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Management Notebook 1

Lara Porte

Management Notebook

National University

TED 626

August 4, 2018
Management Notebook 2

Classroom Organization and Management Planning Notebook


a. Develop your philosophy and leadership style;
b. Get off to a smooth start and successful first year;
c. Communicate your beliefs and plans to administration and parents;
d. Organize yourself and ideas for organization, management and discipline;
e. Familiarize yourself with key school- and district-wide policies

Section 1- General Philosophy...……………………………………………………… 4-5
Section 2- Preventative Measures……………………………………………………….. 5-8

o Structuring the Classroom space (map with rationale)

o Daily Schedule, Routines, and Procedures
o Daily Routine (Beginning and ending of the day)
o Student Collaboration
o Rules or Norms of Behavior
o Classroom Behavior

Section 3- Supportive and Corrective Measures……………………………………….. 7-8

o First Steps - redirecting and warning

o Consequences
o Incentives
o Student Accountability

Section 4: Working Effectively with Diverse Students and Families…………….. 9-10

o Home-School Communication Philosophy and Plan

o Cultural Considerations with Discipline
o Legal issues regarding students with special needs

Section 5: Strategies for Dealing with Challenging Students and Situations…………..10-13

o Hierarchy of interventions
o Strategies for Building Relationships
o Techniques to break the cycle of discouragement

Section 6: Strategies for Working with Other Educators……………………………14-15

o Identifying Needs
o Documentation
o Referral Process

Section 7: Legal and Ethical Imperatives Regarding Discipline……………………15-18

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o Mandatory Reporter
o Compelling State Interests -Duty of Care
o Student Rights
o Teacher Rights

Special Local Policies (School Handbook brief notes) ……………………......19-21

o Dress Code
o Objectionable Materials/Prohibited Items
o Locker Searches
o Tardies/absences
o Cell Phone Use
o Hazing, Harassment, and/or Bullying Policies
o Cheating, Plagiarism and/or Forgery Policies

Section 8: Professional Dispositions and Growth Plan ………………………22-24

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Section 1- General Philosophy

Classroom management is such a complicated concept yet so simple when finessed and

mastered. There are many approaches to classroom management and within all of them, I find

the common themes of: have love for your students, use gestures of warmth, make students fall

in love with you and develop respect for you, model and each the behaviors you expect and

approach students in a private, dignified, non-offensive manner. It is all about establishing

ground rules and a classroom foundation to follow from day one and co-create classroom rules

and procedures together as a group. I believe it all begins by surveying your students and getting

to know who they are and their needs. That way, teachers can involve student interests in

curriculum and ultimately, be more prepared by writing more detailed and effective lesson plans

that apply to our individual students.

Both the Kagan & Scott and Gasser models stress the importance of holding semi-private

meetings with students to discuss responsibility of behavior and developing a plan to improve

and diffuse reasons for disruptions if there seems to be a problem and to never discipline loudly,

insultingly or publicly. This involves understanding the seven various positions, discussed in

Kagan & Scott’s model to get past the disruption and find out the why behind it. Marzano, R. J.,

Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2003) defines the word ‘withitness’ as “a keen awareness of

disruptive behavior or potentially disruptive behavior . . . the one that most consistently separates

the excellent classroom managers from the average” (p. 5). It is important to hold a certain

awareness to be able to tailor strategies and methods to meet their needs depending on the

perspective of disruptive behavior. Students appreciate when they are given more choices at the

secondary level about what is happening, opening the door to future communication. My own

goals for my own management strategies and discipline system are to involve a combination of
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these models and instill a sense of increased ownership in activities and behavior of students. In

order to have this outcome, I must learn to create a safe place where students are overcome with

a sense of belonging. They know they belong when they are included, in control of their success

and progress and respected by the teachers and their peers. In fact, Glasser states that it is part of

a teacher’s role “to help students feel a sense of belonging, feel important and have fun and

freedom” (Glasser, TED626 Course Materials). Lastly, I plan to incorporate Coloroso’s “six

critical life messages every day: I believe in you, I trust in you, I know you can handle this, you

are important to me, you are listened to and you are cared about” into every interaction I have

with my students (Coloroso, 2004).

