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Jun 13, 2019

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1 Aufrufe

analysis

© All Rights Reserved

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PRESENTATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.9 CONCLUSION

1

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The integration of non-bank financial institution as an important facet of the financial system is

positively related to the development of small and medium scale enterprises. Small and medium

scale enterprises are the backbone of all economies and a key source of economic growth, job

creation and innovation in both developed and emerging market economies. Small and medium

scale enterprises in Nigeria have limited access to bank credit due to lack of collateral to match

the fund needed. Furthermore, it is difficult for small and medium scale enterprises to access

long-term fund from stock market genuinely on their incapability to get listed due to stringent

listing requirements. The constraints faced by small and medium scale enterprises in accessing

long-term financing can be eased by non-bank financial institutions provision of small and

medium-sized loans. Similarly, non-bank financial institutions can assist small and medium

scale enterprises in the business expansion which result in employment generation for the

economy.

This study is aimed to analyze the role of microfinance in mobilizing savings for non-banking

financial institutions in the area of Jodhpur rural. Therefore, this study examines various issues

of microfinance in pertaining to the moneylenders. This chapter presents the results of statistical

analysis of survey data and analysis. In addition, questions designed to elicit qualitative

responses from moneylenders of Jodhpur rural.

Therefore, data and information on which the study is based are both qualitative and quantitative.

In the first phase of the analysis, the study provides an updated analysis of Responses collected

from the respondents.

2

5.2 RELIABILITY FOR DATA COLLECTED

Reliability comes to the forefront when variables developed from summated scales are used as

predictor components in objective models.

Reliability coefficient tested by using Cronbach’s alpha (α) analysis and it is a measure of

internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. It is considered a

measure of scale reliability. In order to measure the reliability for a set of two or more constructs,

Cronbach’s alpha is a commonly used method where alpha coefficient values range between 0

and 1 with higher values indicating higher reliability among the indicators.

An alpha value of 0.60 and 0.70 or above is considered the criterion for demonstrating internal

consistency of new scales and established scales respectively. Reliability of the measurements

was determined using Cronbach’s Coefficient alpha. In this research, following are the research

for the data collected from moneylenders for the mobilization of savings through microfinance in

Jodhpur rural.

Table 5.1: Case Processing Summary for the money lenders

Case Processing Summary

N %

Cases Valid 550 100.0

Excludeda 0 0.0

Total 550 100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

From the above Table 5.1, it could be interpreted that total case followed under examinations,

which were found valid, were 550. Total numbers of cases were 550. There were no missing or

excluded cases were recognized. All the responses collected through respondents and governed

by the questionnaire were systematically filled and specific attention was given to all the

respondents if required so that proper and confirmed responses about the issues could be

collected.

3

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items

89.26 27

Source: Author’s Compilation

From above Table 5.2, it could be easily recognized that Cronbach value for the responses of the

27 respondents of the study was found as 89.26, which is an excellent representation of the

quality of data and confirms approx 89.26% reliability of the collected data. Cronbach's an

(alpha) is an important psychometric instrument to measure the reliability of data. The reliability

coefficient indicates that the scale for measuring trust and commitment is reliable. Therefore,

various statistical tools can be applied and tested.

This part of the questionnaire has been designed to enquire about some qualitative information

regarding the demographic profile of the managers like name, department, designation and

years of experience of the money lenders of Jodhpur Rural.

Table 5.3: Descriptive encoding of the Demographic Profile of Respondents [Personnel] for

statistical analysis

Name of Variable Description Encoded As

Gender Male 1

Female 2

Age Group < 20 years 1

From 20 to 30 2

From 30 to 40 3

40 and above 4

Income level Less than 5000 per 1

month

From 5000 to 7000 per 2

month

From 7000 to 10000 3

4

per month

More than 10000 per 4

month

Resident of Bhopalgarh 1

Bilara 2

Jodhpur 3

Luni 4

Osian 5

Phalodi 6

Shergarh 7

Pali 8

Education Secondary 1

Higher Secondary 2

Graduate 3

Postgraduate and 4

above

Marital status Bachelor 1

Married 2

Divorce and others 3

Family members 4 members 1

5 members 2

6 members 3

Earning members 2 members 1

3 members 2

4 members 3

Main occupation Self-employed 1

Business 2

Service 3

Employment type Public 1

Private 2

5

Working sector Handloom 1

Raw silk 2

Khadi Cloth 3

Handicrafts 4

Khadi & Village 5

Industries

Powerlooms 6

Hosiery 7

Sandstones, Mines, 8

and building materials

Others 9

Residence of Rural 1

Urban 2

Source: Author’s Compilation

Gender: is classified into two categories that are males (encoded as 1) and females (encoded as

2), Age Group: is divided into 4 sections that are < 20 years (encoded as 1), From 20 to 30

(encoded as 2), From 30 to 40 (encoded as 3), 40 and above(encoded as 4), Income level: is

divided into 4 sections, Resident of classified into 8 Regions, Education is divided into 4 sections

that are Secondary, Higher Secondary, Graduate, Post graduate and above and other

demographic variables are Marital status, Family members, Earning members, Main occupation,

Employment type, Working sector, Residence of which are also divided into different categories

and encoded between (1-9). Therefore, all the demographic variable are used for the statistical

analysis of the research study.

