST 21508.910 9.00 19573.862 21925.550 9.65 19809.684
4 SEP 21039.100 9.80 18978.042 21353.880 10.03 19211.283

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Month Stack BC2 Difference Month Stack BC2 Difference


2003 WMT WMT WMT 2003 DMT DMT DMT
JUNE 18509.172 17775.930 733.242 JUNE 17183.536 16245.443 938.093
JULY 16849.115 15789.961 1059.154 JULY 15383.363 14286.064 1097.299
AUG 21508.910 21925.550 -416.640 AUG 19573.862 19809.684 -235.822
SEP 21039.100 21353.880 -314.780 SEP 18978.042 19211.283 -233.241

From the above Table and graphical representation the following conclusions were drawn :

1. The quantity of coal unloaded in the stack was seen to be higher than the weight
recorded in the Belt scale in months of June and July on both DMT & WMT bases

Month Difference Difference


2003 WMT % DMT %
JUNE 733 3.96 938 5.46
JULY 1059 6.29 1097 7.13
AUG -416 -1.93 -236 -1.21
SEP -314 -1.49 -233 -1.23

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2. In August and September, the weight recorded in the belt scale was higher than the
stack quantity.
3. After August, there is no apparent loss in belt compared to stack.

Cause
1. The belt scale was adjusted and calibrated in July.

2. Before that period the belt weighing scale had shown erratic results.

3. The gain in belt weight in August and September is near about 1 % in DMT which
proved that there is no significant difference in stack and belt consumed material.

6.3 Trial Test Plan

Trial plans was prepared to address the following problems.

z Variation in Total Moisture analysed in two different methods, in one top size is
212micron and in another top size is 10 mm

z Difference in quantity (both WMT & DMT) observed by the plant between coal
weight at stack (weighbridge result) and that at the conveyor (belt scale)

A high GCV coal discharged on 23.10.2003 was chosen

Commodity : High GCV Coal, Stack No. : 88, Unloading Date : 23.10.2003.
Lot size : 347.10 MT ( A shift : 175.98 MT & B shift : 171.12 MT).
Number of Trucks : 7 Nos. at A shift & 6 Nos. at B shift.

The sample was collected in accordance with existing procedure as well as with trial
procedure separately.

6.3.1 Sampling

Objective

1. To devise a sampling scheme to obtain more representative sample.

2. To study if there was a difference in total moisture between sample drawn by


existing procedure and trial procedure.

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Trial Test

1. After coal was discharged from two trucks sample from 3 equidistant bands was
taken.

2. Sample was taken using shovel from 3 positions of the band i.e. upper, middle
and bottom part equally from each side. These 3 samples together was considered
as one increment.

3. So from 7 nos. of trucks (which were considered as A – Shift material), a total


number of 21 increments @ 7 Kgs (approx.) were taken. Thus the total weight
of sample of A – shift was 147 Kgs. (Approx.). The total quantity of material
unloaded was 175.98 MT.

4. Samples of the remaining 6 trucks were taken in the same way as above and this
was considered as the B-shift sample. The total quantity of coal unloaded in the
B-shift was 171.12 MT from the six trucks.

5. Another sample was taken by following the same procedure considering the
whole stack as a lot for analysis.

6.3.2 Sample Preparation

Objective

1. To find a practical preparation scheme to obtain more representative results.

2. To find out the moisture loss during crushing.

Trial Test

1. The sample was crushed to 10mm size.

2. 3 kgs of total moisture sample was collected after the 1st coning and quartering
by increment reduction method. The sample was spread in a rectangular shape of
50mm uniform thickness and divided in 20 boxes. Equal increments were taken
from each box.

3. In the same way, 4 kgs of 10 mm sample was collected and preserved for
preparation of the analysed sample in laboratory.

4. The remaining sample was reduced to 2 kgs by coning and quartering method
and this was pulverised by the hammer mill type pulveriser to 212 micron.

5. All the crushed samples of 212 micron were passed through the 212 micron sieve
and after mixing 100 gms of sample was taken as analysed sample.

