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S P V

Pressure vessels are subject to various loadings, which exert stresses of


different intensities in the vessel components. The category and intensity of
stresses are the function of the nature of loadings, the geometry and construc-
tion of the vessel components.

LOADINGS (Code UG-22)


a, Internal or external pressure
b. Weight of the vessel and contents
c. Static reactions from attached equipment, piping, lining, insulation, internals,
supports
d. Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations
e. Wind pressure and seismic forces
f. Impact reactions due to fluid shock
g“ Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion

MAXIMUM
STRESSES (Code UG-23) ALLOWABLE STRESS
a. Tensile stress Sa
b. Longitudinal compressive stress The smaller of S. or the value of
factor B determined by the procedure
described in Code UG 23 (b) (2)
c. General primary membrane stress S
induced by any combination of
loadings. Primary membrane 1.5 Sa
stress plus primary bending stress
induced by combination of load-
ings, except as provided in d. be-
low.
d. General primary membrane stress 1.2 times the stress permitted in a., b.,
induced by combination of earth- or c. This rule applicable to stresses
quake or wind pressure with other exerted by internal or external pres-
loadings (See definitions pages sure or axial compressive load on a
beginn-ing473.) cylinder.

Seismic force and wind pressure need not be considered to act simulta-
neously.
S.= Maximum allowable stress in tension for carbon and low alloy steel
Code Table UCS-23; for high alloy steel Code Table UHA-23., psi. (See
properties of materials page 180- 184,)
/ ,

STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL

Uniforminternalorexternalpressureinducesinthelongitudinalseamtwotimeslargerunit
stress than in the circumferentialseam becauseof the geometryof the cylinder.

A vessel under external pressure, when other forces (wind, earthquake, etc. ) are not
factors, must be designed to resist the circumferential buckling o Tn C l oh y .d
p r ot m
v
i e od dh t e e tsh ms o tie rdge e qhn uf ei’ rW ei o mo t e hlns t t o . aaeh d ei n n r r g s
present, these combined loadings m g o a a hv y vl be
e e p an rw n ir a i eed q rt ul ei r l e
t t ph w l ah wh a s a ni t t i esact fer a chte t co sisrr yc ui mh f sbe ro ue t n oct ie ak l nl i ln gy

T c o m p sh r edt s t se r i xev epetu r es a e r t ss n e sse a onudntl trs i r e in pe lt ud r ese e r ss n se a ou l r


s b dh e t a eb tr lfm oi nlr em eh d u l a y se :

F O R M U L A S
t
. . C I R C U M F E R E N T I A LL O N G I T U D I N A L
+ J O I N JT O I N T

D
$ ‘ s,
3 .$ s~ = ~

N O T A T I O N
D= M d ie ao vm a eei ts n e s cr e h l f ,e s
S2 P= I n ot e e x r pt n r e ae pr sl n s a ur l r s e , i
‘ s, = Longitudinal
1 stress, psi
s, ‘/ s* = Circumferential (hoop) stress, psi
[ = Thickness of shell, corrosion allowance
,R ~ excluded, inches

EXAMPLE

;iven D = 96 inches PD 15 X 96
P= 15 psi s, = ~ = ~ = 1440 psi
f = 0.25 inches

15 X 96
s* = $ = = 2 p 8 8s
2 X 0.25

F t ou iw
o n n pe t d r er a er rewss nl s r at iunc l or r h eni haeat d iwdi b c cd ghaoe lhmi v pt cr e e h s
s s gti o rc vvb ea ep sp rera osnb x t is fm ao nt ree hdm u I y ae :

H=% w Hh= C er h i r oet t i ei foc ga w l h e t t r f , .


