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CHAPTER 10

WASTE TREATMENT

10.0 INTRODUCTION

Waste treatment is one of the important considerations that must take into concern in
plant operation which mostly these wastes are synthesized from the processes.
Handling procedures and methods of these wastes need to be specified in order to
meet the standard of Department of Environment (DOE). Industries are required to
comply with both air emission and effluent discharge standards which are regarded
as acceptable conditions allowed in Malaysia, as stipulated in the Environmental
Quality (Clean Air) Regulations 1978 and the Environmental Quality (Sewage and
Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979.

According to the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents)


Regulations, 1979, industrial effluent is means liquid water or wastewater produced
by reason of the production processes taking place at any industrial premises.
Scheduled wastes are defined as groups of wastes generated by the industrial and
services sectors which are legislatively categorized and listed in the local
environmental law. (The Malaysian Environmental Quality Act 1974, 1989)

Under the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005, First


Schedule (Regulation 2), some of scheduled wastes can be classified accordingly to
the standard codes. The codes are as follows:

SW 202 Waste catalysts


SW 305 Spent lubricating oil
SW 308 Oil tanker sludges
SW 311 Waste oil or oily sludge
SW 410 Rags, plastics, papers or filters contaminated with scheduled waste
SW 430 Obsolete laboratory chemicals

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The law requires that these wastes be properly packed, labeled, stored, and
inventoried. Scheduled wastes are also required to be treated and disposed of at
facilities approved by the authorities.

In addition, based on general consideration of the technical guide lines for


processing written permission for industrial waste water treatment systems, for a new
manufacturing facility the design is based on assumed or estimated data/information
collected from similar manufacturing operation. The information required for the
design which needs to be assumed or estimated includes waste water characteristics
and kinetic constants where relevant.

The waste management complied with the standard rules and regulations of
sewage and effluent, scheduled waste, green air and environmental impact
assessment (EIA) 1989. Although the waste management in this plant complied with
the rules and regulations, it is more likely as end-pipe of treatment, cleaner
production technology which is waste minimization.

10.1 Waste Synthesis

Tetradecene plant generates wastes by different unit processes included the


distillation column, condenser and reactor. All the wastes could be categorized as
gaseous, liquid and scheduled waste. In case of handling the continuous, intermittent
and emergency vent flows, an elevated flare system are designed. It is very useful to
burn unwanted and harmful gaseous.

10.1.1 Liquid Waste

Liquid waste that generated from this plant is the waste water. The main source of
the waste water comes from cooling tower blowdown. The quantity of cooling tower
blowdown is reduced, thereby reducing treatment requirements. Higher circulating
water control limits is considered where the warm water from the heat exchanger is
circulate to heater. Cooling water is treated as make up water or a side stream from
the system. Generally, the waste water through cooling water system effluent could

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be discharged directly if chlorine residuals are acceptable. The waste water released
into the sea is following standard B.

10.1.2 Gaseous Waste

The atmospheric emissions of alpha olefins from manufacturing are expected to be


small in the plant. However the EPA, 1977 noted that olefins might be released to the
atmospherics in small quantities due to leaks in process equipment used during
production of the compounds.

Gaseous waste from the flare system is released to the atmosphere which
contents a number of small amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen,
Oxygen and water vapor. Since flare system use to burn harmful gaseous, the
gaseous that released to the atmosphere must comply with the standard of EQA
1974, Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations 1978. Furthermore, basically
the amount of carbon monoxide released from the Tetradecene plant is considered
under controlled though it is one source of the air pollution.

10.1.3 Solid Waste

Solid waste in tetredecene plant comes from reactor and waste water treatment
facility. Catalysts that have been used for an estimated time is treated as solid waste
and will be sent for regeneration. Besides that, solid waste also arises from the
industrial activities and typically includes rubbish, ashes and demolition construction
waste. Sludge obtained from the wastewater treatment also needs to be considered
and must follow the standard of Environment Quality Act 1974 and will be sent to an
authorized company which is Kualiti Alam.

