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ኢንስቲቱት ቴክኖሎጂ መቐለ መቐለ ዩኒቨርሲቲ

Mekelle Institute Technology Mekelle University

Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering


Chemical Engineering Program
Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia

May 20, 2019

Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

To
Instructor Tesfalem Welday
From
Hayelom Gebremikael and Tekleweyni Hagos,
5th Year Chemical Engineering, MIT, MU

Subject: Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol Factory document submission
II Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Enclosed is our group's Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol Factory. This
report is submitted for fulfillment of the detailed energy audit and analysis of Desta Alcohol and
Liquors Factory (DALF) distillation columns with their recommendations.

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III Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Contents
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................................ IV
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................................... IV
Abbreviations and Symbols ....................................................................................................................... V
ACKNOWLEDGMENT........................................................................................................................... VI
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Energy Audit ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Need for Energy Audit ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.3. Background ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.4. Objectives of Desta Alcohol Factory ............................................................................................... 4
1.5. Mission and Vision of the Company ................................................................................................ 4
1.5.1. Mission of the Company............................................................................................................ 4
1.5.2. Vision of the Company .............................................................................................................. 4
1.6. Location of the Plant ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.7. Raw Materials for Production of Alcohol ........................................................................................ 5
1.8 Specific objectives of this energy audit............................................................................................. 5
2. Energy Audit of Distillation column....................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Overview of Distillation column ....................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Material Balance ............................................................................................................................... 9
3. Detail Energy Audit of the Factory Distillery columns ........................................................................ 12
3.1 Collected Data for the Distillery Columns ...................................................................................... 13
3.2 Energy Performance Analysis of Distillery Columns ..................................................................... 14
3.2.1 Mass Flow Rate Calculations ................................................................................................... 14
3.2.2 Specific Heat Calculations........................................................................................................ 16
3.3 Energy Analysis of the Distillery Columns..................................................................................... 17
3.3.1 Input Energy ............................................................................................................................. 17
3.3.2 Output Energy........................................................................................................................... 19
3.4 Energy Sankey Diagram of the Distillery ....................................................................................... 21
3.5 Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) Identified .................................................................. 21
3.6 Technical and Economical Evaluation of ECOs ............................................................................. 22
3.6.1 Insulating the Distillery Columns Surface................................................................................ 22
3.6.2 Recovering Heat from Effluent ................................................................................................ 22

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IV Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
4. Conclusion and Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 26
5. References ............................................................................................................................................. 27
6. Appendices ............................................................................................................................................ 27

List of Tables
Table 1 Distillation columns data. ............................................................................................................ 13
Table 2 Distillation columns solution data. .............................................................................................. 14
Table 3 Input steam energy in distillation columns .................................................................................. 18
Table 4 Heat loss from distillery surface .................................................................................................. 20

List of Figures
Figure 2 General configuration of ethanol and liquor production .............................................................. 6
Figure 3 Distillation column overview ....................................................................................................... 8
Figure 4 Distillery columns of the factory ................................................................................................ 12
Figure 5. Input output energies of distillery columns ............................................................................... 17
Figure 6 Energy Sankey diagram of distillery columns............................................................................ 21

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V Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Abbreviations and Symbols

DALF Desta alcohol and liquors factory


ECOs Energy Conservation Opportunities
ECMs Energy Conservation Measures
SPBP Simple payback period
kWh Kilo Watt hour
ṁ Mass flow rate
MW Mega Watt
CP Specific heat
P Pressure
T Temperature

volume flow rate


ρ density

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VI Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks, and praise to the Almighty GOD!


We gratefully acknowledge our instructor Tesfalem Welday, for his generous support, endless
motivation, creative ideas, suggestions and serious follow-up greatly contributed to our work and for
giving us this great opportunity to do the work.
We would like to thank also Mr. Solomon Kahsay, head department of Biological and Chemical
Engineering for his momentous support in many aspects to accomplish our work by writing
recommendation letters for the company for getting help.
We pull-out my gratitude to all Desta Alcohol and Liquor Factory workers and operators who have
devoted their time to give us all necessary information and valuable data for this report.

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1 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

Introduction

1.1 Energy Audit


Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energy
management. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the
energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. Industrial
energy audit is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy management program.
As per the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Energy Audit is defined as "the verification, monitoring and
analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for
improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy
consumption".

1.2 Need for Energy Audit


In any industry, the three top operating expenses are often found to be energy (both electrical and
thermal), labor and materials. If one were to relate to the manageability of the cost or potential cost
savings in each of the above components, energy would invariably emerge as a top ranker, and thus
energy management function constitutes a strategic area for cost reduction. Energy Audit will help to
understand more about the ways energy and fuel are used in any industry, and help in identifying the
areas where waste can occur and where scope for improvement exists.
The Energy Audit would give positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance
and quality control programs which are vital for production and utility activities. Such an audit program
will help to keep focus on variations which occur in the energy costs, availability and reliability of
supply of energy, decide on appropriate energy mix, identify energy conservation technologies, retrofit
for energy conservation equipment etc. (Malamatenios 2000).
In general, Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities, by lending technically
feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame.
The purpose of an energy audit (sometimes called an “energy assessment” or “energy study”) is to
determine where, when, why and how energy is used in a facility, and to identify opportunities to
improve efficiency. Energy auditing services are offered by energy services companies (ESCOs), energy
consultants and engineering firms. The energy auditor leads the audit process but works closely with
building owners, staff and other key participants throughout to ensure accuracy of data collection and
appropriateness of energy efficiency recommendation (Baechler, Strecker et al. 2011).
The audit typically begins with a review of historical and current utility data and benchmarking of your
building’s energy use against similar buildings. This sets the stage for an onsite inspection of the
physical building. The main outcome of an energy audit is a list of recommended energy efficiency
measures (EEMs), their associated energy savings potential, and an assessment of whether EEM
installation costs are a good financial investment (Baechler, Strecker et al. 2011).

