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Hypothermia

1. What is Hypothermia?
Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body
loses heatfaster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low
body temperature. Normalbody temperature is around 98.6 F (37 C).
Hypothermia body temperature is below 95 F(35 C).
Mammals and birds belong to this group of animals which possess a
sophisticated and intrinsically complex thermoregulatory mechanism
allowing them to usually maintain a core body temperature within ±
0.5C. Normothermia can be best defined as the range of body core
temperature between 36.5 - 37.5C ± 0.5C. Any core body temperature
below 1C in “Homothermics” is therefore considered hypothermia.
Hypothermia is defined as a core temperature less than 36C. Mild
hypothermia is defined as ranging from 1C to 2C below body core temperatura while
moderate hypothermia constitutes a body core temperature of 35C. Severe hypothermia is a
body core temperature below 35C while any temperatura below 28C is considered deep
hypothermia where consciousness is lost, sinoatrial pacing becomes erratic, ventricular
irritability increases, and below 26C rigidity and myoclonus ensues.
Fuente: Wicks, T.C., Perioperative Hypothermia: Take Our Patient Warming Quiz.
Outpatient Surgery Magazine, Herrin Publishing Partners, LP., Vol. 3: No.4 (April ) 2006
2. How do you know if somebody has hypothermia?
Hypothermia symptoms for adults include:

 Shivering, which may stop as hypothermia progresses (shivering is actually a good sign
that a person's heat regulation systems are still active. )
 Slow, shallow breathing
 Confusion and memory loss
 Drowsiness or exhaustion
 Slurred or mumbled speech
 Loss of coordination, fumbling hands, stumbling steps
 A slow, weak pulse
 In severe hypothermia, a person may be unconscious without obvious signs of breathing or
a pulse

Hypothermia symptoms for infants include:

 Cold-to-touch, bright red skin


 Unusually low energy
Fuente: Baker, K., Raines, D.E., Intraanesthetic Problems. In Clinical Anesthesia Procedures
of the Massachusetts General Hospital, 5th ed.

3. What do you have to do if you are with somebody who has hypothermia?

Hypothermia is a potentially life-threatening condition that needs emergency medical attention.


If medical care isn't immediately available:

 Remove any wet clothes, hats, gloves, shoes, and socks.


 Protect the person against wind, drafts, and further heat loss with warm, dry clothes
and blankets.
 Move gently to a warm, dry shelter as soon as possible.
 Begin rewarming the person with extra clothing. Use warm blankets. Other helpful
items for warming are: an electric blanket to the torso area and hot packs and heating
pad on the torso, armpits, neck, and groin; however, these can cause burns to the skin.
Use your own body heat if nothing else is available.
 Take the person's temperature if a thermometer is available.
 Offer warm liquids, but avoid alcohol and caffeine, which speed up heat loss. Don't
try to give fluids to an unconscious person.

If the hypothermic person is unconscious, or has no pulse or signs of breathing, call for
emergency help right away. CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should be given immediately
if a pulse can’t be felt and there is no sign of breathing. Feel for the pulse for up to a whole
minute before starting CPR, because the heart rate may be extremely slow and you should not
start CPR if there is any heartbeat present.
CPR should be continued, in the absence of signs of breathing or a pulse, until paramedics arrive
or the person is taken to a hospital.
Fuente: Baker, K., Raines, D.E., Intraanesthetic Problems. In Clinical Anesthesia
Procedures of the Massachusetts General Hospital, 5th ed.
4. What is the difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia?

Hypothermia Hyperthermia
Hypothermia may occur if you are exposed hypothermia may include getting frostbite
to cold temperatures or a cold, wet, windy (and subsequent loss of limbs) or coma. If
environment for a long amount of time. you or someone you know may be
Getting drenched in the rain on a cold, suffering from hypothermia, immediately
windy day, and not drying off, for example, contact a health care provider or call 911.
may lead to hypothermia. However, Keep the affected person warm, dry, and
hypothermia may also occur if you aren’t indoors while waiting for medical help. To
wearing enough warm clothing on a cold prevent hypothermia, it is helpful to stay
day. The following symptoms of warm and dry in cold weather and avoid
hypothermia include: excessive alcohol consumption. In
addition:
– Shivering
– Stumbling, mumbling, grumbling – Wear a hat or other protective clothing
(yes, really) to prevent body heat from escaping
– Slurred speech your head, neck, and face.
– Extremely slow breathing rate – Wear mittens, instead of gloves.
– Skin that is cold and pale – Wear layers (preferably the loose-
– Feeling fatigued or lethargic fitting, lightweight kind).
– Wear outer layers made of tightly-
woven, water-repellant material to
protect against the wind. Inner layers
made of wool, silk, or polypropylene
hold more body heat.

Fuente: https://goaskalice.columbia.edu/answered-questions/hypothermia-or-hyperthermia

5. Which one is more dangerous: hypothermia or hyperthermia?

Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication of some types of general


anesthesia.Hyperthermia differs from fever in that the body's temperature set point remains
unchanged. The opposite is hypothermia, which occurs when the temperature drops below
that required to maintain normal metabolism.

Fuente: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperthermia

6. Explain how to fulfill one of the steps for treating hypothermia.


If you suspect someone has hypothermia, call 911 or your local emergency number. Then
immediately take these steps:

 Gently move the person out of the cold. If going indoors isn't possible, protect the person
from the wind, especially around the neck and head. Insulate the individual from the cold
ground.
 Gently remove wet clothing. Replace wet things with warm, dry coats or blankets.
 If further warming is needed, do so gradually. For example, apply warm, dry compresses to
the center of the body — neck, chest and groin. The CDC says another option is using an
electric blanket, if available. If you use hot water bottles or a chemical hot pack, first wrap
it in a towel before applying.
 Offer the person warm, sweet, nonalcoholic drinks.
 Begin CPR if the person shows no signs of life, such as breathing, coughing or movement.

7. Do you know what FIRST AIDS mean?

The initial process of assessing and addressing the needs of someone who has been injured
or is in physiological distress

We also always explain that the First Aider has three priorities :

The three Priorities are to:


 Preserve life – Stop the casualty from dying. Keep everyone alive. Basic ABC (Airway,
Breathing, Circulation)
 Prevent further worsening – Stop the casualty from getting any worse by treating their
injuries. Also managing the incident, to prevent the situation worsening.
 Promote recovery – Try to help the person feel better by talking to them and supporting
them emotionally.

Fuente: https://firstaidtrainingcooperative.co.uk/first-aid-simple-definition/