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EQUATIONS ROMUALDO 5S. CALUAG BSCE-PUP 14th PLACE, CE BOARD MAY 1994 REGISTERED JR. GEODETIC ENGR. 1994 FACULTY MEMBER, CE DEPARTMENT BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY Published & Distributed by Book Store el. © 735-4: c : : Janciangko St., Cebu City, Tels. 760-63, -A C.M. Recto St., Davao City, Tel. 221-02-72; Ledesco Village, Jaro, Iloilo City. No portion of this book may be copied or reproduced in books, pamphlets, outlines, or notes, whether printed, mimeographed, typewritten, photocopied, or in any other form, for distribution or sale, with- out the written permission of the Publisher and authors. The infringer shall be prosecuted in compliance with the copyright, trademark, patent, and other pertinent laws. The Publisher recognizes the Participation of the following while in the course of their employment. Rhea Xina Arjona for the cover design RBSI's Local Book Associations Membership: i I's | iP: Associat Philippine Booksellers (APB); Book Development See of the Philippines (BDAP); Philippine Educational Publish Association (PEPA) ae PEPA’s International Book Associations Me; P 1 Bok mbership: Asi Pasifc Publishers Association (APPAY Associtrn fa? Asian Publishers (ASEAP); International Publishers The Author hoor onienndscnh neon romtetacare SEPARATION OF VARIABLES 13 HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS 20 @ EQUATIONS WITH HOMOGENEOUS COEFFICIENTS 22 EXACT EQUATIONS 3@ : LINEAR EQUATIONS OF ORDER ONE 51 MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES 64 CHAPTER 3 ELEMENTARY APPLICATIONS 72 ‘ ESCAPE VELOCITY FROM THE EARTH 72 4 z NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING 73 SIMPLE CHEMICAL CONVERSION 78 MOTION THROUGH A MEDIUM gO SLIDING DOWN MOTION AN INCLINED PLANE 1 MIXING OF SOLUTIONS e4 SIMPLE INTEREST @5 LOGISTIC GROWTH AND PRICE OF COMMODITIES 86 ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES 90 CHAPTER 4 ADDITIONAL TOPICS ON EQUATIONS OF ORDER ONE 96 INTEGRATING FACTORS FOUND BY INSPECTION 90 THE DETERMINATION OF |NTEGRATING FACTORS 105 SUBSTITUTION SUGGESTED 8Y THE EQUATION 112 BERNOULLI ‘S EQUATION 112 COEFFICIENTS LINEAR IN THE TWo VARIABLES 134 MISCELLANEOUS — EXERCISES147 AMENTAL LAWS OF OPERATION OME PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENTIAL OPERA’ DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS 16¢ CHAPTER G6 LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS 169 THE AUXILIARY EQUATION ; 169 DISTINCT ROOTS 169 REPEATED ROOTS 