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2 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

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3 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

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4 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
1.3. Background
Desta alcohol and liquor factory was established by two brothers Mr. Tsegabu Belay and Gebre Belay.
The Belay family established Desta Alcohol in 2000G.C as a separate entity in Mekelle Industrial Area
to produce alcohol and liquors for consumption and industrial purposes. Desta produces 8 types of
consumption alcohol and liquors and two types of Industrial Alcohols. DALF has been working day and
night to satisfy all the demands its customers. Desta alcohol & liquors factory plc. has been established
in the year 2000G.C with the name of “Desta Zebib liquor factory” by two motivated brothers holding
50%_50% share focusing in producing & distribution of alcohol sprit product. (Hayelom.Gebremikael
and Tekleweyni.Hagos 2018).

1.4. Objectives of Desta Alcohol Factory

DALF is aimed to produce standardized quality beverage products at different levels for local and export
market that quench the thirst of its customers in the community.

Based on continual assessment of the demand, expand the provision of alcohol and liquor
products.
Create different outlets (wholesalers, retailers) and there by distribute its products to local as well
as export market so as to enhance the development of commerce. As it is a business entity,
generate a higher return on investment to the owners of the project.
To determine the vertical and horizontal relationship among the different work units.
To produce Alcohol of high quality with optimum cost, time and fitness.
To achieve the required quantity of alcohol from a given raw material.

1.5. Mission and Vision of the Company

1.5.1. Mission of the Company

• To be the best and most successful industry in the beverage industry.


• Provide high quality beverage products.

1.5.2. Vision of the Company


· To ensure that Desta alcohol and liquor factory plc. is the customer‟s first choice through the
delivery of sustainable quality productions in the beverage industry.

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5 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
1.6. Location of the Plant

As described above, the sprit production is found in Mekelle industrial zone in semen woreda at Quiha.
The distiller and fermentation process are found in northern part of Quiha which is 12 kilometers apart
from Mekelle. The selection criteria for plant location will be based on the following:

a. Nearness to market
b. Availability of infrastructure
c. Situation of atmosphere
d. Nearness to raw material

1.7. Raw Materials for Production of Alcohol

Molasses
Yeast
Water
Diammonium phosphate (DAP)
Sulfuric Acid
Purified air
Steam
Anti-foam
Essence
Sugar (local sucrose)

1.8 Specific objectives of this energy audit


Conducting energy performance analysis
Identifying the energy conservation opportunities (ECOs)
Drawing the Sankey diagram
Technical and economic evaluation of ECOs

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6 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Air
H2SO4
Ferme Fermen
Yeast Mother Fermenter Fermen Ferm
nter ter
tank two ter four ente
Molasses one three
r five
DAP

Waste
Steam steam steam
Distillation Distillation
Distillation Decanter Decanter
column column
column two one
2(dilution 1(mash
3(rectification)
column) column)
Ethanol
Flavor water sugar

Mixer tank Storage Storage


Filter
Vodka tank amount
alcohol

Hot water@ 65-70 0C


Caustic soda Washing Filing
Drier Bottles Capping Packaging
machine machine
bottles

Figure 1 General configuration of ethanol and liquor production

2. Energy Audit of Distillation column

2.1 Overview of Distillation column


Distillation is a common separation technique used for separation of liquid mixtures by exploiting the
differences in the boiling point or volatilities of the components of mixtures. It is one the most important
unit operation in chemical manufacturing industries that have many applications ranging from beverage
industry, to fossil fuel industry and water purification industry (desalination).

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7 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
The design and control of distillation is important in order to produce product streams of required purity,
either for sale or for use in other chemical process. For simplicity we will refer to the pure component
that boils at lower temperature as a light component and the component that boils at higher temperature
as a heavy component.
The separation operation called distillation utilizes vapor and liquid phases at essentially the same
temperature and pressure for the coexisting zones. Various kinds of devices such as random or
structured packings and plates or trays are used to bring the two phases into intimate contact. Trays are
stacked one above the other and enclosed in a cylindrical shell to form a column. Packings are also
generally contained in a cylindrical shell between hold-down and support plates. The column may be
operated continuously or in batch mode depending on a number of factors such as scale and flexibility of
operations and solids content of feed (Green and Perry 2008).
The feed material, which is to be separated into fractions, is introduced at one or more points along the
column shell. Because of the difference in density between vapor and liquid phases, liquid runs down
the column, cascading from tray to tray, while vapor flows up the column, contacting liquid at each tray.
Liquid reaching the bottom of the column is partially vaporized in a heated reboiler to provide boil-up,
which is sent back up the column. The remainder of the bottom liquid is withdrawn as bottoms, or bot-
tom product. Vapor reaching the top of the column is cooled and condensed to liquid in the overhead
condenser. Part of this liquid is returned to the column as reflux to provide liquid overflow. The
remainder of the overhead stream is withdrawn as distillate, or over-head product. In some cases, only
part of the vapor is condensed so that a vapor distillate can be withdrawn.
This overall flow pattern in a distillation column provides counter-current contacting of vapor and liquid
streams on all the trays through the column. Vapor and liquid phases on a given tray approach thermal,
pressure, and composition equilibria to an extent dependent upon the efficiency of the contacting tray.
The lighter (lower-boiling temperature) components tend to concentrate in the vapor phase, while the
heavier (higher-boiling temperature) components concentrate in the liquid phase. The result is a vapor
phase that becomes richer in light components as it passes up the column and a liquid phase that
becomes richer in heavy components as it cascades downward. The overall separation achieved between
the distillate and the bottoms depends primarily on the relative volatilities of the components, the
number of contacting trays in each column section, and the ratio of the liquid-phase flow rate to the
vapor-phase flow rate in each section.
If the feed is introduced at one point along the column shell, the column is divided into an upper section,
which is often called the rectifying section, and a lower section, which is often referred to as the
stripping section.

