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PROJECT CODE: 000021

THE EFFECT OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE ACHIEVEMENT


OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN ETSAKO WEST LOCAL
GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v
Table of content - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 7
Research Questions - - - - - - - - 7
Research Hypotheses - - - - - - - 8
Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 9
Significant of the Study - - - - - - - 10
Scope/Delimitation of the Study - - - - - 11
Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 11
The Cause and Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on National
Development - - - - - - - - - 14
Health and Physical Effect of Child Abuse - - - 17
Socio-Economic Status of Parents as it Affects Academic
Performance - - - - - - - - - 19
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Street Hawking as it Affects Academic Performance - 13
Summary of the Review - - - - - - - 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 30
Design of the Study - - - - - - - - 30
Population of the Study - - - - - - - 31
Sample and Sampling Procedure - - - - - 31
Research Instrument - - - - - - - 32
Validity of Research Instrument - - - - - 33
Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 33
Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - 34
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION OF
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Discussion of Results - - - - - - - 36
Testing of Research Hypothesis - - - - - 41
Summary of Discussion of Result - - - - - 46
Limitation of the Study - - - - - - - 49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 50
Summary of the Study - - - - - - - 50
Summary of Research Findings - - - - - 51
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 52
Recommendations - - - - - - - - 53
Suggestions for Further Studies - - - - - 55
References - - - - - - - - - 56
Appendix - - - - - - - - - - 59

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of child abuse on the


achievements of students in biology in Etsako West Local
Government Area of Edo State. Four null hypotheses were
formulated and tested. The population consist of all senior
Secondary School biology students in all the schools in the study
area. A sample of five (5) schools were selected from all the
schools in the study area. Opinions of one hundred (100)
students were sampled in the selected Secondary Schools. The
research instrument used for this study was the questionnaire
and copies of one hundred questionnaire were administered.
Data obtained were analysed using tables, mean and statistical
t-test respectively. Three out of the four null hypotheses
formulated were rejected, while one was accepted. From the
findings, it is clear that child abuse has strong effects on the
academic performance of the abused child when compared with
other students who are not abused. It was also observed that
poverty and the socio-economic status of parents lead to child
labour. Based on the findings, conclusion and recommendations
were made including that children should be provided with
enabling environment by the parents, teachers and government
to enhance their effectiveness in academic performance.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Child abuse is fast becoming a universal phenomenon in the

current world societies despite the fact that the child’s rights are

being recognized and even to some extent, protected by

legislations and constitutions in many countries of the world.

Child abuse consist of any acts of commission or omission by

parents, or other adult that results in harm, potential for harm,

or the threat of harm to a child (0-18 years of age) even if the

harm is unintentional (Gilbert et al., 2009). Child abuse as a

social problem has only recently gained the recognition and

attention of the Nigerian public, this was as a result of an

organisation known as the African Network for the Prevention

and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN)

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which was set up in 1984 by some African Countries including

Nigeria. Their aims was to look into the areas of child abuse and

neglect as it pertains to Africa. Since then Nigeria has formed its

own chapter of the network (inaugurated in 1986) and this body

has held a couple of conference in an effort to define and identify

aspect of child abuse within the society.

Although child abuse occur in Nigeria, it has received little

attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the

more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection.

Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every

African society the extended family system always provide love,

care and protection to all its children, yet there are traditional

child rearing practices which adversely affect some children such

as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severally handicapped

children, twins or triplet in some rural areas. In Nigeria children

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are being abused every single day intentionally or

unintentionally.

Child abuse has been defined by the African Network for

the Prevention and the Protection against Child Abuse and

Neglect (ANPPCAN) as the intentional and unintentional acts

which endangers the physical, health, emotional, moral and the

educational welfare of the child. Hopper (2004) also described

child abuse as any act of maltreatment or subjection that

endangers a child’s physical, emotional and health development.

Ordinarily, the word ‘abuse’ is any mistreatment, neglect or

lack of care and concern, but child abuse is any mistreatment or

neglect of a child which results into physical, emotional and

social harm or injury (PISA, 2000). The various forms of child

abuse includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse

or neglect of children by parents or guardians and others

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responsible for a child’s welfare. Physical abuse is when the child

is subject to disciplinary action by his/her caregiver(s) with

resultant bruising, severe pain, temporary loss of mobility, scars,

burns and shaking. This may lead to more serious and life-

threatening injuries in some cases.

Sexual abuse is the engagement of a child in sexual act that

they do not fully embraced, or for which the child is non-

developmentally prepared and cannot give consent or that

violate the laws or social taboos of a society. This may be the

exploitative use of the child in prostitution or other unlawful

sexual practices. Neglect is failure to provide basic food, shelter,

clothing, education and care (refusal of health care treatment)

to child’s exposure to harmful substances (De Bellis, 2003;

Macmillan et al, 2009).

