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Principles of Reinforced Concrete Design

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DOI: 10.1201/b17165

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Mete Sozen Toshikatsu Ichinose


Purdue University Nagoya Institute of Technology
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Principles of
Reinforced Concrete
Design
Mete A. Sozen
Toshikatsu Ichinose
Santiago Pujol

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the


Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

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CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
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Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

© 2014 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works

Printed on acid-free paper


Version Date: 20140319

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4822-3148-9 (Hardback)

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Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data

Sozen, Mete Avni, 1930-


Principles of reinforced concrete design / authors, Mete A. Sozen, Toshikatsu Ichinose,
Santiago Pujol.
pages cm
Summary: “The book covers fundamental concepts related to mechanics and direct
observation, and those required to design reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Codes change
constantly over time depending on factors that have little to do with the fundamental concepts
mentioned, and have more to do with the markets, construction practices, and transient
academic views. For beginning engineers it is difficult to distinguish between rules based on
consensus (codes) and fundamentals. This book focuses on the latter to prepare the engineer to
use and adapt to the constant changes of the former. “-- Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4822-3148-9 (hardback)
1. Composite construction. 2. Reinforced concrete. I. Ichinose, Toshikatsu. II. Pujol,
Santiago. III. Title.

TA664.S67 2014
721’.0445--dc23 2014008075

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at


http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

and the CRC Press Web site at


http://www.crcpress.com

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Contents
Preface.......................................................................................................................ix
Notation......................................................................................................................xi

Chapter 1 A Brief History of Reinforced Concrete............................................... 1

Chapter 2 Structural Framing in Reinforced Concrete.......................................... 9


Exercises.............................................................................................. 14

Chapter 3 The Design Process............................................................................. 15


3.1 Definition of the Use of the Structure and Selection of
Design Loads............................................................................ 17
3.2 Selection of Framing and Initial Dimensions...........................20
3.3 Analysis....................................................................................20
3.4 Selection of Reinforcement and Final Dimensions.................. 22
3.5 Detailing................................................................................... 22
Exercises.............................................................................................. 23

Chapter 4 Properties of Steel Reinforcement......................................................25


Exercises.............................................................................................. 31

Chapter 5 Concrete.............................................................................................. 33
5.1 Compressive Strength............................................................... 33
5.2 Stiffness.................................................................................... 35
5.3 Tensile Strength........................................................................ 36
5.4 A Formulation for the Stress–­Strain Relationship of
Concrete.................................................................................... 38
Exercises.............................................................................................. 42

Chapter 6 Time-­Dependent Volume Changes of Concrete: Shrinkage and


Creep................................................................................................... 43
6.1 Shrinkage..................................................................................44
6.2 Creep........................................................................................ 45
6.3 Shrinkage and Creep vs. Time.................................................46
Exercises.............................................................................................. 51

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vi Contents

Chapter 7 Tied Columns...................................................................................... 53


7.1 Design Strength of Axially Loaded Short Columns................ 59
Exercises..............................................................................................60

Chapter 8 Axial Strength of Laterally Confined Concrete.................................. 61


Exercises.............................................................................................. 67

Chapter 9 Spiral Columns.................................................................................... 69


9.1 Strength Components of a Spiral Column in Axial
Compression............................................................................. 70
Exercises.............................................................................................. 76

Chapter 10 Measures of Flexural Response.......................................................... 77


Exercises.............................................................................................. 82

Chapter 11 A General Description of Flexural Response..................................... 83


11.1 The Relationship between Curvature and Bending Moment.... 83
11.2 Stages of Response................................................................... 85
Exercises.............................................................................................. 89

Chapter 12 Moment–Curvature Relationship before Flexural Cracking............... 91


Exercise............................................................................................... 95

Chapter 13 Linear Response of Cracked Sections................................................. 97


Exercises............................................................................................ 103

Chapter 14 Limiting Moment and Unit Curvature.............................................. 105


14.1 A Simple Procedure for Determining the Limit to the
Moment–Curvature Relationship........................................... 105
14.2 A Detailed Procedure for Determining the Limit to the
Moment–Curvature Relationship........................................... 108
Exercises............................................................................................ 117

Chapter 15 Development of a Quantitative Relationship between Moment


and Unit Curvature............................................................................ 119
Exercise............................................................................................. 125

