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UNIT – 4


The complexity of modem aircraft and all allied equipment, and the nature of the environmental
conditions under which they must operate, require conformity of design, development and subsequent
operation with established requirements and standards. This is, of course, in keeping with other
branches of mechanical and transport engineering, but in aviation requirements and standards are
unique and by far the most stringent.

The formulation and control of airworthiness requirements as they are called, and the recommended
standards to which raw materials, instruments and other equipment should be designed and
manufactured, are established in the countries of design origin, manufacture and registration, by
government departments and/or other legally constituted bodies. The international operation of civil
aircraft necessitates international recognition that aircraft do, in fact, comply with their respective
national airworthiness requirements. As a result, international standards of airworthiness are also laid
down by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These standards do not replace national
regulations, but serve to define the complete minimum international basis for the recognition by
countries of airworthiness certification.

lt is not intended to go into all the requirements - these take up volumes in themselves - but rather to
extract those related essentially to instruments; by so doing a useful foundation can be laid on which to
study operating principles and how they are applied in meeting the requirements.


Location, Visibility and Grouping of Instruments

1. All instruments shall be located so that they can be read easily by the appropriate member of the
flight crew.

2. When illumination of instruments is provided there shall be sufficient illumination to make them
easily readable and discernible by night. Instrument lights shall be installed in such a manner that the
pilot's eyes are shielded from their direct rays and that no objectionable reflections are visible to him.

3. Flight, navigation and power-plant instruments for use by a pilot shall be plainly visible to him from
his station with the minimum practicable deviation from his normal position and line of vision when he
is looking out and forward along the flight path of the aircraft.

4. All flight instruments shall be grouped on the instrument panel and, as far as practicable,
symmetrically disposed about the vertical plane of the pilot's forward vision.

5. All the required power-plant instruments shall be conveniently grouped on instrument panels and in
such a manner that they may be readily seen by the appropriate crew member.
6. In multi-engined aircraft, identical power-plant instruments for the several· engines shall be located
so as to prevent any misleading impression as to the engines to which they relate.

Instrument Panels

The vibration characteristics of instrument panels shall be such as not to impair seriously the accuracy of
the instruments or to damage them. The minimum acceptable vibration insulation characteristics are
established by standards formulated by the appropriate national organization.

Instruments to be installed

Flight and Navigation Instrument.

1. Altimeter adjustable for changes in barometric pressure

2. Airspeed indicator

3. Vertical speed indicator

4. Gyroscopic bank-and-pitch attitude indicator

5. Gyroscopic rate-of-tum indicator (with bank indicator)

6. Gyroscopic direction indicator

7. Magnetic compass

8. outside air temperature indicator

9. Clock


In the design and manufacture of any product, it is the practice to comply with some form of
specification the purpose of which is to ensure conformity with the required production processes, and
to set an overall standard for quality of the product and reliability when ultimately performing its
intended function. Specifications, or standards as they are commonly known, are formulated at both
national and international levels by specialized organizations. For example, in the United Kingdom, the
British Standards Institution is the recognized body for the preparation and promulgation of national
standards and codes of practice, and it represents the United Kingdom in the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO), in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and in West European
organizations performing comparable functions.

Standards relate to all aspects of engineering and as a result vast numbers are produced and issued in
series form corresponding to these aspects. As far as aircraft instruments and associated equipment are
concerned, British Standards come within the Aerospace GI 00 and G200 series; they give definitions,
constructional requirements, dimensions, calibration data, accuracy required under varying
environmental conditions, and methods of testing. Also in connection with instruments and associated
electronic equipment, frequent reference is made to what are termed ARINC specifications. This is an
acronym for Aeronautical Radio Incorporated, an organization in the United States which operates
under the aegis of the airline operators, and in close collaboration with manufacturers.