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Pre-Colonial Times

Pre-colonial inhabitants of our islands showcase a rich past through their folk speeches, folk songs, folk
narratives and indigenous rituals and mimetic dances that affirm our ties with our Southeast Asian

The Spanish Colonial Tradition

While it is true that Spain subjugated the Philippines for more mundane reasons, this former European
power contributed much in the shaping and recording of our literature. Religion and institutions that
represented European civilization enriched the languages in the lowlands, introduced theater which we
would come to know as komedya, thesinakulo, the sarswela, the playlets and the drama. Spain also
brought to the country, though at a much later time, liberal ideas and an internationalism that
influenced our own Filipino intellectuals and writers for them to understand the meanings of “liberty
and freedom.” Literature in this period may be classified as religious prose and poetry and secular prose
and poetry.

The American Colonial Period

A new set of colonizers brought about new changes in Philippine literature. New literary forms such as
free verse [in poetry], the modern short story and the critical essay were introduced. American influence
was deeply entrenched with the firm establishment of English as the medium of instruction in all schools
and with literary modernism that highlighted the writer’s individuality and cultivated consciousness of
craft, sometimes at the expense of social consciousness.

The Contemporary Period

The flowering of Philippine literature in the various languages continue especially with the appearance
of new publications after the Martial Law years and the resurgence of committed literature in the 1960s
and the 1970s.

Filipino writers continue to write poetry, short stories, novellas, novels and essays whether these are
socially committed, gender/ethnic related or are personal in intention or not.

Of course the Filipino writer has become more conscious of his art with the proliferation of writers
workshops here and abroad and the bulk of literature available to him via the mass media including the
internet. The various literary awards such as the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature, the
Philippines Free Press, Philippine Graphic, Home Life and Panorama literary awards encourage him to
compete with his peers and hope that his creative efforts will be rewarded in the long run.
1. 21st Century Literature

2. What is Literature ?

3. Literature • Is a body of written works. • Originated from oral traditions. • Are imaginative works. •
Deals with stories and poetry. • The content depends on the author. Three Points of Literature •
Literature portrays human experience. • Authors interpret these human experiences. • It is an art form
and a style of expression.

4. The Three Literary Periods

5. BC-1564 The Pre-Colonial Period

6. The Pre-Colonial Period • This existed before the Spanish occupation in the 1500s. • It is oral in nature
and is full of lessons and ideas about life, its blessings, and its consequences. • It contains ideas from
birth to the grave. • The oral characteristic of pre-colonial literature gives the possibility for many
alterations. • In the Philippine context, no matter how it may be considered as altered, pre-colonial
literature is still revered to by many Filipinos. • The sources are usually the local native town folk.

7. Forms 1. Oral Literature 2. Folk Songs a. Riddles a. Lullabies b. Proverbs b. Drinking Songs c. Love
Songs d. Songs of Death e. Religious Songs 3. Folk Tales a. Myths b. Legends c. Fables d. Epics

8. Riddles (Mga Bugtong) • These are statements that contain superficial words, but they function
figuratively and as metaphors, and are in the form of questions. • These are questions that demand
deeper answers. • Deals with everyday life. • It usually has mundane things as answers. • This is used in
the past as a form of game in small or large gatherings.

9. Examples: Bisaya Baboy sa lasang, (A wild pig of the forest,) Ang tunok puro lansang. (Is covered with
spikes.) Answer: Nangka (Jackfruit) Meranaw Chabacano Sominub lawiyan, (It dived,) Tagia que tagia,
(You keep on slashing it,) Mbowat lawitan. (It rose.) Hende ta penetra. (But it does not penetrate)
Answer: Ragum (Needle) Answer: Agua (Water)

10. Proverbs (Mga Salawikain) • These are statements that are considered as wise. • These are usually
given by parents or elders of the community. • There is belief that experience is the best teacher.

11. Examples: Mandaya on Viriginity Yang ataog aw madugdug, (An egg once broken,) Di da mamauli.
(Will never be the same.) Tausug on Secret Affairs Ilocano on Guilt In lasa iban uba, (Love and cough,) Ti
agutak, (He who cackles Di hikatapuk. (Cannot be hidden.) Isut nagitlog. (Laid the egg.)