Section 2- Preventative Measures

Structuring the Classroom Space (map with rationale)

Shown below is a classroom arrangement to how I would like to set up my future

classroom. I chose this set up because I feel that I can have the students’ attention on me and vice

versa by spacing the desks apart up the middle facing each other. This way, I have easy access to

approach each desk/ row, students can see presentations and demonstrations at either end of the

room and I can easily see all students from my teacher desk. I can also place students with

special needs more near the front who may require more help. I also like this set up so I can

move freely about the classroom and assist with students in each quadrant of the room.
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Daily Schedule, Routines, and Procedures

Daily Routine
 Greet each student at the door as they walk in
 Turn in previous night’s homework into homework bin as they walk in
 Attendance
 Homework review/bridging
 Address any questions/concerns
 Jump into next lesson

Student Collaboration
 Think/Pair/Share & group discussions in most lessons
 Group communication and communication with teachers

Rules or Norms of Behavior (in addition to how these will be introduced)

“The most effective classrooms are those of teachers who have clear ideas of what is expected of

the students and students who have clear ideas of what the teacher expects from them” (The IRIS

Center Star Sheet, p.15).

Classroom rules and behavior will be addressed the first day of school. They will be reviewed

consistently throughout the first week, and any time necessary throughout the year. Classroom
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norms will involve the necessary routines, the process for handing in work and passing out

handouts. I plan to state expectations clearly and include the students when creating and

implementing classroom rules together. Students will be expected to arrive in their seat on time,

raise their hand before speaking (unless stated otherwise during a debate or special discussion).

By making these actions the norm, it will help to establish an effective classroom where learning

time is maximized.

Teacher Techniques:
 Survey your students to learn about interests and experiences:


1. What is your favorite subject in school?

2. Why?
3. What do you like to read about?
4. What is your favorite book?
5. What is your favorite movie or television show?
6. What would you like to do after you graduate high school?
7. What are your hobbies?
8. Anything else I should know about you?
9. What do you do to help make the world a better place?

 Treat students the way they want to be treated to form mutual respect
 Be firm and assertive but with patience and love
 Create 3-6 rules with student input
 Initiate rule discussion
 Identify myself as teacher and “make your students fall in love with you” (Coloroso,

By incorporating ways to put the classroom behavior into context as through a constitutional

lesson about their rights as a citizen can be used as a way to help them better understand the

purpose of classroom rules. From my experience, students love to know the why behind what we

do and it helps them learn and bridge contexts to what they may know already.

Classroom Behavior
 Come to school prepared and ready to learn
 Listen carefully
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 Bring your most genuine self to school each day

 Reach out to the teacher or an adult if something is bothering you or hindering you from
 Always do your best

Section 3- Supportive and Corrective Measures

First Steps- redirecting or warning

 Establish ground rules and a classroom foundation to follow from day one
 Create a strong sense of culture and team
 Have a plan, follow it, and begin each day with clarity and organization
 Make eye contact with each student in the room and with those causing trouble- subtle
way to give a warning
 Wait calmly for students to come back to you if they get distracted
 Walk up to and stand next to the desk of a disruptive student
 State appropriate behavior & point out behavior you like from cooperating students
 Use nonverbal cues and non-punitive time outs if students need to simply regroup and
monitor their own behavior


 Turn a negative situation into positive by taking student’s perspective

 Be consistent and use same lines/words for each situation
 Initiate a one-on-one discussion with the student to make decisions for next
 Stay in after the bell for as many minutes as the teacher had to wait for students to get
back on track during class time

 Leave early
 Stamp system
 Promise a treat and follow through

Student Accountability

Students will be held accountable for their own actions and decisions. They will understand what

it means to be a part of the classroom culture and what expectations they should withhold.

Secondary students should be thinking “if I have a problem, what is a good plan?” according to

Coloroso, 2004. I will assume the best in my students and help guide them to responsible

behaviors as their norm.

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Section 4- Working Effectively with Diverse Students and Families: Home-School

Communication Plan

 Initial communication will be made within the first week of school

 Continuous communication will be made throughout the year as needed
 Make ‘good’ phone calls home one and a while
 A Google Site or Wiki page will be set up so parents can access all important classroom
and school info
 A newsletter will be sent out each month as well with school/class events

Cultural Considerations with Discipline

All students will be expected to treat others with respect and the way they’d like to be treated.