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

Gender (A2) 550 1 4 2.16 .927

Age (A3) 550 1 2 1.45 .498

Income (A4) 550 1 3 2.03 .628

6

Resident (A5) 550 1 8 3.23 2.121

Education (A6) 550 1 4 1.78 .846

Marital status (A7) 550 1 3 1.73 .732

Family members (A8) 550 1 3 1.65 .695

Earning members (A9) 550 1 3 2.06 .741

Main occupation (A10) 550 1 3 2.16 .829

Employment type 550 1 2 1.09 .290

(A11)

Working sector (A12) 550 1 9 3.25 2.159

Residence (A13) 550 1 2 1.48 .500

Valid N (listwise) 550

Table 5.4 presents the descriptive statistics of demographic profile of respondents in which all

the (200) respondents have given the information about their gender, age, income, educational

qualifications, marital status, family members, earning members, main occupation, Employment

type, Working sector, Residence and hence no missing value is visible. Above table has given

the mean and standard deviation.

Gender (A2)

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative

Percent

Valid Male 261 47.5 47.5 47.5

Female 289 52.5 52.5 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

Source: Primary Data

7

550

600

500

400 289 Frequency

261

300

Percent

200 100

47.5 52.5

100

0

Male Female Total

Table 7.1 indicates that there are 550 total respondents divided into two groups that are male and

female of which 289 are female respondents and 261 are male respondents. As the frequency

table clearly shows, that there is an imbalance between male and female respondents. Female

category of respondents is up to 52.5 and the male category is up to 47.5 this result shows the

extremely small number of male respondents as compared to the female respondents and hence it

is very much clear that female entrepreneurs are more satisfied in relationship-based banking for

microfinance in mobilizing savings for non-banking financial institutions.

Age (A3)

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid < 20 years 167 30.4 30.4 30.4

From 20 to 30 158 28.7 28.7 59.1

From 30 to 40 195 35.5 35.5 94.5

40 and above 30 5.5 5.5 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

Source: Primary Data

8

Graph 5.2: Frequency graph of Age

550

600

500

400

Frequency

300 195

167 158 Percent

200 100.0

100 30.4 28.7 35.5 30 5.5

0

< 20 years From 20 to 30 From 30 to 40 40 and above Total

According to Table 5.6 and graph 5.2, Agewise classification out of 550 respondents is done,

there are 167 respondents found in < 20 years age group whereas 158 respondents found in From

20 to 30 years age group whereas 195 respondents respond in From 30 to 40years age group and

30 respondents provide responses in 40 and above age group.

As the frequency graph of age groups, it clearly shows, that there is an imbalance between the

respondents of four age groups and the age group from 30-40 years has the highest number of

respondents among all the four groups.

Income (A4)

Frequency Perce Valid Cumulative

nt Percent Percent

Vali Less than 5000 per 100 18.2 18.2 18.2

d month

From 5000 to 7000 per 333 60.5 60.5 78.7

month

From 7000 to 10000 117 21.3 21.3 100.0

per month

Total 550 100.0 100.0

9

600 550

500

400

333

300 Frequency

Percent

200

100 117 100

100 60.5

18.2 21.3

0

Less than 5000 per From 5000 to 7000 From 7000 to 10000 Total

month per month per month

According to Table 5.7 and graph 5.3, Income Level wise classification out of 550 respondents is

done, Now the income level classification is done under three categories in which highest

(60.5%) of the respondents were found in the income level of 5000 to 7000 per month and

afterwards 21.3 % in from 7000 to 10,000 per month income level and a very low among three is

18.2 % in less than 5000 per month income level and hence it is very much clear that from

income level 5000 to 7000 per month entrepreneurs are more working for relationship-based

banking for micro finance in mobilizing savings for non-banking financial institutions.

Resident (A5)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Bhopalgarh 181 32.9 32.9 32.9

Bilara 35 6.4 6.4 39.3

Jodhpur 132 24.0 24.0 63.3

Luni 61 11.1 11.1 74.4

Osian 44 8.0 8.0 82.4

Phalodi 42 7.6 7.6 90.0

Shergarh 28 5.1 5.1 95.1

10

Pali 27 4.9 4.9 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

600 550

500

400

300

Frequency

181

200 132 Percent

100.0

100 61 44 42

32.9 35 24.0 28 27

6.4 11.1 8.0 7.6 5.1 4.9

0

According to Table 5.8 and graph 5.4 presents the Frequency graph of Resident, under this 550

respondents from different regions are taken for the purpose of study, Now the demographic

variable ‘Resident’ is classified under eight categories in which highest (32.9%) of the

respondents were found in the residents of Bhopalgarh and afterwards 24.0 % in Jodhpur and a

very low among all eight variables is 4.9 % in Pali and hence it is very much clear that from

Bhopalgarh respondents were at highest rate and are more working for relationship-based

banking for micro finance in mobilizing savings for non-banking financial institutions.