178 A DEFINITION OF EXP # FOR IMAGINARY 2 187 A NOTE ON HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 169 Gos x dx—y"dx + Sinx dy -2xudy =0 1 y(Cos x-y)dx + (Ginx -2xy}dy=0 ans. : aye) “Genco Rafe ti cx w7(Cycos wt +02 Sint) x'dy + axydx = 0 + Cdx -w*n divide by dx, tw 22d9 + any = — dx + Wx =O ans, cx+etea c +Ote a 9s Ue + DF ES ones Substitute, Hy = 14 [CB sary) ody a a + ax j Ky = 1+ ay + 2x’y 8, y= mx ++ jha parameter, xy dx = dx + x%dy + 2x7ydx m to be eliminated dx + x8dy + 2x7ydx -x7ydx <0 =m +00 Ame dx + x3dy + x°yox 2Ox2y +4)dx + x8dy =O ons Aus 20 See ans, 9, Y= 40x Bcus = x" ty, aydy = 4odx 4a = 2908 ox Substitute , yt - (2949 ie w= C5388) ae e ) t ydx = axudy 2xyodx + y'dy - 2yx dy -2y dy =O Urdx -axydy =O ans, divide by y, te 0, Ysax*+bx+c # Bxydx + Udy - 2x dy-2ydy = 0 y’= 2ax+b +0 We 0 + aces iy ci ® by 8 a ‘then subtract to ‘egn @® ae r By = {2 + 3c,e* =2y'= ae N= 0 + BCye%* yt See ; apa ruitnly con® by eae then “subtract fo eqn ry By -y!= 12 yt - ay’ = 3cen* = 30 68 Be % Y=c, + c2e°™% y’— Sut 6y =O w= 0 + (ace) AUT = Sy" +64 =O y"= 16ae* ax a 2 * 4c. €& seltoly yl by =A. then Te eae ubtract fo eqn. y Cie ae Btu =) J6c,e ** multiply eqn.@ by 2. 16 C,e%* then eee ‘to eqn.@ ax + zee + acee™ 24 2Ce™ + 2Gre 2y 2 2x +2x* + c,e™ @ multiply eqn.@ by 2, eves 40.) yls 2+ 4ce" + 9c,e% subtract eqn ® to eqn.@ Ag+ 4cje™ + 6c.e™ "= ce" + cre” YY 2y's 2-4% +3G.e% Ge* + Coe* ; gee) multiply eqn.@ by 3, then ‘subtract to eqn.@) s2y'= 2~ 4% + 3c,e% i oe 3y/~6y = 6x - Gx? + 3C,e™ 15 Y=xt Ce*+Cre bese, eo 5 = yeotcet-cet @ ee + 2-10x + 6x yl oO Cex +C2e*% G vy W"= Syl + Gy = 6x? -toxga act eqn. @ to ean * Cre + Ge* er ime 18, Y= ce" + Coxe* ce 4 & (xe* 42%) o a + Coxe” + coe* @ + Ca (xe* 4 e*) + Ger 5.189 Cae” 4 2rse% i oo) cye* Y"s Cye* y= c, e% cos ax t+ Ge*em3x @ a Gq [e™C3 enavdt 2" cos 3x] @ + G[e*(scs30 + 20*sn39] © _ Yl = 3c, e™sin BX + 2C,e% cos BX + BCe** cos 3K + 2Ge™sn3X @ ® = 3c, [e™(3<05 30) + 2€7%cin Bx] t 2c, e*C3 sn ax)t 26 Cos 3x] + 3G, [e% Cacmax)+ 2e™ cos 3x] + 2c,[e** (acos 3 426 en3x] 4 y%= - 9c, €3% cos ax - 6cye** cin 3x - 6Ce™ SiN 3K + 4C4E™ COS BK 3 | = 96,67 sm3x + GC, c™ cos 3% + 6C.C% WS 3x + 4C,e™™ Snax * 5c, e™ cos 3x -12C,e™ sin 3x — SCE** sin BX + 12C,0** cos BK @ multiply eqn. © by 2, then subtract to ean. @ 2cqe*% cos 3x + 216% sin ax =3C,e%% sin BX + 2C\e7* cos ax + 30,0 cos 3x + 26.07% om 3X BY =? = 3C,e*% sin 3x - BCxe** cas ax ® multiply eqn, @ by 5 , then add to eqn.Q © 9! = -Sc,e™ cos 3x ~ 2.C,e* sin 3x - SC, e7%sin 3x + 12. ** cos 3x + 5y = 5C,e% cos 3x + SC, e** sin 3x YY + By = -12c,e™*sinax + 2.C.e™ cos ax ® multiply eqn. @ by 4, then add to ean.