12. Folk Songs • These are folk lyrics that are usually chanted. • These usually contain ideas on
aspirations, hopes, everyday life and expressions of love for loved ones. • It is bounded by the learning
of good morals. • It is easy to undestand because it is straightforward and not figurative in nature.

13. Forms • Lullabies- these is locally known as the Hele. These are sung to put to sleep babies. The
content varies, but usually, parents sing these with ideas on how hard life is and how they hope that
their child will not experience the hardships of life. • Drinking Songs- these are locally known as Tagay
and are sung during drinking sessions.

14. • Love Songs- to many Filipinos, these are known as the Harana. It can also be called Courtship Songs
and are used by young men to capture the heart of the girl that they love. • Religious Songs- are songs
or chants that are usually given during exorcisms and thanksgiving during good harvest. • Songs of
Death- are lamentations that contain the roll of good deeds that the dead has usually done to
immortaliz his or her good image.

15. Examples: Lullabies Ilocano Maturog, duduayya Go to sleep, dear little one Maturog kad tay bunga,
Will my child please sleep, Tay lalaki nga napigsa This strong boy Ta inton dumakkel tay bunga, So when
the child grows big Isunto aya tay mammati He will obey Tay amon a ibaga me. Everything that we say.

16. Folk Tales (Mga Kwentong Bayan) • These are stories of native Filipinos. • These deal with the power
of nature- personified, their submission to a deity- usually Bathala- and how this deity is responsible for
the blessings and calamities. • These also tackle about irresponsibility, lust, stupidity, deception, and
fallibility that eventually leads to the instilling of good morals.

17. Usual Themes: • Ceremonies needed to appease the deities. • Pre and Post apocalypse • Life and
Death • Gods and Goddesses • Heroes and Heroines • Supernatural beings • Animals

18. Forms • Myths- these tackle the natural to strange occurences of the earth and how things were
created with an aim to give an explanation to things. -There is Bathala for the Tagalogs and the
Gueurang for the Bikolanos. - Paradise is known as Maca, while Hell is Kasanaaan

19. • Legends- through legends, the natives uderstood mysteries around them. These stories usually
come with a moral lesson that give credit to supernatural powers, supernatural occurences, and other
out-of- this-world native imagination. • Fables- are short or brief stories that cater the children of the
native Filipinos and are usually bounded by good manners and right conduct. These stories use animals
as characters that represent a particular value or characteristic. • Epics- are very lengthy narratives that
are based on oral traditions. These contain encounters of fighters, stereotypical princes or heroes that
save a damsel in distress.

20. Examples: Myths The Story of Bathala Ang Pag-aaway ng Dagat at Langit Legends The Legend of
Maria Makiling The Legend of the Sampaguita Fables Ang Kuneho at and Pagong Si Juan Tamad Epics
Hinilawod Darangen

21. 1521-1898 The SPANISH Period

22. The Spanish Period • The start of the Philippine's more colorful history took place in March 6, 1521
when Ferdinand Magellan docked on the shores of Homonhon. • The Filipinos were then called
“Ladinos”, meaning they were latinized. • Filipinos were called two things. One is the “Taga-Bayan”,
while the other is the “Taga-bukid” or “Taga-bundok”. • A person who is a Taga-bayan is considered
urbane and civilized and were in easy range of the church and state. • A person who is a Taga-bundok or
Taga-bukid is called a Bruto Salvage (Savage Brute) or Indio and were the ones who lived far from the
center of the Spanish power.