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8 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

Figure 2 Distillation column overview (retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/)


Binary distillation column is a distillation that is used to separate a feed containing only two
components. The feed enters (containing only two components) typically enters close to the middle of
the column above the feed stage. Vapor flows from stage to stage up the column while the liquid flows
from stage down the column. The vapor from the top tray is condensed to liquid in the overhead
condenser and a portion of the liquid is returned as a reflux. The rest of the vapor is withdrawn as the
overhead product stream (contains concentrated amount of the light component). A portion of the liquid
at the bottom column is withdrawn as a bottom product (containing concentrated amount heavy
component) while the rest is vaporized in the reboiler and returned to the column. The liquid from one
tray goes over a weir and cascades down the next tray through a down comer. As the liquid moves
across a tray, it comes in contact with the vapor from the tray below.
Assuming that the mixing is perfect, allows us to model the stage as a lumped parameter system.

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9 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
The main assumption is equimolal flow. For all stages expect the feed stage, we assume the vapor
flowrate from one stage is equal to the vapor molar flow rate from the stage below
Vi = Vi+1
The liquid leaving the stage is equal to the liquid flowing from one stage above
Li= Li-1

2.2 Material Balance


a) The component balance for the liquid phase of a typical stage is:
Accumulation = Liquid from tray above – vapor from tray below – liquid leaving – vapor leaving

b) Feed stage: The vapor and liquid molar flow rate leaving the feed stage
VNF= VNF+1+F(1-qF)
LNF= LNF-1+FqF
Where NF is number of feed stage and q is quality of feed stream.
c) Condenser: A total condenser removes energy from the overheated vapor. Assuming constant
molar holdup in the distillate receiver (reflux + distillate flows) is equal to vapor flow rate from
top tray:
LD+F = V2
d) Reboiler: a total balance around the reboiler yields
B = LNS-1 - Vreboiler
Where Vreboiler is the reboiler molar flowrate and B is bottom product molar flow rate.

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10 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
In Desta alcohol and liquors factory has three columns to undertake effective and efficient
separation system. An average plant daily output capacity is 5000-6000 liters of ethanol alcohol.
I. Mash column (degasifying & exhausting column)
II. Purifying column
III. Rectification column
I. Mash (distillation) column
This column operates in a vacuum pressure in order to reduce the boiling point of water which is help
full in controlling the precipitation of CaSO4 as temperature goes beyond the relative vacuum pressure
or above 80 oC. This process is done with the help of condensers and pumps. In this column, the
completely fermented mash of 7-9 % alcohol by volume is preheated in E-510 & fed to the distillation
column (Hayelom.Gebremikael and Tekleweyni.Hagos 2018).
The mash column is composed of C-510 bottom analyzing column and C-520 top degasifying column.
Degasifying column is used to remove most of the unpleasant odor & CO2 gas Dissolved in the mash.
The vapor leaving the top of this column is usually removed as by product alcohol of low strength and
unpleasant odor through F-521. The liquid flowing through this degasifying column reaches the bottom
analyzing column(C-510) which is condensed in water cooled condensers and contains about 30%-50%
alcohol. To obtain good percentage yield, the mash coming from fermentation must have at least 7.5-8%
alcohol and to save energy, the vapor leaving the top of degasifying column is used to pre heat the
incoming mash. `
The procedures in mash column are:

The pure mash(wine) that came from decantation tank is preheated about 30-50 0C in the top
then inter to mash column.
Steam at 80 0C is injected to the column due to boiling point difference the mixtures above 80 0C
are removed at the bottom of the column and the mixtures having boiling point below 80 0C
becomes vapor and goes to the condenser.
Then the condenser is used condense the vapor to liquid, in this reflux is add to the mash column
for good separation process or to increase the concentration.
Remove the waste at the bottom about 84.337% from the total feed at 80 0C (those wastes are
most of unpleasant odor and carbon dioxide gas dissolved in the mash.
The rest goes to the dilution column at temperature 45 oC.

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11 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
II. Purifying/filtration (dilution) column
The condensate of the mash column is pumped to this column (C-530). The alcohol entering to this
column is diluted to about 15% through the F-540 to enhance the separation of the mixtures. This
column operates under atmospheric pressure and the undesirable lighter alcohols are recovered as head
products through E-530. Some part of product is returned as a reflux to C-530 with FI-530 and the
remained will goes to E-531 to condensation and produced as denatured alcohol with FI-531, while
purified alcohol of low strength is recovered as a bottom product of this column through the lower
segment together with the discharge to the C-540. The alcohol content of the liquid leaving this column
is estimated to be about 33%. The working temperature of this column is at about 50-77 0C. In this
column the undesirable lighter alcohols are recovered as head products. This column works under
atmospheric pressure.
III. Rectification column
The bottom products from the purifying column are pumped as liquid feed to the rectifying column. A
cool zone is provided in this column, which prevents the fuel oil vapor from reaching the top of the
column. The alcohol solution entered to this column will be processed in to three products.
Rectified alcohol having a concentration about 96% by volume is taken off as liquid from a place
near the top of this column & sent pure alcohol cooler through FI-546 and then to pure alcohol
storage.
The overhead vapor it is condensed & partially returned to the column as reflex while the rest is
removed and sent to storage as technical alcohol F-541 as head products.
Impurities from the side of the rectification column are fed to fuel oil separator. The fuel oils are
tail side products and feed to a settler through FI-543 as high tails. Finally, the heads, tails, and
high tails will be recovered as impurities and sent to denature alcohol line, while the high tails go
to fuel oil separator for separation.
In general, there are two types of impurities. These are light (head) products and heavy (tail) products.
a. Light products-; having lower boiling point than ethanol alcohol and obtained from the top of the
columns. `
Aldehydes expressed in acetic aldehyde with boiling point of pure substance around 35 0C.
Easter expressed in methyl and ethyl with boiling point from 56-760C.
Methyl alcohol with boiling point 77 0C.
b. Heavy alcohols–with higher boiling point than ethanol alcohol.
High alcohols-their chemical structure is more complex than ethanol, expressed in
isobuthylic alcohol and separated with boiling point from 81-110 0C.
Fuel oil- is expressed in isometric alcohol with boiling point around 1300C.
Acetic acid- it can be obtained from fermentation or from ethanol oxidation and separated
with boiling point of 1180C.