® Ce y” + sy 2 me =U +2 ans. yi 4y’+ tBy =O ey Y"=4y' + 13y =O ans, x 2 2 “12C,e™ gin 3x + 12 C.e** cos BX 12. €,e™% sin3x ~ 12 Cie" cos 3x DOD mYy= cye*cos bx + Ge™ sin bx ® ) a a& bisa parameter ‘ y’=¢, [e™(-bsin bx) + cos bx (ae™)] + cr [e™(boosbx) + sinbx (ae™)] = BEC sinbx + Ce™cos bx) + a (CreMcosbx + Cre™sindx) but , Y= cre casbx + ae™*sinbx Substitute 4, = b(-cyesinbx + cae™cos bx) + ay w’-2ay +y (a*tb*) Pee ed ao sy epeee ee oe Zty e 1 a bendy 4 OE ayy/—« ONY! yee, +c.e* yo + ce* Subtract eqn, @ to en 8 6e0e substitute ¢ and Cx fo eq.) Ba ty'-y")n + y” Bie ay xu ey yxy’ t xy Y= xy! ty" (x12 0 23,4 3 yx? +e” ® 2c +(e") pects oan Ze" - ee” ® ye xt +x HEBER) (yea 2c,+ ce” 9 Ras ory ene te Cerny = Gxt tx (uty xP ot Ge Pa KG xyty = x xy xy yry add equation®@ &@ + xy"-2x ty" 2 i; yi s 2ex -c2€* Woda 8a dudeen ree ge, + ce% NS xy" ty tb xy'-y 2x8 42K 42 yity” = 2cxr2c, @ Gory" boxy! oy = x8 tox 42 From equation @ we get , Oat xP Fax 28) Uos cyx? + Ce @ From equation @) we get 3 z a : Ys 2c\x + 2c,¢7% urate 2 Seater. esas eae = multiply eqn.@ by then “subtract to eqn.@ 2 press Y= 20% + 2Q€ PY Jax +2) = (u/ty")( x424) oe aes ee = 24% - 20x" © 2xy'42y’= x4y/+ ee te Eqn. © , we get eee a 2- 4x Equate Cy = C1, : Bedi. UM 2y/ & Bee 2H 4x na Cy 2y)(2-4%) = (4’-2y’)(2x- 2x") 2y’~ 4xy—4y +8xy = 2xy% 2x74’ axy + 4x7y’ 2y'-4xy"—4y + 8xy - axy’t 2x7y” +4xy/ -4x7y 20 2y'-4y + Bxy - 2xy” + 2x7y”- 4x74’ = 0 2(4-2x")y’ + 4 C4- ax)Yy - 2xC1-x) y= 0 divide by 2, Bie ary t (1-2x7)y — xCi-») yu” = Oo ans, Genera} Equation = mx m slope = 5 =m =o y oF me substitute m, - = oy * ude = xdy . ydx - xdy = 0 cans . Straight lines through the fixed point Ch,k); hand k not to be eliminated. 4 Cn.) General Equation Cu-K) =m Cx-h) dy = mdx a so substitute , (y-k) = 2 (x=h) (Y-K) dx = (x-h) dy CO-K)dx = Cx-h dy pee 4 General Equation ye mxtb slope y- intercept . bam ax Substitute, _ 9 ou Y= ax * * dx ydx = xdy + dy dx - (x dy =O ane Straignt lines with slope and x-intercept equal N \ oe General Equation y = m(x-a) m = Slope Bis dato ¥= Mm Cx-m) dy = max #2 Oe ou 1a ox 4 substitute , y u! Cx-yDd prema Mee CY ke U9? = xyt=y x-intercept | from Problem nr b= a “y) ; b= Cxy’-y)? Substitute a78b* inegn@: multiply by 9’. ae ' ky= xy’-y + ¥’Cy-xy’) CA ; (yy) -9/Cxu'-y) = PAE gta] 4 Ky (1-9) Cxy’-y) 7 : i fe ane, HRY! = 4-Y'2(xy/-y) = 0 oo =P leet ee - : ans, e et 1+ 2] 6, Straight lines ata fixed (at Co : distance P from the origin. freee: oe lua! aa