23. Forms 1. Religious Literature 2. Secular or Non-Religious Literature a. Pasyon a. Awit b. Senakulo b.
Korido c. Komedya c. Prose Narratives 3. Propaganda Literature 4. Revolutionary Literature

24. Religious Literature • Revolves around the life and the death of Jesus Christ. Forms of Religious
Literature: Pasyon- it is about the passion (journey and suffering) and the death of Jesus Christ.
Senakulo- it is the re-enctment of the Pasyon. Komedya- it depicts the European society through love
and fame, but can also be a narrative about a journey, just like Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. It is also
considered religous, because it usually depicts the battle between the Christians and the Saracens or the

25. Secular or Non- Religious Literature • Revolves around tales of valiance and adventure. Forms of
Secular or Non-Religious Literature: Awit- these are tales of chivalry where a knight saves a princess.
Florante at Laura is a good example. Korido- is a metrical tale or a tale that follows the struture of a
poem. Prose Narratives- are easy to understand instructional materials that in a literary light that
teaches Filipinos on proper decorum. Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini na si Urbana at Feliza (1864) is
a good example.

26. Propaganda Literature • These were in the forms of satires, editorials, and news articles that aimed
to attack the Spanish Rule. • The propaganda trinity is composed of Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. Del Pilar,
and Graciano Lopez Jaena.Examples: Graciano Lopez Jaena Ang Fray Botod- One of his works written in
Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines. He exposed
how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral.

27. LA HIJA DEL FRAILE (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everything is mere show)-
Here Jaena explains the tragedy of marrying a Spaniard. Marcelo H. Del Pilar KAIINGAT KAYO (Be
Careful)- a humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the novel NOLI of Rizal,
published in Barcelona in 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN
(Prayers and Jokes)- similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, published in
Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, del Pilar was called “filibuster.” Done in admirable tone of
supplication and excellent use of Tagalog.

28. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God’s Goodness)- published in Barcelona, it was also like a cathecism
sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and
intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature. Dr. Jose Rizal NOLI ME TANGERE- his was
the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against
Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines.

29. Revolutionary Literature • are exposes that sparked revolution and resistance in the hearts of
Filipinos. Examples: Andres Bonifacio Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Obligations of our
Countrymen) – an outline of obligations just like the Ten Commandments, hence, it is likewise called Ang
Dekalogo. Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog (What the Tagalogs should Know) – an essay outlining the
basic tenets of Bonifacio’s ideas on nationalism.

30. Examples: Emilio Jacinto Liwanag at Dilim (Light and Darkness) – a collection of essays on different
subjects like freedom, work, faith, government and love of country. Apolinario Mabini El Desarollo y
Caida de la Republica Filipina (The Rise and Fall of the Philippine Republic) – this essay highlights the
establishment of the Philippine republic and its subsequent doom due to disunity among the Filipinos

31. Examples: Dr. Jose Rizal El Filibusterismo– This is a sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the
evils in society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church. However, the NOLI has
been dubbed the novel of society while that of FILI is that of politics.

32. Publications El Heraldo de la Revolucion (Herald of the Revolution) – printed the decrees of the
Revolutionary Government, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism. This is the Official
Newspaper of the Revolutionary Government of Aguinaldo. La Independencia (Independence) – an
independent newspaper founded and edited by General Antonio Luna. La Republica Filipina (The
Philippine Republic) – a private newspaper edited by Pedro Paterno. La Libertad (Liberty) – another
private newspaper edited by Clemente Zulueta.

33. 1900-1942 The AMERICAN Period

34. The American Period • The Philippines had a great leap in Education and Culture. • The use of
English alongside Filipino was practiced. • The Philippines Public School system was introduced. • Free
public instruction was given to the Filipinos. • The literature during the American period was considered
as imitative of American model. Instead of asking the students to write originals, students ended up
following the form of American poets.

35. Forms 1. Poetry- poetry under the American rule still followed the style of the old, but had contents
that ranged from free writing to societal concerns under the Americans. 2. Drama- was usually used in
the American period to degrade the Spanish rule and to immortalize the heroism of the men who fought
under the Katipunan. 3. Remake Novels- took up Dr. Jose Rizal's portrayal of social conditions by colonial

36. Poetry Jose Corazon de Jesus (1832-1896) popularly known as “Batute,” created his own generation
with his first book of poems. Mga Gintong Dahon (1920)- were poems pre-occupied with such non-
traditional themes as passion-slaying, grief-induced, insanity, and lover’s suicide. Sa Dakong Silangan
(1928)- returned to the awit form, retelling the history of Philippines under Spain, the coming of the U.S
under the guise of friendship to take over from Spain

37. Drama Severino Reyes (1861-1942) – spearheaded a movement to supplant the komedya with a new
type of drama, the sarsuwela, a Filipino adaptation of the Spanish zarzuela. Examples: Walang Sugat
(1902)- is a sarsuwela (drama in the form singing) drawn from the period of Revolution, depicting the
cruelty and corruption of friars and the heroism of the soldiers of the Katipunan.

