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abrasive. acidulant.

A very hard, brittle, heat-resistant substance that is used A substance added to food or beverages to lower pH and
to grind the edges or rough surfaces of an object. boron to impart a tart, acid taste. Phosphoric acid is an
carbide, diamond, and corundum are abrasives. acidulant added to cola drinks.
absolute zero. (0 K) actinide.
The temperature at which the volume of an ideal gas Elements 89-102 are called actinides. Electrons added
becomes zero; a theoretical coldest temperature that during the Aufbau construction of actinide atoms go into
can be approached but never reached. Absolute zero is the 5f subshell. Actinides are unstable and undergo
zero on the Kelvin scale, -273.15°C on the Celsius scale, radioactive decay. The most common actinides on Earth
and -459.67°F on the Fahrenheit scale. are uranium and thorium.
absorption. absorb; absorbent. activated charcoal. activated carbon; active carbon.
Compare with adsorption and sorption. A porous form of carbon that acts as a powerful
1. Penetration of molecules into the bulk of a solid or adsorbent, used to decolorize liquids, recover solvents,
liquid, forming either a solution or compound. and remove toxins from water and air.
Absorption can be a chemical process (a strong solution activated complex. transition state.
of NaOH absorbs CO2 from the air) or a physical process An intermediate structure formed in the conversion of
(palladium absorbs hydrogen gas). 2. Capture and reactants to products. The activated complex is the
transformation of energy by a substance; for example, structure at the maximum energy point along the
copper looks reddish because it absorbs blue light. An reaction path; the activation energy is the difference
absorbent captures another material and distributes it between the energies of the activated complex and the
throughout; an adsorbent captures another material and reactants.
distributes it on its surface only. activation energy. (Ea)
absorption spectrum. absorption spectra. The minimum energy required to convert reactants into
Compare with absorption spectroscopy. products; the difference between the energies of the
A plot that shows how much radiation a substance activated complex and the reactants.
absorbs at different wavelengths. Absorption spectra are activity. (a)
unique for each element and compound and they are An effective concentration used in thermodynamic
often used as chemical "fingerprints" in analytical calculations in place of the actual concentration to allow
chemistry. The spectrum can be represented by a plot of equations developed for ideal solutions to be used to
either absorbance or transmittance versus wavelength, treat real solutions.
frequency, or wavenumber. adhesion. (cohesion)
- -
acetate. (CH3COO , C2H3O2 ) acetate ion. Attraction between different substances on either side of
1. an ion formed by removing the acidic hydrogen of a phase boundary.
acetic acid, HC2H3O2. 2. a compound derived by replacing adsorbent. Compare with absorbent.
the acidic hydrogen in acetic acid. 3. A fiber made of A substance that collects molecules of another substance
cellulose acetate. on its surface. For example, gases that make water taste
acetic acid (CH3COOH, HC2H3O2) ethanoic acid; vinegar acid; bad are strongly adsorbed on activated charcoal granules
methanecarboxylic acid. in water filters.
A simple organic acid that gives vinegar its characteristic adsorption. adsorb; adsorbed.
odor and flavor. Glacial acetic acid is pure acetic acid. Compare with absorption and sorption.
acid. ([Lat. acidus, sour]) Adsorption is collection of a substance on the surface of
Compare with base. a solid or a liquid. For example, gases that make water
+
1. a compound which releases hydrogen ions (H ) in taste bad are strongly adsorbed on charcoal granules in
solution (Arrhenius). 2. a compound containing water filters.
detachable hydrogen ions (Bronsted-Lowry). 3. a addition compound. complex compound.
compound that can accept a pair of electrons from a Compare with hydrate.
base (Lewis).. An addition compound contains two or more simpler
acid-base indicator. compounds that can be packed in a definite ratio into a
A weak acid that has acid and base forms with sharply crystal. A dot is used to separate the compounds in the
different colors. Changes in pH around the acid's pKa are formula. For example, ZnSO4·7 H2O is an addition
"indicated" by color changes. compound of zinc sulfate and water. This represents a
acid dissociation constant. (Ka) acid ionization constant. compound, and not a mixture, because there is a definite
Compare with base hydrolysis constant. 1:7 ratio of zinc sulfate to water in the compound.
