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APEEJAY SCHOOL, NOIDA CLASS-X Worksheet Chapter-II: Federalism

1.Name the counteries which have Coming Together Federation’. USA,Switzerland and Australia 2.Name the counteries which have ‘Holding Together federation’. India ,Spain and Belgium 3.Define the term Jurisdiction? The area over which someone has legal authority .the area may be defined in terms of geographical bounderies or in terms of certain kinds of subjects.

4.State the dual objectives of federal system ? The dual objectives are :

1)to safeguard and promote unity of the country . 2)to accomodate regional diversities.

5. What is federalism?

Federalism is a system of government in which the power is shared between a central authority and various constituents units of the country.

Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is at the centre another at different state levels. Both these levels of governments enjoy their powers independent of each other. 6. What makes India a federal country?

In India we have three tiers of government.

Each tier of the government has its well defined functions and responsibilities.

Each tier of the government has its own independent sources of revenue.

7. Distinguish between a federal form of government and a unitary form of government.

Federal form of government

Unitary form of government

Decentralization of power

Centralized administration

States are independent units

The central government can not pass orders to the state or the local government.

The state government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government.

States are subordinate to the central government.

The central government can pass orders to the state government.

The state government is answerable to the central government.

Sources of revenue are separated for each level of government

Central government allocates funds to the state government.

8. Discuss the changes that took place in the working of the local government after the constitutional amendment in 1992.

After 1992, it is mandatory to hold regular elections to the local bodies.

Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other back ward classes.

At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

An independent state election commission has been created in each state to conduct election for Panchayat and Municipal Corporation.

State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local bodies’ .The nature of sharing varies from state to state.

9. How is federalism practiced in India? Explain with examples.

The spirit of federalism is maintained in India because respect for diversity and desire for living together became a shared ideal in our country.

Linguistic States: - The creation of linguistic states was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country. Generally the states are made on the linguistic basis to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state like Tamil nadu, Gujarat etc. The formation of linguistic states has actually made the country, more united. It has made administration easier.

Some states were created not on language basis but to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography. These include states like Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.

Language policy: -.Our constitution did not give the same status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. But Hindi is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians. Therefore, there were many safeguards to protect other languages. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized by our Constitution.

Centre state relation: - This is also another way to strengthen our federation .For a long time, the same party ruled at the centre as well as in most of the states .After 1990 there was a change, which saw the rise of regional parties in most of the states as well as in the centre. This led to the era of coalition government at the centre. This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of state government.

10 . Explain the significance of the decentralization of power.

The Panchayati Raj aims at achieving all round rural development in a democratic decentralized manner through direct involvement of rural masses in the programmes of rural development.

It offers a unique system wherein higher authorities work in close coordination with the people’s bodies for achieving rural development. It is an innovative system of administration where state functions and responsibilities are shared with the local communities to make rural development more realistic.

It gives the opportunity to the people to directly participate in decision making process.

11. What is the role of judiciary in a federal set up of government?

The judiciary has to play an impartial role between Centre-state relations.

The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures.

In case of any dispute about the division of powers between Centre and states, the Supreme Court can make a decision.

12 “All states in Indian Union do not have identical powers.” Explain the statement with relevant

examples.

Some states enjoy special status as compared to the others e.g. Jammu and Kashmir has its own constitution. Many provisions of the Indian constitution are not applicable to this state without the approval of the state assembly.

In some states like Assam people who are non residents cannot buy land or house there.

Union territories like Lakshadweep and Chandigarh do not have the powers of a state. The central government has special powers in administering these states. Answer the following questions:

13.Differentitate between holding together and coming together federations. 14.Whart are Coalition governments? 15.Restucturing the centre -state relations is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practiced.”Justify the given statement.