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12 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Procedure in distillation
The feed is introduced at one point along the column shell; the column is derived into upper section,
which is called rectifying section and the lower section called exhaustion section.
Begin by slowly heating up of the two columns by opening corresponding steam line valves. When
C530 starts to work, the reflux FI-530 running and the bottom level of it reaches 50% from sight glass,
start feeding C-540 column by opening discharge valve and start feeding by switching on P-530 pump
with FI-500.open inlet and outlet valve of FI-530 depuration reflux flow meter to permit circulation
when over heads begin condensation in E-530 and E-531 condensers. When the bottom level of C-540
reaches 50%, extraction of white stillage can be started. The bottom temperature (TI-540) is more than
100c, open fully to send white stillage discharge. Start dilution in C-530 by switching on P-540. Open
corresponding valves, pump and adjust the flow FI-542. Start low tails extraction from C-540, opening
one of the different extraction lines of FI-543 flow meter. Start high tails extraction from C-540 opening.
Open inlet and outlet valves of cooling water.

Figure 3 Distillery columns of the factory

3. Detail Energy Audit of the Factory Distillery columns


The distillery columns are used to evaporate alcohol from water and other solutions by heating it using
superheated steam produced by the boiler. Distillation of alcohol in Desta Alcohol and Liquors Factory
(DALF) takes place by using three columns namely distillation column, filtration column and
rectification column as described in the previous section.
The major thermal energy utilizing equipment of the factory is distillery columns. Distillery columns are
energy intensive parts of the factory. Distillation column requires an average of 1400 l/hr of fermented
wine. Fermented wine contains brix molasses syrups and other solutions. In this column, impurities
which have low boiling points than alcohol will evaporate before the boiling point of alcohol reaches
and separate themselves from the alcohol solution. Impurities with higher boiling point than alcohol
which demands boiling temperature above alcohol boiling point will remain as residue in the effluent.
Alcohol and some impurities with boiling point around alcohol boiling point would be sent to the filter
column for farther separation. This is accomplished by heating the solution up to 78℃ (Alcohol boiling
point). The remaining constituents are channeled to the river as an effluent with temperature of 87.38 oC.

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13 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
After leaving the filter column, the alcohol solution passes through rectification column for further
purification process to keep the expected alcoholic quality of the factory product.

3.1 Collected Data for the Distillery Columns


Data are collected with direct inspection from gauge and direct measurement using easily moveable
instruments. Most of the thermal energy produced by the boiler is consumed by the distillery columns.
Hence, inspection of distillation system is conducted using infrared thermometer, meter, caliper and
gauge mounted on distillery system. The measured data at the distillery system include: external surface
temperatures of the columns, ambient temperatures, length and diameters of the columns, steam
consumption of each column, steam pressure, and temperature of each column.
Table 1 Distillation columns data.

Item Distillation Filtration Rectification Data collection


Column Column Column Method

Length [m] 4.94 3.90 9.46 Measured


Outside dia. [m] 0.616 0.616 0.616 Measured
Inside dia.[m] 0.6 0.6 0.6 Measured
Surface Area[m2] 9.56 7.55 18.31 Calculated
Ambient temp.[oC] 34 33 33.3 Measured

Surface temp. [oC] 90.7 71.7 89.9 Measured


Fluid temp. [oC] 92.7 75.7 93.9 Gauge
Volume flow rate 0.41 0.122 0.296 Gauge
of steam[m3/s]

Steam pressure [bar] 1 0.5 1 Gauge

Steam temp. [oC] 149 123 146 Measured/Gauge

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14 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Table 2 Distillation columns solution data.
Item Reading Unit Data
collection
Method
Density of ethanol 790 kg /m3 From gauge
Density of fermented wine 1455 kg /m3 Catalogue
o
Temperature of fermented wine 35.1 C Measured

o
Ambient temperature of 27.0 C Measured
fermentation room
Volume flow rate of ethanol to 0.00011 m3 /s From gauge
filter column
Volume flow rate of fermented 1400 l / hr From gauge
wine to distillation column
o
Temperature of the effluent 87.38 C Measured

o
Ambient (datum) temperature 25 C Datum

3.2 Energy Performance Analysis of Distillery Columns


To perform energy performance analysis for continuous operation process (not batch process) of
distillery columns, the following parameters must be determined.
Mass flow rate of fermented wine,
Mass flow rate of steam for each column,
Mass flow rate of effluent,
Specific heat of fermented wine, and
Specific heat of effluent.

3.2.1 Mass Flow Rate Calculations

3.2.1.1 Steam Mass Flow Rate


The volume flow rate, temperature and pressure of steam input to each column are tabulated in table 1.
Using the gage temperature and pressure of the steam, the density of steam is determined using standard
steam table. The mass flow rate of the steam is calculated by multiplying volume flow rate of the steam
by the density. The mass of steam supplied to each column is calculated using the following equations.

