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Machine Shop

Machine Shop.
A machine shop is a room, building, or company where machining is
done, which is a form of subtractive manufacturing. In a machine shop, machinists use machine
tools and cutting tools to make parts, usually of metal or plastic. Here we talk about lathe machine
shop, in lathe shop we use engine lathe, motor lathe, CNC lathe, capstan lathe etc. We perform
different operations on work-piece and ready parts for working.

Lathe Machine (metal lathe).


A metal lathe or metalworking lathe is a large class
of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials. They were originally designed
to machine metals; however, with the advent of plastics and other materials, and with their inherent
versatility, they are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. In
machining jargon, where the larger context is already understood, they are usually simply
called lathes, or else referred to by more-specific subtype names (tool room lathe, turret lathe,
etc.). These rigid machine tools remove material from a rotating work-piece via the
(typically linear) movements of various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits.

Wood Lathe.
A lathe is a machine that rotates a work-piece about an axis of rotation to
perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing,
and turning, with tools that are applied to the work-piece to create an object with symmetry about
that axis. In wood lathe we machining wood-pieces, we hold tool by hand in wood lathe and give
a shape to symmetry part.

CNC Lathe.
Computer numerical controlled (CNC) lathes are rapidly replacing the older
production lathes (multi-spindle, etc.) due to their ease of setting, operation, repeatability and
accuracy. They are designed to use modern carbide-tooling and fully use modern processes. The part
may be designed and the tool paths programmed by the CAD/CAM process or manually by the
programmer, and the resulting file uploaded to the machine, and once set and trailed the machine
will continue to turn out parts under the occasional supervision of an operator.

The machine is controlled electronically via a computer menu style interface, the program may be
modified and displayed at the machine, along with a simulated view of the process.

Here different types of CNC machines are used; Horizontal CNC machine, Vertical CNC machine etc.

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Machine Shop

Lathe Parts.
Head stock Saddle
Tail stock Cross slide
Bed Apron
Carriage Compound rest

Safety Precautions in Shop.

 Always wear safety glasses while in shop.


 Do not wear gloves while operating machine.
 Do not use any machine unless you have been instructed in use of these equipment.
 Do not leave machines unattended while running.
 Keep your hand away from moving machinery and cutter.
 Do not run or yell unnecessary while in shop.
 Don’t run is shop.
 Don’t throw tools to each-others.
 Keep dry shops surface.
 Keep lubrication to machines.

Operations on Lathe Machine.

Turning Facing
Tapper Turning Boring
Knurling Parting
Step Turning Reaming
Grooving Drilling

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Machine Shop

Facing.
It the process of removing the material from the end surface or face of work-piece, A lathe
can b use to create a smooth flat face very accurately perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical
part.

Turning.
Turning is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the outside
diameter of a work-piece.

Step Turning.
It is the process of obtaining deferent diameters on a work-piece along the length by
adjusting depth of the tool.

Tapper Turning.
It is the process of giving the angle to the work-piece with the of compound slide.

Boring.
Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarge with a single point cutting tool. A boring
bar is use to support the cutting tool as it extends into the hole. Because of the extension of
the boring bar. The tool is supported less rigidly and is more likely to chatter.

Knurling.
A forming process that adds a pattern on the exterior of a work-piece, ether for cosmetic
reason for better head lining, or the cutting of a pattern onto the surface of a part to use as
a hand grip. Using a special purpose Knurling tool.

Drilling.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular sectioning solid
materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool, often multi-point cutting tool create
hole in work-piece

Reaming.
Reaming is a sizing operation that remove a small amount of metal from a hole already
drilled. The rammer is the tool use for this operation.

Grooving.
It is the process of producing V-shape cyclical grove on the surface, the tool has similar V-
shape as required to produce on work-piece.

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Machine Shop

Parting.
One of the method of cutting off a piece of stock while it is held in a lathe is a process
called parting. This process uses a specially shaped tool with a cutting edge similar to that of
a square nose cutting tool

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Machine Shop

Lab No # 1

To perform the facing, plain turning and step turning in a center lathe on the
given cylindrical work piece for the given diameters.

Material.
Mild steel rod of specified length and diameter.

Tools.
Single point cutting tool, measuring compass or Vernier caliper, chuck key & tool post
key.

Procedure.
 The dimensions of the given cylindrical work piece are checked.
 The work-piece is held in the chuck properly and tightened by chuck key.
 The single point cutting tool held on tool post and tightened by key.
 The facing operation done at both sides of work-piece to get the required length.
 The plane turning operation on work-piece to get initial diameter.
 Then the plane turning operation is further continued to specify dimension for step
turning.
 Thus step turning operation done on work-piece.
 Finally, the dimensions are checked using Vernier caliper before work-piece is
removed from chuck.

Result.
Thus the work-piece for the required dimension is obtained by performing facing, plain
turning & step turning operation in lathe.

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Machine Shop

Lab No # 2

To perform tapper turning using compound rest in a center lathe on the given
cylinder work-piece for the given dimension.
Material.
Mild steel rod of specified length and diameter.

Tools.
Single point cutting tool, measuring compass or Vernier caliper, chuck key & tool post
key.

Procedure.
 The dimensions of the given cylindrical work piece are checked.
 The work-piece is held in the chuck properly and tightened by chuck key.
 The single point cutting tool held on tool post and tightened by key.
 The facing operation done at both sides of work-piece to get the required length.
 The plane turning operation on work-piece to get initial diameter.
 Then the plane turning operation is done on the given work-piece.
 Then the compound rest is adjusted to an angle found out by the formula to get the tapper
position. Tan Θ = D – d / 2L, where D = large diameter, d = small diameter, L = length.
 Then the compound rest is adjusted and saddle is moved for performing the operation.
 Thus the final tapper shape is obtained and checked for diameter before it is removed from
the chuck.

Result.
Thus the work-piece for the required dimensions is obtained by performing taper
turning using compound rest in lathe.

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