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Irrigation Engineering

1. Natural sub-irrigation = Due to capillarity (Water table approximately 2 to 3 m below

the surface)
2. Artificial sub-irrigation = Artificially supplying water to the roots
3. Free flooding = Suitable where land is steep and topography is irregular, application
efficiency ( ) is low, movement of water is not restricted.
4. Border flooding = With levees or borders separated by ridges.

( )

A = area, y = depth of water in the field, f = infiltration rate = ,

5. Check flooding = Suitable for both high & less permeable soils
6. Basin flooding = Water supplied directly at root zone
Ex:- orchad trees
7. Furrow irrigation = Less evaporation, less pudding, permits cultivation sooner after
8. Sprinkler irrigation = Costly, artificially rains
9. Drip irrigation = Heads, mains, sub mains, laterals and drop nozzles. Suitable where
scarcity of water
10. ;
= salinity concentration of the soil solution
= consumptive use = evaporation + transpiration
= effective rainfall
= used up irrigation water
= concentration of salt water
= total salt applied to soil with ‘Q’ amount of irrigation water
11. Low salinity water = 100 to 250 ; for all crops
Medium salinity water = 250 to 750 ; salt tolerant plants
High salinity water = 750 to 2250 ; high salt tolerant plants
Very high salinity water = greater than 2250 ; not suitable for irrigation


= 0 to 10 for low sodium water
= 10 to 18 for medium sodium water
= 18 to 26 for high sodium water
= greater than 26 for very high sodium water
By addition of gypsum sodium hazardous problem can be solved
Delta for sugarcane = 120 cm
Delta for rice = 120 cm
Delta for tobacco = 75 cm
Duty is increases as we move downstream from head of main canal towards the head of
branches. (i.e.,
Duty for sugarcane = 730 cm
Duty for rice = 775 cm
14. or
15. Flow/ Quantity/ Storage duty =
16. Kharif or hot weather = 1st april to 30th september
Rabi or winter crops = 1st october to 31th march
Kharif to Rabi ratio = 1: 2

21. ̅
,̅ ∑| ̅ |and

22. Capillary water = Extracted by plants against roots

23. Hygroscopic water = Water not available to the plants
24. total amount of water used by the
25. = (water required in order to meet the evapo-transpiration needs of
crop during its full growth)

29. Filed capacity = maximum water can be stored by soil

30. Permanent wilting point = water content at which plant can no longer extract sufficient
water for its growth and wilts up
31. Available moisture = Field capacity - Permanent wilting point
32. Readily available moisture = Field capacity – optimum moisture content
(generally it is of available moisture, up to OMC point plant can easily extract
33. Equivalent moisture = water content after being centrifuged for 30 min by a centrifugal
force of 1000 times that of gravity

35. Irrigation interval =

36. Alluvial soil = soil which is formed by continuous silt deposition
37. Watershed or ridge line = dividing line b/w catchment area of two streams
38. Watershed canal = aligned along which any natural watershed and water taken out by
gravity, CD works are avoided
39. Contour canal = aligned at hilly regions, CD works are provided
40. Side slope canal = aligned at right angles to the contour (along side slopes), No CD
works required
41. Cultivable commanded area (CCA) = 80% of Gross commanded area
42. Intensity of irrigation = the percentage of CCA proposed to be irrigated seasonally
43. Annual irrigation intensity =

44. Time factor =

45. Capacity factor =

46. Discharge of the canal adopted =

47. Threshold motion = minimum velocity to start to move bed
48. Saw tooth type ripples – dunes with ripples – dunes – flat surface – surface waves – anti
49. Tractive force per unit area, i.e shear stress ,
50. For non-scouring channels, and (this equation gives the minimum
size of bed material or lining stone that will remain at rest in a channel of given ‘R’ and
51. Diversion head works:
56. Most economical/efficient channel:
(i) Rectangular, ,
(ii) Trapezoidal,
√ , ,

(iii) A semi-circle can be inscribed in a most economical trapezoidal section

57. Stable/regime channel = in which neither scouring nor silting

58. Kennedy’s:
 He stated regime channel as if there is neither scouring nor silting and chooses
no silting, no scouring channel to do experiment
 Critical velocity,
Where ‘m’ is critical velocity ratio and it can either based on type of
S.No Type of silt Value of ‘m’
1 Silt of river Indus (Pak) 0.7
2 Light sandy silt in North Indian river 1.0
3 Light sandy silt, a little coarses 1.1
4 Sandy, loamy silt 1.2
5 Debris of hard soil 1.3
 Kennedy’s theory uses Garret’s diagrams.
( )
 [ ]√
( )