10.2 Wastewater Treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat
waters that have been contaminated in some way by man's industrial or commercial
activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use.

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Most industries produce some wet waste although recent trends in the
developed world have been to minimize such production or recycle such waste within
the production process. However, many industries remain dependent on processes
that produce water based waste stream.

For this plant, the process of ethylene oligomerization to produce tetradecene


involves raw material of ethylene with 99.9 mol% purity and also with by-product of
C4, C6, C8, C10, and C12. These chemicals and materials are categorized slightly
harmful and effect to human health and also to the environment. C 4-C14 alpha olefins
have a potential in harming the aquatic organisms because of the physicochemical
properties. The predicted or measured water solubilities of these alpha olefins range
from 50 mg/L at 200OC for 1-hexene to 0.0004 mg/L at 250 oC for 1-tetradecene,
which suggests there is a lower potential for exposure to the higher alpha olefins due
to their low solubility. Biodegradation data confirm that the C 4-C14 alpha olefins
degrade in soil and water.

10.2.1 Process Synthesis

i) Preliminary Treatment

Preliminary treatment, the first treatment process, consists of the removal of


substances that may interfere with the downstream processes or be detrimental to
the plant equipment. Materials removed may include rags, plastic, lumber, and grit.
In this plant the materials assumed are sands and grit since the wastewater
treatment plant treats the scrubbed liquid.

Flocculation is the operation in which the coagulated water must be gently


mixed at a propeller speed of 15 to 20 rpm to encourage the growth of the floc. Slow
mixing is resorted to agglomerate the floes to grow to sizes in the range of 0.1 to 2.0
mm that can be removed by sedimentation. Slow mixing is the hydrodynamic
process, which results in the formation of large and readily settle able floes by
bringing the finely divided matter into contact with the micro-floes formed during rapid
mixing.

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These floes can be subsequently removed in clarifier and the residues in
filters. The flocculation basin often has a number of compartments with decreasing
mixing speeds as the water advances through the basin. This compartmentalized
chamber allows increasingly larger floes to form without being broken apart by the
mixing blades. Figure 10.1 below shows the process of coagulation and flocculation
in the wastewater treatment.

Figure 10.1: Coagulation-Flocculation Process (Source: Anon, 2010)

ii) Primary Oil / Water separation

In this primary treatment, the raw waste water will pass through the Corrugated Plate
Interceptor, CPI Separator. This separator is mainly use for separation of heavy oil
contaminated water from effluent water or suspended solids for oily water treatment
in an oily water system. The basic principle in separation the two phases in oily water
system by Gravity Separation. The phase with high density will settle and with lower
density float to the surface of fluid. In some cases chemical coagulation and
flocculation is needed for removal of the impurity by making them heavier or lighter.

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After skimming oil, treated water in CPI Separator is transferred to biological
pond in the plant by CPI Separator Sump Pump. Skimmed oil in CPI Separator is
drawn off to a drum sent to the biological pond via CPI Separator Slump Pump.

iii) Biological Treatment

Wastewater treatment by using biological method is contacted with bacteria (cells),


which feed on the organic materials in the wastewater, thereby reducing its
Biochemical Oxygen demand, BOD content. In other words, the purpose of biological
treatment is to reduce BOD. The bacteria (cells) will eat the organic material present
in the wastewater. Through their metabolism, the organic material is transformed into
cellular mass, which is no longer in solution but can be precipitated at the bottom of a
settling tank. The water exiting the system is then much clearer than it entered it.

The major equipments used in biological treatment are:

1. Activated sludge:

It consists in a set of two basins which are for aerobic and anaerobic. For aerobic air
is pumped through perforated pipes at the bottom of the basin, air rises through the
water in the form of many small bubbles. It is form of pretreatment such as oil
removal, which favor intimate contact between wastewater with microbes and
oxygen in a reactor to optimize the growth and efficiency of the biomass. The
microorganisms act to catalyze the oxidation of biodegradable organics and other
contaminants such as ammonia and will generate harmless by products such as
carbon dioxide, water, and excess biomass (sludge).