The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid Hydrates are a common type of addition compound.
into a hydrogen ion and an anion. For example, the acid aeration. aerate.
dissociation constant for acetic acid is the equilibrium Preparation of a saturated solution of air gases by either
+ -
constant for HC2H3O2(aq) H (aq) + C2H3O2 (aq), spraying the solution in air or by bubbling air through it.
+ -
which is Ka = [H ][C2H3O2 ]/[HC2H3O2]. aerosol. Compare with colloid.
A colloid in which solid particles or liquid droplets are
suspended in a gas. Smoke is an example of a solid
aerosol; fog is an example of a liquid aerosol.
agar. ammine. Compare with amine.
A gel made from seaweed used to make salt bridges. A metal ion complex containing ammonia as a ligand. The
aliquot. ammonia nitrogen is bound directly to a metal ion in
A sample of precisely determined amount taken from a ammines; amines differ in that the ammonia nitrogen is
material. directly bound to a carbon atom.
alkali metal. (alkaline earth metal) alkali metal element. ammonia. (NH3) Compare with ammonium.
The Group 1 elements, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Pure NH3 is a colorless gas with a sharp, characteristic
potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium odor. It is easily liquified by pressure, and is very soluble
(Fr) react with cold water for form strongly alkaline in water. Ammonia acts as a weak base. Aqueous
hydroxide solutions, and are referred to as "alkali solutions of ammonia are (incorrectly) referred to as
metals". Hydrogen is not considered an alkali metal, "ammonium hydroxide".
+
despite its position on some periodic tables. ammonium ion. (NH4 ) ammonium.
+
alkaline. NH4 is a cation formed by neutralization of ammonia,
Having a pH greater than 7. which acts as a weak base.
alkaline earth. amorphous. amorphous solid. Compare with crystal.
An oxide of an alkaline earth metal, which produces an A solid that does not have a repeating, regular three-
alkaline solution in reaction with water. dimensional arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions.
alkaline earth metal. (alkali metal) amphiprotic solvent. Compare with aprotic solvent.
The Group 2 elements, beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), Solvents that exhibit both acidic and basic properties;
calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra) amphiprotic solvents undergo autoprotolysis. Examples
form alkaline oxides and hydroxides and are called are water, ammonia, and ethanol.
"alkaline earth metals". amphoteric. ampholyte.
alkalinity. A substance that can act as either an acid or a base in a
A measure of a material's ability to neutralize acids. reaction. For example, aluminum hydroxide can
Alkalinities are usually determined using titration. neutralize mineral acids ( Al(OH)3 + 3 HCl = AlCl3 + 3 H2O )
alkane. paraffin. Compare with hydrocarbon and alkene. or strong bases ( Al(OH)3 + 3 NaOH = Na3AlO3 + 3 H2O).
A series of organic compounds with general formula analysis. chemical analysis.
CnH2n+2. Alkane names end with -ane. Examples are Determination of the composition of a sample.
propane (with n=3) and octane (with n=8). analyte.
allobar. An analyte is the sample constituent whose
A form of an element that has isotopic abundances that concentration is sought in a chemical analysis.
are different from the naturally occuring form. For angular momentum quantum number. (ℓ) azimuthal quantum
example, "depleted" uranium has had most of the number; orbital angular momentum quantum number.
uranium-235 removed, and is an allobar of natural A quantum number that labels the subshells of an atom.
uranium. Sometimes called the orbital angular momentum
allomer. allomerism. quantum number, this quantum number dictates orbital
Substances with different chemical composition but the shape. ℓ can take on values from 0 to n-1 within a shell
same crystalline form. with principal quantum number n.
anhydrous. anhydrous compound; anhydride. Compare with
allotrope. allotropy; allotropic; allotropism. Compare with isotope hydrate.
and polymorph. A compound with all water removed, especially water of
Some elements occur in several distinct forms called hydration. For example, strongly heating copper(II)
allotropes. Allotropes have different chemical and sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) produces anhydrous
physical properties. For example, graphite and diamond copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4).
are allotropes of carbon. anion. Compare with cation.
alloy. alloying; alloyed. Compare with amalgam. An anion is a negatively charged ion. Nonmetals typically
A mixture containing mostly metals. For example, brass is form anions.
an alloy of copper and zinc. Steel contains iron and other anode. Compare with cathode.
metals, but also carbon. The electrode at which oxidation occurs in a cell. Anions
4
alpha particle. ( 2He) migrate to the anode.