There will be zero tolerance for disrespectful behavior toward students with other cultures or


 Work on effective group work skills and collaboration

 Get to know the students and their cultural norms
 Be careful with touch interference
 Use hand gestures and modeling when explaining rules and procedures to help with
 Implement conflict resolution activities if needed

Legal Issues Regarding Students with Special Needs

1. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): “a law that makes available a free

appropriate public education to eligible children with disabilities throughout the nation and

ensures special education and related services to those children” (IDEA, n.d).

2. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: “extends protection against discrimination to the

full range of state and local government services, programs, and activities including public

schools regardless of whether they receive any Federal financial assistance” (IDEA, n.d).

3. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): “a Federal law that protects the

privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under

an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education” (US Department of Education,

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a. Parents or eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student's

education records maintained by the school

b. Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible

student in order to release any information from a student's education record.

4. Individualized Education Plan (IEP): students with disabilities might be eligible for special

services that provide individualized education programs in public schools, free of charge to

families. Parents can become advocates for their kids by understanding how to access these

services and utilize them to their advantage.

Section 5 - Strategies for Dealing with Challenging Students and Situations

Hierarchy of interventions

1. Non Verbal Interventions: planned ignoring, signal interference such as shaking your head,

pointing down or making eye contact, proximity or moving close to student, touch

interference or non-aggressive tap on the student’s shoulder or back

Advantages include: less disruption, minimized hostile confrontation, opportunity to self-

correct, alternative stronger interventions exist

2. Verbal Interventions: keep as private and brief as possible to stop behavior and redirect

students, do not embarrass anyone, diffuse anger and stay calm

a. Examples: ‘I’ Messages – “Cathy, when you call out answers without raising your

hand, I can’t call on other students”

Direct Appeal – “Cathy, please stop calling out answers so that everyone can

have a chance to answer.”

Positive phrasing – “Cathy, I will call on you as soon as you raise your hand.”

Are not for’s – Pencils are not for drumming. Pencils are for writing.”
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Reminder of rules (private) – “The classroom rules state that students must show

respect for themselves and others. Rolling your eyes when someone else answers

a question is disrespectful. Please refrain from this behavior and remember that

you are also responsible to help keep this classroom physically and emotionally

safe. We all need to know that it is safe to ask questions without someone making

fun of us.”

Explicit redirection – stop misbehavior and return to appropriate/expected


Canter’s broken record – repeat your redirection when they try to explain their

behavior and say “That’s not the point, please raise your hand before calling out


3. Third level would be to let the student know “You have a choice” and disengage from the


a. Anecdotal record keeping over the course of a few weeks, share with student in a

private conference, behavior contracting, call outside assistance if all hierarchal

interventions have been exhausted

-Make sure to monitor your verbal approaches and have awareness for the way you are speaking

to each student

-Give every student the chance to speak and call on different students

Strategies for Building Relationships

Edutopia provides insight related to this idea in Ten Tips for Classroom Management

(2011). The blog states that an effective teacher “strives to know her students and seeks

professional development and reading materials to learn how to better serve all of them, helps
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students gain hope and develop strategies for overcoming academic and societal barrier and uses

texts that are relevant and speak to the lives and experiences of the students she teaches” (p. 8).

From Managing Student Behavior: Part 3 PowerPoint:

 4 step process:

1. Ask yourself “why and “what purpose” the behavior is serving (find driving motivation for

misbehavior, 4 goals are attention- seeking, power and control, revenge, helplessness and

displaying inadequacy)

2. Develop a sense of empathy and connections to the student (see similarities and successfully

work with the student)

3. Observe cues and behaviors regarding the personality of the student (know student’s positive

traits, find common foundations for building relationships and trust)

4. Monitor your own interactions with the student (keep track and record findings, be aware of

tone of voice and mood)

Techniques to break the cycle of discouragement

 Listen carefully to the students’ reasoning for behavior and put yourself in their shoes

 Offer positive feedback and encouragement

 Create a safe space where they feel confident and comfortable to take risks

 Use specific, clear, descriptive feedback that helps students take responsibility for their

success, so they will want to improve and hold certain standards for themselves and their work

“When students attribute their success or failure to effort, they are able to view their

performance as influenced by factors within their control” (Classroom Management Simulations,

n.d.). I think students feel defeated when their negative behavior results in low self-esteem.
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Teachers should help build them up and figure out what they need in order to succeed in

engaging in appropriate behavior.