The second basin is a settling tank, where water flow is made to be very quiet
so that the cellular material may be removed by gravitational settling. Some of the
cell material collected at the bottom is captured and fed back into the first basin to
seed the process. The rest is treated anaerobically which are without oxygen until it
is transformed into a compost-type material such soil.

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The cost of an activated-sludge system is chiefly due to the energy required
to pump air at high pressure at the bottom of the aerator tank (to overcome the
hydrostatic pressure of the water). Another disadvantage is that the operation is
accomplished in two separate basins, thereby occupying a substantial amount of real
estate.

2. Trickling filter:

A trickling filter consists in a bed of fist-size rocks over which the wastewater is
gently sprayed by a rotating arm. Fungi and algae develop on the surface, growing
by intercepting organic material from the water as it trickles down. Since the water
layer passing over the rocks makes thin sheets, there is good contact with air and
cells are effectively oxygenated. Water needs to be trickled several times over the
rocks before it is sufficiently cleaned.

Figure 10.2: Cross section of trickling filter (Source: Hammer and Hammer,1996)

3. Rotating Biological Contactor:

This is essentially a variation on the trickling filter, with the difference being that solid
material on which slime grows is brought to the water rather than water being
brought to it. Rotating disks alternate exposure between air and water.

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Figure10.3: Rotating biological contactor cross section and treatment system: a)
RBC cross section; b) RBC included in secondary wastewater treatment system.
(Source: Hammer and Hammer, 1996)

iv) Biological Clarification

After mechanical cleaning, specific bacteria are use in order to purify the wastewater
which are aerobic and anaerobic processes. The consequences that arise from two
types of processes are such below:

Table 10.1: The differences between anaerobic and aerobic process.

Anaerobic Aerobic
Operating cost Low High

Volume High Low

Space required Low High

Sludge loading Low Low

The inflow of the wastewater is diluted in this plant and therefore they are
aerobic process. The objective of the biological cleaning is to convert energy rich
material with the high molecular weight into material with the less energy and having
the molecules that are small. The ends products are water and carbon dioxide. After
that the water will go to the tertiary treatment before discharge. The sludge in this
process will be dispose and send to authorize company. It also enters the

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wastewater as return sludge from secondary clarifier. Returning the sludge like this
way will make sure that bacteria survive for a long enough time.

The clarifier header is use for the gentle suction action to achieve the highest
sludge withdrawal concentration of any biological clarifier sludge device, and greatly
reducing sludge pumping costs. Its hydraulic design permits rapid and uniform
sludge withdrawal throughout the entire area of the clarifier over a 6 to 1 flow range,
and it has flat clarifier floors, which reduces excavation costs.

v) Tertiary Treatment

Tertiary treatment required to meet strict effluent limits of discharge from Department
of Environment, DOE under Environmental Quality Act 1974 or to allow for recycle
and reuse of the treated effluent for cooling tower make-up, boiler feedwater, or other
processes. The removals of suspended solids, oil and grease, or COD are extremely
low concentrations.

The treatment is done through filtration. Filtration is a physical process where


suspended solid are removed from liquid by forcing the fluid through a porous
medium. Granular media filtration is typically used for treating aqueous waste
streams. The filter media consists of a bed of granular particles. The bed is
contained within a basin and is supported by an under drain system that allows the
filtered liquid to drawn off while retaining the filter medium, the particles becomes
trapped on the top within the bed.

Figure 10.4: Granular media filter cycle (Source: Jackson & Letterman, 1998)

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10.2.2 Mass Balance Calculation of Wastewater Treatment

The wastewater from the plant cannot be channeled into the sewage system without
being treated. Before it really safe to release to the sewage system, the calculations
is needed to make sure it really be treating. The mass balances are needed to make
sure the treatments are operating accurately.