Education (A6)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Secondary 238 43.3 43.3 43.3

Higher 224 40.7 40.7 84.0

Secondary

11

Graduate 57 10.4 10.4 94.4

Post graduate 31 5.6 5.6 100.0

and above

Total 550 100.0 100.0

600 550

500

400

224

Percent

200

100.0

100 43.3 40.7 57

31

10.4 5.6

0

Secondary Higher Graduate Post graduate Total

Secondary and above

According to Table 5.9 and graph 5.5, under the Educational Qualification wise classification out

of 550 respondents, 238 (43.3%) were secondary, 224 (40.7%) were higher secondary, 57

(10.4%) were Graduate only 31 (5.6) respondents are in the postgraduate and above category.

This represents that the Qualification matters for working for relationship-based banking for

microfinance in mobilizing savings for non-banking financial institutions

.

Table 5.10: Frequency table of Marital Status

Marital status (A7)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Bachelor 241 43.8 43.8 43.8

Married 216 39.3 39.3 83.1

12

Divorce and 93 16.9 16.9 100.0

others

Total 550 100.0 100.0

600 550

500

400

216

Percent

200

93 100.0

100 43.8 39.3

16.9

0

Bachelor Married Divorce and Total

others

According to Table 5.10 and graph 5.6, as the table data and graph is demonstrated that married

respondents were 216 (39.3%), Bachelor was 241 (43.8%) and 93 (16.9%) were divorced and

others out of 550 respondents. The table and graph clearly show that among the 550 respondents

bachelor respondents are more as compared to the married and divorce and other respondents.

Family members (A8)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid 4 263 47.8 47.8 47.8

5 217 39.5 39.5 87.3

6 70 12.7 12.7 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

13

Graph 5.11: Frequency Graph of Family Members

600 550

500

400

Frequency

263

300

217 Percent

200

100.0

70

100 47.8 39.5

12.7

0

4 5 6 Total

From table 5.12 it could be interpreted Frequency table of Family Members shows the

frequency and percent of 4 (263) respondents, 5 (217) respondents and 6 (70) respondents of

microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.12, it could be interpreted that Frequency graph of Family Members

shows that the earning members of respondents are high in the group 4 (263) with the 47.8% as

compared to the group 5 (217) and 6 (70) with the 39.5 % and 12.7%.

Earning members (A9)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid 2 136 24.7 24.7 24.7

3 247 44.9 44.9 69.6

4 167 30.4 30.4 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

14

Graph 5.12: Frequency Graph of Family Members

550

600

500

400

247 Frequency

300

167 Percent

200 136

100.0

24.7 44.9 30.4

100

0

2 3 4 Total

From table 5.13 it could be interpreted Frequency table of Family Members shows the

frequency and percent of 2 (136) respondents, 3 (247) respondents and 4 (167) respondents of

microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.13, it could be interpreted that Frequency graph of Family Members

Shows that the earning members of respondents are high in the group 3 (247) as compare to the

group 2 (136) and 4 (167).

Main occupation (A10)

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid Self employed 151 27.5 27.5 27.5

Service 241 43.8 43.8 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

15

600 550

500

400

300 Frequency

241

Percent

200 151 158

100.0

100

27.5 28.7 43.8

0

Self employed Business Service Total

From table 5.13 it could be interpreted Frequency table of Main Occupation shows the

frequency and percent of Self-employed (151) respondents, Business (158) respondents and

Service (241) respondents of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.13 it could be interpreted that Frequency table of Main Occupation

shows that the service respondents are more than of the business and self-employed respondents

with the percent of 43.8 (Service respondents) and 28.7 for (Business respondents), 27.5 for (Self

employed respondents) and thus it gives the result that Service respondents are at higher rate that

shows interest in microfinance for mobilizing savings From non-banking financial institutions as

compared to the Business and Self-employed employment occupation.

Employment type (A11)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Public 499 90.7 90.7 90.7

Private 51 9.3 9.3 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

16

600 550

499

500

400

Frequency

300

Percent

200

90.7 100.0

100 51

9.3

0

Public Private Total

From table 5.14 it could be interpreted Frequency Graph of Employment Type shows the

frequency and percent of Public (499) respondents and Private (51) respondents of microfinance

moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.14 it could be interpret that Frequency Graph of Employment Type

shows that the public respondents are more than of the private respondents with the percent of

90.7 (Public respondents) and 9.3 for (Private respondents) and thus it gives the result that Public

residents respondents are at higher rate that shows interest in microfinance for mobilizing

savings From non-banking financial institutions as compared to the private employment type.