59. Stickler’s formula for manning’s , is in meters

60. Lacey’s:
 By drawbacks of kennedy’s theory
 Investigation on the design of stable channel showing no silting, no scouring
mass actually not be in regime.
 Initial regime = when only bed slope of a channel varies and C/S or wetted
perimeter remains unaffected even then a channel can exhibit no scouring no
silting properties (Lacey’s theory is not applicable for initial regime)
 True regime = (i) discharge is constant
(ii) flow is uniform
(iii) silt charge is constant (i.e amount of silt)
(iv) silt grade is constant (i.e size and type of silt)
(v) channel is flowing through a material which can be scoured as
easily as it can be deposited and is of the same grade as is
But in practice all these conditions never be satisfied, and
therefore artificial channels can never be in true regime
 Final regime = if there is no resistance from the sides and all the variables such
as perimeter, depth, slope etc are equally free to vary and finally get adjusted
according to discharge and silt grade, then the channel is said to have achieved
permanent stability called final regime.

√ √
 Lacey’s fundamental equations {

 From the above two equations and also based on large data, he fixed one more
relation as
 Silt factor, √

 ( )

 ( )
 √

 For wide rivers, width = perimeter; therefore Regime width, √

 Lacey’s regime scour depth ( ) ,this applicable only when the river

width of ( )
Note : when the actual river width regime width, then the scour depth can be
computed in terms of ‘q’, i.e discharge/unit width

 Lacey’s normal scour depth ( ) , this is applicable for all channels

61. Canal falls: whenever the available natural ground slope is steeper than the designed
bed slope of the channel, the difference is adjusted by constructing vertical falls or
drops in canal bed at suitable intervals
 Ogee falls: heavy drawdown on the u/s side resulting in lower depths , higher
velocity and consequent bed erosion and affect the supply in a distributary
situated just u/s of fall and kinetic energy of the flow was not at all dissipated
causing erosion of d/s bed and banks
 Rapids: rapid slopes of 1 :15 to 1 : 20 (i.e gently sloping)
 Trapezoidal notch falls: depth-discharge relationship of the channel remains
practically unaffected and there would neither be drawdown nor heading up of
water as the channel approaches the fall
 Well type falls or syphon well drops: due to turbulence in the well, lot of energy
will dissipate. This type of fall consists of an inlet well with a pipe at its bottom
carrying water from the inlet well to the d/s well. This type of falls are very
useful for larger drops for smaller discharges.
 Simple vertical drop and sarda type falls: quite suitable upto 15 cumecs and
drops upto 1.5m. But this type of fall should not be flumed.
 Straight glacis falls: work satisfactorily for all conditions in unflumed but in that
case they become costly. Even then they can be adopted suitably for discharges
upto 60 cumecs and drops upto 1.5m and can even be flumed.
 Inglis falls or baffle wall: used for all discharges when drop is more than 1.5m.
65. for Lined Triangular section.
66. for Lined Trapezoidal section.
67. Failure of hydraulic structure founded pervious foundation
 Failure by piping or under mining
 Failure by direct uplift
68. Bligh’s creep theory for seepage flow:
 Creep length, (for piping)
 The head loss at any point = hydraulic gradient length of travel up to that
point….(for uplift)
70. Floor thickness:
 , where
 , where
 Thickness should be increased by for factor of safety
71. If water weight is considerable considered in d/s side.

 , where = depth of water above the d/s floor
72. Safety against piping or underlining:
 , where C = Bligh’s coefficient for the soil
73. √ * +,


75. Launching apron scour depth, , ( )

76. Length of launching apron √

77. , and

78. ( ) and ( )
√ √
79. ( ) ( ) and ( ),

√ √
and ,
80. Non-modular modules: Drowned pipe outlet, masonry sluice and wooden shoots.
81. Semi modules or flexible modules: Pipe outlet, venturi flume or Kennedy’, open flume
and orifice semi module.
82. Rigid modules: Gibb’s module, Kanna’s rigid module and foote module.
83. Flexibility , discharge in outlet and discharge in channel,
outlet index and channel index. working head of outlet and depth of
water in channel.
84. Proportionality:

85. Setting

86. , hyper proportional outlet.

87. , sub proportional outlet.

88. Sensitivity,
89. Aqueduct: Canal over drainage with clear gap.
90. Syphon Aqueduct: Canal over drainage with syphonic action.
91. Super passage: Drain over canal with clear gap.
92. Canal Syphon: Drain over canal with syphonic action.
93. Dams:
Water pressure
Uplift pressure , if drainage gallery is provided then pressure
below the gallary
Earthquake pressure ( )

( )
Generally ; provide for severe earthquake regions

94. Principal stress in dam

where and water pressure of tail water and


96. and