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Contents vii

Chapter 16 Maximum and Minimum Amounts of Longitudinal


Reinforcement for Beams.................................................................. 127
Exercises............................................................................................ 134

Chapter 17 Beams with Compression Reinforcement......................................... 135


Exercise............................................................................................. 141

Chapter 18 Beams with Flanges.......................................................................... 143


18.1 A T-­Section Subjected to Positive Moment............................ 144
Exercise............................................................................................. 149

Chapter 19 Deflection under Short-­Time Loading............................................... 151


19.1 Deflection of a Beam Subjected to Bending Moment............ 152
19.2 Deflection of an Uncracked Reinforced Concrete Beam
with Concentrated Loads........................................................ 154
19.3 Deflection of a Cracked Reinforced Concrete Beam with
Concentrated Loads................................................................ 156
Exercise............................................................................................. 161

Chapter 20 Effects of Time-­Dependent Variables on Deflection........................ 163


20.1 Effect of Shrinkage................................................................. 163
20.2 Effect of Creep....................................................................... 164
Exercise............................................................................................. 170

Chapter 21 Continuous Beams............................................................................ 171


Exercise............................................................................................. 182

Chapter 22 Limiting Load................................................................................... 183


Exercises............................................................................................ 187

Chapter 23 Combinations of Limiting Axial Force and Bending Moment


for a Reinforced Concrete Section.................................................... 189
Exercises............................................................................................ 195

Chapter 24 Bond Properties of Plain Bars in Concrete....................................... 197


Exercises............................................................................................ 201

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viii Contents

Chapter 25 Bond between Deformed Bars and Concrete.................................... 203


Exercises............................................................................................ 214

Chapter 26 Factors That Affect Bond.................................................................. 215


26.1 Effect of Cover....................................................................... 215
26.2 Effect of Transverse Reinforcement....................................... 215
26.3 Depth of Concrete Cast below Reinforcing Bar..................... 217
26.4 Epoxy Coating........................................................................ 217
Exercise............................................................................................. 220

Chapter 27 Design Examples for Bond................................................................ 221


27.1 Flexural Bond Stress.............................................................. 223
Exercise............................................................................................. 232

Chapter 28 Control of Flexural Cracks................................................................ 235


Exercises............................................................................................ 242

Chapter 29 Combined Bending and Shear........................................................... 243


Exercise............................................................................................. 249

Chapter 30 Transverse Reinforcement................................................................. 251


Exercise.............................................................................................260

Appendix A............................................................................................................ 263


Appendix B............................................................................................................ 269
References.............................................................................................................. 273
Index....................................................................................................................... 275

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Preface
We have planned and written this book to provide essential information needed to
proportion reinforced concrete structures subjected to demands that can be expressed
in terms of static forces. Two concerns have bounded the material included: (1) to
provide the needed information within the scope of a four-­month semester in a series
of sections, most of which will require a single lecture, and (2) to include a mini-
mum of references to design criteria contained in building codes.
We appreciate fully that engineering design is not limited to the realm of science.
Because we build primarily from experience (Cross and Morgan, 1932), as mem-
bers of a profession we are constrained to keep our choices in design within bounds
defined by professional consensus and documented in building codes. In the text,
we remind the reader to consult the local building code before committing to sizes,
strengths, and details. Nevertheless, we do not want the reader to confuse principles
based on mechanics, confirmed experience, and experiment with rules based on pro-
fessional consensus alone.
In our perspective, structural design (choice of size, strength, and framing type)
is based on the following:

1. Sense of proportion
2. Understanding of the conditions of static equilibrium and plane geometry
3. Accumulated knowledge on composite action of concrete and reinforce-
ment derived from mechanics, experiment, and experience

We expect the reader to be proficient in (1) and (2). Unquestionably, success in


engineering depends first and foremost on a sense of proportion. That sense is dif-
ficult to acquire unless the right questions are asked at the right time, and unless the
engineer is familiar with the relevant frames of reference. The engineer needs to
have depth in (2) in order to develop confidence and improve his or her choices in (1).
This book focuses primarily on issues related to (3).
In conclusion, we thank the reader for his or her interest and acknowledge
our debts to our respective universities: Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya,
Japan, and Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, as well as to Dr. Cemalettin
Donmez of Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Turkey, whose critical comments
helped improve the manuscript.

ix

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