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Cadbury

Cadbury, formerly Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational


Cadbury
confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International (originally Kraft
Foods) since 2010. It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after
Mars.[2] Cadbury is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge, West London, and
operates in more than 50 countries worldwide. It is known for its Dairy Milk
chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, and many other confectionery
products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named
Type Subsidiary
Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports.[3]
Industry Confectionery
Cadbury was established in Birmingham, England in 1824, by John Cadbury who Founded Birmingham,
sold tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his England
brother Benjamin, followed by his sons Richard and George. George developed the 1824
Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved Founder John Cadbury
living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher
Headquarters Uxbridge, London,
proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the England
chocolate was the company's best-selling product. Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's
Key people Irene Rosenfeld,
and Fry, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of
(Chairman)
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.[4] Dirk Van de Put,
(CEO)
Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1854. It has
been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II since 1955.[5] Cadbury merged Products See list of Cadbury
with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, and Schweppes in 1969, known as Cadbury
products
Schweppes until 2008, when the American beverage business was split as Dr Pepper Number of 71,657 (2008)[1]
employees
Snapple Group; the rights ownership of the Schweppes brand had already differed
between various countries since 2006. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the Parent Mondelez
International
FTSE 100 on the London Stock Exchange from the index's 1984 inception until the
company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010.[6][7] Website www.cadbury.co
.uk/

Contents
History
1800–1900: Early history
1900–1969
Schweppes merger (1969)
Schweppes demerger
2007–2010
Acquisition by Kraft Foods
Operations
Head office
Production sites
Bournville

Markets
United Kingdom
Ireland
United States
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
India
Malta
Advertising
Executive pay
Accounting
Products
Controversies
2006 salmonella scare
2007 recalls
2008 melamine contamination in China
2009 hydrogenation
2014 pork traces in Malaysia
2017 "Easter" controversy
2019 reduction of family chocolate block size in Australia and New
Zealand
2019 "Cadbury Treasures" campaign
See also
References
Further reading
External links

History

1800–1900: Early history


In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea, coffee and drinking chocolate in Bull
Street in Birmingham, England.[8] From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of
cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the
wealthy because of the high cost of production.[9] In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner
with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".[9] In
1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar (which would be
mass-produced as Fry's Chocolate Cream in 1866).[10] Cadbury introduced his brand of the
chocolate bar in 1849, and that same year, Cadbury and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed
publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham.[11] The Cadbury brothers opened an
office in London, and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate
and cocoa to Queen Victoria.[5] The company went into decline in the late 1850s.[9]

John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861.[8] At the time of the
takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to
11, and the company was losing money.[8] By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again.[8] The An 1885 advertisement for
brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, Cadbury's Cocoa
and by increasing the quality of their products.[8]

The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain.[9] A new
cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.[9] The firm began
exporting its products in the 1850s.[9][12] In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in
1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a
heart for Valentine's Day.[10] Boxes of filled
chocolates quickly became associated with the
holiday.[10]

Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875,


Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter
egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that
could be moulded into smooth shapes.[13] By
1893, Cadbury had 19 different varieties of
chocolate Easter egg on sale.[13]

In 1878, the brothers decided to build new 1891 advertisement


premises in countryside four miles from
Cadbury Factory, Bournville is Birmingham.[8] The move to the countryside was
located on the south side of unprecedented in business.[8] Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped
Birmingham, England by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and
Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham
West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they
acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham.
Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and
opened the Bournville factory the following year
.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which
would 'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330
acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family wereQuakers there were no pubs in the estate.[8]

milk chocolate bars.[14] In 1899 Cadbury became


In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of
a private limited company.[14]

1900–1969
In 1905, Cadbury launched itsDairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with
a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars.[9] Developed by George
Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce
milk chocolate.[14] From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper.[14] It
was a great sales success, and became the company's best selling product by 1914.[9]
The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906.[9] Cadbury Dairy Milk
and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war
expansion.[9] In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time.
[14]
The packing room at Bournville,
circa 1903
Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production
throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male
employees joined the British Armed Forces, and to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate, books and clothing to
the troops.[15] George Cadbury handed over two company-owned buildings for use as hospitals – "The Beeches" and "Fircroft", and
ar Office's highest award.[15] Factory girls, dubbed 'The Cadbury Angels', volunteered
the management of both hospitals earned the W
to do the laundry of injured soldiers recovering in the hospitals.[15] After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass
production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in
Hobart, Tasmania.