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15 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

Mass flow rate of steam consumed by distillation column:


1
ṁs(dist) = s(dist) × … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (1)
V@1barand 149℃
3
V@1barand 149℃ = 1.9289 𝑚 ⁄𝑘𝑔

m3 kg kg
ṁs(dist) = 0.41 × 0.4104 3 = 0.168
s m s
Mass flow rate of steam consumed in filtration column:
1
ṁs(filt) = s(filt) ×V … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … … … … … (2)
@0.5barand 123℃

3
V@0.5barand 123℃ = 3.6057 𝑚 ⁄𝑘𝑔

m3 kg kg
ṁs(filt) = 0.122 × 0.3604 3 = 0.044
s m s
Mass flow rate of steam consumed by rectification column
1
ṁs(rect) = s(rect) × … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . … … … … … … … (3)
V@1barand 146℃
3
V@1barand 146℃ = 1.8987 𝑚 ⁄𝑘𝑔

m3 kg kg
ṁs(rect) = 0.296 × 0.4018 3 = 0.119
s m s
Then the total amount of steam consumed by factory distillery columns is the sum of steam consumed
by each column.
ṁs(total) = ṁs(dist) + ṁs(filt) + ṁs(rect) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … … … … … … (4)
kg kg kg kg
ṁs(total) = 0.168 + 0.044 + 0.119 = 0.331
s s s s

The mass balance of the produced steam consists of operating steam input mass and steam supplied to
each distillery columns, vent steam, and steam supplied to de-aerator as output mass. Total amount of
fermented wine sent to distillation column from fermented wine tank is 1400 l/hr. Therefore, the total
mass flow rate of fermented wine can be:

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16 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
ṁwine = Ṽwine × ρwine … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (5)
1400l 1400l/hr×10−3 m3 /l m3
wine = = = 0.0004 and
hr 3600s/hr 𝑠

kg
ρwine = 1455
m3
Hence substituting the above data in equation (5) and the mass flow rate of fermented wine is equals to:
m3 kg kg
ṁwine = 0.0004 × 1455 3 = 0.582
𝑠 m s

3.2.1.2 Ethanol Mass Flow Rate


Total amount of alcohol sent to filtration column from distillation column is 386.40 l/hr. Therefore, the
total amount of mass flow rate of alcohol can be calculated by multiplying the volume flow rate by its
density.

ṁalc = alc × ρalc … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . … … … … … … … (6)


386.40l/hr×10−3 m3 /l m3
alc = 386.40 l/hr = = 0.00011 and
3600s/hr s

kg
ρalc = 790 m3

m3 kg kg
ṁalc = 0.00011 × 790 3 = 0.085
s m s

3.2.1.3 Effluent Mass Flow Rate


Direct measurement of flow velocity of an effluent is impossible. Because no gauge is mounted to the
pipe used to remove the effluent from the distillery. As a result, the effluent mass flow rate can be
estimated by equating mass in and mass out in columns are equal. This is done by assuming the leakage
observed in the distillery columns is insignificant.
ṁs(total) + ṁwine = ṁeffu + ṁalc … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (7)

ṁeffu = ṁs(total) + ṁwine − ṁalc

Substituting the results of equations (4), (5), and (6) in (7) and the mass flow rate of effluent will be:
kg kg kg kg
ṁeffu = (0.331 + 0.582 ) − 0.085 = 0.828
s s s s
3.2.2 Specific Heat Calculations

3.2.2.1 Effluent
The specific heat of effluent during the distillation of alcohol is given by

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17 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Cp(effl) = (3.14 + 0.000025(Teffl − Tam )) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (8)

Teffl = Effluent temperature = 87.38℃


Tam = Ambient temperature = 25℃
kJ
Hence: Cp(effl) = (3.14 + 0.000025(87.38℃ − 25℃)) = 3.142 kg.℃

3.2.2.2 Fermented Wine


The specific heat of fermented wine is determined by substituting the values of temperature of
fermented wine instead of temperature of the effluent in equation (8). Therefore, the specific heat of
fermented wine is given by.

𝐶𝑝(𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑒) = (3.14 + 0.000025(𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑒 − 𝑇𝑎𝑚 ))

𝑇𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑒 = Wine fermentation temperature = 35.1℃


𝑇𝑎𝑚 = Ambient temperature = 27℃
𝑘𝐽
𝐶𝑝(𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑒) = (3.14 + 0.000025(35.1℃ − 27℃)) = 3.1402
𝑘𝑔. ℃

3.3 Energy Analysis of the Distillery Columns


To perform the thermal energy audit of the distillery columns and thereby obtain the net energy loss
from the distillation process, thermal energy analysis of the distillery columns must be conducted. The
energy analysis is based on the energy input and output of the distillery columns. All the input-output
energy of the distillery is as shown in figure below.
Vaporized alcohol

Fermented wine
Distiller Surface loss
Steam

Effluent
Figure 4. Input output energies of distillery columns

3.3.1 Input Energy


Steam and fermented wine are the only inputs of the distillery columns which supply the required energy
for the process performed in the columns. These two energy sources of the distillery columns are
discussed below.

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18 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
3.3.1.1 Steam Energy
The major energy source of the distillery columns is steam energy. The amount of heat energy supplied
to the distillery columns can be calculated by multiplying the mass flow rate of steam to each column by
its enthalpy. The input steam energy can be obtained using equation (9).
𝑄(𝑖)𝑠 = ṁ(𝑖)𝑠 × ℎ(𝑖)𝑠𝑠 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (9)

Where, 𝑄(𝑖)𝑠 = Steam energy to the distillery columns

ṁ(𝑖)𝑠 = Mass flow rate of steam to columns

ℎ(𝑖)𝑠𝑠 = Enthalpy of super heated steam at a given temperature and pressure

Substitute the values of ṁ(𝑖)𝑠 and the corresponding ℎ(𝑖)𝑠𝑠 , and the results are summarized in the
following table.
Table 3 Input steam energy in distillation columns