10.2.2.1 Mass Balance at Separation Unit

Assume steady state condition:

Flowrate in = Flowrate out Eqn 10.1

Raw influent Primary oil/water W1 Secondary W2


separation separation
Water

Oily mixture

Flowrate of raw influent = 758.843 kmol/ hr (taken from hysys simulation)


Flowrate in = Flowrate out + oily mixture
From assumption:
Oily mixture = 15%
Water outlet = 85%

For oily mixture = 0.15 (758.843kmol/hr)


= 113.826 kmol/hr

For W1 = 758.843 - 113.826


= 645.014 kmol/hr
Since W1 = W2, therefore W2 = 645.014 kmol/hr

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10.2.2.2 Mass Balance at Biological Treatment

W2 Biological W3
treatment
CO2
Water

Sludge

W2 = 645.014 kmol/hr

95% conversion from W2 converted to water and CO2

W3 = 0.95 x 645.014 kmol/hr

= 612.763 kmol/hr

Since W2 = W3 + Sludge

Sludge = 645.014 – 612.612.763 kmol/hr

= 32.251 kmol/hr

10.2.2.3 Mass Balance at Tertiary Treatment

W3 Filtration W4

Treated
Effluent

Sludge
W3 = 612.763 kmol/hr

Assume that sludge is 0.45%

0.045 (612.763) = 27.574 kmol/hr

Therefore the treated effluent is 612.763 – 27.574 = 585.189 kmol/hr

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10.2.3 Energy Balance

General equation:

Qin – Qout = ΔH + ΔPE + ΔKE + ΔU Eqn 10.2


H = mCpdT Eqn 10.3
2 3
Cp (water) = a + bT + cT + dT Eqn 10.4

From Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, heat capacity for water,


a = 75.4 kJ/kmol. oC

m = 13888.9 kmol/hr (taken from hysys)

kmol  kJ 
Hinlet = 13888.9 75.4 (60 o C )
hr  o
kmol C 
= 6.283 x 107 kJ/hr
Houtlet = Hr + Hw Eqn 10.5

For Hr:

Q = 5000 m3/d = 208.333 m3/hr

m3 kg kmol
m = 208.333 x 1000 3 x
hr m 18kg
= 11574.056 kmol/hr

Assume the temperature outlet to be 30 oC

kmol  kJ 
Hr = 11574.056 75.4 (30.00 o C )
hr  o
kmol C 
= 2.618 x 107 kJ/hr

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For Hw:

Q = 54.00 m3/d = 2.25 m3/hr

m3 kg kmol
m = 2.25 x 1000 3 x
hr m 18kg
= 125kmol/hr

kmol  kJ 
Hw = 125 75.4 (30.00 o C )
hr  o
kmol C 
= 2.827 x 105 kJ/hr

Q = ΔH Eqn 10.6
= Hinlet – Honlet
= (6.283 x 107 – 2.618 x 107 - 2.827 x 105) kJ/hr

Q = 3.637 x 107 kJ/hr

Therefore the energy required in wastewater treatment is 3.637 x 107 kJ/hr.

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10.2.4 Wastewater Treatment Plant Process Layout

Process unit
wastewater
Preliminary
treatment

Treated
Raw effluent
Influent Primary Secondary Biologicl Biological Tertiary
oil/water Oil/water treatment clarification Treatment
separaton separation

Solid To disposal/
Solid
handling oil recovery To disposal
handling

Oil To disposal/
recovery oil recovery

Figure 10.5: Plant Layout for Wastewater Treatment

10.2.5 Wastewater Treatment Plant Layout Description

In every plant, wastewater treatment is very important. Without all the utilities, plant
cannot be proceeding further for the process. The waste treatment layout show how
effective the process operating to treat the waste produce from process. Table below
shows the equipment use for wastewater process.