In 1919, Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons, another leading British chocolate manufacturer, resulting in the integration of well-
known brands such as Fry's Chocolate Cream and Fry's Turkish Delight.[9] In 1921, the many small Fry's factories around Bristol
were closed down, and production was consolidated at a newSomerdale Factory, outside Bristol.[14]
Cadbury expanded its product range with Flake (1920), Creme eggs (1923), Fruit
and Nut (1928), and Crunchie (1929, originally under the Fry's label). By 1930,
Cadbury was the 24th-largest British manufacturing company as measured by
estimated market value of capital.[9] Cadbury took direct control of the under-
performing Fry in 1935.[14] Dairy Milk Whole Nut arrived in 1933, and tins of
Roses were introduced in 1938.[16] Roses has become a very popular Christmas (and
Mother’s Day) gift.[17]

Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working


classes for the first time.[14] By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of
the British population could afford to buy chocolate.[18] By 1936, Dairy Milk
[14]
accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market.

Cadbury Wharf, Knighton, During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work,
Staffordshire. It was operated by producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football
Cadbury between 1911 and 1961 to fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed
process locally collected milk and
under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate
produce "chocolate crumb" which
ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in
was transported to Cadbury's in
Bournville. new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.[19] In 1952 the
Moreton factory was built.[20]

Cadbury has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II since 1955.[5] In 1967, Cadbury acquired an Australian
confectioner, MacRobertson's, beating a rival bid from Mars.[21] As a result of the takeover, Cadbury built a 60 percent market share
in the Australian market.[21]

Schweppes merger (1969)


Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969.[22]
Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson, became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy
chairman and managing director.[22] The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive.[23] The Cadbury Schweppes
logo used until the
The merger put an end to Cadbury's close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived demerger in 2008
[24]
social ethos by instilling a capitalist venturer philosophy in management.

In 1978, the company acquiredPeter Paul, the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it
a 10 percent share of the world's largest confectionery market.[25] The highly successful Wispa chocolate bar was launched in the
North East of England in 1981, and nationwide in 1984.[26] In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for
the first time.[23]

In 1986, Cadbury Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97
million.[27] This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Smash and Hartley Chivers jam.[27] The deal
[27]
also saw Premier take the licence for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate.

Meanwhile, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-
Cola Schweppes.[27] The acquisition of Canada Dry doubled its worldwide drinks market share, and it took a 30 percent stake in Dr
Pepper.[27] As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world.[27]
In August 1988, the company sold its U.S. confectionery operations to Hershey's for $284.5 million cash plus the assumption of $30
million in debt.[28]

Snapple, Mistic and Stewart's (formerly Cable Car Beverage) were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for
$1.45 billion.[29] In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.[30] In 2003, Cadbury
Schweppes acquired Adams, the US chewing gum operations of Pfizer Inc., for $4.2 billion, making Cadbury the world’s biggest
confectionary company.[31]

Schweppes demerger
In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on
its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business.[32] The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with
[33] In December 2008 it
the drinks business becomingDr Pepper Snapple Groupand Cadbury Schweppes plc becoming Cadbury plc.
was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit toAsahi Breweries.[34]

2007–2010
In October 2007, Cadbury announced the closure of the Somerdale Factory, in
Keynsham, Somerset, formerly part of Fry's. Between 500 and 700 jobs were affected
[35]
by this change. Production transferred to other plants in England and Poland.

In 2008, Monkhill Confectionery, the Own Label trading division of Cadbury Trebor
Bassett was sold to Tangerine Confectionery for £58 million cash. This sale included
factories at Pontefract, Cleckheaton and York and a distribution centre near
[36]
Chesterfield, and the transfer of around 800 employees. Cadbury's Somerdale Factory
located in Keynsham near Bristol,
In mid-2009, Cadbury replaced some of the cocoa butter in their non-UK chocolate south west England (1921–2010)
products with palm oil. Despite stating this was a response to consumer demand to
improve taste and texture, there was no "new improved recipe" claim placed on New
Zealand labels. Consumer backlash was significant from environmentalists and chocolate lovers in both Australia and New Zealand,
with consumers objecting to both the taste from the cheaper formulation, and the use of palm oil given its role in the destruction of
rainforests. By August 2009, the company announced that it was reverting to the use of cocoa butter in New Zealand and Australia,
although palm oil is still listed as an ingredient in Cadbury's flavoured sugar syrup based fillings (where it referred to as 'vegetable
oil').[37] In addition, Cadbury stated they would source cocoa beans through Fair Trade channels.[38] In January 2010 prospective
[39]
buyer Kraft pledged to honour Cadbury's commitment.