Working sector (A12)

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Handloom 181 32.9 32.9 32.9

Khadi Cloth 132 24.0 24.0 63.3

17

Industries

Sandstones, Mines, 27 4.9 4.9 99.5

and building

materials

Others 3 .5 .5 100.0

Total 550 100.0 100.0

600 550

500

400

300

181

200 132

100.0

100 61 41 42 Frequency

32.9 35 24.0 11.1 285.1 274.9

6.4 7.5 7.6 3 .5

0 Percent

From table 5.15 it could be interpret that Frequency table of Working Sector shows the

frequency and percent of Handloom (181), Raw silk (35), Khadi Cloth (132), Handicrafts (61),

Khadi & Village Industries (41), Powerlooms (42),Hosiery (28),Sandstones, Mines and building

materials (27) and Others (3), respondents of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.15, it could be interpreted that Frequency Graph of Working Sector

represents that the most higher working sector of Jodhpur rural is Handloom (181) with the

32.9% as compared to the other working sector after than Khadi cloth is with 132 respondents

18

with the 24% then after Handicrafts (61) respondents with the 11.1% and then all other

categories of working sector. Hence it is concluded that handloom working sector is most

interesting in microfinance for mobilizing savings From non-banking financial institutions.

Residence (A13)

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid Rural 288 52.4 52.4 52.4

600 550

500

400

288 Frequency

262

300

Percent

200

100.0

100

0

Rural Urban Total

From table 5.16 it could be interpreted that Frequency table of Residence shows the frequency

and percent of rural (288) respondents and urban (262) respondents of microfinance male and

female moneylenders in Jodhpur.

From the above graph 5.16 it could be interpret that Frequency Graph of Residence shows that

the rural respondents are more than of the urban respondents with the percent of 52.4 (rural

19

respondents) and 47.6 for urban respondents and thus it gives the result that rural residents

respondents are at higher rate that shows interest in microfinance for mobilizing savings From

non-banking financial institutions.

This part of the questionnaire has been designed to enquire about some qualitative information

regarding the demographic profile of the managers like name, department, designation and years

of experience of the money lenders of Jodhpur Rural.

male and female moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

H11: There is a significant difference between the economic efficiency of microfinance

male and female moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances

F df1 df2 Sig.

46.862 4 524 .000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + B1EE

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.18, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.691) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

20

Table 5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender)

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Gender (A2)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model .562a 4 .140 .560 .691

Intercept 44.851 1 44.851 179.006 .000

B1EE .562 4 .140 .560 .691

Error 131.291 524 .251

Total 1366.000 529

Corrected Total 131.853 528

a. R Squared = .004 (Adjusted R Squared = -.003)

From above Table 5.18, it could interpret that economic efficiency of microfinance male and

female moneylenders in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is 0.560 with 4

degrees of freedom. The ANOVA table gives F statistics = 0.560, p=0.691, for Gender (B1EE)

in 0.000 Table 5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender). From the results, it can be said

that there is strong evidence between the genders. Gender significant value is equal to p-value

(.0691 >0.005) to accept the null hypothesis which shows there is no significant difference

between male and female for the economic efficiency of microfinance male and female

moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

moneylenders among various residents of (Bhopalgarh, Bilara, Jodhpur, Luni, Osian,

Phalodi, Shergarh, and Pali)

moneylenders among various residents of (Bhopalgarh, Bilara, Jodhpur, Luni, Osian,

Phalodi, Shergarh, and Pali)

21

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances

F df1 df2 Sig.

1.380 4 524 .240

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + B1EE

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Resident (A5)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model 14.935a 4 3.734 .834 .504

B1EE 14.935 4 3.734 .834 .504

Error 2345.345 524 4.476

Total 8176.000 529

Corrected Total 2360.280 528

a. R Squared = .006 (Adjusted R Squared = -.001)

H03: Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the Microfinance mobilises

savings for non-banking financial institutions.

H04: Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards manages cost per borrower.

H05: Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the help in making loan

balance and saving balance.

H06: Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the help in increasing

Productivity.

22

Table 5.21: One-Sample Statistics for Economic efficiency

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

B2ii (EE) 550 2.93 1.479 .063

B2iii (EE) 550 2.99 1.444 .062

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df Sig. (2- Mean 95% Confidence Interval of

tailed) Difference the Difference

Lower Upper

B2i 49.349 549 .000 3.100 2.98 3.22

(EE)

B2ii 46.511 549 .000 2.933 2.81 3.06

(EE)

B2iii 48.513 549 .000 2.987 2.87 3.11

(EE)

B2iv 49.272 549 .000 3.013 2.89 3.13

(EE)

The significant value is equal to p-value (.000 < 0.005) so rejects the null hypothesis that says the

Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the Microfinance mobilises

savings for non-banking financial institutions and accepts the alternate hypothesis.

The significant value is equal to p-value (.000 < 0.005) so rejects the null hypothesis that says the

Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards manages cost per borrower and

accepts the alternate hypothesis.

23

The significant value is equal to p-value (.000 < 0.005) so rejects the null hypothesis that says the

Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the help in making in loan balance

and saving balance and accepts the alternate hypothesis.

The significant value is equal to p-value (.000 < 0.005) so rejects the null hypothesis that says the

Economic efficiency not playing a significant role towards the help in increasing in Productivity

and accepts the alternate hypothesis.

H07: There is no significant difference between public and private employees perception about

the liquidity risks of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

H17: There is a significant difference between public and private employees perception about the

liquidity risks of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

F df1 df2 Sig.