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Section 6: Strategies for Working with Other Educators

Identifying Needs

Students are assessed to determine which students may need extra help and some may

require an individualized education plan created with the student, general education teacher,

parents and special education teacher. Specific classroom accommodations, aides and devices

may be accounted for as well. Constant observations and monitoring will be conducted

throughout the year. Observations will be made to determine what further help students may

need. It is important to consider other resources and colleagues such as other teachers, school

counselors, special education coordinators, and resource specialists to reach out to for advice and

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As far as behavior management, if unacceptable social behavior continues, notify parents,

principal and counselor so the student can work with these adults to know that this situation is

serious and will not be tolerated in school. While it is professional to seek help in the areas you

feel and determine you are less competent in as a teacher, it sometimes take thinking out of the

box and approaching the individual student who may still be continuing to cause a problem

directly. Getting others, like the school counselor or principal, involved right away may create

some holes or confusion in the situation and the student will ultimately have more respect for the

teacher that way. To improve student-teacher interaction after all other techniques have been

exhausted, one can observe a successful teacher in this area and ask for feedback.


All student documents will be kept confidential and never shared with outside classroom sources.

Both electronic and paper copies with personal information will be filed separate from classroom


Referral Process

-First, model a calm demeanor when conducting a whole class meeting and productive

conversation about the rules and procedures the class previously agreed upon for all students

-Behavior Contract: Track and create behavior contract after private discussion with student who

is still causing disruptions or inappropriate behavior.

-Compile a written summary and documents for student.

-Call/Email Home to speak with parent.

-Collaborate with student’s caregivers, administration or other resources as needed. If students

continue to disrupt class or act out a meeting will be scheduled in order to develop a plan of

action to improve student behavior.

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-Meet with principal.

Section 7: Legal and Ethical Imperatives Regarding Discipline See Ca Education


(see info under ‘Legal Issues Regarding Students with Special Needs’ above)

Mandatory Reporter

It is the responsibility and obligation of a teacher or any school related positons as a mandated

reporter to report child abuse or neglect per the California Penal Code Section 11165.7.

Mandated reporters are required, by law, to report all known or suspected cases of child abuse or

neglect and they do not have to worry whether it is legitimate or not. It is not the job of the

mandated reporter to determine whether the allegations are valid. No supervisor or administrator

can inhibit a report from being filed. To make a report, contact local law enforcement or county

child welfare agency below by phone immediate and follow up in a written statement. You may

file at the same time with the school district or country office of ed.

 A Police or Sheriff’s Department (not including a school district police department or

school security department).

 A County Probation Department, if designated by the county to receive child abuse


 A County Welfare Department/County Child Protective Services.

More Information:

Compelling State Interests -Duty of Care

Teachers have a duty to care for their students and protect them from injury or care. They must

demonstrate calm, organized and safe classrooms and supervise their students to maintain a

welcoming, safe place to learn. A Teacher must assume all potential risks and dangers and help
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to avoid them from happening within their power. The duty of care applies while the students are

on the school premises during school opening hours.

Under Ed Code 233.5: “Each teacher shall endeavor to impress upon the minds of the pupils the

principles of morality, truth, justice, patriotism, and a true comprehension of the rights, duties,

and dignity of American citizenship, and the meaning of equality and human dignity, including

the promotion of harmonious relations, kindness toward domestic pets and the humane treatment

of living creatures, to teach them to avoid idleness, profanity, and falsehood, and to instruct them

in manners and morals and the principles of a free government. Each teacher is also encouraged

to create and foster an environment that encourages pupils to realize their full potential and that

is free from discriminatory attitudes, practices, events, or activities, in order to prevent acts of

hate violence, as defined in subdivision”