Acquisition by Kraft Foods


On 7 September 2009, Kraft Foods made a £10.2 billion (US$16.2 billion) indicative takeover bid for Cadbury. The offer was
rejected, with Cadbury stating that it undervalued the company.[40] Kraft launched a formal, hostile bid for Cadbury valuing the firm
at £9.8 billion on 9 November 2009.[41] The UK Business Secretary Peter Mandelson warned Kraft not to try to "make a quick buck"
from the acquisition of Cadbury.[42]

On 19 January 2010, it was announced that Cadbury and Kraft Foods had reached a deal and that Kraft would purchase Cadbury for
£8.40 per share, valuing Cadbury at £11.5bn (US$18.9bn). Kraft, which issued a statement stating that the deal will create a "global
1.5bn) in order to finance the takeover.[43]
confectionery leader", had to borrow £7 billion (US$1

The Hershey Company, based in Pennsylvania, manufactures and distributes Cadbury-branded chocolate (but not its other
confectionery) in the United States and has been reported to share Cadbury's "ethos".[44] Hershey had expressed an interest in buying
Cadbury because it would broaden its access to faster-growing international markets.[45] But on 22 January 2010, Hershey
fer.[46][47][48]
announced that it would not counter Kraft's final of

The acquisition of Cadbury faced widespread disapproval from the British public, as well as groups and organisations including trade
union Unite,[49] who fought against the acquisition of the company which, according to Prime Minister Gordon Brown, was very
important to the British economy.[50] Unite estimated that a takeover by Kraft could put 30,000 jobs "at risk",[44][51][52] and UK
shareholders protested over the mergers and acquisitions advisory fees charged by banks. Cadbury's M&A advisers were UBS,
Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley.[53][54][55] Controversially, RBS, a bank 84% owned by the United Kingdom Government,
funded the Kraft takeover.[56][57]
On 2 February 2010, Kraft secured over 71% of Cadbury's shares thus finalising the
deal.[58] Kraft had needed to reach 75% of the shares in order to be able to delist
Cadbury from the stock market and fully integrate it as part of Kraft. This was
achieved on 5 February, and the company announced that Cadbury shares would be
de-listed on 8 March.[59] On 3 February, the Chairman Roger Carr, chief executive
Todd Stitzer and chief financial officer Andrew Bonfield[60] all announced their
resignations. Stitzer had worked at the company for 27 years.[61] On 9 February,
Kraft announced that they were planning to close the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham,
with the loss of 400 jobs.[62] The management explained that existing plans to move
Cadbury World exhibition at the production to Poland were too advanced to be realistically reversed, though
Library of Birmingham, July 2016. A assurances had been given regarding sustaining the plant. Staff at Keynsham
tribute to Shakespeare (born 22
criticised this move, suggesting that they felt betrayed and as if they have been
miles south east of the city),
"sacked twice".[63] On 22 April 2010, Phil Rumbol, the man behind the famous
Shakespeare's Globe theatre (left)
and a manuscript are made from Cadbury Gorilla advertisement, announced his plans to leave the Cadbury company
Cadbury chocolate. in July following Kraft's takeover.[64]

The European Commission decided that Kraft would have to divest Cadbury's
confectionery businesses in Poland (Wedel) and Romania (Kandia). In June 2010, the Polish division, Cadbury-Wedel, was sold to
Lotte of Korea. As part of the deal Kraft will keep the Cadbury, Hall's and other brands along with two plants in Skarbimierz. Lotte
will take over the plant inWarsaw along with the E Wedel brand.[65] Kandia was sold back tothe Meinl family, which had owned the
brand from 2003 to 2007.[66]

On 4 August 2011, Kraft Foods announced they would be splitting into two companies beginning on 1 October 2012. The
confectionery business of Kraft becameMondelez International, of which Cadbury is a subsidiary.[67][68]