3 2 (
I P N R
1. OPERATING PRESSURE
The pressure which is required for the process, served by the vessel, at which
the vessel is normally operated.
2. DESIGN PRESSURE
The pressure used in the design ofa vessel. It is recommended to design a vessel
and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. A design pressure
higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent, whichever is the
greater, will satis@this requirement, The pressure of the fluid and other contents
of the vessel should also be taken into consideration. See tables on page 29 for
pressure of fluid.
3. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE
The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the
ultimate permissible point, when the vessel is assumed to be:
(a) in corroded condition
(b) under the effect ofa designated temperature
(c) in normal operating position at the top
(d) undertheeffectof otherloadings(wind load, external pressure, hydro-
static pressure, etc.) which are additive to the internal pressure.
When calculations are not made, the design pressure may be used as the
maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) code 3-2.
A common practice followed by many users and manufacturers of pressure
vessels is to limit the maximum allowable working pressure by the head or shell,
not by small elements as flanges, openings, etc.
See tables on page 28 for maximum allowable pressure for flanges.
See tables on page 142 for maximum allowable pressure for pipes.
The term, maximum allowable pressure, new and cold, is used very oflen, It
means the pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the
ultimate permissible point, when the vessel:
(a) is not corroded (new)
(b) t n i h t ( te
and the other conditions (c and d above) also need not to be taken into
consideration.
4. HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE
O and one-halfntimes the maximum e allowable working pressure or the design
pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine
the maximum allowable working pressure.
If the stress value of the vessel material at the design temperature is less than at
the test temperature, the hydrostatic test pressure should be increased propor-
tionally.
H y d r t o ss t bea hc t oi cnas a d aul ftc a tl b le re hdil bec a c t roi e am
ol np le e ts e n d .
I t c t h at pressure
s i e hshall
en be:
s s , e t
StressValueS Temperature
1 )( M A . W.Press.
al l xx o5 w. .
(Or DesignPress.) StressValueS At DesignTemperature

V e w s tsh me e al xhasr li l emwo uweo m ap r br k l el ei si nbs m t gu i r t e eh d


f l s a bn ht g eae aa p ss r l, tse lsei h tse dt u o rat ew hb nl ne e :
+
P r S i e m r av r i yc e
900 lb

H y d r t o os mt uea l t t ii -c svc h ea m
Cs t b sU
ef r eo ( Gl s d- : e9 e 9 )

A Pneumatic test may be used in lieu of a hydrostatic test per Code UG-100

P tr t e oe s s ot m a t afb lxa s i li sol mhwo uwo m pa r br k l ew ei s t ns h gu r ehe n


s t ro ae pn go t t an v h ec r fh sayb c tsn o f en me w lpo s ua t it t i ese f dt a c t oh r y
a s s o us r a ap frn e ce si eCct r Uy i f obG
, e - d d1 0 n e1 .
5. MAXIMUMALLOWABLESTRESS VALUES
The maximuma l l t o ews an vt b s l apr ie e lel r f m uesd i i est f mt sfo ea e dt r e e r nr i t a l s
a g i it r ova p 1eb eaT n l m 8 n ga e xa9hn l ie l m c o. o uwm
e amp s rb e l ts es ri v e s
t b u i t sd eo ce hys o l e i sd n gdnsh er u in ebc t ajlf l l e o clt at p s ed rhd i o n doa g u ct e
l o n g ic t o u md pi snr ea itls t s ris v se h b hshd ee s t a elna re cl ml c i t ol n ree d i n g
C p U
o abC cd & d -r e 2 . 3 , , .

6. JOINT EFFICIENCY
The efficiency of different types of welded joints are given in table on page
172. The efficiency of seamless heads is tabulated on page 176.
T f o l phl o c aw o i fgen o g t eru am t s icu s nlo at m esr p e uqdw h tu o ei a r ee ld
t h i ac kt nm e an s xhsa li l mdw o uweo m ap r br kl ef ei st n sm gu o r ho e ar e
f r e qu u t e nso y st l a yeph h eTe de f n s lo a rfo hcl m
d y d lu i. sl n aeda hr s i c e a f lr l l
g f i t l .v o ~o ge hs i t usn ed iur ni aeas tl nugm ao hc ,vl eel i r y n s .

T s it t h rg se i whs e ger s oiot na ew


v hlnte mch ir r l lc un m eh f j ey r en no t ie a il n
e f f ii lc i t e oen chn y te s l- ao hsn sga hinj lt u fe do f i f n eiia ocl wi ne n cht y , e r
besides the internal pressure additional loadings(wind load, reaction of
s a ad cd al l euor ns s g ) i ib t une ed o gin t n dae l inT snr i g ef o ih ani r . s o o e n r
t t sh at rhrai t i eg s t ss i ie phsn er gper o s t nau eq i h niumo n and oe r -c e h ah l s f
t s it t hlr o ne g ihs s t e u sed i nn aea l m .