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Table 10.2: Major Equipment Use in Wastewater Treatment

Unit Operation

Preliminary treatment Flocculation Basin

Primary treatment Corrugated Plate Interceptor, CPI


Separator

Secondary treatment CPI Separator Slump Pump

Biological treatment Activated Sludge Treatment


Trickling Filter
Rotating Biological Contactor

Biological Clarification Clarifier


Tertiary Treatment Granular Media Filter Cycle

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10.2.6 Mechanical Design of Wastewater Treatment

i) Activated Sludge (Biological Treatment)

Completely mixed reactor

QO = influent flow rate, m3/d


Q = efffluent flow rate, m3/d
Qw = waste sludge flow rate, m3/d
Qr = recycle sludge flow rate, m3/d
So = soluble food concentration in influent, kg/m3
S = soluble food concentration in reactor, kg/m3
V = volume, m3
Xo = biomass concentration in influent, kg/m3
X = biomass concentration in reactor, kg/m3
Xe = biomass concentration in efffluent, kg/m3
XU = biomass concentration in underflow (waste sludge), kg/m3
The activated sludge-waste water mixture is termed the mixed liquor and the mixed
liquor suspended solids (MLSS) usually range from 2000 to 4000 mg/l, (Reynolds
and Richards, 1982)

Flow, QO = 250 m3 / hr = 6000 m3 / hr

Assumed values:

XU = 6500 mg / L
Influent BOD, SO = 180 mg / L
Effluent BOD, S = 10 mg / L
kg biomass
Cell Yield coefficient, Y   0.5 kg/kg
kg BOD utilized

Endogenous decay coefficient, kd = 0.05 d-1

Mean cell residence time (MCRT), θ C = 10 d

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Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS), X = 3000 mg / L

180mg 1kg 1000 L


Influent BOD, SO   6  3
 0.18 kg m 3
L 10 mg 1m

10mg 1kg 1000 L


Effluent BOD, S   6   0.01 kg m 3
L 10 mg 1m 3

6500mg 1kg 1000 L


XU   6  3
 6.5 kg m 3
L 10 mg 1m

Therefore, volume of tank is by using equation below;

1 QY S O  S
  kd Eqn 10.7
C VX

1

6000 m d 0.50.18 kg m  0.01kg
3 3
m3   0.05d 1

10d V 3.00 kg m 3

170 m 3 d
0.10d 1   0.05d 1
V
170 m 3 d
0.15d 1 
V
V  1133.333 m 3

Usually the hydraulic retention time, θ range from 3 to 5 hours,(Peavy, Rowe, and
Tchobanoglous,1985)

Check for θ:
V
 Eqn 10.8
Q
θ = 1133.333 / 6000
= 0.189 d
= 4.533 hr

Therefore, this value is satisfactory,

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At equilibrium condition;

mass of solid in reactor VX


C  
mass of solids waste QW X U
VX
mass of solids waste ; QW X U 
C Eqn 10.9
1133.333 m 3.00 kg m
3 3

QW X U 
10d
 339.999 kg d
Since X U  6.5kg / m 3
339.999 kg / d
QW  3
 52.308 m 3 / d
6.5kg / m

Sludge recycle ratio

QR recycleflow rate
 Eqn 10.10
Q w aste w ater flow rate

Mass balance at the secondary clarifier;

QO  QR X  Q  QW X e  (QR  QW ) X U Eqn 10.11

Assumption:
Effluent biomass concentration is negligible compared to the effluent and underflow.

QO X  QR X  QR X U  QW X U
QR  X  X U   QW X U  QO X
QW X U  QO X
QR  Eqn 10.12
X  XU



339.999 kg d  6000 m 3 d 3.00 kg m 3 
3.00 kg m 3  6.50 kg m 3
 5045.715 m 3 d

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QR 5045.714 m 3 d
 
Q 6000 m 3 d
 0.841

ii) Clarifier Design

Q = 6000 m3/d
MLSS = 3 kg/m3

Take solid loading rates at 3.0 kg/m2hr (typical design value) as suggested by
Reynolds and Richards (1982).