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According to Mba (2002), prominent forms of child abuse

in Nigeria are child battering, child labour, child abandonment,

neglect, teenage prostitution, early marriage and forced

marriage. In Nigeria today, many children engage in street

hawking, through which they are exposed to different kinds of

dangers ranging from accidents, joining of bad gangs, ritual

killing, robbery and a premature exposure to the quest for

money which has made many children to look down on formal

education. Even those who manage to attend primary school fail

examinations or exhibit poor academic performance either

because they are neglected or abused. Neglect as a failure to

provide these children’s fundamental needs by the parents

results in poor academic performance (De Bellis, 2005).

The state of most Nigerian children is unacceptable. Already

facing one of the world’s worst survival chances, abuse rates for

Nigerian children are increasing. Already among the least literate


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of the world’s children, school enrolment rates are not

impressive (Waal and Argenti, 2002).

The present social economic situation of the country is

obviously one reason why there is child abuse. Street children

are common in Nigeria, they sell in high motor ways when they

should be in school; some get crashed down by motor vehicles

all in the name of making money. Child abuse is widely accepted

as having a negative effect on children’s academic achievement.

Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens

especially the youths. Education is an instrument for

reconstruction of the state of development. Eluowa (2002) says

education is the totality of the experience that man acquires by

his interaction mentally physically with the environment to

enable him cope with and get satisfaction from the environment

and the world he lives in. many have come to realize that

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education is the bedrock of any nation’s development, hence

individuals even adults who missed out on the first chance at

primary education are taking advantage of the opportunity or

provision of adult education provided mostly by the Government.

In spite of this high awareness, many children still suffer from

denial of education.

It is believed that some children become abused and

neglected indirectly through the poor status of their parents. In

most cases, the child’s parents are too poor to take care of the

child, so they neglect the child’s education. It will be difficult for

these children to cope with life as it was relatively easy for the

parents. This is because the society is putting more emphasis on

education as times change.

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From the discussion above, it is obvious that a lot of factors

contribute to the abuse of a child which in turn affects the

academic performance or achievement of students.

Statement of the Problem

Despite the efforts of Government and non-governmental

organisation to reduce the rate of child abuse in the nation, there

is still the persistence of this evil at an alarming rate. Therefore,

the focus of this study is to investigate the effect of child abuse

on the achievements of students in biology in Etsako West Local

Government Area of Edo State.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide this

study:

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1. What are the effects of child abuse on the academic

performance of the child in Biology at Secondary

school Level in Etsako West Local Government Area?

2. Do students from high socio-economic background

perform better academically than students from low

socio-economic background?

3. What are the influence of hawking on child’s academic

performance?

4. Do students who are not abused perform better

academically than students who are abused?

Research Hypotheses

For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses

have been formulated:

1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of

respondents between the academic performance of

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the abused child and the child that is not abused in

Biology.

2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of

respondents between the academic performance of

students from high socio-economic background and

students from low socio-economic background.

3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of

respondents between the academic performance of

students that go to school early and students that

hawks before going to school.

4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of

respondents between the academic performance of

children that are cared for and children that are

neglected.

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Purpose of the Study

The specific objective of this study is to examine the effects

of child abuse on the academic achievement of students in

biology and to ascertain the possible solution to child abuse in

Nigeria society to enable educational institutions, organisations,

parents, guardians, teachers, and everyone that finds this work

relevant to know various ways in which children that have been

abused should be treated.

Owning to this, the researcher has decided to carry out this

study, with the aim of examining:

1. The effect of child abuse on the academic performance

of the child in biology at secondary school level.

2. The factors that contribute to child abuse amongst

students in secondary schools.

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Significant of the Study

The results of this study may go a long way to be of

tremendous importance in alerting the experts in the fight

against child abuse. Findings from this study may serve as

services which will aid in identifying the various avenues of child

abuse and also detect abused children in our society. The

findings will also help to adjust and stop actions that results in

child abuse. Parents and guardians will then play their roles to

the children and give them proper care.

The study will also help teachers and school administrators

alike to identify and proffer remedies to problems of child abuse

and how to take necessary action to reduce the trend.

Furthermore, this study may also guide governments in

knowing the problems of the abused children and how to plan

for their welfare.

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The findings will also enable the abused child to know their

rights as citizens. It may also enable the child to be stable

emotionally, socially, and intellectually and this will make the

child a better leader of tomorrow.

Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This study is limited in scope to the effects of child abuse

on the achievement of students in biology in Etsako West Local

Government Area of Edo State. The study is restricted to only

five (5) randomly selected secondary schools, this will be done

by administering questionnaire.

Definition of Terms

Child: A young human being who is not yet an adult.

Abuse: To treat a person or an animal in a cruel or violent way

Neglect: to pay no attention or less attention to someone

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Maltreatment: to treat or handle badly, cruelly, or roughly

Child Abuse: this means any mistreatment or neglect of child,

which results into physical, emotional and social harm or injury

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