T f o rf htm g u s l io aeh c serc o r t rda ei nh g ml y :


PR 2SEt
t P=
= 24SE+ 0.4P R – 0.4t
Seenotation on page 22.
I P N R
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSJDEDIMENSIONS

NOTATION
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y 7g. e 2
P = D pe r s o e m i s a sg l aul n or R = wex I a bnrr . l as ei d i n i dc u eh s e, s
w o p r r pke is sn u gs rD = e I ndi i s a i m i n e d t c ee hr , e s
S= S vt o rma ea pl t ps e u ssr at i e= a if t l g h i ,i c e k n n ec s hs , e s
C = C o rAa r l ol ois wi .n ao nnc c eh . e s

A
CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( LS EO A N M G )

t PR SE t
P
R f= SE– O.6P = m-m

e
1. U s t su i at t ll hr s l e i yog h seo ev Sns e arn en gi m
ne g s .
p r ep c e a d i g n g e .
2 W [ w h t h aiehe c x ok. lhcnn o ete isl ae n s nd slhs ie f
r oa P e d x 0 i c S u. et f es 3 o drgE r 8 hsm
i i u5 l v , a e se
t C A po h 1p s e db nah dep - ei ap x l l i 2e l de .

B SPHERE HEMISPHERICAL HEAD

PR p= 2SE t
‘= 2SE–0,2P R +0.2t

r
1. F h w e i aos at t Ih r d loua r t aisu e gnft fhg si thce i , e n e c
R f o t h t s ej h hi i ol a et f it e eeld hfno f l si thac if { es n c
1- -1 -–
o t s i e[ h h a e m h fa e s d n e .
2 W t w h t h aiehe c x 0k. l cnnR o. ePe e sl e 3xs d c 5s e 6e
0 S . t f 6 o gE r 6 hmi ti uC 5 lvA, a epo hse p e nd n n de ei
I s b -ah p ap3 l li , e l d e .
.
. 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

PD
b I P= -Dy;jt
‘= 2SE– O.2P

0 1. F e l l ih po sw
e o t ia hrd rado leta smh r t , a ehi j e o o
“ a m a i i on nxt t 2 1 os hihC
d r A e aspo espr e nd n : , de ei
1 - 4 ( c ) .
/1 = 1>/4
E X

D ED S AI G
T NA : E = 1 j . e of 0f oi is c0 ei n ea , n m tc l y e s f
h e a d s
P = p d pe r s e is sg ui R n=r 4 ie ni rnc a hs d ie i8 ds u es *
S= 1 p 7s vt5 o rsSa 0 e l 0 s Dtiu= s9 i e ni f A dnc i hsa mie e6 dst e e r *
5 1p @5 6l . 5a 7 0t 0 ”e= r I F e wq [ u h i ai irc ken ln d ec s lhs , e
E = 0 e . f f oi8 s cp oi 5t e - ne x, c a ym i n ef i d .
C = 0 . nc A 1o c ra 2r hl. ol e5so iws o u n n c e
j oo s ia hh n eHe t tnm sl e i f l * s dac .o crd oi r o ngo d d vi e nt a di ot n e r
s h e l l w t c i o r a rhlt ol so ihw o ea n n c e

SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE

I)c[crmincIhc rcquird lhicknms, SEE DESIGN[),N”f’A


AIK)VE
01”o shell
fhwrmine the maximum:Ill(nv;IbleIf(whingpressure, P
I(K) x 48.1?5 I’br().5()() in thi~k kh{.11wtlrn Ihc tIS<,Il i, in IICW
,= = ().325 in.
I7500 x 0.85 -- 0.6 x 100 currditi(m.

+ C.A. () 125 in. 17500 x ().X5 x ().5(M)


P = - 154psi
48 + x
in.

fJse: ().50() in, pkrfc

—.

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

The head furnishedwithmrtslraigh[ Ilwrge.


SEE DESIGNL)A’rAABOVE
Detcrrnirrethe required thickness. I d’ ii hemispherical
head. Determine IIw maximumallowuhlcvrn-kingpressure. P
I’or().3125 in [hi(k head. when it is in IICNctmdili(m
]00 x 48, Izfi
/= = ().16? in.
2 x I7500 x 0.85 -- 0.2 x I00 p ,..
,? x I7500 x 0.X5x 0.3 I25
+ IOJ p~i
W + 0.2 x (),3I25
+ C.A. 0.125 in.

0.287 in.

