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# Elastic Limit Range Strain Hardening

Ultimate
Range
Plastic Range Strength

Stress,σ = P/A

## Lower Yield Point

Elastic Limit
Proportional Rupture
Limit Strength

σαε Necking

P/A = E(δ/L) P
δ
δ=PL/(AE)
Strain,ε =
∆L/L
Modulus of elasticity – the ratio of the stress over strain.
Elasticity – the property of a material which makes its return
to its original dimension when the load is removed.
Ductility – the ability of material to deform in the plastic
range without breakage.
Plasticity – a property of a material where if the specimen be
retain a permanent elongation sometimes called a permanent
set.
Yield Stress – the stress at which there occurs a marked
increase in strain without an increase in stress.
Ultimate Stress – the maximum stress a material is capable
of developing
Stiffness – the property of a material to withstand high stress
without great strain.
Brittleness – implies the absence of any plastic deformation
prior to failure.
Toughness – the property of a material enabling it to endure
Resilience – the property of a material enabling high impact
loads without inducing a stress in excess of the elastic limit.
Resilience – the property of a material enabling high impact
loads without inducing a stress in excess of the elastic limit.
Poisson’s ratio – the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain for an
unrestrained member.
Orthotropic – the composite material exhibits elastic
properties in one direction different from that in the
perpendicular direction.
Homogeneous – the material has the same composition at
every point but the elastic properties may not be the same in
all directions.
Isotropic – the material has the same elastic properties in all
directions.
1. Normal Stress 4. Flexibility
P δ L
σ= =
A P AE
2. Deformation 5. Bulk Modulus
E
δ =
PL K=
AE 3 (1 − 2 µ )

## 3. Stiffness 6. Shear Modulus

P AE E
= G=
δ L 2 (1 + µ )
7. Axial Strain 8. Lateral Strain
δ σ ∆x
ε = ε' = µ ε' =
L E x

E = modulus of elasticity
µ= Poisson’s ratio
K = Bulk modulus
G = Shear modulus
τmax
Τ(D / 2)
T
Τρ τmax =
τ= (π / 32)D4
τ
J ρ

Where: 16Τ
τmax =3 τmax
τ = shear stress at πD
D
any distance ρ from
T
the center. Angle of Twist:
θ
T= the torque ΤL θ
GJ L
J= polar moment of
Inertia = Ix+Iy G=shear modulus of
16ΤD
= (π/32)D4 for elasticity. τ=
circular shafts. π(D4 − d4 )
For Hollow Shaft
W1
Recall, internal force system:
P
Arbitrary a VCD VCD=R1-P-W1
1 P 3 Q b s MCD
R1
x MCD=R1x –P<x-a>
A F
B C L D E
and so on. -W1<x-a-b>
x
R1 R2
a b c d Note that the shear and moment
VAB equations are important in
VAB=R1 determining the shear and moment
x M
AB MAB=R1x at various points on the beam
R1 without the necessary shear and
PV
a BC VBC=R1-P moment diagrams.
x MBC MBC=R1x-P<x-a>
R1
ΣFy=0

V-(V+dV)-wdx=0
wdx
-dV = wdx ΣMA=0 V x1
M
V+dV
x2
M-(M+dM)+Vdx- V A
dV/dx =w wdx(dx/2) =0 ∆V dx M+dM
V1
dV =wdx dM =Vdx V2
V2 x2 x

∫ dV = ∫ wdx dM/dx=V M
V1 x1 ∆M
V2 − V1 =∆V =Area (load diag.) M2 Mmax
M1
∆V Area (load − diag. bet.x1 and x2 ) x
dM = Vdx
M2 x2

∫ dM = ∫ Vdx
M1 x1

## ∆M =Area of V-diag. bet. x1 and x2

1. The slope to the V-diagram corresponds to the magnitude of the
load in the beam dV/dx = w. w is positive upward.

dM/dx = V.

## 3. The moment is maximum where shear is zero (dM/dx =V=0).

Criteria in the Design of Beams: 2. Shearing
1. Bending or flexure VQ 3V
τ= τ=
Mc A’ Ib 2bd
σ= N.A. b
ct y
I Q = A'y
For
cb rectangular
Mct beams
σcomp =
I comp.
3. Deflection
Mcb 5wL4 PL3
σtens = tens.
δmax = δmax =
I 384EI 48EI
6M For rectangular the entire span; (b) concentrated
σ = 2 beams
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Beam Formula
Consider an element subjected to the 2τxy
tan2θ =
stresses shown. σx + σy
τ (σ +σ )/2
y x y
x
σx
σy
τyx
τxy
α σx σmin
x R τxy
σx
τxy
2θ σ
τyx
σy τyx

2
 σx − σy  2 σy
R   + τ xy
 2 
y σ
max
σx + σy 2. For normal stresses, σ is
σ=
max +R considered positive if tension and
2 for shear stresses, τ is considered
positive if CW about the center of
σx + σy the element.
σ
=min −R
2 3. The planes where σmax and σmin
are found are called the principal
R
τmax = planes.

## 4. The original planes make an

Properties of the Mohr’s Circle: angle with the principal plane twice
1. The ends of the diameter of the that of the actual angle and in the
Mohr’s circle are the coordinates same sense or direction.
(σx,τxy) and (σy,τyx).
The product of inertia is given by Pxy h
or Ixy. b b
Ixy = ∫ (h − y ) y (h − y ) dy
y I = xydA xy ∫ 2h 0
h
h
x dA b2
2 ∫
2 2 3
Ixy
= (h y − 2hy +y )dy
y 2h 0
h
x b h y
2
2hy 2
y 2 3 4
Ixy
= 2 
− + 
y
Ixy = ∫ (x / 2)ydA 2h  2 3 4 0
x/2 x b b2h2 Transfer formula:
h-y = Ixy =
h x h−y h 24 I= Ixy + Axy
dy xy
h
1 b
( h − y ) y(xdy)
y
b
= I
x xy ∫
20h
b2h2 1 b h To determine the planes of
= Ixy +  bh    maximum and minimum
24 2  3 3 moment of inertia, the same
principles are employed as in
b2h2 For a right triangle
Ixy = − oriented as shown.
the application of Mohr’s
72 Circle.
For regions with at least
one axis of symmetry, 1. Compute Ix, Iy, and Ixy.
-x x 2. Plot (Ix, Ixy) and (Iy, -Ixy).

## dA dA 3. The points plotted in step 2

are the ends of the diameter of
the the Mohr’s circle.
Ixy = 0
For a simply supported beam, the L-x3
maximum shear occurs at either one x3
of the supports when the resultant of R
P1 P2 P3
the loads is closer to that support.
\$
x1 L-x A B
R L
P1 P2 x3 P3
RB
\$
Vmax =RB= R(L-x3)/L
A B
L If x3<x1

RA
Vmax= RA= R(L-x1)/L If x1<x3
Criterion for maximum bending [ΣMB=0] , R1L=R(L-x-e)
moment due to moving
R=
1
L
( L − x − e)
P1 P2 P3
R
e M2=R1x- P1a
R
A
L
B M=
2
L
( )
Lx − x2 − ex − P1a
dM2 R
RA a b
dx
=
L
( L − 2x − e )= 0
x
Assuming, P2>P1 and P3 L-e = 2x
L e
The maximum moment is expected to occur x= −
qf τjf
F =(1/2)bfqf τjw

Shear
center d
V

F =(1/2)bfqf τmax
qf qf

qmax or τmax

## Note: The curve portion of the stress variation is parabolic. The

area of a parabola is (2/3)bh.