.581 4 524 .676

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.35, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.676) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

24

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Employment type (A11)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model .051a 4 .013 .144 .966

Error 46.033 524 .088

Total 682.000 529

Corrected Total 46.083 528

a. R Squared = .001 (Adjusted R Squared = -.007)

From above Table 5.24, it could interpret that Type of Employees of microfinance

moneylenders in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is .144 with 4 degrees of

freedom. The ANOVA table gives F statistics= 1.44, p=.966, for Type of Employees (C3LL) in

Table 5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender). From the results, it can be said that

there is strong evidence between the type of Employees. Type of Employees significant value is

equal to p-value (.966 > 0.005) so accept the null hypothesis which shows there is no significant

difference between public and private employees perception about the liquidity risks of

microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

H08: There is no significant difference between rural and urban residents’ perception about the

liquidity risks of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

H18: There is a significant difference between rural and urban residents’ perception about the

liquidity risks of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

25

Table 5.25: Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances (Residence-Rural & Urban)

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

Dependent Variable: Residence (A13)

F df1 df2 Sig.

2.446 4 524 .046

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + C3LL

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.25, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.046) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Residence (A13)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model 1.370a 4 .343 1.371 .243

Intercept 262.269 1 262.269 1050.133 .000

Error 130.868 524 .250

Total 1315.000 529

Corrected Total 132.238 528

a. R Squared = .010 (Adjusted R Squared = .003)

26

From above Table 5.26, it could interpret that Residence-Rural & Urban of micro moneylenders

in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is 1.371 with 4 degree of freedom. The

ANOVA table gives F statistics= 1.371, p=.000, for Residence-Rural & Urban (C3LL) in

Table 5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Residence-Rural & Urban). From the results, it

can be said that there is strong evidence between the genders. Gender significant value is equal

to p-value (.243 < 0.005) so accept the null hypothesis which shows there is a significant

difference between rural and urban residents’ perception about the liquidity risks of microfinance

moneylenders in Jodhpur rural.

H09: There is no significant use of Proper investment guidelines for liquidizing risk.

H010: There is no significant use of Proper risk management policies to control risk.

H011: There is no significant use of appropriate standards and reports to minimize risk for

liquidizing risk.

H012: There is no significant use of monitoring helps in liquidizing risk.

H013: There is no significant use of qualitative internal communication in liquidizing risk.

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

C4ii (LR) 550 2.17 1.363 .058

C4iii (LR) 550 2.79 1.538 .066

C4iv (LR) 550 2.20 1.409 .060

C4v (LR) 550 2.35 1.237 .053

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df Sig. (2- Mean 95% Confidence Interval of

tailed) Difference the Difference

27

Lower Upper

C4i (LR) 49.805 549 .000 2.927 2.81 3.04

From Table 5.27 it could interpret that the mean score value of the C4i (LR) (2.93 ± 1.38), C4ii

(LR) (2.17 ± 1.37), C4iii (LR) (2.79 ± 1.53), C4iv (LR) (2.20 ± 1.41) and C4v (LR) (2.35 ± 1.23)

was above than the population normal score of ‘0’.

For liquidizing risk factor, T value is 49.805 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of

freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean and the

comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows that there is

significant use of Proper investment guidelines for liquidizing risk. The P-value of t-test with

unequal variance was .000, which was lesser than 0.05. This meant that there is significance

difference in mean score of pre-test and post-test with respect to gender at 5% level of

significance. As a result, the finding suggested that since there was is a significant difference to

be found in the mean scores of the pre-test and the post-test with respect to factor.

To control risk, T value is 37.353 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degrees of freedom

shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean and the comparison

population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows there is significant use of

Proper risk management policies to control risk. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was

.000, which was lesser than 0.05. This meant that there is significance difference in mean score

of pre-test and post-test with respect to gender at 5% level of significance. As a result, the

28

finding suggested that since there is significant use of Proper risk management policies to control

risk.

To minimize risk of liquidizing risk, T value is 42.589 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549

degree of freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean

and the comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows there is

significant use of appropriate standards and reports to minimize risk for liquidizing risk.

The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, which was lesser than 0.05. This meant

that there is significance difference in mean score of pre-test and post-test with respect to gender

at 5% level of significance. As a result, the finding suggested that since there is significant use

of appropriate standards and reports to minimize risk for liquidizing risk.

For monitoring helps into liquidizing risk, T value is 36.617 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for

549 degree of freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population

mean and the comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows

there is significant use of monitoring helps in liquidizing risk. The P-value of t-test with unequal

variance was .000, which was lesser than 0.05. This meant that there is significance difference

in mean score of pre-test and post-test with respect to gender at 5% level of significance. As a

result, the finding suggested that since there is significant use of monitoring helps in liquidizing

risk.

For use of qualitative internal communication in liquidizing risk, T value is 44.459 and Sig. (2-

tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of freedom shows that the difference between the sample

estimated the population mean and the comparison population mean is statistically significantly

different, which there is no significant use of qualitative internal communication in liquidizing

risk. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, which was lesser than 0.05. This

meant that there is significance difference in mean score of pre-test and post-test with respect to

gender at 5% level of significance. As a result, the finding suggested that since there is no

significant use of qualitative internal communication in liquidizing risk.