Use: ().3125 in MIN. HEAD

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

Dctcrrninethe requiredthicknessot’a SCJMICSS


ellipsoidal
head SEE DESIGNDA’I’AABOVE

100 X 96.25 Determinethe maximumdlmv:iblc U[wkingprcwurc. P


— = 0,275 in. for 0,275 in. thick. seamless head \!’heni! is in corroded
‘ - 2 x 17500 x 1.0 – 0.2 x 100 condition.
+ C.A. 0.125 in, 2 X 17500 X 1,0 X 0.275
= 10(1psi
in, 96.?5 + 0.2 x 0.275—

Use: o 437s in, MIN. THK. HEAD


I P N
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSIDE DIMENS1ONS

NOTATION D = I dn i s ai mi n e d tc e e hr , e
P = D pe r s o e m i s a sg l aul n or a we=x Oa hbr o. l t ei an n (c lhI a eu p fd fe
w o p r r pke si sn u gs r ea dni eg g l r e e ,e s
S= . Sv to m a r a ;pl t ps e u ssr aLi e= Ia if l grn oa,s d e dii i din suec sh
r = I kn n sr u ai i c dd nk i e cl u e h s
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y g7,r = W t e h 2ai i c k n ln ec s l sh , e
R = I rn a is d ni i dc u he s e,= C s o r a r l ol ois wi n ao nnc c eh ,

1 CONE CONICAL SECTION

2SEt c a o
‘ c a (SE–= O.6P)
o ‘= 2D + 1.2t
s a

1 T h a a a h apnn g lg re. t el e3 fo e axh ,t e0a t


A % ~ 2 W i‘Dgh r t e 3e s nah pa. t a ne e0ia racs re l i q ny au ;s
( A C p 1po e- dn 5 d (e i ex ) )

E A F SL A M D
N GI H EN
ES D H
E ED A
( T O R I S P HH E R I EC A L A D
W ‘ =h 1 6e / 2 n fr

0.885PL SEt
P=
f= SE– o. 1 ‘ 0.885 L+0.lt P
~

< When Vr l t 1e h s a s n

\
PLM 2SEt
‘= 2SE– O.2P ‘= LM+oo2t

V A O LF UA “ EC ST OM F R ”
1 1. .0 50 0
‘ J r
M
3
2 ●

1 3 . 0
M 1
* : L = D + 2t (see note 2 on f pa ca i
21

E X
DESIGN DATA: R = 48inchesinsideradius*
P = lOOpsidesignpressure D = 96inchesinsidediameter*
S = 17500psistressvalueof ~ = required wallthickness,inches
SA515-70plate@650°F L = 30°0nehalfoftheapexangle
E = 0.85,efficiency
ofspot-examined t = Resuiredwallthickness
inches
joints C.A = 0,125inchescon-osionallowance
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofsearnless * incorrodedcondition
greaterwith
thecorrosionallowance
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Cos30° = 0.866
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, r working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
of a cone cone, when the vessel is in new
100x 96.25 condition.
‘2X 0.866(17500X 2x xO.85xO.500x0.866= 133psi
96+ 1.2XOo500Xo.866
+C.A. 0,125in.
0.500in.
Use0,500in.plate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


L/r = 16$ Determine the maximum allowable
working pressure, P for 0.6875 in. thick
Determine the required thickness, t of a seamless head, when the vessel is in
seamless ASME flanged and dished new condition.
head.
0.885X100x96.I25 p. 17500x1,0x0,6875
f= =0.486 in. = 141psi
17500x 1.0-0.1x 100 0.885x96+ 0,1 x0,6875

+C.A. 0.125in.
0.611in.
Use0.625in.plate
SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE
Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r= ~= (j %
61 Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r= ~ = 16
~= 1.75 from table. A4= 1.75 from table
Determine the required thickness t of a
seamless ASME flanged and dished Determine the maximum allowable
head. working pressure, P for a 0.481 in. thick
100x96,125X1.75 seamless head when the vessel is in
t= ‘0.481 in. corroded condition.
2 x 17500 100

2 x 17500X1.0xO.481 = 100psi
+C.A. 0.125in. p= 96.125X 1.75+0,2 xO.481
0.606in.
Use0.625in.min.thickhead
NOTE: When the r o La i g t r t i/e 1 a nho to6f nreca so- r n3 Cs tn otr uv,d c te aoi o hnl ) u
A b4 c a ml bc t ua f l oay tir ehe%
md +ul k L l y ae (l /: = r 3 )
22