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6. The prepared sample of different size were as follows:


a) High GCV regular Sample - Size 10 mm & 212 micron.
b) High GCV A-shift composite – Size 10mm & 212 micron.
c) High GCV B-shift composite – Size 10 mm & 212 micron.

6.3.3 Testing

Objective

1. To determine if there was any significant difference in Total Moisture results


between the top size 212 micron and top size 10mm.

Applied Trials

1. All the samples were distributed to laboratories.

2. All samples were tested on as-received basis as well as on air-dried basis.

3. Total moisture was analyzed directly by ISO 589 method by using 10mm sample
and as well as 212-micron sample in the plant laboratory.

4. To get the results on air-dried basis sample was spread in normal temperature and
humidity till constant weight such that the sample attained equilibrium under
ambient laboratory conditions.

5. This air-dried sample was analysed for moisture, which was the air-dried moisture
or inherent moisture.

6.3.4 Trial through conveyor belt

Objective

1. To compare the quantity in both DMT and WMT basis in between Stack and
Belt.

Applied Trials

1. The material of Stack 88 of High GCV coal was consumed through conveyor belt
in 3 consecutive days.

2. 95.61MT, 108.37 MT, and 126.83 MT respectively of coal was passed through
the conveyor belt within an hour on 3 consecutive days and the samples were
collected in a drum. The nominal top size of the sample was 6 mm.

3. In this feeding process the following sequence was maintained:


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FLOW CHART OF FEEDING PROCESS

6.3.5 Evaluation Exercise


Table 1 : Moisture Comparison of Stack
QTY QTY(DMT)
WMT 212 micron 10 mm Mois. 212 Mois. 10 mm
A Shift 175.98 10.53 13.79 157.449 151.712
B Shift 171.12 9.47 13.50 154.915 148.019
347.10 10.01 13.65 312.364 299.731
-4.21%
Difference 3.64%
-12.63 MT

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6.3.5.1 Difference of Total Moisture in 212 micron top size and 10 mm top size
of stack sample
In the trial it was found that the total moisture of high GCV coal during
stacking as per ISO 589 (moisture done by using 10 mm sample) was higher
than the moisture done at 212 micron sample.
The above finding has a significant impact from commercial considerations.
From the commercial consideration, the determination of moisture lower
than actual leads to receiving less coal on dry basis. The less coal quantity
is 4.21% or 12.63 MT against total quantity of 347.10 MT.
Table 2 : Moisture Comparison of Feed

QTY QTY(DMT)
WMT 212 micron 10 mm Mois. 212 Mois. 10 mm
Trial 1 95.61 10.05 13.30 86.001 82.894
Trial 2 108.37 10.58 13.22 96.904 94.043
Trial 3 126.83 10.77 13.43 113.170 109.797
330.81 10.50 13.32 296.076 286.734
-3.26%
Difference 2.82%
-9.34 MT

6.3.5.2 Difference of Total Moisture in 212 micron top size and 10 mm top size
of conveyor belt sample
With the trial it was found that the total moisture of high GCV coal during
feeding as per ISO 589 (moisture done by using 10 mm sample) was higher
than the moisture done at 212 micron sample.
The above finding had a significant impact from commercial considerations.
From the commercial consideration, the determination of moisture lower
than actual leads to receiving less coal on dry basis. The less coal quantity
is 3.26% or 9.34 MT against total quantity of 330.81 MT.

6.3.5.3 Effect of Total Moisture in Coal Loss

Table 3 : Coal Loss due to Moisture

QTY QTY(DMT)
WMT TM Mois. 212
Stack 347.10 13.65 299.721
Feed 330.81 13.33 286.713
Difference (MT) 16.29 13.01
Difference (%) 4.69% 4.34%

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From Table 3 it was found that the ultimate loss is 16.29 MT or 4.692% in as received
basis and 13.01 MT or 4.34%. in dry basis.

The probable reasons for such a loss was identified as :


z Carpet Loss
z Loss due to foreign material
z Crushing/ screening Loss.

6.3.5.4 Carpet Loss

Carpet loss was determined in the following manner:

Before spreading the Thickness of the Coal bed = 0.655 m.