29

5.6 ANALYSIS OF PART D OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

There is no significant difference between cash investments of microfinance moneylenders

in Jodhpur rural towards the

H014: Funds with absolute returns are an investment implying low risks.

H015: Microfinance gives appropriate internal funds or retained earnings

H016: Borrowed from non-bank financial institutions which include microfinance

institutions, credit cooperatives, credit unions, or finance companies are good

H017: Selecting target segments, microfinance recognized the importance of coordinating

business for its savings in Jodhpur rural.

H018: Microfinance always acts the desired goal and elicits control for all the savings for

individual entrepreneurs and small businesses of Jodhpur rural

H019: Microfinance provides investments or actions to pay for themselves

H020: The Capital Investment Decisions hold a sizeable amount of the business resources

for a long period of time

Table 5.29: One-Sample Statistics for Cash Investments

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

D5ii (CI) 550 3.41 1.051 .045

D5iii (CI) 550 2.97 1.058 .045

D5iv (CI) 550 2.93 1.547 .066

D5v (CI) 550 2.94 1.548 .066

D5vi (CI) 550 3.10 1.532 .065

D5vii (CI) 550 2.57 1.029 .044

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df Sig. (2- Mean 95% Confidence Interval of

tailed) Difference the Difference

30

Lower Upper

D5i 69.473 549 .000 3.236 3.14 3.33

(CI)

D5ii 76.008 549 .000 3.407 3.32 3.50

(CI)

D5iii 65.744 549 .000 2.965 2.88 3.05

(CI)

D5iv 44.348 549 .000 2.925 2.80 3.06

(CI)

D5v 44.550 549 .000 2.940 2.81 3.07

(CI)

D5vi 47.411 549 .000 3.096 2.97 3.22

(CI)

D5vii 58.574 549 .000 2.569 2.48 2.66

(CI)

From Table 5.29 it could interpret that the mean score value of the D5i (CI) (3.24± 1.093), D5ii

(CI) (3.24± 1.093), D5iii (CI) (3.24± 1.093), D5iv (CI) (3.24± 1.093), D5v (CI) (3.24± 1.093),

D5v (CI) (3.24± 1.093), D5vii (CI) (3.24± 1.093) was above than the population normal score of

‘0’.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 69.473 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degrees of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population means is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the funds with absolute returns are an investment

implying low risks. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than

0.05. This meant that there is significance Funds with absolute returns are an investment

implying low risks. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative hypothesis is

accepted.

31

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 76.008 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population mean is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the Microfinance gives appropriate internal funds or

retained earnings. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than

0.05. This meant that there is significant difference between Microfinance gives appropriate

internal funds or retained earnings. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative

hypothesis is accepted.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 65.744 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degrees of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population mean is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the Borrowed from non-bank financial institutions

which include microfinance institutions, credit cooperatives, credit unions, or finance companies

are good. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than 0.05. This

meant that there is significant difference between Borrowed from non-bank financial institutions,

which include microfinance institutions, credit cooperatives, credit unions, or finance companies

are good. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative hypothesis is accepted.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 44.348 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degrees of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population means is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the Selecting target segments, microfinance

recognized the importance of coordinating business for its savings in Jodhpur rural. The P-value

of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than 0.05. This meant that there is

significant difference between Selecting target segments, microfinance recognized the

importance of coordinating business for its savings in Jodhpur rural. Therefore, the null

hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative hypothesis is accepted.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 44.550 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degrees of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

32

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population mean is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the Microfinance always acts the desired goal and

elicits control for all the savings for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses of Jodhpur

rural. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than 0.05. This meant

that there is significant difference between Microfinance always acts the desired goal and elicits

control for all the savings for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses of Jodhpur rural.

Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative hypothesis is accepted.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 47.411 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population mean is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the Microfinance provides investments or actions to

pay for themselves. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than

0.05. This meant that there is significant difference Microfinance provides investments or actions

to pay for themselves. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative hypothesis is

accepted.

For cash investments of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural, T value is 58.574 and Sig.

(2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of freedom shows that the distinction between the sample

calculable population mean and therefore the comparison population mean is statistically

considerably very different, that shows that the funds with absolute returns are an investment

implying low risks. The P-value of t-test with unequal variance was .000, that was lesser than

0.05. This meant that there is significant difference between Funds with absolute returns are an

investment implying low risks. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and thus alternative

hypothesis is accepted.

H021: Nonbanking financial institutions are not accountable for effective Carrying Cost.