I P N
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS

NOTATION
E = Joint efficiency,page 1 7
P=D pe r s o e m i s a sgl aul n or w =ex O a ubr radius,
. l t einches
s i d e
w op r r pke si sn u gs r: eO u id ti asi m i n e d= tc ee hr ,
S= S vt o rm
a ae pl t ps e u ssr ai e= W a if t l g h ai , i c e k n ln ec s l sh , e
1 8 9 C.A: = Comosionallowance,inches

A
CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( LS EO A N

+ PR
P = R y;4t
R * = SE + 0.4P .
b

G3) ~ 1 U s t su iat t l hr sl .e i yogh seo e v snS e arn en g


p 1 a g e 4
2 W t w h t h aiehe c x ok. lhcnn o eet isl ae ns nd slhs
r oa P e d x 0i c S u. et fse 3 o dr gEr 8shim v u5 e
t C A po h 1p s e db nah dep - ei ap x l l i 2 e l

B
SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD

PR
P - ~ y; B*
f = 2SE + 0.8P .
@
f 1 F h w e i ao s at t fh r d .loua r t asiu e gnft fhgsi thce
R o t h t s ej h hi i oi la e t fi te leed hnf o fl is t hca f
d’ o t s i et hh a e m h f ae s d n e .
R P
S t E h , e
1-3,shallbe applied.
c
2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

PD
h P=D~l—
‘= 2S45+1,8P .

- +
1 F e l l hi po wes o t ai hr d. odra t eal m s h art ,a hei j
u m a ii o tnx t 2 so hC hi :Ar e paso e1ps1 r e- nd n 4 ,

h = D14
23

E X
DESIGN DATA:
P = IOOpsidesignpressure E = 1.OOjointefficiency
ofseamlessheads
S = 17500psistressva1ueof l? =48inchesoutsideriidius
SA515-70plate@650°F D= 96 inchesoutsidediameter
E= O.8&efliciencyofspot-examined t =Requiredwallthickness,
inches
joints ofshellandhemis.headtoshell C.A.= 0.125inchescorosionallowance
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamless

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


Determine the required thickness, t Determine the maximum allowable
of a shell working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
shell when the vessel is in new condi-
100X48 tion.
‘= 17500x0.85-0.4x 100 ‘0”322 ‘n”
17500xO.85xO.500
P= 48-0.4 x0,500 = 155psi
+C.A. 0.125in.
0.447in.
Use:0.500in.thickplate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Head furnished without straight flange.
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t of a working pressure, P for 0.3125 in. thick
hemispherical head. head, when the vessel is in new
condition.
t=
2x17500 %;t0.8x100 ‘0-161 ‘r- 2x 17500xO.85x().3125
ip. =194psi
48-0.8 x0,3125
+ C 0. i .A 1. n 2 5 .
0.286in.
Use:0.3215in.min.thickhead
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness t of a working pressure, P for 0.273 in. thick
seamless ellipsoidal head. head, when it is in new condition.

100x96
8 p. + 2X
x 17500x1.0X
t=
2 x 17500 X 1 1 . . 0
96-1.8 xO.273 = 100psi
+C.A. 0,125in.
0.398in.
Use0.4375in.min.thickhead
I P N
FORMULASIN TERMSOF OUTSIDEDIMENSIONS

N ~ A T I O N
Outsidediameter.inches
P = Designpressureor max. allowable ~ = one half of the included(apex)
w o p r r psi
ke si sn u g r ea dn eg g l r e e ,e s
S= S v & o m a e a pl ts p e u ssr aLi e= O
a fi l gu r t , oa dse dii i din esuc sh
r = I kn n sr u ai i c dd nk i e lc u e h
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y g7, = W t e h 2ai ic k n ln ec s l sh , e
R=O ur t a i s d ni i dc u e hC.A:
s =e, C os r a r l ol ois wi n ao nnc c eh

)
CONE CONICAL SECTION

PD p= 2bsEfCos CY
‘=2 Cos CY(SE+ O.4P) D –0.8t a

d
1 T h a a a h apnn g gl re.t el e3 of eaxh t, e0a t
@L 2 W
“ i hg rt e 3e snah p.a0t a ne eai rasc r°e l i qny au , s
( A C p 1po e- dn 5 d ( e i ex ) )