The spreading area of Coal = 6.1 m X 6.1 m = 37.21 m2.
The measured Bulk density of Coal = 0.982 MT/m3.
The Thickness of the Coal Bed after reclaiming = 0.745 m
The increase in Coal Bed Thickness = 0.09 m
The volume of increased bed = 3.349 m3.
The Carpet Loss = 3.29 MT in as received condition.
The Carpet Loss in WMT = 0.95%
Total Moisture as determined = 13.33%
Hence, the carpet Loss in DMT = 2.85 MT.
The Carpet Loss in DMT = 0.95%

6.4 Conclusions

The following conclusions can be drawn from the case study.

1. It was seen that the moisture loss accounted to 0.32% in 3 days duration. If the days
are increased the percentage of this type of loss may be increased.

2. It was seen that carpet loss accounted to 0.95%. If the prebed condition is good and
the reclaiming equipment operators are well experienced this loss can be avoided.

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7.0 EQUIPMENT

7.1 Dust Collectors

Dust collectors are used in many processes to either recover valuable granular solid or
powder from process stream. Dust collection is an online process for collecting any
process-generated dust from the source point or from the air on a continuous basis.

Dust collectors can be configured into one of five common types, ambient units, collection
booths, source collector or portable units, and stationary units. Ambient units are free-
hanging systems for use when applications limit the use of source-capture arms or ductwork.
Collector booths required no ductwork. They are often portable. Portable units are collecting
dust by bag filtration system.

Dust Collector Vendors:

1. M P Engg. Co. Ltd , Ahmedabad


Phone no. : 079 2204353 / 2202578
Mobile no.: 9824033147

2. Aerovent Projects Pvt Ltd , Mumbai


Phone No. : 022 25798653/654
Web site : www.aerovent.net

3. Pilani Envirotech Pvt Ltd , Mumbai


Phone no. : 022 24448321
Website : pilanienvirotech.tradeget.com

7.2 Theodolite

Theodolite is the standard tool of optical survey. It is a small tripod-mounted high precision
telescope with a total system magnification of 15x-60x and dizzying array of dials, knobs,
levels and auxiliary lens systems, with which extremely high precision measurements of
horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (altitude) angles are met.

The technique articulated below involves no mathematical approximations, so the results


are as good as the measurements. It can be used to measure large geographic distances
for surveying purposes – e.g., distances to the tops of stockpile.

7.3 Software driven physical stock verification

These are best described as very accurate, distance-measuring electronic theodolites capable
of diverse mapping and position-measuring tasks.

Conceptually, these are different from most measuring systems used by archaeologists
because they are effective over a great range of scales. It encompass a range of about five
to six orders of magnitude of accuracy.

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Angle and Distance Measuring

It combines a number of technologies to achieve remarkable accuracy. The first,


an extension of traditional transits and theodolites, is an ability to register very
fine angular divisions. (upto thousand of a degree) The angular precision for
commonly available instruments ranges from 20" (60"=1’t; 60'=1deg.) to less than
1". To have an idea of how well accuracy is conserved at distance with these
levels of angular precision, a rule of thumb is that 1" is 1 cm at 2000 m of
distance, so the maximum angular error of a 1" total it could be 1 cm when
shooting 2 km. A 10" instrument would achieve the same accuracy at a distance
of 200m.

Total stations is one of such advanced software driven stock verification tool.

7.4 Performance Verification & Calibration

A. Analytical Balance
Recommended Performance Check Frequency : Quarterly Basis by using Standard
Calibrated weight box with OIML Recommended E2 accuracy class.
B. Standard Weight Box
Recommended Calibration Frequency : Once in a year.
C. Belt Scale
Recommended Calibration Frequency : Twice in a year.
Performance Verification By known mass of coal : Quarterly basis.
D. Weigh Bridge Scale
Recommended Calibration Frequency : Once in a year.
Performance Verification By known mass : Quarterly basis.
E. Muffle Furnace
Recommended Calibration Frequency : Once in a year.
F. Air Oven
Recommended Calibration Frequency : Once in a year.