In response to diminishing margins in early 2014, Mondelez hired Accenture to implement a US$3 billion cost-cutting program of the
company's assets including Cadbury and Oreo. Beginning in 2015, Mondelez began closing Cadbury factories in several developed
countries including Ireland, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand and shifting production to "advantaged" country locations
like China, India, Brazil, and Mexico. The closure of Cadbury factories in centers such as Dublin, Montreal, Chicago, Philadelphia,
and Dunedin in New Zealand generated outcries from the local populations. The plan received approval from several market
shareholders including the Australian and New Zealand banksWestpac and ASB Bank.[69][70][71]

Operations

Head office
Cadbury has its head office at Cadbury House in the Uxbridge Business Park in Uxbridge, London Borough of Hillingdon,
England.[72] The company occupies 84,000 square feet (7,800m2) of leased space inside Building 3 of the business park,[73] which it
shares with Mondelez's UK division.[74] After acquiring Cadbury, Kraft confirmed that the company would remain at Cadbury
House.[75]

Cadbury relocated to Uxbridge from its previous head of


fice at 25 Berkeley Square inMayfair, City of Westminster in 2007 as a cost-
saving measure.[76][77] In 1992, the company leased the space for £55 per 1 square foot (0.093 m2);[73] by 2002 this had reached
£68.75 per square foot.[76]

Production sites

Bournville
Bournville employs almost 1,000 people.[78] In 2014, Mondelez announced a £75 million investment in the site.
[78]
Bournville is home to Mondelez's Global Centre of Excellence for Chocolate research and development, so every new chocolate
[78]
product created by the company anywhere in the world starts life at the Birmingham plant.

Markets

United Kingdom
The confectionery business in the UK is called Cadbury (formerly Cadbury Trebor
Cadbury
Bassett) and, as of August 2004, had eight factories and 3,000 staff in the UK.
Founded 1824
Mondelez also sells biscuits bearing the Cadbury brand, such as Cadbury Fingers.
Cadbury also owns Trebor Bassett, Fry's andMaynards. Headquarters Bournville,
Birmingham,
Ice cream based on Cadbury products, like 99 Flake, is made under licence by England
Frederick's Dairies. Cadbury cakes and chocolate spread are manufactured under Website www.cadbury.co
licence by Premier Foods, but the cakes were originally part of Cadbury Foods Ltd .uk/
with factories at Blackpole in Worcester and Moreton on the Wirral, with
distribution depots throughout the UK.

Other Kraft subsidiaries in the UK include Cadbury Two LLP, Cadbury UK Holdings Limited, Cadbury US Holdings Limited,
Cadbury Four LLP, Cadbury Holdings Limited, and Cadbury One LLP.

Ireland
Cadbury Ireland Limited is based in Coolock in Dublin, where the headquarters of
Cadbury Ireland are located, and Tallaght. The third is in Rathmore, County Kerry.
Products made by Cadbury in Ireland include Cadbury Dairy Milk Range, Cadbury
Twirl, Cadbury Cadbury Snacks Range Flake and Boost (formerly Moro). Cadbury
used to produce the Time Out bar in Ireland for the European market however this
production was moved to Poland.[79]

Cadbury Easter egg hunt in Dublin


United States
Cadbury Adams produces candy, gum, breath mints and cough drops. It is
headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey. The company was formed after the then Cadbury
Cadbury Schweppes purchased the Adams brand from Pfizer in December 2002 for Founded December 2002
US$4.2 billion.
Headquarters Parsippany-Troy
American Chicle was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1962; Warner-Lambert Hills, New Jersey,
United States
renamed the unit Adams in 1997 and merged with Pfizer in 2000.
Products Trident, Certs,
In 1978, Cadbury merged with Peter Paul, makers of Mounds and Almond Joy.[80] Chiclets, Halls
In 1988, The Hershey Company acquired the U.S. rights to their chocolate business. (cough drop)
Accordingly, although the Cadbury group's chocolate products have been sold in the Website www.cadbury.co
U.S. since 1988, the products are manufactured by Hershey, causing complaints by .uk/
consumers, who claim they are inferior to the originals.[81] Before the May 2008
demerger, the North American business also contained beverage unit Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages. In 1982, Cadbury
Schweppes purchased theDuffy-Mott Company.[82]

Cadbury Adams' products include:

Maynards
Wine Gums (original and Sour)
Swedish Fish
Swedish Berries
Juicy Squirts (Sours, Citrus, and Berry)
Original Gummies
Fuzzy Peach
Sour Chillers
Sour Patch Kids
Mini Fruit Gums
Sour Cherry Blasters
Fruit Mania
Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts
Gum
Black Jack chewing gum
Bubbaloo bubble gum
Bubblicious bubble gum
Chiclets
Clorets
Dentyne
Freshen Up Gum
Sour Cherry Gum (Limited)
Sour Apple Gum (Limited)
Stride
Trident
Other
Certs breath mints
Halls (cough drop)
Discontinued products
Beemans chewing gum
Cinn*a*Burst gum
Clove gum
Fruit*a*Burst gum
Mint*a*Burst gum
Sparkies

Australia
Cadbury's products were first imported into Australia as early as 1853 when 3 cases
of Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate were advertised for sale inAdelaide.[83] Cadbury's
first overseas order in 1881 was made for the Australian market. In 1919, as part of
its plans to expand internationally, the company decided to build a factory in
Australia. In 1920 Claremont, Tasmania was chosen for the location because of its
close proximity to the city of Hobart, good source of inexpensive hydro-electricity
Milk processing plant at Cooee,
and plentiful supply of high-quality fresh milk. The first products from the factory
Burnie, Tasmania.
were sold in 1922.[84] The Claremont factory was modelled on Bournville, with its
own village and sporting facilities.[85][86] Cadbury operates three Australian
factories; two in Melbourne, Victoria (Ringwood and Scoresby), and one in Hobart, Tasmania (Claremont). Cadbury also operates a
milk-processing plant inCooee, Tasmania. Claremont factory was once a popular tourist attraction and operated daily tours; however,
the factory ceased running full tours mid-2008, citing health and safety reasons.[87] Cadbury has been upgrading its manufacturing
facility at Claremont, Tasmania, Australia, since 2001.[88]

On 27 February 2009, the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury Schweppes in Australia were formally separated and
the beverages business began operating as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd. In April 2009, Schweppes Australia was acquired by Asahi
Breweries.[89] In late June 2012, Cadbury introduced Marvellous Creations a new chocolate range with three flavours – Peanut
[90]
Toffee Cookie, Jelly Crunchie Bits or Jelly Popping Candy Beanies covered in Dairy Milk Chocolate.

In 2015 the Australian Cadbury, factory located in Hobart, reduced its work force by 80[91] and in 2017 closed its visitor's centre.[92]
In August 2017 Cadbury announced that 50 workers will be shed from its Hobart factory.[93] Within Australia there is debate
regarding halal certification. Many of Cadbury's products are halal certified.[94] This certification has generated controversy,
especially from One Nation politicianPauline Hanson.[95][96]

New Zealand
Cadbury had also operated a factory in Dunedin in New Zealand's South Island until
its closure in March 2018. In 1930, Cadbury partnered with local confectionery
businessman Richard Hudson, who owned a chocolate, confectionery
, biscuit factory
on Castle Street. Hudson's factory was rebranded as Cadbury Hudson and later
became known as the Cadbury Confectionery.[97][98][99] Cadbury later established a
second factory in Auckland in the North Island. In 2003, Cadbury established a
tourist attraction on the premises of the Dunedin factory known as Cadbury World,
which featured a large chocolate waterfall. In 2007, Cadbury closed down its Former factory in Dunedin
Auckland factory, leading to the loss of 200 jobs. In 2009, the Cadbury Dunedin
factory attracted criticism from consumers and local environmentalists when it
replaced cocoa butter with palm oil. In response, the company backtracked but still retained palm oil as a filling some ingredients.
[100]
Over the next several years, Cadbury began downsizing its products, including trimming chocolate blocks in 2015.

On 16 February 2017, it was reported that Cadbury would be closing its factory in Dunedin, New Zealand by March 2018. This is
estimated to lead to the loss of 350 jobs. Amanda Banfield, Mondelez's vice-president for Australia, New Zealand, and Japan,
clarified that the closure was done due to Mondelez's decision to shift chocolate manufacturing to Cadbury's Australian
factories.[98][101][102] However, Mondelez has also confirmed that Dunedin's Cadbury World tourist attraction would remain open
due to its popularity with tourists.[103]

