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of Passenger Car With

Input–Output Pairing

Ehsan Sarshari

M.S. Student

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Considerations

K. N. Toosi University of Technology, With respect to weight, energy consumption, and cost constraints, hydro-active suspen-

Tehran 19991–43344, Iran sion system is a suitable choice for improving vehicle ride comfort while keeping its han-

e-mail: ehsan.sarshari@gmail.com dling. The aim of sensors selection is determining number, location, and type of sensors,

which are the best for control purposes. Selection of sensors is related to the selection of

Ali Khaki Sedigh measured variables (outputs). Outputs selection may limit performance and also affect

Professor reliability and complexity of control systems. In the meanwhile, hardware, implementa-

Department of Electrical tion, maintenance, and repairing costs can be affected by this issue. In this study, system-

and Computer Engineering, atic methods for selecting the viable outputs for hydro-active suspension system of a

K. N. Toosi University of Technology, passenger car are implemented. Having joint robust stability and nominal performance

Tehran 16315–1355, Iran of the closed loop is the main idea in this selection. In addition, it is very important to use

e-mail: sedigh@kntu.ac.ir these methods as a complementation for system physical insights, not supersedes. So, in

the first place the system is described and the main ideas in ride comfort control are

addressed. An 8 degrees of freedom model of vehicle with passive suspension system is

derived and validated. Both linear and nonlinear models of the car which is equipped

with hydro-active subsystem are derived. After selecting the outputs, for benefiting from

minimum loop interactions, the control configuration is systematically determined. The

main goal of selecting control configuration is assessing the possibility of achieving a

decentralized control configuration. Finally, the system behavior is controlled by a

decentralized proportional–integral–differential (PID) controller. The results indicate

the efficiency of the controlled hydro-active suspension system in comparison with the

passive system. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4006625]

improper control configuration selection can also cause closed

All control design methods can be interpreted by general control

loop instability or its weak performance. In a decentralized control

system setup shown in Fig. 1. Dealing with difference between em-

system, disturbance effects and closed loop stability in the face of

pirical and theoretical results of control design methods is not a

loop errors are affected by control configuration selection.

new issue. In Refs. [1] and [2] is stated that the main reason for this

In the cases in which there are only few numbers of input–-

difference is the lack of theoretical systematic approaches to select

output candidate sets or the viable input–output set is expressly

the control structure. Thereafter, in Ref. [3] a comprehensive defini-

known by the control goals, there is no need to use input–output

tion of control structure was presented. In Ref. [3], answer to four

selection methods. But when the number of input–output candi-

structural questions which relate to control system setup is

date sets is high, usage of systematic input–output selection meth-

addressed as control structure selection. In other words, assessing

ods is inevitable to avoid neglecting the viable candidate set. The

which input variables (U) and output variables (Y and Z) are suita-

number of candidate sets exponentially increases with increasing

ble for control purposes (input–output selection) and which links

in the number of candidate inputs and outputs.

should be established between them (control configuration selec-

Eight characteristics which a suitable input–output selection

tion) are the main issues in control structure selection.

method should have are presented in Refs. [5–7]. In Ref. [7], these

In comparison with other control design steps, a little attention

characteristics are used as a criterion for assessing the available

has been paid to control structure selection. However, a nonviable

methods and a guideline for developing new methods. A review

selection of input–output sets can cause fundamental limitations

of control structure selection methods is presented in Ref. [8]

in system achievable performance. For instance, some specific

under the name of plantwide control. The researchers have sug-

input–output sets may result in right half plane (RHP) zeros. This

gested that more attention should be paid to sensors type and

redounds decreasing in closed loop bandwidth. System zeros by

state or output feedback and pre- or postdynamic or static com-

pensating cannot be assigned. Therefore, such limitations in sys-

tem performance cannot be repaired even with advanced control

methods [4]. In addition, input–output sets determine issues like

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received

October 24, 2010; final manuscript received March 9, 2012; published online Octo-

ber 30, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Douglas Adams. Fig. 1 General control system setup

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control JANUARY 2013, Vol. 135 / 011004-1

C 2013 by ASME

Copyright V

location selection. In Ref. [9], some corresponding author’s ideas

about control structure selection are summarized and described

clearly. Controlled variables selection such that the system has

self optimizing control property is presented in Ref. [10]. Control

structure selection with respect to economics is emphasized in

Ref. [11]. In Ref. [12], control structure selection methods which

base on process are studied. A comprehensive study on control

configuration selection methods is presented in Ref. [13].