Columns Steam ( ṁ(𝑖)𝑠 ) Temperature Pressure Enthalpy Heat input


𝑘𝑔 ℎ(𝑖)𝑠𝑠
[𝑠] [℃] [𝑏𝑎𝑟] [𝑘𝑊]
[𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔]
Distillation 0.1683 149 1 2774.40 466.93
Filtration 0.044 123 0.5 2715.90 119.50
Rectification 0.1189 146 1 2768.38 329.16
Total 915.59

3.3.1.2 Energy from the Fermented Wine


The energy of fermented wine is the enthalpy of fermented wine by virtue of its temperature elevation
relative to the ambient temperature of fermentation room. The enthalpy of fermented wine due to its
temperature elevation from the ambient temperature fermentation temperature can be obtained using
the following equation (10).
Qwine = ṁwine × Cp(wine) × (Twine − Tam ) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (10)

Where, Qwine = energy of fermented wine


kg
ṁwine = Mass flow rate of fermented wine = 0.582 s
kJ
Cp(wine) = specific heat of fermented wine = 3.1402 kg.℃

Twine = fermentation temperature = 35.1℃

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19 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Tam = ambient temperature 27 ℃
Substituting the values in equation (10) input energy due to fermented wine is given:
kg kJ
Qwine = 0.582 × 3.1402 × (35.1℃ − 27 ℃)
s kg. ℃
Qwine = 14.80kW

3.3.2 Output Energy


The energy losses associated with the distillation of alcohol in the distillery columns is indicated in
figure 5 include energy loss due to effluent, column surfaces, and heat used to evaporate alcohol.

3.3.2.1 Energy Loss due to Effluent


The energy loss due to effluent leaving the distillation column can be obtained using the mass flow rate
of effluent and enthalpy change of effluent at effluent temperature relative to the ambient temperature.
The analysis is executed using equation (11).
Qeffl = ṁeffl × Cp(effl) × (Teffl − Tam ) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . (11)

Where, Qeffl = energy loss with the effluent


kg
ṁeffl = Mass flow rate of effluent = 0.828 s
kJ
Cp(effl) = specific heat of effluent = 3.142
kg.℃

Teffl = effluent temperature = 87.71℃


Tam = ambient temperature 25 ℃
Substituting the values in equation (10) input energy due to fermented wine is given:
kg kJ
Qeffl = 0.828 × 3.142 × (87.71℃ − 25℃)
s kg. ℃
Qeffl = 162.29kW

3.3.2.2 Heat loss due to Radiation and Convection


As wind cruises over the distillery surface, energy will be lost from the distillery surface to the wind by
convection. In addition, due to difference in temperature between the ambient air and the distillery
surface, there is also radiation energy loss. The energy loss due to convection and radiation in watt per
unit area of the distillery surface exposed to the ambient temperature condition is given by (W.Berhrens
and P.M.Hawranek 1991):

T(i)s T(i)a 4 196.85×V+68.9 w


Q (i)s = {0.548 [(55.55)4 − (55.55) + 1.957(T(i)s − T(i)a )1.25 √ 68.9
]} m2 × S(i)A …………. (12)

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20 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
T(i)s 4 T(i)a 4 w
Q (i)s = {0.548 [( ) −( ) + 1.957(T(i)s − T(i)a )1.25 ]} 2 × S(i)A
55.55 55.55 m

Where, Q (i)s = Heat loss due to radiation and convection from the distillery surface, in [W]

T(i)s =Surface temperature of the ith distillery column, in [K]

T(i)a =Local ambient temperature of the ith distillery column, in [K]

S(i)A =Surface area of the ith distillery column, in [m2]

V= Wind velocity = 0 (Since the working condition is a closed room (indoor condition), the
wind velocity is approximately zero).
By substituting the corresponding values in equation (12), the value of Q(i)s can be summarized in table
4 as follows.
Table 4 Heat loss from distillery surface
Ambient Surface Surface Surface Heat
Columns temperatur Temperatur area loss ( Q (i)s )
e (T(i)a ) e (T(i)s ) (S(i)A ) [kW]
[𝐾] [𝐾] [m2]
Distillation 307.15 363.85 9.56 6.34

Filtration 306.15 344.85 7.55 3.11


Rectification 306.45 363.05 18.31 12.06
21.51
Total

3.3.2.3 Heat Needed to Evaporate Alcohol


The heat energy used to perform the evaporation of alcohol from fermented wine can be found from
energy balance of heat entering and leaving the distillery columns.
Heat in steam + Heat in fermented wine = Heat in effluent + Heat loss by radiation and convection +
Heat in vapor alcohol
Qs + Qwine = Qeffl + Qsurf + Qalc ………………………………………………………………… (13)
Qalc = (Qs + Qwine ) − (Qeffl + Qsurf )……………………………………………………………. (14)
Substitute the values in (14) and heat energy carried by evaporation of alcohol is give
Qalc = (915.59 kW + 14.804 kW) – (21.51kW + 162.286kW)

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21 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Qalc =746.598kW

3.4 Energy Sankey Diagram of the Distillery


The Sankey diagram is very useful tool to represent an entire input and output energy flow in any energy
equipment after carrying out energy balance calculations. This diagram represents visually various
inputs and outputs including losses so that energy managers can focus on finding improvements in a
prioritized manner. The energy Sankey diagram of the distillery is drawn using the heat balance sheet
above and is shown in figure 5.

Figure 5 Energy Sankey diagram of distillery columns


The major energy losses from distillery are surface loss and energy loss through effluent. The energy
audit results of the distillery discovered that the total input heat to the distillery is 930.39kW. From this
2.3 %(21.51kW) will be lost due to radiation and convection from surfaces of distillery columns while
loss due to effluent accounts 17.44% (162.27kW) of the input energy. But the recommended percentage
of heat carried away by the effluent is not greater than 10% of the input energy. This indicates that, the
percentage of heat carried away by the effluent in the factory distillery columns is more than the
recommended value.