Following four weeks of consultations with local Cadbury employees, the Mayor of Dunedin Dave Cull, and local trade union
representatives, Banfield confirmed that the closure would go ahead the following year due to the lack of viable options to continue
production in New Zealand. She also confirmed that Cadbury would offer a redundancy support package to staff and would also
sponsor staff willing to move to Australia to work. Mondelez also confirmed that it was looking for a third-party manufacturer to
continue making Cadbury's New Zealand brands Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate Fish and Buzz Bar.[104] In early June 2017,
local city councillor Jim O'Malley and a group of volunteers launched a crowdfunding campaign to keep the Dunedin factory running
on a portion of the site.[105] They formed a group called Dunedin Manufacturing Holdings (DMH). Despite generating NZ$6 million
in funds, DMH abandoned its bid on 22 June due to Mondelez's stringent production and supply requirements and difficulties in
acquiring manpower and machinery. Mondelez has also indicated that it is negotiating with two local chocolate companies to ensure
the production of iconic local brands such as Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate Fish, Buzz Bars, and Pinky Bars in New
Zealand.[106] Following the failure of DMH's bid, spokesperson O'Malley announced on 12 September that his group would launch a
OCHO (the Otago Chocolate Company).[107]
new crowdfunding campaign to buy and expand local craft chocolate manufacturer

On 17 October 2017, Cadbury announced that it would be shifting all production of its New Zealand brands to Australia after failing
to find a local supplier. The termination of New Zealand production will take effect in March 2018. Mondelez's New Zealand country
head James Kane confirmed the shift on the grounds that the production of Cadbury products would require certain technologies,
[108][109]
production processes and skills that local New Zealand manufacturers lacked.

On 4 May, it was reported that the Dunedin Cadbury World would be closing down after the Ministry of Health purchased the entire
former Cadbury factory site to make way for a new public hospital. Mondelez area vice-president Banfield confirmed that Cadbury
[110][111][112]
had sold the former factory site to the Ministry of Health for an undisclosed amount.

Canada
Cadbury Canada produces and imports several products that are sold under the Cadbury and Maynards labels, including the
following:

Cadbury Maynards
Dairy Milk (various flavours) Wine Gums
Crunchie Sour Wine Gums
Crispy Crunch Swedish Berries
Starbar as Wunderbar Swedish Fish
Cadbury Coconut Sour Patch Kids
Mr. Big Juicy Squirts
Caramilk
Flake
Creme Egg
Mini Eggs
Pep

Cadbury Canada is now part of Mondelez Canada and products are featured on the Snackworks website.

India
In 1948, Cadbury India began its operations in India by importing chocolates. On 19
Cadbury
July 1948, Cadbury was incorporated in India. It now has manufacturing facilities in
Founded 19 July 1948
Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Hyderabad, Bangalore and Baddi
(Himachal Pradesh) and sales offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Headquarters Mumbai, India
The corporate head office is in Mumbai. The head office is presently situated at Key people Anand Kripalu,
Pedder Road, Mumbai, under the name of "Cadbury House". This monumental Managing
structure at Pedder Road has been a landmark for the citizens of Mumbai since its Director[113]
creation. Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa Products Cadbury Dairy Milk,
cultivation in India. For over two decades, Cadbury has worked with the Kerala 5-star, Perk, Gems,
Agricultural Universityto undertake cocoa research.[114][115] Eclairs, Oreo and
Bournvita
Currently, Cadbury India operates in five categories – Chocolate confectionery, Number of 2000
Beverages, Biscuits, Gum and Candy. Its products include Cadbury Dairy Milk, employees
Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville, 5-Star, Temptations, Perk, Eclairs, Bournvita, Website www.cadbury.co
Celebrations, Gems, Bubbaloo, Cadbury Dairy Milk Shots, Toblerone, Halls, Bilkul, .uk/
Tang, and Oreo.[116][117]

It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a market share of over 70%.[118] On 21 April 2014, Cadbury
[119] In 2017, Cadbury/Mondelez agreed to pay a $13 million FCP
India changed its name to Mondelez India Foods Limited. A penalty
[120][121]
for making illicit payments to government officials to obtain licences and approvals to build a factory in Baddi.

Malta
In 2012, Alf Mizzi & Sons Marketing (Ltd) took over the importation and distribution of Cadbury, as well as several other Mondelez
brands. Most of the Cadbury products are imported directly from the UK. The advertising of the brand was taken over by Sloane Ltd.,
which proved to be highly successful in creating market specific commercials, reaching more of the Maltese population than ever
through digital advertising.
Advertising
The Cadbury signature logo is derived from the signature of William Cadbury.[122]
[122]
It was adopted as the worldwide logo in the 1970s.