In chemical plants, there are lots of candidate variables. There-

fore, the most application of control structure selection methods

has been in process control area. Systems such as distillation col-

umn, boiler, and reactor are widely studied, e.g., respectively, in

Refs. [14], [15], and [16]. Control structure selection methods are

used in Ref. [17] for airplanes and spacecrafts. Some other appli-

cations of control structure selection methods also exist. For

instance in Ref. [18], the assignment of actuators is studied for a

paper machine.

Development of intelligent suspension systems has been one of

the most important issues in vehicle design area, especially in the

two past decades. Most of these studies have been limited to com-

pare the performance of an intelligent suspension system to that of

passive ones, e.g., the studies in Refs. [19–26]. In Ref. [27],

besides developing a semi-active suspension system, its perform- Fig. 2 Schematic of hydro-active damper, showing the oil flow

ance is compared with that of the same passive and the fully during the rebound stroke

active systems. However, control structure selection is rarely stud-

ied for suspension systems. The studies in Refs. [28–30] are in valve (CVDTV). Figure 2 shows the schematic of the hydro-

this group. In Ref. [28], without using any systematic approach, active damper and how it acts during the rebound stroke.

the optimized assignment of the actuators is addressed for suspen- According to Fig. 2, the rod moves outward of the cylinder dur-

sion system. To do this, controller design has been done for each ing the rebound stroke while the piston check valve is closed. The

candidate assignment and finally the results have been assessed to amount of oil which can enter the accumulator from the upper

achieve the optimized assignment. By considering the uncertain- chamber depends on the regulations of the CVDTV. So, the damp-

ties, sensor and actuator selection has been done for a tractor–- ing force can vary in the rebound stroke by means of regulating

semitrailer suspension system in Refs. [29] and [30]. Controller the CVDTV. In the bound stroke, the rod moves inward the cylin-

design has not been addressed in these two studies. For suspension der. The regulation of the CVDTV results in a pressure increase

systems, actuator and sensor selection is usually done based on of the oil reserved in the accumulator. This causes the bottom

physical insight, cost, and structural issues. For example, in Refs. chamber to be fulfilled with high pressure oil and subsequently

[27], [31], and [32] with respect to vehicle structural limitations, the pressure difference forces the rod to move outward, while the

the stronger actuators have been placed in the rear suspension. oil is flowing through the piston check valve.

Selection of measured variables (not controlled variables) and Continuously variable damper throttle valve consists of con-

control configuration selection for hydro-active suspension system stant and variable orifices. The task of the variable orifice is regu-

of a passenger car are the main subjects of this study. The main lating the pilot chamber pressure. The acting mechanism is

idea to do this is achieving of the closed loop system to joint ro- described in the following. The input to the solenoid is an electri-

bust stability and nominal performance. cal current that is the output of the controller. Depending on the

The system is described first. In following, modeling the system amount of this current, the solenoid manipulates a magnetic field

and validating the model besides describing the sensors are done. by which the position of the plunger is regulated. Thus, the posi-

Then, selection of the measured variables and control configura- tion of the plunger affects the oil flow and consequently the pilot

tion selection are addressed. At last, a decentralized PID control- chamber pressure.

ler is designed.

3 Mathematical Model of the Vehicle

2 System Description

Suspension system has a main role in isolation of passengers and 3.1 Mathematical Model of the Vehicle With Passive

chassis in the face of road roughness. Desired ride comfort, reason- Suspension. Figure 3 displays the 8 degrees of freedom physical

able suspension displacement, and acceptable handling characteris- model of the vehicle. The model consists of body, two axles, and

tics represent appropriate performance of a suspension system. driver’s seat. Bounce, pitch, and roll represent motions of the

In fully active suspensions, stiffness and damping coefficients body. Each of the axles has their own bouncing motion. Yaw

are variable; while in semi-active suspensions, only damping coeffi- motion of the body is neglected due to its small amount, and the

cient varies. A vast majority range of semi-active dampers exists. driver’s seat is supposed to vibrate just in the vertical direction.

In Ref. [27], different types of these dampers are introduced and System parameters are selected to be equal to those of Ref. [20]

compared. In this study, a semi-active suspension system is devel- for validation purposes. According to Fig. 3, kinetic and potential

oped for a passenger car. To do this, conventional passive dampers energies and damping function of the system are derived. Equations

are replaced with hydro-active dampers. Thus, this semi-active sus- of motion are derived by substituting them in Lagrange’s equation

pension is hereafter called hydro-active suspension in this paper. In and presented in Ref. [21]. Validation of the model is performed

Ref. [19], using magnetorheological dampers, a semi-active suspen- comparing with the results of Ref. [20]. As in Ref. [20], a bump dis-

sion system has been developed. turbance is used to excite the vehicle. Figure 4 shows the responses

of the model comparing with those of Ref. [20].