E A F sL A MD N GI H EN
ES D HE ED
( T O R I S P HHE R I EC A L A D
W h = 1e n 6 L 2/ r /

0.885PL SEt
P=
2=SE + 0.8P 0.885L– O.8t

f W Lh T ee1 h 6 sn a2 s
.
i
PL M 2SEt
f= 2SE+P(M– O.2)’ ‘= ML –t(ikf-O.2)

VALUES OF FACTOR M
2 2. 3 .0 3. 5 0 4 .0 0 5. 50 6 .5 0
‘ 1 / 1. 2 .r2 2. 7 5 3. 2 5 4 .7 5 5. 2 5 6 .0 5 . 00
M 1 1. 1. 0 .0 0 16 0

% ‘

7

: L-t = D 2

.
25

E X
3ESIGN DATA:
P = IOOpsidesignpressure D = 96inchesoutside
dimeter
S = 17500psistressvalueof ~ = 3@onehalfoftheapexmgle
SA 515-70plate@650°F L = 96inchesoutsideradiusofdish
E = 0.85,efficiency
ofspot-examinedjoints t = Requiredwallthickness,
inches
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamlessheads C.A = 0.125inchescomosionallowmce
R = 48inchesoutsideradius
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
:0s 30° = 0.866 Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
of a cone cone.
00 96
‘=2 x0.866X(l\50; X0.85+Oc4X100) =
=0.372 in. ~= 2X 17500XC).85X
().5()()X().866= 134psi
96- (0.8xO.500xO.866)
+-CA. 0.125in.
0.497in.
Use:0.500in.thickplate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


L/r = 16$
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t of a working pressure, P for 0.625 in. thick
seamless ASME flanged and dished seamless head, when the vessel is in
head. corroded condition.
0,885x 100x96
=0.483 in.
‘= 17500x1.0+0.8x 100 17500x 1.0xO.625
P= 0.885
+C.A. 0.125in.
0.608in.
U 0 in.min.thickhead
s. 6e 2 : 5
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
%
Knuckle radius r= 6 i M ~ =1 K r p= 6 in. L/r= ~ =16
M 1.75 from table.
~= 1.75 from table.
Determine the required thickness t of a
seamless ASME flanged and dished Determine the maximum allowable
head. working pressure, P for a 0.478 in. thick
100X96X1.75 seamless head when the vessel is in
t= =0.478 in. corroded condition.
2x 17500x1.0x 100(1.75-0.2)
2X17500x1.OX().478 .
+-CA. 0.125in. ‘= 1.75X96-0478(1.75-0.2)=100ps*
0.603in.
Use0.625in.min.thickhead
NOTE: W t r h o La i ehg t r t n i/e 1 ea, h(o nt f ore a6c ns or -n sC nt tor u:vd c et aoi o hnl )
Mm ca a l y bc t u fbl oa etA
r eh%
md +u~ l ly ae ( : = 3 )
&u
Y

I E P
F

NOTATION
P = Internal or external design pressure psi E=joint efficiency
d =Inside diameter ofshell, in.
S =Maximumaflowable stiessvalue ofmaterial, psi
t = Minimum required thickness of head, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
t~ = Actual thickness of head exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
tr = Minimumrequired thicknessof seamless shell for pressure, in.
t~ = Actual thickness of shell, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
27

I E P
E

DESIGNDATA
P = 300 psi design pressure E=joint efficiency
d =24in. inside diameter ofshell
s =15,0001psi maximum allowable stress value of SA-515-60 plate
tr =0.243 i required thickness
n of seamless
. shell for pressure.
t~ =0.3125 in. actual thickness ofshell.
DETERMINE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS, t

t=d ~ 0.13 PISE = 24 ~ 0.13x300/15,000 x 1 = 1.223 in.


Use l.250in. head

t~ 1.250
Checking the limitationof — = — = 0.052,
d 24

Theratio ofhead thickness to the diameter of the shell is satisfactory

SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE

0.243
c = 0.33 ; = 0,33 — = 0.26
s 0.3125

t = d = = 24 0.26 x 300/1 ~,000 x 1 == 1.731 in.

Use 1.75 in. plate

Using thicker plate for shell, alesser thickness wfil be satisfactory for the head
t~ = 0.375 i n .