H022: Nonbanking financial institution not helping in productive Capacity utilization

H023: Nonbanking financial institution is not associated with carrying the cost

33

H024: Nonbanking financial institution do not take incoming returns to cover costs

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

E6i (CC) 550 2.17 1.123 .048

E6ii (CC) 550 3.16 1.417 .060

E6iii (CC) 550 3.11 1.471 .063

E6iv (CC) 550 2.93 1.481 .063

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df Sig. (2- Mean 95% Confidence Interval of

tailed) Difference the Difference

Lower Upper

E6i 45.236 549 .000 2.165 2.07 2.26

(CC)

E6ii 52.309 549 .000 3.160 3.04 3.28

(CC)

E6iii 49.511 549 .000 3.105 2.98 3.23

(CC)

E6iv 46.382 549 .000 2.929 2.81 3.05

(CC)

From Table 5.31 it could interpret that the mean score value of the E6i (CC) (2.17 ± 1.123), E6ii

(CC) (3.16 ± 1.417), E6iii (CC) (3.11 ± 1.471), E6iv (CC) (2.93 ± 1.481) was above than the

population normal score of ‘0’.

34

For Govt. Policy factor T value is 45.236 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of

freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated population mean and the

comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows that Non-

banking financial institutions are not accountable for effective Carrying Cost.

For Govt. Policy factor T value is 52.309 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of

freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean and the

comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows that Non-

banking financial institution not helping in productive Capacity utilization

For Govt. Policy factor T value is 49.511 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of

freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean and the

comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows that Non-

banking financial institution is not associated with carrying the cost

For Govt. Policy factor T value is 46.382 and Sig. (2-tailed) value is .000 for 549 degree of

freedom shows that the difference between the sample estimated the population mean and the

comparison population mean is statistically significantly different, which shows that Nonbanking

financial institution do not take incoming returns to cover costs

H025: There is no significant difference among the perception of various income groups of

microfinance moneylenders about the carrying costs of in Jodhpur rural.

H125: There is a significant difference among the perception of various income groups of

microfinance moneylenders about the carrying costs of in Jodhpur rural.

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

F df1 df2 Sig.

.472 4 544 .756

35

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + E7CC

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.33, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.756) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Income (A4)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model 2.466a 4 .616 1.574 .180

Error 213.068 544 .392

Total 2476.000 549

Corrected Total 215.534 548

From above Table 5.34, it could interpret that income efficiency of microfinance moneylenders

in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is 1.574 with 4 degree of freedom. The

ANOVA table gives F statistics= 1.574, p=.180, for Income (E7CC) in Table 5.18: Tests of

Between-Subjects Effects (E7CC). From the results, it can be said that there is strong evidence

between the genders. Gender significant value is equal to p-value (.180 < 0.005) so accept the

36

null hypothesis which shows there is no significant difference among the perception of various

income groups of microfinance moneylenders about the carrying costs of in Jodhpur rural.

H026: There is no significant difference between the male and female microfinance

moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

H126: There is a significant difference between the male and female microfinance

moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

F df1 df2 Sig.

15.436 3 545 .000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + F8PP

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.35, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.000) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

37

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Gender (A2)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model 6.288a 3 2.096 8.745 .000

Intercept 632.234 1 632.234 2637.737 .000

F8PP 6.288 3 2.096 8.745 .000

Error 130.630 545 .240

Total 1413.000 549

Corrected Total 136.918 548

a. R Squared = .046 (Adjusted R Squared = .041)

From above Table 5.36, it could interpret that Gender of microfinance male and female

moneylenders in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is 8.745 with 3 degree

of freedom. The ANOVA table gives F statistics= 8.745, p=.000, for Gender (F8PP) in Table

5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender). From the results, it can be said that there is

strong evidence between the genders. Gender significant value is equal to p-value (.000 < 0.005)

so reject the null hypothesis which shows there is significant difference between the male and

female microfinance moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

H127: There is a significant difference among the various income microfinance

moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

Table 5.35: Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances (Income & Payback Period)

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

F df1 df2 Sig.

38

10.336 3 545 .000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

a. Design: Intercept + F8PP

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.35, we may want to interpret that the p value (.439) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Income (A4)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

Corrected Model 1.066a 3 .355 .903 .439

Error 214.467 545 .394

Total 2476.000 549

Corrected Total 215.534 548

a. R Squared = .005 (Adjusted R Squared = -.001)

From above Table 5.36, it could interpret that Income & Payback Period of microfinance

moneylenders in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is .903 with 3 degree of

freedom. The ANOVA table gives F statistics= .903, p=.439, for Income & Payback Period in

39

Table 5.36: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Income & Payback Period). From the results, it

can be said that there is strong evidence between the respondents. Income & Payback Period

significant value is equal to p-value (.439 >0.005) so accept the null hypothesis which shows

there is no significant difference among the various income microfinance moneylenders about

the payback periods in Jodhpur rural.

H028: There is no significant difference between the male and female microfinance

moneylenders about the hybrid securities in Jodhpur rural.

H128: There is a significant difference between the male and female microfinance

moneylenders about the hybrid securities in Jodhpur rural.

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

F df1 df2 Sig.

14.687 4 544 .000

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across

groups.

The Levene's take a look at of equality of errors variances phase of the output assessments one of

the assumptions of ANOVA -- namely that the variances of each condition are about identical. In

step with Table 5.37, we may want to interpret that the p-value (.362) is greater than α degree

(.05), this is, and it might be the case that the variances within the groups are approximately

identical. In this test at if the p-value is less than or same to α stage of the take a look at it will

present that variances are equal.