2.1 Hydro-Active Suspension System. The main element of

each hydro-active suspension system is a single acting hydraulic 3.2 Linear Mathematical Model of the Vehicle With

cylinder. This cylinder is connected to a nitrogen containing accu- Hydro-Active Suspension. Stiffness of the gas springs is derived

mulator (gas spring) and a continuously variable damper throttle using the static pressure equilibrium at the both sides of the

Fig. 3 Physical model of the vehicle with passive suspension

Pgfr ¼ Pgofr þ Pfr

(4)

Vgfr ¼ Vgofr Vfr

input oil into this gas spring. According to Fig. 5, Vfr ¼ Afr ðZufr

ZB þ A1 P þ B2 RÞ and consequently perturbation pressure of the

front right gas spring is given by the following equation:

8 9

> mfr gc c >

Fig. 4 Responses of the derived model comparing with those

>

< >

=

mfr g Ksfr

given in Ref. [20] Pfr ¼ c 1 (5)

Afr > > m gc >

>

: fr ðZufr ZB þ A1 P þ B2 RÞ ;

Ksfr

CVDTV. For instance, the following equation gives the stiffness

of the front right gas spring:

Figure 5 shows the free body diagram of the vehicle consider-

ing the nonlinear effects of the hydro-active dampers. Nonlinear

A2fr cPgofr

Ksfr ¼ (1) equations of motion are derived using Newton’s second motion

Vgofr law. The corresponding equations are given as

In Eq. (1), Vgofr is the static volume of the front right suspen- € ufr þ Pfr Afr þ x17 þ Ktfr ðZufr yfr Þ ¼ 0

mufr Z

sion, c is the gas atomicity coefficient, and Pgofr is the static pres-

sure of the suspension which is equal to Pgofr ¼ mfr g=Afr . € ufl þ Pfl Afl þ x18 þ Ktfl ðZufl yfl Þ ¼ 0

mufl Z

Four first order differential equations are used as the dynamic € urr þ Prr Arr þ x19 þ Ktrr ðZurr yrr Þ ¼ 0

murr Z

model of the CVDTV. For instance, Eq. (2) represents the

dynamic equation of the front right suspension CVDTV € url þ Prl Arl þ x20 þ Ktrl ðZurl yrl Þ ¼ 0

murl Z

€ d þ Kd ðZd þ aP bR ZB Þ þ Cd Z_ d þ aP_ bR_ Z_ B ¼ 0

mD Z

2 1

x_ 17 ¼ x17 þ ufr (2) € B Pfr Afr Pfl Afl Prr Arr Prl Arl

mB Z

sfr sfr

Kd ðZd þ aP bR ZB Þ

Instantaneous response of the control valve is not possible in

Cd Z_ d þ aP_ bR_ Z_ B x17 x18 x19 x20 ¼ 0

the application. Thus, as in Eq. (2), a first order delay of sfr is sup-

posed in the dynamic model of the CVDTV. The values of the € þ Pfr Afr B2 Pfl Afl B1 þPrr Arr B2 Prl Arl B1

Iz R

system parameters are as in Refs. [21] and [27].

Kd ðZd þ aP bR ZB Þb Cd Z_ d þ aP_ bR_ Z_ B b

3.3 Nonlinear Mathematical Model of the Vehicle With þ x17 B2 x18 B1 þx19 B2 x20 B1 ¼ 0

Hydro-Active Suspension. Hydro-active suspension works under € þ Pfr Afr A1 þ Pfl Afl A1 Prr Arr A2 Prl Arl A2

Iy P

the adiabatic process [33]. Therefore, the gas spring behaves under

the ideal gas law. Nonlinear model of the front right suspension is þ Kd ðZd þ aP bR ZB Þa þ Cd Z_ d þ aP_ bR_ Z_ B a

derived in the following. Instantaneous pressure and volume of the þ x17 A1 þ x18 A1 x19 A2 x20 A2 ¼ 0 (6)

front right gas spring (Pgfr and Vgfr ) and static pressure and volume

of this gas spring satisfy the ideal gas equation

4 Sensors and Actuators

c Sixteen candidate measured variables (candidate sensors) are

Pgofr Vgofr

Pgfr ¼ c (3) supposed as in Fig. 6. These variables are y1 , y2 , y3 , and y4 as

Vgfr measures of the suspension displacements; y5 , y6 , y7 , and y8 as

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control JANUARY 2013, Vol. 135 / 011004-3