Cadbury famously trademarked the colour purple for chocolates with registrations in
1995[123] and 2004.[124] However, the validity of these trademarks is the matter of
an ongoing legal dispute following objections byNestlé.[125][126]

Executive pay
In 2008, Todd Stitzer, Cadbury's CEO, was paid a £2,665,000 bonus. Combined with The signature logo as displayed at
his annual salary of £985,000 and other payments of £448,000 this gives a total Cadbury World in Bournville, England
remuneration of over £4 million.[127]

Accounting
In July 2007, Cadbury Schweppes announced that it would be outsourcing its transactional accounting and order capture functions to
Shared Business Services (SBS) centres run by a company called Genpact (a businesses services provider) in India, China, and
Romania. This was to affect all business units and be associated with US and UK functions being transferred to India by the end of
2007, with all units transferred by mid-2009. Depending on the success of this move, other accounting Human Resources functions
may follow. This development is likely to lead to the loss of several hundred jobs worldwide, but also to several hundred jobs being
[128]
created, at lower salaries commensurate with wages paid in developing countries.

Products
Major chocolate brands produced by Cadbury include the bars Dairy Milk,
Crunchie, Caramel, Wispa, Boost, Picnic, Flake, Curly Wurly, Chomp, and Fudge;
chocolate Buttons; the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray; and the twist-wrapped
chocolates Heroes which are most popular around holidays, such as Christmas and
Halloween.

As well as Cadbury's chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is
associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett's Cadbury chocolate stall at London’s
brands or products such as Liquorice Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Flumps, Mints, Black Heathrow Airport
Jack chews, Trident gum, and Softmints. Global sales of Cadbury products
amounted to £491M in the 52 weeks to 16 August 2014.[129]

Notable product introductions include:

1866: Cocoa Essence


1875: Easter Eggs
1897: Milk Chocolate and Fingers
A Cadbury Wispa chocolate bar that
1905: Dairy Milk
has been split in half. These are
1908: Bournville
available in the UK.
1914: Fry's Turkish Delight
1915: Milk Tray
1920: Flake
1923: Creme Egg (launched as Fry's)
1926: Cadbury Dairy Milk Fruit & Nut
1929: Crunchie (launched as Fry's)
1938: Roses
1948: Fudge
1958: Picnic
1960: Dairy Milk Buttons
1965: Cadbury Eclairs
1968: Aztec
1970: Curly Wurly
1974: Snack
1976: Double Decker
1976: Starbar A Cadbury Dairy Milk Caramel bar in
1981: Wispa (relaunched 2007) its foil wrapper
1985: Boost
1987: Twirl
1992: Time Out
1995: Wispa Gold (relaunched 2009 and 2011)
1996: Fuse (promotional relaunched 2015)
1999: Heroes
2001: Brunch Bar, Dream and Flake A Cadbury Flake split in half
2009: Dairy Milk Silk[130]
2010: Dairy Milk Bliss
2011: Big Race oreo
2012: Marvellous Creations and Crispello
2014: Pebbles
2014: Bubbly
2016: Cadbury Silk Oreo

Controversies
Cadbury Creme Eggs are sold
2006 salmonella scare between New Year’s Day and Easter
On 20 January 2006, Cadbury Schweppes detected a strain of the Salmonella
Montevideo (SmvdX07) bacteria, affecting seven of its products.[131][132] The
contamination was caused by a leaking pipe, from which waste water dripped onto a chocolate crumb production line at the
company's plant in Marlbrook, Herefordshire.[133][134] It was not until around six months after the leak was detected that Cadbury
Schweppes notified the Food Standards Agency, a delay which Cadbury Schweppes was unable to explain satisfactorily, and for
which it was criticised.[131][135] The Food Standards Agency ordered the company to recall more than a million chocolate bars.[136]
[137]
In December 2006, the company announced that the cost of dealing with the incident reached £30 million.