0.243
c = 0.33 + = 0.33 — = 0.214
0.375

0.214 x 300/15,000 x 1 = 1.57 in.


t= d & = 24 J
Use 1.625 in. plate
The shell thickness shall be maintained along a distance 2 dt, from the
inside face of the head J

2 m = 6 in”

- .. . . . .... . .

28

PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE RATINGS


F S P O FLANGES
T E I E AND
R P FLANGED
L E FITTINGS
American National Standard ANSI B16.5-1981

150lb. 300 l 4 l 6 b lb.


0 900
b l 0 .1 0l . 25b 0 l 50b
HYDROSTATIC
TEST
PRESSURE,PSIG
450 1125 1500 2225 3350 5575 9275

TEMPERATURE,
F MAXIMUMALLOWABLENON-SHOCKpRESSURE PSIG.

-20 to 100 285 740 990 1480 2220 3705 6170 -


200 260 675 900 1350 2025 3375 5625
300 230 655 875 1315 1970 3280 5470
400 200 635 845 1270 1900 3170 5280

500 170 600 800 1200 1795 2995 4990


600 140 550 730 1095 1640 2735 4560
650 125 535 715 1075 1610 2685 4475
700 110 535 710 1065 1600 2665 4440

750 95 505 670 1010 1510 2520 4200


800 80 410 550 325 1235 2060 3430
850 65 270 355 535 805 1340 2230
900 50 170 230 345 515 860 1430

950 35 105 140 205 310 515 860


1000 20 50 70 105 155 260 430

Ratings apply to materials:


SA-1051’2 SA-515-702 SA-516-702 SA-181-70]’2 SA-350-LF2
SA-537-C1.13 SA-216-WCB2
NOTES:
1. For service temperatures above 850 F it is recommended that killed steels
containing not less than 0.10070residual silicon be used.
2. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800 F, the carbide phase of
carbon steel may be converted to graphite.
3. T m a s t h ne hb r u i ai eat o shll i a cl e k21/2
bt ni e ed o s n s v n e

Flangesof ANSIB16.5shall not be used for higher ratings exceptwhereit is


justified by the design methods of the Code.

Ratings are maximum allowable non-shock working pressures expressedas gage


pressure, at the tabulated temperatures and may be interpolated between
temperatures shown,

Temperatures are those on the inside of the pressure-containing shell of the


f l I ga en i ni g t e se r a. a t a lhon t, hc m ot s ne m
a hte aa st i t en f r ee i d a l
2-

P F
STATIC HEAD

The fluid in the vessel exerts pressure on the vessel wall. The intensity of the
pressure when the fluid is at rest is equal in all directions on the sides or
bottom of the vessel and i d t t h u eo t h i f s gae l o ht be up t o iof he v di
a w t h p ri ie ch cso nst hs u i dre e e r e ds .
T s ht hwa e a t ph pi ae sl ci eb c had a bnt ad lt e d dl ep le rh s eoe dt i s osg e u n hr
v e s s e l .
T t ab h bs e lt l rh e e o lsb oha w
e t t it wpo w rne eaes h hes sn eo ut n i re eg h
w a t e r .
T f t pi r fe hnas os o udf ot ren lt e h wu hretai y v tdr a ag es hil irnt u , v e e eh
t as bb hm ul la ew t i tl sp s li lpi gee hdt rc o tia fhf v i e icl co htn su yi d e i rf ae t di

P r ie P s osp uSu r qIn e efud Dnn asi f rH rfoc eeo eWr he a nar t d t se
H e a d ,
F o e 1 e2 3t 4 5 6 7 8 9

b
w
a a F at h e r e e .q n rp h u et4p oia r t p elu3s s s iqns 3 uue nd r a e c
T f t p i r pe shns qsi o ufdeu aren fae h r ocnr e n eg e i h tie rt ao y va ta dbhe bt o n
m u t l f t h i b ep.h e l 4y e a 3e t d3 y .
H o eW ai aF dC t o er sr ee s f tper oC n nde P
it nr rg t e as si o un r
i P o p Su qnI eud nn as r rc e h

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

i t
30

T
f q c u o om i po ra cr e i r qps k out nl hi ir aace weight
fk d t n forevarious
ne s smaterialsdand
at different degree of radiographic examination.

A Stress values at tem~.