Fig. 5 Free body diagram of the vehicle with hydro-active suspension (nonlinear)

showing actuators and candidate sensors

measures of the axles accelerations; y9 , y10 , y11 , and y12 as meas- Like all types of semi-active suspensions, damping coefficients

ures of the vertical accelerations of the vehicle in the position of are the control inputs. Thus, selection of the manipulated variables

the wheels; y13 , y14 , and y15 as measures of the driver’s seat accel- (inputs) is not addressed here. These variables are ufr , ufl , urr , and

erations; and y16 as a measure of the vertical acceleration of the url as shown in Fig. 6.

body.

Other sensors can also be candidate, for instance, sensors meas- 5 Selection of Measured Variables

uring relative displacement between suspension and road surface.

However, in this study only the sensors given in Table 1 are used. Some tools of control structure selection depend on scaling such

This is done because of low costs, easy implementation, and suita- as most of the selection criteria based on input–output controllabil-

ble durability of theses sensors which make them proper for ity. However, incorrect scaling can result in improper selections.

application. On the other hand, scaling uncertain variables is not easy always.

These are the main reasons for implementation of such input–-

output selection criteria, which are independent from scaling.

Table 1 Candidate sensors description State space description of the vehicle with linear hydro-active

suspension is as Eq. (7). The matrices are described in Appendix

Output variable Description Output variable Description A of Ref. [21]

y1 Zufr ðZB A1 P B2 RÞ y9 € B A1 P

Z € B2 R

€ 8

y2 Zufl ðZB A1 P þ B1 RÞ y10 € B A1 P

Z € þ B1 R

€ < x_ ¼ AH x þ BH u u þ BH w w

y3 Zurr ðZB þ A2 P B2 RÞ y11 € B þ A2 P

Z € B2 R

€ y ¼ CH x þ DH u u þ DHw w (7)

y4 Zurl ðZB þ A2 P þ B1 RÞ y12 € B þ A2 P

Z € þ B1 R

€ :

z ¼ EH x þ FHu u þ FH w w

y5 € ufr

Z y13 €D

Z

y6 € ufl

Z y14 aP€

y7 € urr

Z y15 bR€ where x is the state vector, y is the measured variables vector, and

y8 € url

Z y16 €B

Z z is the controlled variables vector (see general control system

setup in Fig. 1).

According to Fig. 6, the system consists of four inputs. Among condition numbers represent lower sensitivities and more robust-

the candidate measured variables given in Table 1, four variables ness to higher modeling errors.

which are the best for control purposes are selected. Achieving In Ref. [6], two lower bounds for the condition number are

the closed loop system to joint robust stability and nominal per- given, which are independent of input–output scaling. Implemen-

formance in the presence of additive uncertainty, D, is the main tation of these two bounds instead of kðPÞ in the JRSNP theorem

idea in this selection. weakens this criterion, and as a result, more input–output

subsets might be accepted. Thus, the method might

be less

effective. However, according to Ref. [6], 2max KðPo Þ ;

1

5.1 Joint Robust Stability and Nominal Performance. This KðPo Þ g 1 which is independent of scaling is used here

1

theorem has been proven in Ref. [6]: instead of kðPo Þ, where KðPo Þ is the relative gain array (RGA)

If Po is a linear nominal time invariant model of a square matrix of the transfer function of the candidate subset Po ,

bounded system, then, a controller C exists such that: described in detail in Sec. 5.2. k:k1 and k:k1 are the matrix 1-

(1) Stabilizes all P ¼ Po þ D. (Number of unstable poles of Po norm and 1-norm operators, respectively.

and P are the same and rðDÞ=rðPo Þ dra .) It is desired to use dra as the expected uncertainty bound at

(2) For every x xs , it results in rðsÞ rs and rs < 1. each frequency. On the other hand, dra should be selected for any

candidate subset separately. This makes the criterion less efficient.

Only in the case of satisfaction of inequality Because of this, dra is conservatively selected and applied to all of

the candidate sets as the same.