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8.0 GLOSSARY

Volumetric Assessment
In order to calculate the volume for coal bed, it is necessary to determine the thickness of the
coal. The volume of coal is calculated multiplying surface area by the thickness. The quantity
is determined by multiplying volume by bulk density of the coal.The total process is called
Volumetric Assessment.
Bulk Density
The mass in air of a unit volume of a coal, including the voids within and between the particles.

Sample
A quantity of material taken from a larger quantity for the purpose of estimating properties or
composition of the larger quantity.

Total Moisture
Total moisture is the sum of the surface moisture and the inherent moisture.

Surface Moisture
The coal, which has been exposed to contact with water in the seam or in washery, or coal wetted
by rain, may carry free or visible water. This water is called the surface moisture. Surface
moisture can evaporate in normal atmosphere. This evaporation process is called air-drying.

Inherent Moisture
That moisture remaining in the sample after air-drying. Inherent moisture is assayed by determining
the mass lost from drying the sample at 104 to 110oC.

As received basis
Analytical data calculated to the as received moisture content.

Spontaneous combustion
The generation of heat, leading to fire if uncontrolled, in bulk coal, occurring without the
application of any obvious external energy source. Lower rank coals in general are more liable
to spontaneous combustion.

Sample Containers
Containers used for moisture or common samples should be water-tight and made of impermeable
non-corrodible material, of adequate strength with well fitting lids. Containers of stainless steel
or plastics material have been found suitable.

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Gross Sample
Sample as collected from a sub-lot, that is the quantity of coal obtained by aggregating together
all the increments drawn from the same sub-lot.

Moisture Sample
A sample to be used exclusively for the purpose of determining total moisture.

Lot
The quantity of coal offered for use at one time.

Sub-lot
The quantity of coal in each of the groups into which a lot is divided for the purpose of sampling;
a lot may consist of two or more sub-lots.

Increment
A small portion of a lot collected by one operation of a sampling device and normally combined
with other increments from the lot to make a gross sample.

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ANNEXURE – 1 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING INHERENT MOISTURE

Reference : IS 1350 (Part 1) – 1984 (Reaffirmed 1996).


Forms And Conditions Of Moisture
The moisture present in the laboratory sample of coal and coke is of importance both in proximate analysis
and in calculating other analysis results to a moisture-free basis. Moisture and free water may be defined
as follows:
a) Total Moisture - Coal that has been exposed to contact with water in the seam or in a washery or coal
and coke wetted by rain, may carry free or visible water. This water plus the moisture within the
material, is sometimes spoken of as total moisture.
b) Moisture in Coal equilibrated at 40 degree centigrade and 60 Percent Relative Humidity - The
moisture content of air-dried coal varies and depends upon the temperature and relative humidity of
the air in which it is exposed. As such it is necessary to determine moisture content of different
samples of coal under comparable conditions. For this purpose, the coal is ground to pass 212-micron
IS Sieve and equilibrated in an atmosphere of 40 degree centigrade and 60 percent relative humidity.
c) Free Water or Visible Water - Only the visible wetness of coal is included in this. It is that quantity
of water which is physically adhering to coal. In essence, this is that quantity of water which is in
excess of the moisture holding capacity of a coal.
d) Moisture in Air-Dried Laboratory Analysis sample of Coal and Coke - It is the moisture in coal
which has been air dried under the laboratory atmospheric condition prior to analysis. The moisture
content of the analysis sample is determined as a part of proximate analysis and also whenever
portions of sample are weighed later for other analysis and tests. If all the portions for analysis are
weighed under approximately the same conditions of humidity, one determination of moisture will
suffice, but a check is desirable with high moisture coals.
Method
The following methods for determination of moisture may be adopted:
a) Indirect Method - A known mass of the material is dried and the loss of mass calculated as moisture.
The moisture may be determined either by drying in one stage (applicable only for coke) or by a
two-stage process in which the free water is removed by air-drying at atmospheric temperature and
the remaining moisture removed by drying in an oven at 108 ± 20 C. In the latter case the total
moisture is calculated from the figures for free water and the remaining moisture. For the determination
of moisture in coke, the minimum free-space oven method with a temperature of 200 + 50 C and a
heating period of 4 hours is employed.
i) Drying in air (one stage)
z Applicability: This method applies to laboratory samples of coal crushed to pass 212 micron IS
sieve.
z Preparation of Laboratory Sample : Samples received in the laboratory if already ground to pass
212-micron IS sieve shall be re-sieved to verify that all the material passes through this sieve,
and then air-dried for 24 hours and mixed as above.