A particle that is commonly ejected from radioactive anodize.
nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons. To coat a metal with a protective film by electrolysis.
Alpha particles are helium nuclei. Alpha particles have a antibonding orbital. antibonding; antibonding molecular orbital.
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mass of 6.644 655 98 × 10 kg or 4.001 506 1747 atomic A molecular orbital that can be described as the result of
mass units. [1998 CODATA values] destructive interference of atomic orbitals on bonded
alpha ray. (α-ray) alpha radiation. atoms. Antibonding orbitals have energies higher than
A stream of alpha particles. Alpha rays rapidly dissipate the energies its constituent atomic orbitals would have if
their energy as they pass through materials, and are far the atoms were separate.
less penetrating than beta particles and gamma rays. antichlor.
amalgam. Compare with alloy.
An alloy that contains mercury.
A chemical compound that reacts with chlorine-based atomic nucleus. nucleus; nuclei; atomic nuclei.
bleaches to stop the bleaching. Thiosulfate compounds A tiny, incredibly dense positively charged mass at the
are antichlors. heart of the atom. The nucleus is composed of protons
antioxidant. and neutrons (and other particles). It contains almost all
Antioxidants are compounds that slow oxidation of the mass of the atom but occupies only a tiny fraction
processes that degrade foods, fuels, rubber, plastic, and of the atom's volume.
other materials. Antioxidants like butylated atomic number. (Z)
hydroxyanisole (BHA) are added to food to prevent fats The number of protons in an atomic nucleus. The atomic
from becoming rancid and to minimize decomposition of number and the element symbol are two alternate ways
vitamins and essential fatty acids; they work by to label an element. In nuclide symbols, the atomic
12
scavenging destructive free radicals from the food. number is a leading subscript; for example, in 6C, the
antiozonant. antiozidant. "6" is the atomic number.
Substances that reverse or prevent severe oxidation by atomic orbital.
ozone. Antiozonants are added to rubber to prevent A wavefunction that describes the behavior of an
them from becoming brittle as atmospheric ozone reacts electron in an atom.
with them over time. Aromatic amines are often used as atomic radius. metallic radius; covalent radius; atomic radii.
antiozonants. Compare with ionic radius.
antipyretic. One half the distance between nuclei of atoms of the
A substance that can lessen or prevent fever. same element, when the atoms are bound by a single
Antoine equation Antoine's equation. covalent bond or are in a metallic crystal. The radius of
A simple 3-parameter fit to experimental vapor pressures atoms obtained from covalent bond lengths is called the
measured over a restricted temperature range: covalent radius; the radius from interatomic distances in
log P = A – B/(T+C) metallic crystals is called the metallic radius.
where A, B, and C are "Antoine coefficients" that vary atomic theory.
from substance to substance. Sublimations and An explanation of chemical properties and processes that
vaporizations of the same substance have separate sets assumes that tiny particles called atoms are the ultimate
of Antoine coefficients, as do components in mixtures. building blocks of matter.
The Antoine equation is accurate to a few percent for atomic weight. atomic mass.
most volatile substances (with vapor pressures over 10 The average mass of an atom of an element, usually
Torr). expressed in atomic mass units. The terms mass and
aprotic solvent. Compare with amphiprotic solvent. weight are used interchangeably in this case. The atomic
A solvent that does not act as an acid or as a base; weight given on the periodic table is a weighted average
aprotic solvents don't undergo autoprotolysis. Examples of isotopic masses found in a typical terrestrial sample of
are pentane, pet ether, and toluene. the element.
aqua regia. atmosphere. (atm)
A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, usually 1:3 or A unit of pressure, equal to a barometer reading of 760
1:4 parts HNO3 to HCl, used to dissolve gold. mm Hg. 1 atmosphere is 101325 pascals and 1.01325
aqueous. (aq) aqueous solution. bar.
A substance dissolved in water. aufbau principle. aufbau construction; building-up principle.