e ae - (xy-uy = PA ans, 7, Circles with center at tne origin a —) x x Genera\ Equation x ee axdx + 2ydy =O /. xdx + Ydy=O ans, 8, Circles with center on the therefore, these are lines X-axis, ‘tangent to a circles witha Tadius P from the origin, cans. les with fixed radius YF and tangent to x-axis. san [trary natalie] ayvey atie[ircu yp | General Equation si Heol x=)? + (y-k)* differentiate , ye aera fy 2&-h) + 2(y-kyy’= 0 ee ] } eet = Sy ky” oe 12, Circle fact vatu he line through | General Equation © (x-h)? + (y tR)? = R? since, K=tR but & to be eliminated t 2(x-h) + 2CYtRIy’=0 xoh = -y' (gta) _ Gy Xaxdx + aydy)- (x2 +y7Fex-dy) Oy 4 = 2x7dx - axydx + 2xudy ~ 2u%dy =x'dx + x7dy - y'dx + voy ; O= x%dx- 2x ydx -y7dx + x*dy + axydy -y*dy + OP r2ng-y2 Ox + OF 42% 12, Circles of radius unity, use the fact that the radius of cur- vature is 1 ly“=0 General Equation (x-h)? + Cy-k)* uy” 2x-h) + 2¢(y-Ky'=0 (x-h) =~ y-kYy oe Square both sides, : ‘‘] C-h}® = (y’)? Cy-k* ans. substitute, e fine rough y-k = [1+ cu] differentiate, y= tlre oy} ayy t= -g* [1tCu*] ich ; muitiply by [1+ cv'?] . ica] ** 2-4” Square both sides, b14cun* J? = cy”)? ans, Bay = wane Trt =(+ qo) ™ differentiate, ru’ ae theary ay'y” + Ow 7 s dy y ton y - 3y = 73cosx + @s%x + C 4 3 Ctany-yt 6) = cos*x ~ 3008 x ns me yi = cos*x Cosy = cos*x cosy ay = C8" cosy dx og a abe ~ “i = divide by PRO) See At He by cosy, inussipig by 8, -In(irge*) + ane at, divide by (ar ae Peet ay =0 Be yce ie ate e the lower half of circle ee (ye) = at xdx + [a?=x7 dy = 0 ae Be er + fay= (0 (ar-x" +y = 6 fogrc 2 [eae ans . 3 the upper half of tne Grcle x2 + (Y-e= a? ns. divide by x ( x*-a*)' a?) : Saat q from the table of Integration : a raced a x And So E at (de Areca) = ye ArcQos& = y te a Arete = ¥ ure @ From cule =B Gos =e 4 gnc ES) eee) as, Arecos & 19 20y) + [Oat ye 2hy + [Rete aE 2hy t [ROC YD hy th{arrge A (aut [xarye ) “4 Homogeneous , 1st degree Fhx hu) = +" x-y Fey) = 4 x-y #0Ax dy) = [CK (hy) = [RG0) (lx, Au)= fk Pune “Momegeneous , /2 degree eae” Foxy) = Ff (An, Ay) = e%* “\ Not hornogeneous tan x 0x,y) = tan x fon : Fda Ay) = tan 3S = A* tan 2 4, Homogeneous , Zero degree C8 + y2) exp (3) + axu F (xiy) = (xt?) exp (3B) yay 4 UAx, Ay)= [CAvd*+ (Any exp (FA + 4hxky = At (xt yt) exp (28) + 44x F (dx, hy) = 2 [Otty expt) “, Homogeneous, 2nd degree xsn Pe y ont Foy) = xs hae F(x fa) = Ax Sin kx cin 4 = Aya > Kx sin b= ky sin f(x f= A (x Sin & = y iy “, Homogeneous , 1st degree axy ay 2+ 3xy eae £ (he, ky) = SOE + Beene i ae Aid + SIRO 2 5 eae = ARC + 3x9) K x= 2