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# Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves Chapter No 10

CHAPTER # 10:

## Simple Harmonic motion and Waves

CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS
Q1:- Is every oscillatory motion simple harmonic motion? Give example.
Ans: No , every oscillatory motion is not a simple harmonic motion. Oscillatory motion is a type of motion
which is periodic ibn nature where as simple harmonic motion is a special type of oscillatory motion which
satisfies two conditions.
 Restoring force is proportional to displacement toward its mean position.
 Acceleration is directly proportional to displacement also toward its mean position.
Example: Motion of simple pendulum and spring mass system are both oscillatory and simple harmonic
whereas, a bouncing ball and sun revolve around the sun are the examples of oscillatory but not harmonic.
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Q2:- For a particle with simple harmonic motion, at what point of the motion, does the velocity attain
maximum magnitude? Minimum magnitude?
Ans: The velocity attains maximum magnitude at mean positions ‘O’ While minimum at extreme positions ‘A’ OR
‘B’ during motion. As the bob of pendulum passes its mean position its velocity becomes maximum and its
acceleration minimum. When the bob reaches its extreme position its velocity become minimum and
acceleration maximum.
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Q3: Is the restoring force on a mass attached to a spring in SHM ever zero? If so, Where?
Ans: Yes, the restoring force is zero on mass ‘M’ attached to a spring in SHM. When the body reaches to its mean
/equilibrium position ‘O’. On the extreme positions the force may be positive or negative but the mean position
will be zero.
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Q4: if we shorten the string of a pendulum to half of its original length, what will be the effect on its time
period and frequency?
𝒍
Ans:- Period of the pendulum is ,𝑇 = 2𝜋√𝒈

If the length of the pendulum is shorten to half of its original length, then new period of pendulum is
𝒍
𝑇1 = 2𝜋√𝟐𝒈 … … … . (𝑙1 = 𝑙/2)
𝒍
2𝜋√
𝑇1 𝟐𝒈
Then =
𝑇 𝒍
2𝜋√
𝒈
𝑇1 𝑇
=
𝑇 2

Hence period of new pendulum is decreased by (1/ root 2 ) times of original period.
1
Now about frequency of original pendulum is, 𝑓 = 𝑇

1 √2
Frequency of new pendulum is ∴ 𝑓 1= =
𝑇1 𝑇

𝑓1
Then = √2
𝑓
Prepared by: Syed Irteza Haider (M.Sc Mathematics ,Physics ) 1|Page
Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves Chapter No 10

## Hence frequency of new pendulum is increased by root 2 times of original frequency.

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Q5: A thin rope hangs from dark tower so that its upper end is not visible. How can the length of the rope be
determined?
Ans: First we tied a point mass with this string and then make it vibrate. The time period of this pendulum can be
noticed. Now a/c to formula
L=gT/4 π2
By knowing the value of g, the time period of vibration the length of wire can be calculated.
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Q6: suppose you should stand on a swing instead of sitting on it. Will your frequency of oscillation increases or
decreases?
Ans: The frequency of oscillation will increases when you stand on a swing. As you stand the length of the
pendulum decreases because you are a part of the bob (You). By mathematical relation of frequency.
1 𝒈
𝑓= √𝒍
2𝜋

So the decreasing length will increase frequency of the swing and decrease its time period.
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Q7: Explain the difference between the speed of transverse wave traveling along a cord and speed of tiny
coloured part of the cord?
Ans: The speed of the wave is how fast the disturbance moves along the cord and is constant for a uniform cord
as long as the tension remains constant. As the wave travels down the cord it disturbs tiny pieces of the cord
which move perpendicularly (transverse) to the direction the wave moves with a speed that is not constant but
depends on the amplitude and frequency of the wave and the specific time that it is observed.
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Q8: Why waves refract at the boundary of shallow and deep water?
Ans: Water waves refract at the boundary of shallow and deep water because the speed of waves in water is
influenced by the depth of water.
Explanation: when water enter from deep to shallow part then its speed and wavelength decreases while
frequency remain same. And when water enters from shallow to deep part its speed and wavelength increases
and frequency remains same.
Q9: What is the effect on diffraction if the opening is made small?
Ans: When the opening is made small then the diffraction effect will become greater. In an aperture (opening)
with width smaller than the wavelength, the wave transmitted through the aperture (opening) spreads all the
way round and behaves like a point source of waves.

## Prepared by: Syed Irteza Haider (M.Sc Mathematics ,Physics ) 2|Page

Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves Chapter No 10

Long Questions

## Q 1: Define oscillatory motion. Write down its terminologies.

Ans: Oscillatory motion:- The repeated back and forth motion of a body from a mean position is called
oscillatory motion and the body is called oscillator. For example side-to-side swing of pendulum
Terminologies of Oscillatory motion:
A) Vibration: One complete round trip of the vibrating body about its mean position is called vibration or
cycle. One vibration will complete when the body starts motion from initial position to mean position
then mean to final position, then final to again mean position and finally back to its original position.
B) Frequency: The numbers of vibration that an oscillatory body completes in one second is called
frequency (f). It is measured in rotation per second or Hertz(Hz).
C) Time Period: The time required for one complete vibration is called time period (T). It is measured in
1
seconds(s). Mathematically: T=𝑓
D) Displacement: The distance from the either mean positions of an oscillatory body is called displacement.
It is denoted by ‘X’ and its unit is meter (m).
E) Amplitude: The maximum displacement of the body from its mean position to extreme positions is called
amplitude. It is denoted by Xo , Xm.
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Q 2: what is simple harmonic motion (SHM)? What are the conditions for an abject to oscillate with simple
harmonic motion?
Ans: