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Chapter 9 Key Terms

Word Bank
Charlemagne serf
monasticism
Medieval fief
horse collar
Byzantine Empire vassal
Crusades
Kievan Russia papacy
pilgrimage
schism Holy Roman Empire
manor investiture controversy

Byzantine Empire - This empire is also called the Eastern Roman Empire. It's main
religion was Eastern Orthodox Christianity, unlike that of Rome. This caused
problems between the Orthodox Church and the Latin Church. One of the cultural
architectural structures built was the Hagia Sophia, a cathedral. Religious art was
popular in this time. Usually the art pictures were of holy figures. Cyrillic was the
writing system mainly used. There were never a lot of long times of peace in the
Byzantine Empire because there was a lot of military pressure from the North and
South, which also cost them some of their territory. Families and high ranking
aristocrats from the imperial court became important and held power. Women had
public freedoms, however historical evidence shows that they stayed mainly at
home. Trade in this area included cloth and grain, however there still were farming
practices going on.

Charlemagne - (742-814) Charlemagne was King of the Franks, King of the


Lombards, and is generally considered the first Holy Roman Emperor. Through a
series of military conquests, he established the Carolingian Empire, which
encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. He recognized the diverse
ethnic groups he'd brought together, and allowed each to retain its own local laws.
To ensure justice, Charlemagne had these laws set down in writing and strictly
enforced. He issued capitularies that applied to all citizens, and kept an eye on
events in his empire through the use of missi dominici, representatives who acted
with his authority. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival
where he reformed the palace school and set up monastic schools throughout the
empire. The flowering of learning under his patronage has come to be known as the
"Carolingian Renaissance." Charlemagne died in January, 814. His achievements
stand among the most significant of the early Middle Ages, and although the empire
he built (called "the Carolingian Empire" after him) would not long outlast his son
Louis, his consolidation of lands marked a watershed in the development of Europe.

Crusade - A crusade is a war or fight based off of religion. During the Middle Ages,
there were many crusades, with the most famous being the First Crusade, where
Christians tried to take back the holy city of Jerusalem. Most times, the Crusades
may have not had bad intentions, but people fighting in them had the wrong
reasons to raise their swords to another country or religion. But, crusades were a
very important part of the culture of the Middle Ages, as they were wars but also
ways that people could find out new ideas and customs in the world around them.

Fief - Fiefs were a grant of land in return for a pledge to provide military service,
which were given out in the medieval society. This was a way that there would
always be a strong military. Originally, fiefs were only granted to their followers,
called vassals, by the king. However, by the tenth century, anyone could inherit a
fief. This concept of land linked with military service contrasted the contemporary
city-based societies which existed in the Islamic world.

Holy Roman Empire- In 962, the pope crowned the first “Holy Roman emperor”. In
politically fragmented western Europe, the pope needed allies. Like his son,
Charlemagne’s father Pepin was a strong supporter of the papacy. The relationship
between kings and popes was tense, however, since both thought of themselves as
ultimate authorities. This designation of a secular political authority as the guardian
of general Christian interests proved more apparent than real. Essentially a loose
confederation of German princes who named one of their own to the highest office,
the Holy Roman Empire had little influence west of the Rhine River. Although the
pope crowned the early Holy Roman emperors, this did not signify political
superiority.

Horse Collar - the horse collar was developed for many reasons. The first reason
was because the current horse harness often strangled and stressed the horse’s
neck. Horses were used over oxen because they were more efficient and plowed
much faster. Yet, they were more delicate and required more care. To help make
the conditions better for the horses, a new design was developed for more comfort:
the horse collar. The horse collar is a harness that moves the point of traction from
the animal’s throat to its shoulders. It is unclear where and when horse collars were
put into effect, but nevertheless horse collars increased productivity greatly,
helping to increase agricultural surpluses and to help the population grow in Europe
and Asia.

Investiture controversy - Investiture controversy is the term given to the centuries


long medieval struggles between the church and the lords for the most power in
ecclesiastical affairs. This term also applies to the conflict between popes and kings
in constant argument for more power. The worst of this struggle last until 1122. The
present emperor, Henry V, and the present pope, Pope Calixtus II, came to a
compromise in which Emperor Henry V renounced his right in the choosing of the
bishops or abbots, as well as not bestowing any spiritual symbols, and Pope Calixtus
II allowed the emperor to invest in bishops and abbots, appointed by the pope, with
any lay rights or obligations before their spiritual consecration. Over the years to
come, the power and struggle would keep jumping back and forth by reforms for a
stronger crown by Emperor Henry II and the Pope’s struggle to keep the power by
any means possible, similarly to Emperor Henry VI and Pope Gregory’s constant
struggle or Emperor Charlemagne and Pope Leo III.

Kievan Russia – Kievan Russia was a medieval state which existed from
approximately 880 to the middle of the 13th century when the Mongols invaded in
1240. Originally founded by Scandinavian traders called "Rus'" and centered
in Novgorod, the state later included territories stretching south to the Black Sea,
east to Volga, and west to the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–
1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of
Christianity and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya
Pravda meaning The Russian Truth. The state's power gradually fell due to the
decline of Constantinople, the drying up of trade routes and the subsequent Mongol
invasion of Russia.