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z Apparatus
Air Oven -Ventilated drying oven in which a constant and uniform temperature of 108 + 20C can
be maintained.
z Weighing Vessel - Shallow vessel, approx. 10cm2 in area, made of Silica or glass with ground
edges and fitted with ground covers.
z Procedure
Heat the empty vessel at 108 ± 2°C and weigh after cooling for 20 minutes in a desiccator.
Uniformly spread about 1 gm of coal in the weighing vessel so that there is not more than 0.15
gm of the material per cm2 area, and weigh again. Uncover the vessel in the drying oven and heat
at a temperature of 108 ± 2°C until there is no further loss in mass. This normally takes 1 to 1.5
hours. Replace the cover, cool in a desiccator for 20 minutes and weigh.
z Calculation & Reporting Results
Express the loss in mass due to drying as a percentage of the total mass of the sample and report
the result as the percentage moisture in the sample.

Moisture percent in the sample = ( M2 - M3 )X 100


-------------------------
M2 - M1
where,
M1 = Mass in gram of empty crucible plus lid.
M2 = Mass in gram of the crucible with lid including sample.
M3 = Mass in gram of the crucible with lid after drying.

ii) Drying in air ( two stage ) – Air Drying Followed by Oven Drying

STAGE: 1
z Applicability : This method applies to a special moisture sample of 1 Kg of coal crushed to pass
a square mesh screen conforming to designation 12.5 mm and delivered in a sealed non-corrodible
container.
z Apparatus
Non-corrodible (SS) trays approximately 1000 cm2 in area and large enough to hold the entire
sample.
z Procedure
Accurately weigh the tray (M1). Transfer the 1 Kg sample to the weighed metal tray to the
nearest 0.5 g and spread the material evenly on the tray. Weigh the Sample & the tray(M2).
Record (M2 – M1) as the mass of the sample taken for the test. Allow the material in the tray to
air-dry at atmospheric temperature in a well ventilated place free from dust. Take the drying to
be complete when the change in mass during an hour is less than 0.1 % of the sample. Weigh the
tray and air-dryed sample (M3). Record the (M3 – M2).

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z Calculation

Express the loss in mass due to air-drying as a percentage of the total mass of the sample (X).

% of loss in air-drying, X = ( M2 – M3 )X 100


-----------------------
M2 - M1
where,
M1 = Mass in gram of empty tray.
M2 = Mass in gram of the tray including sample.
M3 = Mass in gram of the tray including sample after air-drying.
STAGE :2
z Apparatus
Ventilated drying oven : in which a constant and uniform temperature of 108 ± 20 C can be
maintained.
Weighing vessel : Shallow, approximately 40 cm2 in area, made of silica, glass or stainless steel,
with ground edges and fitted with ground cover.
z Procedure
Heat the empty vessel at 108±20C and weigh after cooling for 20 minutes in a desiccator. Crush
the air-dried material to pass 2.90 mm IS sieve. Spread uniformly in the weighing vessel about
10 g of the crushed material and weigh. Heat the uncovered vessel in the drying oven at a
temperature of 108±20C until there is no further loss in mass. This normally takes 1.5 to 3 hours.
Replace the cover, cool in a desiccator for 20 minutes and weigh.
z Calculation & Reporting Results
Express the loss in mass due to oven-drying as a percentage of the total mass of the sample (Y).
% of loss in oven-drying, Y = ( M2 – M3 )X 100
-----------------------
M2 - M1
where,

M1 = Mass in gram of empty vessel plus lid.


M2 = Mass in gram of the vessel with lid including sample.
M3 = Mass in gram of the vessel with lid after oven-drying.