Student Rights

 Right to learn

 Right to a safe educational space

 Right to be treated equally and fairly

 Freedom of speech and expression

 Homeless student school enrollment

 Students with disabilities have the right to equal access to academic courses, field trips,

extracurricular activities, school technology, and health services

 Right to stay in school unless the principal deems otherwise

 Right to protection from discrimination on the basis of disability, gender, gender identity,

gender expression, nationality, race or ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or any other

characteristic that is contained in the definition of hate crimes

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 Right to participate in school activities and class while pregnant and not to be retaliated

against for pregnancy related decisions

 LGBT rights

Teacher Rights

 Right to teach

 Right to be treated equally and fairly

 Right to make decisions about grading

 Right to keep records of student discipline and academics

 Protection from unreasonable searches

 Freedom to expression

 Right to report neglect or abuse

 Right to termination notices and opportunity to respond

 Right to manage their own classroom

Special Local Policies

Dress Code:

- Shoes must be worn at all times (closed toed shoes for certain classes). No offensive or

inappropriate logos, slogans, language and decorations on any apparel that disrupt the

educational process. No gang associated apparel or wearing of chains or pointed studs.

Students will be asked to immediately correct the following conditions or to go home to

change clothes if visible midriffs, undergarments, strapless dresses, tube tops, and

revealing blouses, sleeveless undershirts or muscle shirts. Short shorts and short skirts

must be fingertip length.

Objectionable Materials/Prohibited Items:

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-firearms, explosives, dangerous weapons, flammable material, illegal controlled

substances or controlled substance analogues or other intoxicants, contraband, poisons, e-

cigarettes, tobacco

Locker Searches:

-All lockers assigned to students are district property, but school principal has all


-Random searches of school lockers and their contents have a positive impact on

deterring violations of school rules and can be conducted any time, without notice, and

without parental/guardianship or pupil consent.

- Rights are respected of privacy related to items discovered that are not illegal or

against school policy and rules.

-The principal may seize any illegal or unauthorized items and items in violation of

board policy or rules that may be a potential threat to the safety or security of others.

-Parents of minors under 18 will be notified and asked to remove from students’ locker.


- Students are expected to attend all scheduled classes on a daily basis. Absence from

class is excused for illness, medical appointments, and funerals for members of the

immediate family. Other absences must receive prior approval for validation, but invalid

absences include cutting school, oversleeping, working, baby-sitting, DMV

appointments, personal business and unverified illness. Consequences for violations will

be administered ad repeated absences result in “habitual truancy.”

1st tardy: Student/teacher conference

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2nd tardy: Student/teacher conference with teacher-imposed consequence. Parent contact

is encouraged.

3rd tardy: Teacher assigned detention slip and served with the individual teacher or in the

school sponsored detention.

4th tardy: Teacher or office assigned detention (two hours). If the teacher chooses to use

the school-sponsored detention, send a referral to the office.

Cell Phone Use: Cell phones may not be used during instructional time unless approved

by the teacher for certain activities or emergencies. Phones will be taken away during

class time if they become a distraction or disruption.

Hazing, Harassment, and/or Bullying Policies:

- Students who engage in unlawful discrimination, including discriminatory harassment,

intimidation, retaliation, or bullying, in violation of law will face appropriate

consequences which may include suspension or expulsion for severe behavior per Ed

Code 48900.4

-Any student who feels that he/she has been subjected to discrimination, harassment,

intimidation, or bullying should immediately contact school members and officials.

-A student who observes any such incident of discrimination, harassment, intimidation, or

bullying should report the situation to the school administration, teacher, or other staff

member, whether or not the victim files a complaint.

-If a school personnel witnesses an act of discrimination, harassment, intimidation, or

bullying, they should take immediate steps to intervene when safe to do so, and report it

to school administration.
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Cheating, Plagiarism and/or Forgery Policies: Academic dishonesty actions are subject to

disciplinary action by teacher, school, and/or district. The student will be confronted by the

teachers and the following steps may be taken:

1. The student will receive an automatic zero (failing grade) on the assignment or test; no

make-up work will be offered.

2. The student will be dropped from the class with no credit if the student is involved in an

act of academic dishonesty.