3.5 Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) Identified


The detailed energy audit conducted for the distillery columns identified two basic ECOs. These are:
Insulating the distillery columns surface, and
Recovering heat from the hot effluent channeled to the outside environment using double-pipe heat
exchanger.
These opportunities took the greater position in the detail audit of the distillery columns.

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22 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
3.6 Technical and Economical Evaluation of ECOs

3.6.1 Insulating the Distillery Columns Surface


The thickness of insulation is assumed to be 40mm (adequate insulation thickness). As mentioned above
insulation is not much difficult task though it saves energy and environment.

3.6.1.1 Saving Analysis


By assuming 80% of the distillery surface loss will be saved, the saved energy will be 17.21 kW which
is equivalent to 112,109.67 Birr per year.

3.6.1.2 Implementation Cost


The total cost per square meter is $6.61(115.68 Birr). The total surface area of the three distillery
columns is 35.42m2. Therefore: the total implementation cost for insulation will be 4097.21 Birr.

3.6.1.3 Payback Period


The simple payback period (SPBP) for this measure can be calculated as:
Implementation cost
SPBP = …………………………………………………………………….…… (15)
Cost saved
4097.21birr
= 112109.67birr = 1month.

3.6.2 Recovering Heat from Effluent


According to detailed energy audit of the distillery columns we have done before, 162.29kW of energy
is removed away with the effluent. But most of alcohol producing factories extract heat energy from hot
effluent by using double pipe heat exchangers to preheat the fermented wine and thereby reduces their
steam consumption. The temperature of fermented wine will increase when we use double pipe heat
exchanger for preheating fermented wine by hot effluent. Thus, the factory can use double pipe heat
exchanger to increase the heat gained from fermented wine. Technical and economical evaluation of the
identified opportunity is discussed below by assuming counter flow type heat exchanger.

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23 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

Fig. Double Pipe Heat Exchangers


For the fermented wine, the heat transfer rate is:
Qwine = ṁwine × Cp(wine) × (Twine(out) − Twine(in) )…………………………………….…………. (16)

For the effluent, the heat transfer rate is:


Qeffl = ṁeffl × Cp(effl) × (Teffl(in) − Teffl(out) )………………………………………………………. (17)

Assuming all heat of effluent is gained by the fermented wine and setting equations (16) and (17) equal
will give:

ṁeffl × Cp(effl) × (Teffl(in) − Teffl(out) ) = ṁwine × Cp(wine) × (Twine(out) − Twine(in) )………… (18)

Rearranging:
(Twine(out) −Twine(in) ) ṁeffl ×Cp(effl)
𝑅= (Teffl(in) −Teffl(out) )
=ṁ
wine ×Cp(wine)

Teffl(out) = Teffl(in) − R(Twine(out) − Twine(in) )………………………………………………… (19)

For counter flow, the outlet temperature of the cooler fluid (fermented wine) can be either equal or
exceed the outlet temperature of warmer fluid (effluent). By assuming that, as the outlet temperature of
the fermented wine and effluent are equal and rearranging equation (19) gives:
(Teffl(in) +RTwine(in) )
Teffl(out) = (1+R)
……………………………………………………………………... (20)

kg
ṁeffl = Mass flow rate of effluent = 0.828 s

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24 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
kg
ṁwine = Mass flow rate of fermented wine = 0.582 s
kJ
Cp(effl) = specific heat of effluent = 3.142kg.℃
kJ
Cp(wine) = specific heat of fermented wine = 3.1402 kg.℃
Twine(in) = inlet fermentation temperature of wine = 35.1℃
Teffl(in) = inlet effluent temperature = 87.38℃

Substituting the above values in equation for R gives:

(Twine(out) − Twine(in) ) ṁeffl × Cp(effl)


𝑅= = = 1.4235
(Teffl(in) − Teffl(out) ) ṁwine × Cp(wine)

Substituting the above data in equation (20) and the outlet temperature of the effluent will be:
(Teffl(in) +RTwine(in) )
Teffl(out) = (1+R)
=56.67℃, thus the fermented wine temperature will be increased by
21.57℃.
Using the known mass flow rate and density of the fluids, and the economic range of fluid velocity it is
possible to determine the size of the exchanger. The optimum velocity values for various fluids are
given in [Appendix A]. Even if the optimum velocity value of effluent is not included in the appendix,
it is possible to take the optimum value of water velocity which is (1.4 – 2.8) m/s because 90% of the
effluent is water. Using the minimum and maximum velocities, the flow area can be estimated as:
ṁeffl
Min flow area = ρ ………………………………………………………………………… (21)
effl ×Vmax

kg
0.828 ⁄s
Min flow area = = 0.00020324 m2
kg⁄ m⁄
1455 m3 × 2.8 s
ṁeffl
Max flow area = ρ …………………………………………………………………… (22)
effl ×Vmin

kg
0.828 ⁄s
Max flow area = = 0.00040648 m2
kg⁄ m
1455 ⁄
m3 × 1.4 s
1 1
The maximum flow area is approximately corresponding to (2 2 × 1 4) double-pipe heat exchanger
[Appendix B]. Therefore, the tube size will be:
IDa = Inside diameter of the annulus = 0.06338 m
IDP = Inside diameter of the pipe = 0.03279 m
ODP = Outside diameter of the pipe = 0.03495 m

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25 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
L = Length of the heat exchanger = 3 m

3.6.2.1 Saving Analysis


From the results of the energy audit analysis performed so far, it is known that the energy gained by
fermented wine at a temperature of 35.1℃ is 14.804 kW. But using a double pipe heat exchanger to
preheat the fermented wine by hot effluent, the temperature of fermented wine can be brought to
56.67℃. The energy of the fermented wine that could be increased by installing a double pipe heat
exchanger is given by:
Qnew(wine) = ṁwine × Cp(wine) × (Twine − Tam ) … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . (23)

Where, Qnew(wine) = energy gained by preheated of fermented wine


kg
ṁwine = Mass flow rate of fermented wine = 0.582 s
kJ
Cp(wine) = specific heat of fermented wine = 3.1402 kg.℃

Twine = fermentation temperature = 56.67℃


Tam = ambient temperature 25 ℃
Substituting the values in equation (23) input energy due to fermented wine is given:
kg kJ
Qnew(wine) = 0.582 × 3.1402 × (56.67℃ − 25 ℃)
s kg. ℃
Qwine = 57.88kW
Therefore, the net energy gained due to preheating of the fermented wine with the effluent will be
57.88kW – 14.804kW = 43.08kW. The equivalent fuel and money saved is 26,953.7 liters and
280632.1668 Birr per year respectively.