38. Other successful sarsuwelas: Hindi Aco Patay (1903) by Juan Matapang Cruz Kahapon, Ngayon at
Bukas (1903) by Aurelio Tolentino- is an allegorical presentation of the history of the nationalist struggle
and how the U,S. frustrated the Philippine revolution. Tanikalang Guinto (1902) by Juan Abad (1872-
1932)- is about Liwanag and K’Ulayaw, lovers who stand for freedom and the Filipino.

39. Remake Novels Gabriel Beato Francisco (1850-1935)- is best known for his trilogy of Fulgencia
Galbillo (1907), Capitan Bensio (1907), Alfaro (1909), depicting the 30 years of colonial repression by the
Spanish rule. Inigo Ed. Regalado (1888-1976)- Madaling Araw (1909) was his first novel showing the
complex interrelations of issues and people in contemporary Philippine society. Juan Lauro Arsciwals
(1889-1928)- Lalaking Uliran o Tulisan (1914), allusion to the colonial law that branded Filipino patriots
as bandits.

40. 1941-1945 The JAPANESE Period

41. 1946- 1985 The REPUBLIC

42. The Japanese Period and the Republic • The Philippine literature came into a halt. • The use of the
English language was forbidden, and the use of the Filipino language was mandated under the Japanese
rule. • For some this was a problem, but to most writers, it was a blessing in disguise. • Almost all news
papers were stopped except for some. • Filipino literature was given a break during this period. Many
wrote plays, poems, short stories, etc. Topics and themes were often about life in the provinces.

43. Forms 1. Poetry 2. Fiction 3. Drama 4. Newspapers 5. Essays

44. Drama The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period because movie houses showing
American films were closed. The big movie houses were just made to show stage shows. Many of the
plays were reproductions of English plays to Tagalog.. Newspapers Writings that came out during this
period were journalistic in nature. Writers felt suppressed but slowly, the spirit of nationalism started to
seep into their consciousness. While some continued to write, the majority waited for a better climate
to publish their works.

45. Poetry The common theme of most poems during the Japanese occupation was nationalism,
country, love, and life in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts. Fiction The field of the short story
widened during the Japanese Occupation. Many wrote short stories.

46. Essays Essays were composed to gorify the Filipinos and at the same time to figuratively attack the


48. 21st Century Literature In the 21st centruy Philippines, there are a lot of literary innovations that are
adapted and created by Filipinos. Nowadays, even those who do not have any significant literary
background make their own way using the freedom that they have to write and to express. There are a
lot of new froms from the basic genres of literature; thus, proving how far the literature in the
Philippines has gone and how far it will go on from here.

49. FIN

Literature in every region

Region 1 Philippine Literature

1. Philippine (Luzon) Literature Jade Svetlana Nicole de Guzman ABLL-2 1st Semester, 2016-2017

2. Region 1: Ilocos Region • Its literature is known as one of the most colorful regional Filipino
literatures. • Prior to Spanish colonial period, the Ilocano literature is purely alive in form of written and
oral literature. Ancient poets expressed themselves through folk and war songs.

3. Father of Ilocano Literature

4. Pedro Buc(k)aneg • Acknowledged author of the epic Biag ni Lam-ang. • A Filipino poet. • Was a
foundling, who shortly after floating in a basket between Bantay and Vigan was found by an old woman.
• Brought to Bantay Agustinijner priest who baptised him as Pedro Bucaneg.
5. • Blind since birth, but grew up as smart and talented. • Took lessons in Latin and Spanish and also
learned the local dialects and Ilocano Isneg. • Known to translate prayers and sermons in local language.
• Although blind, he dictated the text of his poems, songs and translations as someone wrote it down.

