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- the way a person perceives his own abilities and competence in dealing with a problem or
- How a person sees his abilities will determine to which source he attributes successes and

- We likely have different levels of self-efficacy for different skill domains

- However, overall, we may develop a general level or sense of self-efficacy based on our
various experiences.

- a person’s skills and developmental level are not only determined by the environment and
- the person also creates or determines her own environment by making modifications in it
- As a person selects specific environments, the tasks in turn influence what the person will
learn and develop

- This process of reciprocal determinism is greatly influenced by our sense of self-efficacy, and
our sense of self-efficacy will increase or decrease in particular areas because of the ongoing
process of reciprocal determinism
- Whatever we believed will happen is validated because we have brought these beliefs and
predictions to fulfillment.

- we gain vicarious reinforcement
- We see the successes and failures of those whom we perceive are similar to us, and we think
these attributes must apply to ourselves as well

- what others say about us influences how we think about ourselves
- we will be influenced by what others say to persuade us of our ability level


- the emotional state and the physiological pain and pleasure we feel internally in the context
of performing a task will influence the sense of self-efficacy we develop

- “No matter what your ability is, effort is what ignites that ability and turns it into
- “What our basic skills and abilities are, to what sources we attribute our abilities”
- is the way human beings react both physically and mentally to changes, events, and situations
in their lives. The reaction is based on your perception of an event or situation. If you view a
situation negatively, you will likely feel distressed—overwhelmed, oppressed, or out of


- The environment can bombard people with intense and competing demands to adjust.
Examples of environmental stressors include weather, noise, crowding, pollution, traffic,
unsafe and substandard housing, and crime.

SOCIAL STRESSORS - Some examples of social stressors include deadlines, financial problems, job
interviews, presentations, disagreements, demands for your time and attention, and loss of a loved

PHYSIOLOGICAL STRSSORS - Situations and circumstances affecting the body can be experienced as
physiological stressors. Examples of physiological stressors include rapid growth of adolescence,
menopause, illness, aging, giving birth, accidents, poor nutrition, and sleep disturbances.

THOUGHTS - The brain interprets and perceives situations as stressful, difficult, painful, or pleasant.
Some situations in life are stress provoking, but it is our thoughts that determine whether they are a
problem for us.

THE FIGHT OF FLIGHT RESPONSE (HANS SELYE) - He found that any problem, real or imagined, could
cause the cerebral cortex (the thinking part of the brain) to send an alarm to the hypothalamus (the
main switch for the stress response, located in the midbrain). The hypothalamus then stimulates the
sympathetic nervous system to make a series of changes in the body. The heart rate, breathing rate,
muscle tension, metabolism, and blood pressure all increase.

STRESS RESPONSE - The stress response is useful and can be necessary in times of emergency, but the
frequent or unrelenting triggering of the stress response without a balancing relaxation response can
contribute to a number of illnesses and symptoms.


PHYSICAL Cognitive

- Aches and pains, muscle tension - Memory problems

- Diarrhea or constipation - Inability or difficulty concentrating
- Nausea, dizziness, or butterflies in the stomach - Poor judgment
- Chest pain or rapid heartbeat - Seeing only the negative
- Shallow breathing and sweating Frequent colds - Anxious and Constant Worrying
- Moodiness - Eating more or less
- Irritability or short-tempered - Sleeping too much or too little
- Agitation, inability to relax - Isolating yourself from others
- Feeling overwhelmed - Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drug
- Sense of loneliness or isolation - Nervous habits (nail biting, pacing)
- Depression or general unhappiness


What happens during learning?
- We are considered to be Homo sapiens or the “wise man”. We can think in complex way
compared to our ancestors.
In view of learning, studies shows that when you are able to think about how you think, how you
process in formation, and how you utilize techniques while you are studying, you have the higher
chance of improving your learning process than those who do not reflect on their methods.

Plasticity – is the capacity of the brain to change with learning.

Neural Circuit – is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function
when activated.

Synapse – has been defined as a specialized structure that mediates a functional interaction between
two neurons or between a neuron and another cell type.

Metacognition – is commonly defined as “thinking about thinking”. It is the awareness of the scope of
limitations of your current knowledge and skill.

Self – appraisal – is your personal reflection on your knowledge and capabilities.

Self- management – is the mental process you employ using what you have in planning and adapting
to successfully learn or accomplish a certain task.

Metacognitive knowledge – what you know about how you think

Metacognition regulation – how you adjust your thinking process to help you learn better.