Manor - manors were used during Medieval Europe. They were large, self-sufficient
landholdings consisting of the lord’s residence (manor house), outbuildings peasant
villages, and the surround land. Manors became the primary centers of agricultural
production. During these times, local farmers and the common villagers were afraid
of constant attack, so gave up their land to the landowners. This increased this
estate, and in return, the landowner offered his protection physically and
politically. This protection sometimes included stone walls and a fortified
keep. Within these large manors were fields, a mill, church, workshops, and a
village for the farmers. These manors were very efficient and did not need to rely
on the support of others to survive.

Medieval – Medieval literally means “middle age,” a term that historians use for the
period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman
antiquity and the Renaissance. The period followed the fall of the Western Roman
Empire in 476, and preceded the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period in a
three-period division of history: Classical, Medieval, and Modern. The term "Middle
Ages" (medium aevum) was coined in the 15th century and reflects the view that
this period was a deviation from the path of classical learning, a path supposedly
reconnected by Renaissance scholarship. The Early Middle Ages saw the
continuation of trends set in Late Antiquity, depopulation, deurbanization, and
increased barbarian invasion. North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the
Eastern Roman Empire, were conquered by Islam. Later in the period, the
establishment of the feudal system allowed a return to systemic agriculture. There
was sustained urbanization in northern and Western Europe. During the High Middle
Ages (c. 1000 - 1300), Christian-oriented art and architecture flourished and
Crusades were mounted to recapture the Holy Land. The influence of the emerging
nation-state was tempered by the ideal of an international Christendom. The codes
of chivalry and courtly love set rules for proper behavior, while the Scholastic
philosophers attempted to reconcile faith and reason. Outstanding achievement in
this period includes the Code of Justinian, the mathematics of Fibonacci and
Oresme, and the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.

Monasticism - Pre Christian practices, celibacy, continual devotion to prayer, and


living apart from society alone or in small groups, came together in a Christian
form. It was featured heavily in almost all medieval Christian lands and the most
important form of monasticism came from Western Europe. In this area, there were
monks and nuns living together in an organized community. The man responsible
for this form was a man by the name of Benedict of Nursia, Italy. He was originally a
hermit living in caves but came to form many monasteries led by abbots, which
eventually spread to places beyond Italy. Benedict had written The Rule to tell
monks about the balanced life they should live. Devotion and work, celibacy,
poverty and obedience to the abbot was the life rules to a regular clergy. The
secular clergy priests lived is society and followed a looser version of these rules.
The monasteries preserved literacy and learning (by copying Latin works), went on
the plant Christianity in new areas, became travelers, farmers, or taking in abandon
infants. After periods of lost control, the Benedictine Rule came into effect and
began to have independent monasteries that had obedient and disciplined abbots
and followers.

Papacy - The literal definition of papacy is the office of the pope. But, papacy in
terms of the Middle Ages can be defined as the pope and the riches that he had. To
become the pope and work in the papacy was a very high honor in Christianity, and
still is today. Popes also had an immense amount of power during these times,
when the church was more prevalent in the lives of people than it is today. The
papacy was one of the most important things in the Middle Ages, and is still around
in today’s society.

Pilgrimage - a pilgrimage is a journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to


show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religions make
pilgrimages as well, such as the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and the pilgrimages
made by early Chinese Buddhists to India in search of sacred Buddhist
writings. One of the most important pilgrimages every made in history were the
Christian Crusades. People who commit themselves to these long pilgrimages were
called pilgrims. The most traveled pilgrimage site would have to be Jerusalem. This
is because Jerusalem has many holy relics and holy sites important to Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam. For this reason, many conflicts broke out over which
religion has the right to the Holy Land.

Schism - a schism is a formal split within a religious community. These splits can
refer to breaks of communion between Christianity, where the two parts were
originally a unified, single body. However, schism also means a split in a
movement, organization or people. Examples of this include a split between
friends, lovers, etc. The most famous schism is the Great Western Schism. In this
schism, the Roman Catholic Church split, and there was two men claiming to be the
true Pope. There were many conflicts between these two people for the Pope title,
however, because of this schism; the Roman Catholic Church’s reputation was
hurt. This schism ended though with the Council of Constance.

Serf - Serfs were agricultural workers who belonged to the manor, tilled its fields,
and owed other dues and obligations. Manor life reflected personal status. Nobles
and their families exercised almost unlimited power of the serfs. Serfs could not
leave the manor where they were born and attach themselves to another lord. Most
peasants in England, France, and western Germany were unfree serfs in the tenth
and eleventh centuries. In Bordeaux, Saxony, and a few other regions free
peasantry survived based on the egalitarian social structure of the Germanic
peoples during their period of migration. Outright slavery, the mainstay of the
Roman economy, diminished as more and more peasants became serfs in return for
a lord’s protection. The enslavement of prisoners to serve as laborers became less
important as an object of warfare.

Vassals - Vassals were the noble followers of the king. At first, the king would grant
them fiefs on a temporary basis, but by the 10th century, fiefs could be inherited.