6. • Translated Doctrina Cristiana to Ilocano which was printed in 1593 as one of the first book in the
Philippines and was intended for the use in the local poplyaltion. • 1621, the ilocano translation was
printed in the Augustinian Convent in Manila. • Arte de Lengua Iloca, the first grammar book, co-
authored with Fr. Francisco Lopez

7. • Born March 1592 and died circa 1630, his works of literature are preserved to be written in history.

8. Mother of Ph Women’s Literature

9. Leonora Florentino • April 19, 1849 - October 4, 1884 • Poet in Spanish and Ilocano. • At the age of
10, she can write poems in Ilocano and speak well in Spanish. • Was really intelligent, yet she wasn’t
allowed to study due to her gender. • She was instead tutored by her mother and a series of private

10. • Fr. Evaristo Abaya flourished her Spanish skills and help her voice out her thoughts in poems. • She
married a politician, Elias de los Reyes at the age of 14. Together had 5 children. • Due to the feminist
nature of her writings, she was shunned by her husband and son, she lived alone in exile and separated
from her family. • She died at the age of 35

11. Works • Her well knowns literary pieces are Rucronoy (Dedication), Naangaway a Cablaw (Good
greetings), Nalpay a Namnama (Vanishing Hope), Benigna, Para ken Carmen, Panay Pacada (Farewell)
and more. • Most of her works got lost but the preserved ones are in the library of Madrid, Londres at

12. • Although Florentino died at a young age, her works are known not only in the Philippines but
through out Europe. • She is believed to be the first Filipina recognized as a lady poet.

13. Nalpay na namnama Yantangay siak ket linipatnakon Liday ti yas-asog toy barungkonko. Nuray
agsagabaak nga agnanayon, Nalpay a namnama aklunekon

14. Blasted hopes/Vanishing Hopes But would it be my greatest joy To know that it is you I love, For to
you do I vow and a promise I make It’s you alone for whom I would lay my life.

15. Father of Filipino Socialism

16. Isabelo de los Reyes • Also known as Don Belong • July 4, 1864 - October 10, 1938 • Prominent
politician, writer and labor activist • Originally founder of Aglipayan Church, an indepondent Christian
protestant church in the catholic tradition.

17. • Due to his anti-catholic writings, he therefore got the nickname • Pope Leo XIII formally
excommunicated Reyes in 1903 as an apostate • He followed his mother’s footsteps by initially turning
to writing as a career. • won an award at the age of 23 for his first written book. • Became a journalist,
editor, and publisher in Manila
18. • Imprisoned in 1897 for revolutionary activities. • Deported to Spain, and was jailed until 1898. •
While being there, he got influenced by the writings of European socialists and Marxists. • Returning to
Philippines in 1901, he founded the first labor union in the country.

19. • Also active in seeking independence from the US • After serving the Ph in the 1920s, he settled
into private life and religious writing. • Had a total of 27 children with 3 successive wives.

20. Works • Mariquit the Tramp (bomba story) • Sing sing ni Diego (horror story) • Biblia Filipina
(philippine bible) • Oficio divino • Catequesis (catechism) • Plagerias(prayers) • Genesis Cientifico y
moderno • Ang sing sing ng dalagang marmol (1905 novel) • Calendario Aglipayano

21. Carlos Bulosan

22. • Born to Ilocano parents in the Ph in Binalonan, Pangasinan. • November 2, 1913 (?) • Most of his
youth was spent in the countryside as a farmer. • his hometown is the starting point of his famous semi-
autobiographical novel, America is in the Heart. • Left for America on July 22, 1930 at the age of 17.

23. • Upon arriving in Seattle, he met with racism and was forced to work in a low paying job. • He
worked as a farmworker, harvesting grapes and asparagus, and doing other types of hard work in the
fields of California. He also worked as a dishwasher with his brother in the famous Madonna Inn in San
Luis Obispo.

