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Name: Rimah Ahmad

Student ID: 17831853

Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade

Assignment 2, Critical Analysis of Research

Although there have been several local and international scholars arguing the achievement
of the standardised pedagogical practice of mainstream school. Many schools across the
notion have become aware of the disadvantage student’s ferocity for education succeed. This
perspective applies to refugee students encountering to numerous challenges while transiting
into new environment. Given this, several research papers conducted to address some issues
such as language, cultural challenge and different school sitting. These approaches generally
involve the education community assessing and incorporating inclusive pedagogical practice
to enhance academic outcome of this cohort of young people (Brooker & Lawrence, 2012).
This recognition of inclusive education has been demonstrated through the Refugee Action
Support (RAS) written by Naidoo (2012) and school support program published by Taylor &
Francis Ltd in the International Journal of Inclusive Education (2014), and presented by Karen
Black and her group of researchers at university of Melbourne, Australia (ResearchGate,
2017). In the RAS article, the author Naidoo (2012) discusses educational difficulties of
refugee students during the phase of adjusting to the new environment. The author also
draws on the action of a partnership between the university (western Sydney University)
crossing the border to prepare pre-service teacher and the school providing the advanced and
individualised education for refugee students. In this essay, the Naidoo (2012) RAS
programme will be compared with Black et al (2014) “Supporting schools to create an
inclusive environment for refugee background students” article which illustrates similar
phenomenon of integrating extended language and literacy classes to assess refugee students
through holistic model of whole school initiated (practice) to sever the social emotion and
educational need of refugee background students.

Evaluation of research literature/ methodology/ results

As argued by Ullman (2015) literature review is a crucial process to illustrate author’s
understanding and knowledge of the topic. It also provides the reader with an overview of
different aspects of the topic (p. 76). In addition, introducing the literature overview of more
than one theory which shows the reader the significant point of the research paper and its
approach (Ullman, 2015, p. 77-78). Examining the literature overview of Naidoo (2012), the
study demonstrated serval implication and challenges that prevent the educational successful
of refugee students through the observation with key stakeholders. The study also displays
different pedagogical practice that been applied across many schools not only in Australia but
worldwide. Additionally, Naidoo (2012) article articulates the different research conducted to
address the need of the refugee background and to enhance the educational performance of
those who have been experiencing distinct life interruption. Simultaneously Black et al (2014)
through the literature view highlighted the struggle refugee student faces while
dispositioning into the new society. The authors of both article also concluded in their article
the different approaches been developed by other researchers and how well these
approaches utilized the requirement of refugee students.
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade

However, Black et al (2014) highly emphasise on the manifest of the current global changes
and its educational outcome in which refugee students originate from. In the other word,
Black et al (2014) indicate that the severity of current issues present in the students’ country
of origin such as middle east has a direct impact on the student’s mental health (p. 1337).
Especially considering that those students are highly exposed to violence comparing to
refugees from other contraries. Therefore, Black et al (2014), argues that the quality of
education supporting refugee students should put the students social and emotional need as
a focal point (p. 1340).
Moving to the methodological approach used in both articles it is evidence that Naidoo (2012)
proposed the successful results of using RAS intervention program to promote refugee
students’ education. Moreover, the dynamic outcome for pre-service teachers preparing
them self for their future career. Also, how RAS program helps the school to achieve bring the
academic level of refugee student to the rest of school without the expenses another program
such as intensive English Language Centres (IELC) has. Ullman (2015) mentions the use of
experimental test by some researchers. this kind of method is applied to avoid the expenses
of presenting large population in the study. However, experiment test introduces the problem
of having an inefficient quantity of samples to validate the study. One way to increase
validation of the finding is to randomly select the group to participate in the study (p. 87-88).
In contrast, Naidoo (2012) investigation conducted only in one school also, there are no
indication that those who participated were randomly selected. However, Naidoo (2012)
article provide a considerable proportion of the opinions and anticipation from RAS team. In
comparison, Black et al (2014) study conducted through the involvement of multiple schools
across Victoria state and the information presented covers the period of five years in which
study been processed.
Furthermore, Naidoo (2012) applied the qualitative form of investigation where the study
does not normally include statistics. The participant involved comprised of the school-based
coordinator, RAS tutors (UWS pre-service teachers), classroom teachers and students
enrolled in the program. The participant's experience with RAS disseminated via semi-
structured group and individual interviews. according to Ullman (2015) using face to face
interview in educational research ensures the effectiveness of the method (p. 90). Whereas
the study demonstrated by Black at el (2014) involved mixed methods research that combines
the quantitative dates of different schools enclouded in the study as well as the qualitative
method via interviewing different staff members and leadership participated across schools
in the study (Black al el., 2014). Using this strategy in investigation provides an appreciation
to the comprehensive perspective of the research (Glogowska., 2010).
While the finding of both, Naidoo (2012) and Black al el (2014) draws on the primary needs
of the refugee background students to integrate with learning and sustain self-esteem.
Moreover, the articles generally present a positive evaluation of the overall outcome of the
research. Nevertheless, Naidoo (2012) results involved some limitation. Firstly, the location
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade

of the study. Although the study conducted in Western Sydney in which high population on
refugee initially allocate (Naidoo., 2015). Since it is comprised of low school population, it
would reasonable to investigate its successful by applying the approach to schools in different
locations. Secondly, the RAS approach requires only its member staff to participate and the
university of western Sydney to support the program whereas Black al el (2014) not only
concludes large population it also acquires the whole school and community knowledge and
understanding of refuge students demand. Thirdly, Black al el (2014) provides a detailed
overview of all organizations involved in school support plan and the funding provided to
facilitate the school program. The article also indicates the limitation of the support as well
evidence of different aspect since the program initiated back in 2007 (Black al el., 2014).
Whereas as Naidoo (2012) article displays general needs of RSA such as effective assistance
to support running the program especially in relating to funding process. Conversely, the RAS
is mainly supported via the partnership between the school and the University of Western
Sydney which indicates that there is a chance for the program to withdraw in case the
resources provided by the university limited or reduced.

Implication for teaching practice

The struggle of refugee background students learning the new language and integrating into
new school environment is thoroughly explored in the article “Refugee action support:
Crossing borders in preparing pre-service teachers for literacy teaching in secondary schools
in Greater Western Sydney” by Naidoo (2012). The article draws on the outcome
achievements of RAS program which operates through the partnership between different
branches (school, community, Western Sydney university). The students enrolled in this
program receives one in one education via the contribution of pre-service teachers during
and after school hours. The results of the study express the high expectation of the author
upon the achievements of the student completing the course. This high validation of the
research outcomes is also demonstrated through opinion of the RAS programme coordinators
and pre-service teachers who showed their passionate and deep understanding of cultural
knowledge of their students. Moreover, implementation of different teaching practice to
incorporate students background knowledge allows the students to be more open and proud
of their identity. As argued by Due, Riggs, & Mandara (2015) introducing culture knowledge
into teaching practice can service the context in which student’s engagement and self-esteem
are enhanced. Furthermore, transition experience of the students into new environment
generally associates with state described as “a bit of a culture shock”. Therefore, it is
important for educators to be able to promote students feeling and sense of belonging (Due,
Riggs, & Mandara., 2015).
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade

Apple (2011) mentions the role of the teacher practice in generating an effective learning
environment. Teacher knowledge should be beyond the culture stereotype of certain groups
and it is the teacher position to involve the appreciation of diverse culture identities and life
experience of students within class elements (Apple, 2011). Kovinthan (2016) through a
personal experience pulls on the some of the implication associated with teaching practices
and how the responsibilities of school and teacher awareness toward creating equity
environment are the key to addressing refugee students’ improvement issues. In her article,
Kovinthan defines the education system as main resources for refugee students to sustain
social and emotion rehabilitation especially considering many of those students had
traumatic experience prior to migration. To achieve such goals the teachers are required to
be skilled and trained to become proficient with different teaching technique (Kovinthan.,
2016). In addition, teachers’ attitudes are the key to student’s educational achievement.
when the teacher structures a classroom that lack
powerful pedagogical practice it may proceed isolation of some students which in turn has
directly effect on their engagement with class context. Teachers also need to be aware
through the class task of the specific needs of individuals (Taylor, & Sidhu, 2012).
This proposition is highly covered in the context of Naidoo (2012) and Black al el (2014)
articles. However, while both researchers accomplished the finding that emphasizes on the
requirement of effective pedagogical practice they differ in the way they proposed their
approach. Naidoo (2012) study indicates that providing specialised environment to refugee
students through RAS and the practice of pre-service teacher advocate advantage for both
teachers and students enrol in the programme (Naidoo., 2012).
In relation to pre-service teachers, this program provides an inclusive opportunity for pre-
service teachers to enrich their sociocultural understanding pedagogy and the implication of
teaching practices when dealing with diversity difference (Naidoo., 2012). Also since the RAS
classroom comprise of the students having one in one education and not whole class it allows
the pre-service teacher to enhance their professional practice (Ferfolja., 2009).
Simultaneously, via RAS program sitting the students can receive inclusive education through
engaging with the class environment that promotes their self-esteem and accepts their
identities. Likewise, Black al el (2014) proposes similar phenomenon when it comes to
refugee students receiving unique attention. However, this study suggests that the whole
school transformation is acquired to assess such need. Therefore, achieving the sustainability
of the refugee students meaningful learning, it is essential to involve commitment and
support of community organization, intensive professional practice for teachers, and school
and family communication (Black al el., 2014).
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade

Despite the variation between Black al el (2014) and Naidoo (2012) approach, both article
highlighted the current issues refugee students experience during transiting and engaging
into new life. Naidoo (2012) study identified some of relevant teaching practice in which the
demanding need of refugee students con be targeted. This include firstly, implementing RAS
program which aimed to improve students’ academic level, social communication abilities, as
well as enhancing their self-esteem. Secondly, involving pre-service teachers who carries high
expectation toward the student’s capabilities and high appreciation of their carer
professional. This is distinctly shown in the class structure those teachers provided also via
the positive relation between teachers and students attending the program. Meanwhile Black
al el (2014) article illustrates similar perspective for instance promoting student academic
achievement. in addition, understanding that the whole school, communities and even
government agenises is required to utilize the refugee students need. therefore, Black al el
(2014) emphasises on the urgent needs for training professional teacher adequate
pedagogical strategies and the participation of whole school toward understanding of refugee
situations. Although both research proposed convincing evidence to address issues refugee
students face and a compliment educational approach to better teaching practice. the
complicity of such matter acquires insights.
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade


Apple, M. (2011). Global Crises, Social Justice, and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education,
62(2), 222-234.

Block, K., Cross, S., Riggs, E., & Gibbs, L. (2014). Supporting schools to create an inclusive
environment for refugee students. International Journal Of Inclusive Education, 18(12),

Brooker, A., & Lawrence, J.A. (2012). Educational and cultural challenges of bicultural adult
immigrant and refugee students in Australia. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 52(1), 66-

Due, C., Riggs, D., & Mandara, M. (2015). Educators' experiences of working in Intensive English
Language Programs: The strengths and challenges of specialised English language classrooms
for students with migrant and refugee backgrounds. Australian Journal Of Education, 59(2),

Ferfolja, T. (2009). The refugee action support program: Developing understandings of diversity.
Teaching Education, 20(4), 395–407. doi:10.1080/10476210902741239

Glogowska, M. (2010). Paradigms, pragmatism and possibilities: mixed-methods research in speech

and language therapy. International Journal Of Language & Communication Disorders,

Kovinthan, T. (2016). Learning and Teaching With Loss: Meeting the Needs of Refugee Children
Through Narrative Inquiry. Diaspora, Indigenous, And Minority Education, 10(3), 141-155.

Naidoo, L. (2012). Refugee action support: Crossing borders in preparing pre-service teachers for
literacy teaching in secondary schools in Greater Western Sydney. International Journal of
Pedagogies and Learning, 7(3), 266-274.

Naidoo, L. (2015). Educating refugee-background students in Australian schools and

universities. Intercultural Education, 26(3), 210-217.

Taylor, S., & Sidhu, R. (2012). Supporting refugee students in schools: what constitutes inclusive
education?. International Journal Of Inclusive Education, 16(1), 39-56.

Ullman, J. (Comp.). (2015). Applying educational research: How to read, do, and use research to
solve problems of practice (Custom ed.). Sydney, Australia: Pearson Australia.
Name: Rimah Ahmad
Student ID: 17831853
Unit: 102096 RT & L 1
Unit coordinator: Dr Roberto Parade