3.6.2.2 Implementation Cost


The cost of a typical double pipe heat exchanger ranges from 50,000 – 60,000Birr depending on size,
length and feature with an average effective life time of 10 to 15years. Adding 47% additional cost on
the direct average cost of purchasing the heat exchanger for transportation and other related costs, the
cost of having the heat exchanger will be 1.47 x 60,000 = 88,200Birr. This is done by considering the
maximum cost of the double pipe heat exchanger.

3.6.2.3 Payback Period


The payback period can be found by dividing the cost saved with the cost of heat exchanger.
𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟
Simple Payback Period= 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑑

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26 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
88,200𝑏𝑖𝑟𝑟
SPBP= = 0.3𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠 = 4 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
280,632.1668𝑏𝑖𝑟𝑟⁄𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟

4. Conclusion and Recommendations


Distillation is one of the most energy intensive operations in the factory. It is used throughout alcohol
producing processes to separate alcohol from water and other solution. The incoming flow is heated,
after which the products are separated on the basis of boiling points. The steam provides the heat needed
for the evaporation of alcohol with different amount for different distillation steps in different columns.
Inspection of the production process means examination of the processes that consume the total thermal
energy produced by the steam generator. From these processes the main one is distillation process takes
place in the distillery columns. Hence inspecting the distillery columns of the factory takes the major
place of energy evaluation steam energy.
Based on this fact, inspection of distillery columns is conducted using visual inspection, common
knowledge, and interview made with factory personnel. The distillation system of the factory was
assessed for potential energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) and the following were obtained.
Periodic cleaning of the distillation column should be done. The inside portion will develop scale
and results large steam consumption and production interruption, and the dirtiness of outer
surface also build up a layer which increases heat consumption of distilleries.
The pressure sensing gauges of the distillery columns are not functional. These problems
enforce the operators to feed steam pressure by estimation and leads to consume un-
recommended amount of steam pressure (may be below or above the necessary amount of steam
pressure will be supplied). This should be also corrected.
The trays and cups of the columns are so much old and worn-out therefore they should be
changed regularly.
Large amount of steam is escape out just after entering to distillery columns due to the openness
of the upper part of the columns.
Shortness in length of columns will slow down the distillation process. When the length of the
column is short, the contact time of wine and steam will be also short. As the contact time is
short, the distillation process needs more time and the reverse is also true.
In addition to these, the detailed energy audit conducted for the distillery columns identified two basic
ECOs. These are:
Insulating the distillery columns surface, and
Recovering heat from the hot effluent channeled to the outside environment using double-pipe heat
exchanger.
From the above listed ECOs, some of them are low cost or no cost energy conservation opportunities
which can be handle with regular maintenance and job of the factory employees.
In general the manager of DALF must have implement the above recommendations so that the company
save a lot of money (energy) and create environmentally friendly condition.

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27 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory

5. References
1. " ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT." from
https://beeindia.gov.in/sites/default/files/1Ch3.pdf.
2. "http//:www.Bureau of Energy Efficiency: Performance Analysis of Boiler.pdf."
3. Baechler, M., et al. (2011). "A Guide to Energy Audits." US department of energy.
4. Green, D. W. and R. H. Perry (2008). "perry's Chemical engineers'handbook." 19.
5. Hayelom.Gebremikael and Tekleweyni.Hagos (2018). "Summer internship report of Desta
alcohol and liquors factory."
6. Malamatenios, D. C. (2000). "ENERGY AUDIT GUIDE PART A: METHODOLOGY AND
TECHNICS." Centre for Renewable Energy Sources.
7. W.Berhrens and P.M.Hawranek ( 1991). "Manual for the preparation of industrial feasibility
studies."

6. Appendices
Appendix A
DATA FOR DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERVARIOUS FLUID VELOCITIES FOR
ECONOMIC DIAMETER TUBES

Fluid Economic velocity range [m / s]

Acetone 1.5 - 3.0


Ethyl alcohol 1.5 – 3.0
Methyl alcohol 1.5 – 3.0
Propyl alcohol 1.4 - 2.8
Benzene 1.4 - 2.8
Carbon disulfide 1.3 – 2.6

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28 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
Carbon tetrachloride 1.2 – 2.4
Castor oil 0.5 – 1.0
Chloroform 1.2 – 2.4
Decane 1.5 – 3.0
Ether 1.5 – 3.0
Ethylene glycol 1.2 – 2.4
R-11 1.2 – 2.4
Glycerine 0.43 – 0.86
Heptane 1.5 – 3.0
Hexane 1.6 – 3.2
Kerosene 1.4 - 2.8
Linseed oil 1.5 - 3.0
Mercury 0.64 – 1.3
Octane 1.5 – 3.0
Propane 1.7 – 3.4
Propylene 1.7 – 3.4
Propylene glycol 1.4 – 2.8
Turpentine 1.4 – 2.8
Water 1.4 – 2.8

Appendix B

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29 Energy Audit of Distillation column in Desta alcohol and liquors Factory
DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE COMINATION AND GEOMETRY FACTORS

By Hayelom Gebremikael & Tekleweyni Hagos May, 2019