3. The student will be dropped from any honors associations if a member.

4. The student may face suspension from extra-curricular activities including sports


5. The student may face suspension or expulsion.

Section 8: Professional Dispositions and Growth Plan

Assignment 3.2 Professional Dispositions Survey and Reflection

Progress Made

Upon viewing my goals and growth from taking the course, TED 606, it appears that I

have already grown in knowledge and teacher skill set. It appears that in my TED 606 course, I

was asked to choose one disposition and create measureable goals related to how I can

accomplish and fully develop the disposition. At that point in my program, I felt very new to the

field and somewhat lost. I chose Standards of Exemplary Practice because I knew this is an area I

would need to improve upon as I student teach and get into the classroom. Despite the fact that I

have still had little classroom time, I feel that I have acquired many more skills and tools for my

teacher tool belt since then I regards to Standards for Exemplary Practice. I feel I now have an
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emerging understanding of school, family and organization systems as well as a specific drive to

reach all students’ varying abilities and in looking for ways to help all children achieve by

implementing new strategies and connecting relevant student experience. I feel that my Masters

courses have enabled my sense of confidence in implementing innovative and technological tools

into my future curriculum plans to demonstrate differentiated learning. My Ted 623: Language

Development Methods – Secondary course has enabled me to see a lesson plan through and

implement SDAIE strategies, for example, which helped me feel comfortable in the overall

approach to effective teaching and what is required for me.

Plan for Student Teaching: Goals

As I plan for student teaching, I can see now that all four dispositions out of the five are

emerging for me, which means I am on the right track. The fifth disposition, Scholarship or a

commitment to life-long learning and reflection, has been developed and mastered in my

opinion. I am fully committed to finishing this program and always developing my craft as

an educator with an open mind for cultivation and in search for the next best idea to solve

problems and have workable plans for most situations. For the future, I plan to modify my

original goal to be more specific and concise and then create two new measurable goals to take

with me into student teaching.

Standard for Exemplary Practice:

By May 2019, I will be able to build an organized, educational space using multiple ways of

teaching that promotes more focused, engaged students, as measured and tracked by daily

journal data tracking about increasing trends of proper classroom behavior and management

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REVISED: By May 2019, I will seek strategies to be more effective with all students using tools

and techniques acquired through National University coursework to improve student engagement

as measured by documenting a daily journal of "What worked?, What did not?, and What could

be improvised.

Responsible Citizenship:

By May 2019, I will have implemented 3 new culturally diverse teaching techniques that show

respect for students’ varied talents and perspectives, seeks to foster appropriate communication

and best practices related to diversity in the classroom, measured by assessment data and 80%

assignment grade averages indicating student improvement.

Active Reflection:

By May 2019, I will generate improvement upon my classroom speaking ability, tone and

transitions measure by actively seeking further perspectives and feedback from others to evaluate

my own performance and effectiveness through form documentation.

The measurement of these goals is meaningful to me and my professional career in teaching

because these are areas that I would like to master in order to demonstrate effective and

honorable teaching strategies.

New Strength Goal in Relation to Classroom Management

In relationship to classroom management, the two new goals (improvement and strength)

identified above are important for successfully working with students and their families,

including those who students with diverse cultural/racial and linguistic backgrounds because

they ensure I create 3 strategies that I can get to know them and reach out to them in a positive,

successful way. By modeling culturally responsive pedagogical practices and creating an inviting

and integrated learning environment that supports individual differences and learning abilities,
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all students who present learning, behavioral, emotional, social and health challenges or cultural

differences alike will be guided to self-responsibility and empowerment. Students will have a

deeper understanding of cultural sensitivity and patience/respect for those with learning

challenges. These approaches will help me to make sure all students will be engaged learners in

my classroom and cause little to no disruptions, ultimately maximizing learning. I want all my

students to develop a love for learning and enjoy my class, so if I can meet these goals for

improvement and strength in this area, I know my students and I can attain a sense of community

and teamwork in class.

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California Department of Education (2017). Retrieved from:

California Laws & Codes. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Coloroso. (2004). [Video File]. Retrieved from:


IDEA (n.d.) Retrieved from:

Managing Student Behavior: Part 3 (2000). Adopted from Levin and Nolan. [PowerPoint File]

Retrieved from:

2_1&content_id=_5938307_1&mode=reset \

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2009). Classroom management that works,

research- based strategies for every teacher. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education,


Ponderosa High School Student Responsibilities (n.d.). Retrieved from:


Ten Tips for Classroom Management: How to improve student engagement and build a positive

climate for learning and discipline [Web log post]. (2011). Retrieved July 18, 2018, from

U.S Department of Education (2018). Retrieved from:
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