1 1 There are 1820 output candidate sets which have four members.

kðPo Þ < ; 8x xs (8) Primarily, four candidate sets based on the sensor types as shown

dra 1 rs

in Table 1 are selected. Figure 7 shows the evaluation of the four

selected sets based on the JRSNP criterion. These four are

where S ¼ ðI þ Po CÞ1 is the nominal output sensitivity function

of the closed loop system; kðPo Þ is the condition number of the

rðP0 Þ set 1 ¼ f y1 y2 y3 y4 g set 2 ¼ f y5 y6 y7 y8 g

nominal system and is given by kðP0 Þ :¼ rðP 0Þ

, rðP0 Þ and rðP0 Þ

are the largest and the smallest singular values of the nominal sys- set 3 ¼ f y9 y10 y11 y12 g set 4 ¼ f y13 y14 y15 y16 g

tem, respectively; dra is the additive uncertainty range; and xs

gives the closed loop bandwidth.

This theorem gives a necessary condition for input–output Although none of the above four sets satisfy the JRSNP crite-

selection based on joint robust stability and nominal performance. rion, comparing these sets presents a clear insight of the system. It

Here, this necessary condition is called JRSNP. System P0 can be should be emphasized that input–output selection measures do not

any subset of the full input–output set. Candidate subsets which replace physical insight, although they should be used as a com-

do not satisfy inequality (8) are omitted. Qualitatively, smaller plementation. Two sets of set 1 and set 2 result in smaller

Fig. 7 Evaluation of four candidate sensor types based on the JRSNP criterion

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control JANUARY 2013, Vol. 135 / 011004-5

Fig. 8 Candidate output sets satisfying the JRSNP criterion

expected that the selected set will have members of set 1 and set 2.

Candidate output sets satisfying the JRSNP criterion are as

following:

set 0003 ¼ f y2 y3 y4 y6 g set 0004 ¼ f y2 y3 y4 y8 g

JRSNP criterion. Figure 8 shows an evaluation of these sets by the

JRSNP criterion. No final decision can be made on this stage.

Fig. 9 RGA numbers for four remaining candidate output sets

and nonsingular matrix is

T

KðPðjxÞÞ :¼ PðjxÞ: P1 ðjxÞ (9) Table 2 RHP zeros for the remaining candidate sets

where “:” shows the Schur or Hadamard multiplication. For a Set number 100 rad=s > RHP zeros

nonsquare system, matrix inversion in Eq. (9) is substituted with

pseudo-inverse. For the first time, RGA has been presented in Ref. Set0001 0.0084

Set0002 0.0000

[34] as a steady state measure to assess interactions in decentral- Set0003 0.0000, 0.0361 6 34.1j, 0.0000 6 0.0000j

ized control systems. In most of the studies in the field of control Set0004 0.0074

structure selection, RGA has been used as a method for control

configuration selection. However, it can be shown that RGA is

also suitable for input–output selection. The law is not to select

input–output sets which cause big RGA elements. Because their However, if it is not possible to totally avoid unstable transmis-

related system P is substantially difficult to control and by using a sion zeros, the input–output sets must be chosen such that they

specific class of controllers, the system will be nonrobust [13]. So, result in the least number of RHP zeros and these zeros should be

it is suitable to K have small elements. Also to have diagonal away from the imaginary axis as far as possible [35]. Table 2

dominancy, K I should be small. These two goals can found a shows the RHP zeros slower than 100 rad=s for the remaining

criterion, which is RGA number candidate sets.

X Based on Table 2, set 0001 and set 0004 are more viable for

X

RGA number : ¼kK I ksum ¼ 1 kij þ kij (10) control. Next, the quantified criteria from the state controllability

i¼j i6¼j and observability are used to tackle the final selection.

Smaller RGA numbers cause easier controls. The RGA num- 5.4 Hankel Singular Values. In control theory, eigenvalues

bers for four remaining candidate sets are plotted in Fig. 9. determine the system stability. However, Hankel singular values

Whereas RGA numbers of these sets are too close to each other, represent the energy of each system state variable. For a system in

the confident selection is impossible. With respect to this crite- state space description, Hankel singular values are

rion, it seems that set 0004 and set 0003 have worse results than

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

that of set 0002. However, in the sense of this criterion, set 0001 rH ¼ ki ðLc Lo Þ (11)

is the best set in low frequencies.

Lc and Lo are the controllability and observability gramians,

5.3 Right Half Plane Zeros. Due to the serious limitations respectively, and ki are the system eigenvalues. A candidate set,

imposed by RHP transmission zeros in multivariable plants, it is which causes higher Hankel singular values, benefits more joint

desirable to avoid them in any sensor selection. It is well known controllability and observability. That is why such a candidate set

that the location of transmission zeros is related to the sensors. is more viable for control.