Then Recycle ratio of 84%

The design average solids loading as equation below;


Loading  Q x MLSS x recycle ratio
 6000 m 3 / d x 3kg / m 3 x 0.84 Eqn 10.13
 15120 kg / d

Finding surface area required

A = Loading / v’ Eqn 10.14


2
Where v’ = solid loading rate, kg/m hr
15120 kg / d
A =
(3.0kg / m 2 hr )(24hr / d )
= 210 m2

The diameter of the circular clarifier as below

D = (4A/π)0.5 Eqn 10.15


0.5
 4 x 210 m 2 
=  
  

= 16.352 m

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Use sidewall depth of 3 m (typical design value), Shundar Lin, 1985

Check Hydraulic Loading Rate

HLR = Q/A Eqn 10.16

6000 m 3 / d
HLR =
210 m 2

= 28.571 m / d

The weir loading rate

Perimeter = πd Eqn 10.17


= π (16.352 m) = 51.371 m

Weir loading = Q / perimeter Eqn 10.18


6000 m 3 / d
Weir loading =
51.371 m

= 116.797 m2/d

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10.2.7 Equipment costing

The estimation of equipment cost for example for CPI Separator is based on bare
module cost at base conditions, which is at operating pressure (near-ambient
pressure). Therefore:

C0BM = C0pF0BM Eqn 10.19

Where C0p = purchased equipment cost for the base condition

F0BM = bare module factor

Log 10 C0p = K1 + K2 log 10 (A) + K3 [log10 (A)] 2 Eqn 10.20

Capacity Parameter, assume A = Length of vessel, L (m)

= 13.11 m

With width of 0.88 m, and for horizontal orientation, K values in Cost Estimating
Tables and Charts are obtained by interpolation;

Please refer Appendix 10.1 for K values;

K1 = 3.2978, K2 = 0.5875 and K3 = 0.0992

Therefore:

Log C0p = 4.0783


C0p = 11975.67
F0BM = B1 + B2 Fm Fp Eqn 10.21

By using stainless steel material

Fp = 1.00
Fm = 4.00
B1 = 1.62
B2 = 1.47

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Therefore: F0BM = 1.62+ (1.47 )(4.00)(1.0)

= 7.50

Finally;

C0BM = C0pF0BM

C0BM = 11975.67 x 7.5

C0BM = RM 89817.53

The cost for CPI separator is RM 89817.53

Table 10.3: Equipment costing summary in wastewater treatment plant

Equipment Unit Total price ( RM )

Pump 1 1 4,653.22
Pump 2 1 7,800.00
CPI Separator 1 89,817.53

Activated Sludge Treatment 1 50,160.00

Filter Press 1 103,600.00

Rotating Biological Contactor 1 132,300.00

Clarifier 1 20,364.96
Total 408,694.75

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10.3 Flare System

Gas flare which is known as a flare stack, is an elevated flare system found
accompanying the presence of oil wells, vented gases from blast furnaces, rigs,
refineries, gaseous water from chemical industries, natural gas plants, and landfills.
Also in case of an emergency situation, the flare system helps burn out the unwanted
and harmful gaseous. They are used to eliminate waste gas which is otherwise not
feasible to use or transport. They also act as safety systems for non-waste gas and are
released via pressure relief valve when needed to simplicity the damage on equipment.
They protect gas processing equipments from being over pressurized.

The chemical process used for flaring is a high temperature oxidation reaction to
burn combustible components which is hydrocarbons or waste gases from industrial
operations. In combustion, the gaseous hydrocarbon reacts with atmospheric oxygen to
form carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. Several by products formed will be carbon
monoxide and hydrogen. Efficiency of hydrocarbon conversion is generally over 98%.