24. Works • America is in the Heart • The Laughter of My Father • The Cry and the Dedication • My
Father’s Tragedy • The Romance of Magno Rubio • If You Want To Know What We Are

25. America Is In the Heart “The old world is dying, but a new world is being born. It generates
inspiration from the chaos that beats upon us all. The false grandeur and security, the unfulfilled
promises and illusory power, the number of the dead and those about to die, will charge the forces of
our courage and determination. The old world will die so that the new world will be born with less
sacrifice and agony on the living.”

26. F. Sionil Jose

27. • December 3, 1924 • Born in Rosales, Pangasinan the setting of his many stories. • Ilocano descent
whose family had migrated to Pangasinan to flee from poverty. • His influences: his mother, Jose Rizal •
Critically acclaimed Filipino internationally yet underrated in his own country.

28. Awards • Pablo Neruda Centennial Award (2004) Philippine National Artist for Literature (2001) •
Chevalier dans l'Ordre des Arts et Lettres (2000) • Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature
and Creative Communication Arts (1980) • City of Manila Award for Literature (1979 Carlos Palanca
Memorial Award for Literature (1959, 1979, 1980, 1981)

29. • Attended UST after WW2 but dropped out and plunged into writing and journalism in Manila. •
Edited various literaty and journalistic publications, started a publishing house and founded the
Philippine branch of PEN, an intr’l organization for writers. • His writings talk about social justice and
change to better the lives of average Filipino families.

30. • Inspired him to make the five volume novels: Rosales Saga. • is one of the most widely read
Filipino writers in the English Language. His novels and short stories depict the social underpinnings of
class struggles and colonialism of Filipino society. • Jose’s works written in English have been translated
into 22 language ls including Korean, Indonesian, Russian and Dutch.

31. • Owns a bookshop that sells hard to find filipiniana reading materials. • ‘Why are we shallow’
Hindsight, The Philippine Star September 12 2011

32. Father of Pampangueño Literature

33. Juan Crisostomo Soto • Born in Bacolor, Pampanga • Exquisite in Crisostan (balagtasan) in
Pampanga’s local dialect. • Known as a poet, playwright and editor in Pampanga’s dialect. • Wrote
moro-moro and sarsuela.

34. Works • Pula’t Puti • Romeo and Juliet from Shakespeare • Sigalot – considered the best and written
in jail • Wrote an English-Spanish-Pampango Dictionary with Modesto Joaquin

35. Angela Marie Manalang

36. • Born August 23, 10907 in Guagua, Pampanga. • Settled in Bicol Region in Albay. • During her senior
year, she moved to St. Scholastica’s College in Malate, Manila where her writing started to get noticed. •
Was among the first generation female students of the UP

37. • Was the author of Revolt from Hymen, a poem protesting against marital rape which caused her
denial by an all-male jury from winning the Ph’s Commonwealth Literary Awards in 1940. • Poems, a
poem collection published 1940 and was revised in 1950

38. Festivities through out Region I

39. Viva Vigan Festival First week of May, Vigan City

40. Longaniza Festival January 22 Vigan City

41. Guling-Guling Eve of Ash Wednesday. Paoay, Ilocos Norte

42. Feast of the Senora de Manaoag Holy week. Manaoag, Pangasinan

43. Pista’y Dayat, Lingayen May 1. Pangasinan

44. Bangus Festival Dagupan City, Pangasinan

45. Dinengdeng Festival May 1 Pangasinan

46. Rimat ti Amianan December 2nd week. San Fernando City, La Union

47. Icons from Region I

48. Juan Luna Badoc, Ilocos Norte

49. Chavit Singson Vigan, Ilocos Sur

50. Alma Moreno Cervantes, Ilocos Sur

51. Elpidio Quirino Vigan, Ilocos Sur

52. Ferdinand Marcos Sarrat, Ilocos Norte

53. Tourist Spots from Region I

54. Bacarra Church, Bell tower and Ruins Founded by Augustinians to offer for St. Andrew. Built since

55. Pagudpud Beach

56. Currimao Known for the display of coral reef fomations

57. Famous Foods of Region I

58. Pinakbet

59. Fish sauce (Bagoong)

60. Ilocos Empanada

61. Bagnet