Fig. 10 Hankel singular values of the two transfer functions

described in Sec. 5.4

The output sets, namely set 0001 and set 0004, are different

only in y1 and y4 . In Fig. 10, Hankel singular values of two trans-

fer functions between the four inputs and every remaining candi-

date measured variable (y1 and y4 ) are shown.

The clear result of Fig. 10 is to select set 0001 as the system

measured variable set. Fig. 11 Interaction evaluation of the system by means of

Gershgorin’s bands

6 Control Configuration Selection

The main subject of control configuration selection is to mini- restricted information flow exists. This will cause decreases in

mize the loop interactions. A proper control configuration selec- decentralized systems performance. However a trade-off should

tion gives a configuration which has the maximum possible be taken among the performance decreases and other benefits of

diagonal dominancy. Based on Ref. [13], if there is no limitation decentralized control systems [13]. A decentralized PID controller

for using steady state RGA criterion, it can be used as a powerful is used to control the system. Figure 12 shows the implemented

means for selecting control configurations. The steady state RGA control system setup. The PID controller gains are tuned using

matrix of the system is presented as below ultimate sensitivity method [37] besides doing some trial and

errors.

ufr ufl urr url The vehicle speed is assumed to be constant at 60 km/h. The

2 3 vehicle is excited by a bump road input. The results are presented

y1 1:124 0:124 0:098 0:098

6 7 in time domain.

y2 6

6 0:091 1:025 0:065 0:131 7

7 The bounce, roll, and pitch accelerations of the driver’s seat are

Kð0Þ ¼ 6 7 presented in Fig. 13 for both passive and hydro-active suspen-

y3 6

4 0:098 0:098 1:097 0:098 7

5 sions. In hydro-active suspension, these accelerations are

y8 0:002 0:003 0:001 1:006 decreased well.

The magnitude of the force between the road and the tire is pro-

portional to the displacement between the tire axis and the road.

Pairing such that the system RGA is close to unitary matrix

This displacement is called tire dynamic deflection. The contact

guarantees having the maximum possible diagonal dominancy

between the tire and the road depends on this vertical force. Con-

and integrity. As seen here, the diagonal and the off-diagonal ele-

sequently, keeping the tire dynamic deflection to small amounts is

ments of the system RGA are close to one and are little, respec-

necessary to have an acceptable contact between the tire and the

tively. Also no diagonal element is negative. So, the pairs (ufr ; y1 ),

road. The variations of tire dynamic deflection for passive and

(ufl ; y2 ), (urr ; y3 ), and (url ; y8 ) are chosen in order to have the mini-

hydro-active suspension systems are presented in Fig. 14. The

mum possible loop interaction.

decrease in tire dynamic deflection in hydro-active system shows

Evaluating the interaction is done in Fig. 11 using column

having a proper tire–road contact.

Gershgorin’s bands. In Ref. [36], a comprehensive study on

Nyquist arrays and Gershgorin’s bands has been presented.

Nyquist array of a transfer function matrix PðsÞ is an array of the

graphs in which the graph ijth is the location of the Nyquist pij ðsÞ.

The column Gershgorin’s bands P of a transfer

function

matrix PðsÞ

m

are circles with the radius of i¼1 pij ðjxÞ and the center of

i6¼j

pii ðjxÞ. If the Gershgorin’s band related to pii ðsÞ does not include

the origin, system PðsÞ has diagonal dominancy in that channel.

As shown in Fig. 11, Gershgorin’s bands include the origin,

whereas the diameters of Gershgorin’s circles are fairly small, that

is, small interactions. Regarding this, decentralized PID controller

design is addressed in the following.

7 Controller Design

In a centralized control system, each input is determined by the

feedback from all the measured variables. That is, full information

exchange exists, whereas in a decentralized control system only a Fig. 12 Control system setup of the vehicle suspension

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control JANUARY 2013, Vol. 135 / 011004-7

Fig. 13 Bounce, roll, and pitch accelerations of driver’s seat

On the other hand, a proper tire–road contact reduces applied [14] Moore, C., Hackney, J., and Carter, D., 1987, “Selecting Sensor Location and

stresses to the road, that is, decreases in road service and mainte- Type for Multivariable Processes,” Shell Process Control Workshop, Butter-

worths, Boston, pp. 291–308.

nance costs. [15] Keller, J. P., and Bonvin, D., 1987, “Selection of Inputs for the Purpose of

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