10.3.1 Process Synthesis

i) Flare Knockout Drum

Flare Knock-Out Drums are designed to remove hydrocarbon liquids from the main flare
relief gas effectively to prevent the possibility of liquid carryover and flaming rain from
the flare tip. Knock-out drum vessels and water seal located as close to the stack as
possible to avoid condensation in the flare header between the vessel and the flare.

The sizing of these knock-out drum vessels is generally based on the criteria
defined in API RP 521 considering residence time and knock-out velocity of the liquid
particles in the vapor flow. Since flare tips can handle small liquid droplets, the
allowable velocity in the drum may be based on that necessary to knock out droplets
from 300 microns to 600 microns in diameter; typically 450 microns.(Anon.2010)

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The propose of Knock-Out Drums is to avoid the accumulation of hydrocarbon
liquid, and will be equipped with instrumentation and control to monitor liquid level with
pump out or drain facilities.

ii) Flare Water Seal Drum

Water Seals provide flash-back prevention in addition to enabling the upstream flare
system header to operate at a slight positive pressure at all times. This is because the
uses of an elevated flare in combination with another flare or with a flare gas recovery
system.

The vessel of Water Seal is fitted with a special saw-tooth dip leg and anti-
pulsation baffle to minimize pulsing. Filling rates will be sufficient to re-establish the seal
within 5 minutes if the liquid seal is broken (Anon,2010).

The Water Seal vessel may be equipped with an internal steam coil for cooling
purposes as required.

iii) Elevated Flare

Elevated flare is the type that commonly used in refineries and chemical plants. It has
the larger capacities than ground flares. The waste gas stream is fed through a stack
from 32ft to over 320 ft tall and is combusted at the flare tip of the stack. While
combustion, it will produce CO2 and dust into air. The concentration of CO2 must be
compare with level of emissions Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 1978.
Elevated can utilize steam injection or air injection to made smokeless burning and with
low luminosity up to about 20% of maximum flaring load.

The disadvantage of steam injection or air injection is it introduces a source of


noise and cause noise pollution. If adequately elevated, this type of flare has the best
dispersion characteristics for toxic combustion products. Capital costs are relatively
high, and the plant area may be unavailable for plant equipment, because of radiant
heat considerations. The process of flare system is shown as Figure 10.6.

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Figure 10.6: Steam Assisted Elevated Flare System (source: A.L Ling, 2007)

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10.3.2 Flare System Plant Layout

Flare Flare Water


knockout Seal Drum
Flare Elevated
Drum
Header Flare
Cold Flare
Knockout
Drum
Steam

Waste Ethylene
To wastewater
Vaporizer
Ethylene Treatment, CPI
Separator
Flare Knockout
Drum Pump

Figure 10.7: Plant Layout for Flare System

10.3.3 Flare System Plant Layout Description

Table 10.4: The Operational Unit Use in Flare Systems

Unit Operational Unit

1 Flare Knockout Drum

2 Flare Water Seal Drum

3 Elevated Flare

4 Cold Flare Knockout Drum

5 Waste Ethylene Vaporizer

6 Flare Knockout Drum Pump

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10.3.4 Mechanical Design of Stack

Retentate stream from hydrogen recovery unit is sent to thermal fluid heater, to be burnt
along with natural gas. The thermal fluid heater used is the one used to heat up liquid
sodium for heat exchange. So, additional furnace or heating chamber will not be
needed in this section. The residues will be converted into H 2O and CO2 which is safe
to be released to atmosphere through stack.

The flue gas from the thermal fluid heaters will be dispersed into the air using a
stack that is made from carbon steel.