In April 2007, Birmingham City Council announced that it would be prosecuting Cadbury Schweppes in relation to three alleged
offences of breaching food safety legislation. At that time, the Health Protection Agency identified 37 people who had been infected
with Salmonella Montevideo.[138][133] One of the alleged victims had to be kept on a hospital isolation ward for five days after eating
a Cadbury's caramel bar.[139] An investigation that was carried by Herefordshire Council led to a further six charges being
brought.[137] The company pleaded guilty to all nine charges,[140][141] and was fined one million pounds at Birmingham Crown
Court—the sentencing of both cases was brought together.[142] Analysts have said the fine is not material to the group, with
mitigating factors limiting the fine being that the company quickly admitted its guilt and said it had been mistaken that the infection
did not pose a threat to health.[142]

2007 recalls
On 10 February 2007, Cadbury recalled a range of products due to a labelling error. The products were produced in a factory
[143]
handling nuts, potential allergens, but this was not made clear on the packaging. As a precaution, all items were recalled.
On 14 September 2007, Cadbury Schweppes investigated a manufacturing error over allergy warning, recalling for the second time in
two years thousands of chocolate bars. A printing mistake at Somerdale Factory resulted in the omission of tree nut allergy labels
from 250g Dairy Milk Double Chocolate bars.[144]

2008 melamine contamination in China


On 29 September 2008, Cadbury withdrew all of its 11 chocolate products made in its three Beijing factories, on suspicion of
contamination with melamine. The recall affected the mainland China markets, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Australia.[145] Products
[146]
recalled included Dark Chocolate, a number of products in the 'Dairy Milk' range and Chocolate Éclairs.

2009 hydrogenation
Cadbury continues to use hydrogenated oils in many of its signature products. Although trans fats are present, the nutrition labels
round the values down to zero.[147]

2014 pork traces in Malaysia


Cadbury recalled two chocolate products after it was tested positive for traces of pork DNA, namely Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut
and Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast Almond.[148] The traces were found during a periodic check for non-halal ingredients in food
products by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia which on 24 May 2014 said two of three samples of the company's products may
contain pork traces.[149]

On 2 June 2014, Malaysia's Department of Islamic Development (JAKIM) declared that the sample did not contain pig DNA, as
claimed in earlier reports. This statement was made after new tests were conducted.

JAKIM reportedly said in a statement that they tested 11 samples of Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut, Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast
Almond and other products from the company's factory but none of them tested positive for pork. The investigation followed reports
that unscheduled checks had shown that two chocolates produced by Mondelez International Inc., the parent company of Cadbury,
.[150]
violated Islamic law and led to a boycott of all its products in the country

2017 "Easter" controversy


In 2017, the Church of England condemned the company and the National Trust for
rebranding their annual "Easter Egg Trails" as "Cadbury Egg Hunts".[151] Prime
Minister Theresa May called the rebranding "absolutely ridiculous"; however,
Cadbury dismissed the criticism, with a spokesperson saying, "it is clear to see that
within our communications we visibly state the word Easter. It is included a number
of times across promotional materials."[152] An ensuing controversy followed in
Australia, where Cadbury was accused of removing the word 'Easter' from the
packaging of its Easter eggs. Cadbury Australia rebutted that Easter was mentioned
Sponsored by Cadbury, the annual
[153]
on "the back of pack", and that its eggs were obviously Easter eggs. Easter egg hunt takes place in over
250 National Trust locations in the
UK.
2019 reduction of family chocolate block size in
Australia and New Zealand
On 7 February 2019, Cadbury announced via its Facebook page that the size of its family chocolate blocks will be reduced once
again in Australia and New Zealand, to 180g. “Rather than raising the recommended retail price, we’ve made the call to reduce the
size of our Cadbury family blocks, and also bring down the recommended retail price slightly, so that our blocks can continue to be
an affordable treat for all Australians,” the company said.[154]
2019 "Cadbury Treasures" campaign
In the run-up to Easter 2019, Cadbury launched a "Treasures" promotion in the UK and Ireland that, as well as listing treasure
exhibits in various museums, encouraged people to engage in illegal metal-detecting and digging at protected archaeological sites
[155]
around the British Isles in search of further treasure. This prompted a highly critical reaction from archaeologists.

See also
Cadbury World
Cadbury family
Cadbury Athletic F.C.

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Further reading
Bradley, John (2008). Cadbury's Purple Reign: The Story Behind Chocolate's Best-Loved Brand
. John Wiley and
Sons Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-72524-5.
Cadbury, Deborah (2010). Chocolate Wars: The 150-Year Rivalry Between the World's Greatest Chocolate Makers.
PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-820-8.

External links
Cadbury Official website
Mondelēz International Official website
The Cadbury Papers, 1884–1970

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