Calculation & Reporting Results of Total Moisture

% Total Moisture of Original Sample = X + Y(1-X/100)

where,
X = % loss in mass of the original sample in air-drying.
Y= % loss in mass of the air-dried sample on oven-drying.

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ANNEXURE -2 CHECKLIST
Checklist – Carpet Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Detail


1 Were the operators of the grabs and
dozers trained enough to prevent the
carpeting loss during spreading of the
material?
2 Were the equipment and accessories
available to measure the coal bed thickness?
3 Were all the measuring equipments calibrated?

Checklist – Handling Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Detail


1 Was the unloading system done manually?
2 How unloading was done?
3 Prior to unloading was there any system to
check the plot in respect of bed thickness,
foreign material, mud, water and area?
4 Was there any identification system to separate
the received material partywise and daywise?
5 Was stack height of 3 to 4 metres maintained
during the unloading process?
6 Was there any system to check the tare weight
of each truck or rake?
7 Was the reclaiming system done manually by
grabs or dozers?
8 Were there any spillages during the reclaiming
process from grabs or dozers?
9 Was there any supervision by trained personnel
during the feeding of material to observe the
feeding loss?
10 Was there any recovery process of feeding
material?
11 Was the stock assessment done at a regular
interval?

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Sl. No. Question Yes No Detail


12 Was the measurement of stock assessment
done by using theodolite?
13 Were the supervisors trained enough to do
the stock assessment?
14 Were all the measuring equipment like tape, Always make

Theodolite etc. calibrated at regular interval? practice to use
calibrated
equipment.

Checklist – Moisture Loss

Sl. No. Question Yes No Detail


1 Were representative samples collected and tested?
2 How the sample was collected?
3 Did weather, environmental or sample
storage/ handling conditions cause any addition
or loss of moisture to/ from the sample?
4 Was there any system to consume the material
on first received basis?
5 Was the sample clearly identified and handled
in such a way to ensure that it will not be
confused during preparation and moisture
determination process?
6 Was all equipment calibrated and working
correctly?

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Checklist - Weighment

Sl. No. Question Yes No Detail


1 Was the coal weighed by weighbridge, belt
weigher or hopper load cell?
2 What type of scale is used?
3 What is the weighing capacity and least count
of the scale?
4 Prior to weighment, was the weighing equipment
calibrated and tested by independent certification
authority and valid certificate sighted?
5 Was there stamped and calibrated weights
available to check the performance of the
weighbridge, belt weigher or hopper load cell?
6 Was the material transported to any distance after Maintain a
weighing? system.
• By road -
- Note the weather conditions
- Was material covered
- Was there any spillages observed during
transportation?
- When and how often were the vehicles tare
weighed?
7 • By conveyor belt – Maintain a
- Describe the conveyor length system.
- Was the conveyor covered?
- Was there any spillages or losses observed
at belt crossover points or elsewhere ?
8 • By hopper – Inform the
- Can the pit and the hopper tops be sighted responsible and
for signs of leakage or seepage of material? take immediate
corrective
actions.

Management Services Division 51


ANNEXURE -3 REPORTING FORMAT

52
Coal Received/ Consumed Quantity

Sl. No. Parameter January February March


WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT

1 As Received Quantity

2 Consumed Quantity
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

3 Balance

Sl. No. Parameter April May June


WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT

1 As Received Quantity

2 Consumed Quantity

3 Balance

Sl. No. Parameter July August September


WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT

1 As Received Quantity

2 Consumed Quantity

3 Balance

Sl. No. Parameter October November December


WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT WMT Moisture% DMT

1 As Received Quantity

2 Consumed Quantity

3 Balance

Management Services Division


COAL LOSS

Sl. No. Parameter Jan Feb Mar Apr Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

1 Carpet Loss (%)

Management Services Division


2 Handling Loss (%)

3 Moisture Loss (%)

4 Windage Loss (%)

5 Loss Due to Shale &


Stone (%)

6 Total (%)

53
SOP-Coal Loss Accounting

NOTES

54 Management Services Division


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