Assume:

Gas Pressure, P = 1 atm = 1013.25 millibars


Gas Temperature, Ts = 1000 oC = 1273 K
Wind velocity, u = 3.56 m/s
Air temperature, Ta = 28 oC = 301 K
Gas stream velocity, vs = 9.14 m/s
Chimney diameter, D = 1.00 m

Calculation for the physical height of the chimney, h

h = Height of highest point in plant area * 2.5 Eqn 10.22


= 52 m * 2.5
= 130 m

Calculation of temperature difference, T


T = Ts – Ta = 1273 – 301 = 972 K

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Calculation of rise of plume above the chimney, h
Using equation (8-7) from Environmental Engineering (Peavy et. al)

h = [(s * D) / u] [ 1.5 + (2.68 10-3 * P * {(T * D) / Ts} Eqn 10.23


= [(9.14 * 1.00) / 3.56] [ 1.5 + (2.68 10 -3 * 1013.25 * {(972 * 1.00) / 1273}
= 9.17
9m

Calculation of effective height of chimney, H


H = h + h Eqn 10.24
= 130 + 9
= 139 m

10.3.5 Costing of Chimney

From sizing result, height of chimney = 139 m


Ulrich, 1984

Purchase price for 1982, Cp82 = $ 200,000


Escalate price using CE Plant Cost Index for 2001, CEI2001 = 401.8
CcsBM = Cp2000 = Cp82 * ( CEI2001 / CEI82 )
= $ 200,000 * ( 401.8 / 315 )
= $ 255,111
= RM 969,422

Since we use carbon steel as material of construction ;


Material factor FM = 1.0

Therefore the actual price of chimney ;


CBM = CcsBM * FM Eqn 10.25
= RM 969,422* 1.0
= RM 969,422

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Table 10.5: Equipment costing summary in flare system

Equipment Unit Total price ( RM )

Pump 1 1 4,500.00
Flare knockout drum 1 9,900.00
Flare water seal drum 1 9,900.00

Cold flare knockout drum 1 9,900.00

Elevated flare 1 969,422.00

Total 1,003,622.00

10.4 References

Tan Sri Ong Kee Hui, 2010. Environmental Quality (Sewage And Industrial Eftluents)
Regulations, 1979, viewed 22nd March 2011 from
http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/mal2509.pdf

DOE,2010. Water Quality Standard, viewed 22nd March 2011 from


http://www.did.sarawak.gov.my/wqis/sgsarawak/water-qua-standard.htm

Anon, 2009. Wastewater Pretreatment System Description Summary, viewed 24th


March 2011 from http://www.mass.gov/dep/water/approvals/draft/
x228235_iwps_description.pdf

Anon, 2011.Corrugated Plate Interceptor, viewed from 25th March 2011 from
http://www.plateseparator.com/

Thomas E. Schultz, 2005. Biotreating Process Wastewater: Airing through Options;


Biological Wastewater Treatment, viewed 25th March 2011 from
http://www.water.siemens.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/Industries/Hydrocarbo
n_Processing/Brochures/CE_10-05_biological_trt.pdf

Hammer and Hammer, 1996. Water and Wastewater Technology, Prentice-Hall, Inc

10-29
A L Ling, 2007. Flare Selection And Sizing (Engineering Design Guideline), viewed 26th
March 2011 from ttp://kolmetz.com/pdf/EDG/ENGINEERING%20DESIGN%20
GUIDELINE-%20Flare%20Rev1.1.pdf

Anonymous, 2010. Water Seals and Knockout Drums, viewed 27th March 2011 from
http://www.gba.com/ancilliaries1.htm

10.5 APPENDICES

Appendix 10.1

To find K1;

K 1  3.1032 0.88  0.50



3.3592  3.1032 1.00  0.50
K1 = 3.2978

To find K2;
K 2  0.5782 0.88  0.50

0.5905  0.5782 1.00  0.50
K2 = 0.5875

To find K3;
K 3  0.0632 0.88  0.50

0.1106  0.0632 1.00  0.50
K3 = 0.0992

To find C0p:
Log 10 C0p = K1 + K2 log 10 (13.11) + K3 [log10 (13.11)] 2
Log10 C0p = 4.0783
C0p = 11975.67

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