Table 5.38: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender & Hybrid Securities)

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Gender (A2)

Source Type III Sum df Mean Square F Sig.

of Squares

40

Corrected Model 1.087a 4 .272 1.088 .362

Intercept 740.368 1 740.368 2965.147 .000

F9HS 1.087 4 .272 1.088 .362

Error 135.831 544 .250

Total 1413.000 549

Corrected Total 136.918 548

From above Table 5.38, it could interpret that Gender & Hybrid Securities of microfinance male

and female moneylenders in Jodhpur rural is found Non-significant. The F statistics is 1.088 with

4 degree of freedom. The ANOVA table gives F statistics= 1.088, p=.362, for Gender &

Hybrid Securities (F9HS) in Table 5.18: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Gender). From the

results, it can be said that there is strong evidence between the genders. Gender & Hybrid

Securities significant value is equal to p-value (.362 >0.005) so accept the null hypothesis which

shows there is no significant difference between the male and female microfinance moneylenders

about the hybrid securities in Jodhpur rural.

5.9 CONCLUSION

This part was framed for examining the role of microfinance in mobilizing savings for non-

banking financial institutions. This part of thesis aimed at investigating to carry out the operation

of microfinance and moneylender for the mobilizing of savings in the areas of Jodhpur rural. For

this purpose, the data collection was done through a systematic and structured questionnaire. The

questionnaire was administered for the respondents to understand the understanding of

microfinance among the moneylenders specific to Jodhpur Rural Rajasthan State of India.

This part has enquired some parameters to know about microfinance, it is about building

permanent local financial institutions that can provide financial services to the poor people on a

permanent basis. Such institutions should be able to mobilize resources and recycle domestic

41

savings, extend credit and provide a range of services, thus dependence on funding from donors

and government will gradually diminish as local financial institutions and private capital market

flourish.

operations. MFIs and other professions actors are transforming to formal regulated institutions.

MFI offers good voluntary savings services which typically attract more savers than borrowers.

Micro saving consists of small deposits account offered to lower income families or individuals

as an incentive to store funds for future use. They are designed just like normal saving accounts

although minimum depots are usually waived or very low allowing users to save small amounts

of money and not be charged for the services. People who save are better prepared to cope with

any unforeseen expenses.

Microfinance, which is the provision of a variety of financial services to poor, low-income people

and micro and small enterprises that lack access to banking and related services, is proving vital

to empowering communities. Many development experts agree that microfinance, when properly

harnessed and supported, can economically empower individuals and small enterprises and

enable them to contribute to and benefit from economic development.

Thus, Microfinance is evolving continually with ongoing financial sector reforms, the adaptation

to new policy frameworks and technology and the introduction of innovative products.

Reliability of collected data was measured by Cronbach’s alpha (α) analysis, which is a

commonly used method where alpha coefficient values range between 0 and 1 with higher values

indicating higher reliability among the indicators. According to this analysis, the captured data

was up to mark and can be used for further analysis. The sample population comprised of 550

moneylenders as the respondents of the Jodhpur rural.

Total 550 Questionnaires were distributed on convenience sampling method, where researcher

took care of those respondents who can systematically fill the questionnaire. The researcher gave

42

a brief about the questionnaire and objective of research so that the respondents could better give

their responses to the administered question under different questions of the questionnaire.

This chapter of the thesis has analyzed the data on the basis of some factor like:

PART A

Demographic Factor: all the variables under this factor analyzed the role of the microfinance

for the mobilizing of savings. All the factor shows the result that microfinance is the today’s need

for the moneylenders for their work so as to earn more money and make economy efficient.

PART B

Economic Efficiency: this part includes some analysis on the basis of economic efficiency that

says the Economic efficiency is playing a significant role towards the help in increasing

Productivity.

PART C

Liquidity Risks: this part includes some analysis on the basis of liquidity risk and therefore it

concludes that there is no significant difference between public and private employees perception

about the liquidity risks of microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural it also shows that there is

a significant difference between rural and urban residents’ perception about the liquidity risks of

microfinance moneylenders in Jodhpur rural with the .

Part D

Cash Investments: which include microfinance institutions, credit cooperatives, credit unions, or

finance companies are good and Microfinance always acts the desired goal and elicits control for

all the savings for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses of Jodhpur rural and put more

43

emphasis on Microfinance which is always acts the desired goal and elicits control for all the

savings for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses of Jodhpur rural.

PART E

Carrying Cost and Capacity Utilization: this part includes some analysis on the basis of

liquidity risk and therefore it concludes that Non-banking financial institutions are not

accountable for effective Carrying Cost and Non-banking financial institution not helping in

productive Capacity utilization.

PART F

All the variables under this factor analyzed the role of the microfinance for the mobilizing of

savings and various income microfinance moneylenders about the payback periods in Jodhpur

rural and thus it concludes that moneylenders are in favor of microfinance for mobilization of

savings.

44

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