. -20 to 650° F.
S 5 3 A B
S A
C - 2 S 58 15 5 -S 5 6 A1 0 5
S 5 1 6 -S 5 6 A1 0 6
85V0J. E. 11730 12750 14875

100Yo J. E. 13800 15000 17500


B Ratios of Stress Values

11730 12750 13800 14875 15000 17500

11730 — 1.09 1.18 1.27 1.28 1.49

12750 0.92 — 1.08 1.17 1.18 1.37

13800 0.85 0.92 — 1.08 1.09 1.27

14875 0.79 0.86 0.93 — 1.01 1.18

15000 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 — 1.17

17500 0.67 0.73 0.79 “ 0.85 0.86 —

Table A shows the stress value of the most frequently used shell and head materials.
Table B shows the ratios of these stress values.

EXAMPLE:
1. Foravesselusing SA 5 15-70 plate, whenspotradiographed, therequiredthickness
0.4426 inches and the weight of the vessel 12600 lbs.
2. What plate thickness will be required and what will the weight of the vessel be,
using SA 285-C plate and fill radiographic examination:
In case 1. The stress value of the material 14875
In case 2. The stress value of the material 13800
The ratio of the two stress values tlom Table B = 1.08. In this proportion will be
increased the required plate thickness and the weight of the vessel.
0.4426 x 1.08 = 0.4780 in.
12600 X 1.08= 13608 lb.
31

E P X

D eP rs e is gs un r e

V e i sn st f ese n el u d sr o ee nv dx i wdt c ero eper r r n kre oa si1 l sp n ou lg r e e ss


w a h t b is t r c wa thm C i pe s oe eohyt dd m
e dhnc b oeo moet pwi l tni a gi n c
r fo e xl tp o eer er s ssn sb arh ud l r e a e sf , ila m g lna oeexa d li l m o r uw
e x pt er ero 1S ns p sa o u2l pr ces m fete oti m rnh 5 ar r xptah ioe m s n su e
e x pt r e e wr s hn s i aiucs l r h m ee Ca, v lLe -lro (e r sdJ . 2 f e G 8 )

A v ew si hd s e i sae icc l og n hn s n tet sCr d u r c e t oqd e u d i fr dei m noe net to es


p r ae w s s i hru n er i qte b u cd di e rh sf e ai s ed g x n ptoo e ere d oer 1 snp r sa n ul r
o l n ne be d se eost rCi s grd nof t u et e ed dl x optoe here cers o sn rn saed uli tr
H o w
n e e xv pt e rer rer, snam saob t usl ri whae n t oC gi s wy t ohtea un m d hp ei
l C re e oq u is fr dee m xse pnet tores aer msn Csa r uU le r r o ( Ge nt d- eo . f2 et

T s nh h b a ai p i o tpl vs l l iei o t hespe dea s a tr eef aem tlp bee sr dm


a e t u itlr e n
2 F a t d ep n rhs ie d0i se dtsg ee ub rnt rmC ei U n e -oshd ( ( dCo yC6 e ce 2 o S
U - ( t Ha 5t v bn e Ao c o 1hie i )s mots d i p ete ya s c f tt .

V e w s l s ji e o lC iat s Un o- th2 ( sp Nd : c y egl i ovGn de 8jr is) a cn sac l e k


C U -o 2 ( d ei G 8 )

T P re e s s s u tr e

S i n g vl e e - d ws e a s ls f l ei v gl a n so ocep d ua v ru ar to m c i s n ua rb hlul ma y
s u b t j a e i c n t ht e y ed d r r t on oso ant w ael t a ih hcys d r teo t si trn ane t i c
p r a c t ai pc na be l t ue m ,U e-a (t soi c t9 f . G 9 )

E it ot t y h s ebe phm r a as ae ap flr t ned l ls ets e u1e o1 tr h t e s t i a t/ m


s
d i f f b e er ent n woc a eet r m e om spn par h eeal r s t i scm u in r ndh e i e m d s u e
i n at eb prs rno e Ual s -ul s ( t u e r e9 . f G 9 )

P n e tu m
C e a U t - soi c t 1d : 0e G 0

T d em h se o t it f goh e l pnolh ocd a w o i tngnA ne fg eC o S f sr P o mMr e doos E s


V e S s e V s c De tI 1l iT IIs co nIoh Vp h a. 4 at .r 4 .gta e he s ex cn rf ser r 2 pru t 7
t C ho di e s .