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A-Starting Up the Power Station Simulator

B-Fault Annunciator System

Object:
To study the starting procedure of the simulator and to become
familiar with the operation of the fault enunciator system.

Theory:
The power station simulator is a model of a simple power station
consisting of a turbine, generator, transformer and high-voltage
switchgear with circuit breakers, isolators and two outgoing lines
as shown in figure 1. The simulator equipment is in two separate
sections; a rotary converter representing the turbo-generator set
and control room section. (See figure 2).

The control room section is made up of 5 cubicles.


1. Cubicle K l :-
- Relay protection of generating set including test units and
indicators.
- Fault simulation equipment.
- Annunciator panel.
- AC and DC power supply switches.

2. Cubicle K2:-
- Meters showing generator voltage and current, field current,
outgoing active and reactive power and speed together with
associated selector switches.
- Schematic diagram of turbo-generator set, transformer and
busbars.
- Terminal for measurement or connections of other
equipments.
- Operating switches and potentiometers for speed and voltage
control.
- Selector switches for synchronizing.
- Emergency stop.

3. Cubicle K3:-
- Synchronizing unit with associated selector switches.
- Instruments to show voltage on bus-bars with associated
selector switches.
- Selector switch for lamp test.
- Mimic diagram for bus-bars. ,
- Control switch for circuit-breakers and isolators.

4. Cubicle K4:-
- Instruments for outgoing lines to show current voltage active
and reactive power with associated selector switches.
- Selector switch for synchronizing.
- Mimic diagram for bus-bars and outgoing lines.
- Operating switches for circuit-breaker and isolators.
- Terminals for measurements or to connect other equipment.
- Relay protection for the lines including test units and
indicators.

5. Cubicle K5:-

- Main transformer with current transformers.


- DC power supply.
To operate circuit-breaker or isolator, the relevant switch is
turned to the required position, then it should be pressed and
turned (clockwise for on and anticlockwise for off). If the position
of the operating switch does not agree with the position of the
controlled object, the indicator lamp in the switches flashing can be
acknowledged by turning the switch.
Damage to equipment and costly service disruptions can result
of circuit-breakers and isolators are operated under certain
conditions. To prevent this operating system includes an automatic
blocking system.
Circuit-breakers are designed to be capable of conducting
breaking and making large currents, but if they are used to connect
together two networks at different frequencies and voltage levels,
the consequences may be serious, with effects such as oscillation
and loss of synchronism. For this reason all circuit-breakers closing
operations are interlocked by the synchronizing equipment.
A circuit-breaker is prevented from closing unless the switch
marked "SYNCHRONIZING" for this circuit-breakers is switched
on.
Generator circuit-breaker CB1 and field circuit-breaker EB1
are interlocked with each other.
If it was possible for the field breaker to open while the
generator was connected to another system, the generator would be
driven without excitation and this could result in serious damage to
the generator.

Procedure:
1) Start up the simulator after making the preparatory
checks and following up the diagrams given in figs, A & B.
2) Set the "static" to 1, voltage regulation to "AUT" and
slowly increase the generator voltage to 220V and generator
speed to 1500 rev/min.
3) Check that the voltage on bus-bar A is zero.
4) Energize bus-bar A from the generating set by means of
isolator 1A and circuit-breaker CB1, and check that the
voltage in bus bar A is 380V and the frequency is 50 Hz.
5) Check that the voltage on lines L I and L2 is zero.
6) Energize L I by means of isolator ^A, CB3 and isolator
3L.
7) Energize line L2 in a similar way as in (6).
8) Transfer the station operation from bus-bar A to bus-bar
B (the supply to L I and L2 should not interrupted).
9) Increase the voltage at the generator terminals gradually
and
make a record of your observation.
10) Connect a load to line L I and slowly increase the load
current. Make a record of your observation.
11) Stop the generating set as described in fig. C and open all
circuit-breakers and isolators.
12)Trip the miniature circuit-breaker (MCBs) for the DC
supply in cubicle K l .
13) Acknowledge the alarm and close the (MCBs).
14) Trip the (MCBs) for AC supply in cubicle K l .
15) Acknowledge the alarm and close the (MCBs).
16) Simulate an earth fault on the generator field winding.
Acknowledge the alarm.
Discussion:
1. Why are certain operations blocked by isolators?
The isolator is a disconnecting switch being operated at the time
when the current is not flowing through the power system. Both the
open and close operations of the isolator are done when the current is
not flowing through the circuit. The isolator is needed in power system
to disconnect the circuit breaker from the circuit at the time of
scheduled maintenance and to disconnect the circuit breaker from the
circuit at time of repair.
These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of
dealing with small charging currents of bus bars and connections. The
design of isolators is closely related to the design of substations. Isolator
design is considered in the following aspects:

• Space Factor
• Insulation Security
• Standardisation
• Ease of Maintenance
• Cost

Some types of isolators include:

• Horizontal Isolation types


• Vertical Isolation types
• Moving Bushing types

2. The generating set lines L I and L2 are connected to bus-bar A.


L2 is supplied from a powerful system and L I is supplying an
important industrial plant. A fault is detected in CB1; preventing
the circuit from opening, explain how the voltage at CB1 can be
reduced to zero, so that repair can be carried out, without
interrupting the supply to the important industrial plant.

As shown in figure 1 if any fault happened in CB1 we can reduced its


voltage to zero by first connecting the industrial plant L1 by using the
isolator I3B to busbar B then connect the (I2A and I2B) then we use
CB2 to connect busbar A and B together after making the
synchronization operation then the powerful system supply L2 is
connected to busbar B through the isolators (I4B) and we can easily
disconnect the L1 and L2 from the busbar A by using (I4A and I3A) so
the industrial plant will supplied from the powerful system through
busbar B and the generator supplied through busbar A and by
disconnected the CB2 then the isolators (I2A and I2B), the voltage in
busbar A will be zero so as the CB1 because there is no demand and
supply connected to busbar A.

3. What are the consequences of failure of the entire DC supply system


in the station?

In case of the DC supply failure all the component that’s mainly


depends on the DC current will stop working such as automatic relays,
circuit breakers, control units, battery charger, measurement units and
the main problem is the supply of the excitation current that the whole
generators depends on, also the motors that using electric artificial
magnetic which needs to DC current to operate will be stopped

5. Give an example of faults that require giving a signal only?

It is not practical to design and build electrical equipment or


networks so as to completely eliminate the possibility of failure in
service. It is therefore an everyday fact of life that different types
of faults occur on electrical systems, however infrequently, and at
random locations.
Some types of faults are not real faults (passive faults) in the true
sense of the word but are rather conditions that are stressing the
system beyond its design capacity, so that ultimately active faults
will occur.
Typical examples are:
• Overloading - leading to overheating of insulation
(deteriorating quality, reduced life and ultimate failure).
• Over voltage - stressing the insulation beyond its limits.
• Under frequency - causing plant to behave incorrectly.
• Power swings - generators going out-of-step or
synchronism with each other.
It is therefore very necessary to protect against these conditions
simply by giving signal only.