Arrhenius equation. An approximate procedure for writing the ground state
In 1889, Svante Arrhenius explained the variation of rate electronic configuration of atoms. The configuration of
constants with temperature for several elementary an atom is obtained by inserting one electron into the
reactions using the relationship configuration of the atom immediately to its left on the
k = A exp(Ea/RT) periodic table. The electron is inserted into the subshell
where the rate constant k is the total frequency of indicated by the element's period and block.
collisions between reaction molecules A times the auto-ignition temperature. Compare with flash point. Minimum
fraction of collisions exp(-Ea/RT) that have an energy that temperature at which the vapor/air mixture over a liquid
exceeds a threshold activation energy Ea at a spontaneously catches fire.
temperature of T (in kelvins). R is the universal gas autoxidation. autooxidation; autoxidize; autoxidizing.
constant. Oxidation caused by exposure to air. Rust is an example
atom. Compare with molecule and ion. of autoxidation. Autoxidation makes ether taken from
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that half-filled bottles very dangerous, because air oxidizes
retains the chemical properties of the element. Atoms ether to highly explosive organic peroxides.
are electrically neutral, with a positively charged nucleus autoprotolysis. autoionization; autoionization constant;
that binds one or more electrons in motion around it. autoprotolysis constant.
atomic mass unit. (amu,u) amu; dalton. Transfer of a hydrogen ion between molecules of the
A unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 same substance, e. g. the autoprotolysis of methanol (2
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nucleus, which is 1.660 538 73 × 10 kg ± 0.000 000 13 × CH3OH = CH3OH2 + CH3O ). Autoprotolysis of water into
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10 kg [1998 CODATA values]. Abbreviated as amu or u. hydronium ions and hydroxide ions results in equilibrium
+ -
Sometimes called the dalton, after John Dalton, architect concentrations that satisfy Kw = [H3O ][OH ], where the
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of the first modern atomic theory. autoprotolysis constant Kw is equal to 1.01 × 10 at 25°C.
average bond enthalpy. Compare with bond enthalpy. moves a pointer which indicates the changing pressure
Average enthalpy change per mole when the same type on a scale.
of bond is broken in the gas phase for many similar base. alkali; alkaline; basic. Compare with acid.
substances 1. a compound that reacts with an acid to form a salt. 2.
Avogadro. Amadeo Avogadro. a compound that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous
Italian chemist and physicist Amadeo Avogadro (1776- solution (Arrhenius). 3. a molecule or ion that captures
1856) proposed a correct molecular explanation for Gay- hydrogen ions.(Bronsted-Lowry). 4. a molecule or ion
Lussac's law of combining volumes. His work provided a that donates an electron pair to form a chemical
simple way to determine atomic weights and molecular bond.(Lewis).
weights of gases. base hydrolysis constant. (Kb) base ionization constant; basic
Avogadro number. (NA, L) Avogadro's number; Avogadro hydrolysis constant.
constant. Compare with acid dissociation constant.
The number of particles in one mole, equal to The equilibrium constant for the hydrolysis reaction
23 -1 -1
6.02214199 × 10 mol (± 0.00000047 mol ) [1998 associated with a base. For example, Kb for ammonia is
CODATA values] the equilibrium constant for NH3(aq) +
+ - + -
Avogadro's law. H2O(ℓ) NH4 (aq) + OH (aq), or Kb = [NH4 ][OH ]/[NH3].
Equal volumes of an ideal gas contain equal numbers of basis function.
molecules, if both volumes are at the same temperature A mathematical function that can be used to build a
and pressure. For example, 1 L of ideal gas contains twice description of wavefunctions for electrons in atoms or
as many molecules as 0.5 L of ideal gas at the same molecules.
temperature and pressure. basis set.
axial. A set of mathematical functions that are combined to
1. An atom, bond, or lone pair that is perpendicular to approximate the wavefunctions for electrons in atoms
equatorial atoms, bonds, and lone pairs in a trigonal and molecules.
bipyramidal molecular geometry. battery acid.
azeotrope. azeotropic mixture; azeotropy. A solution of approximately 6M sulfuric acid used in the
A solution that does not change composition when lead storage battery.
-
distilled. For example, if a 95% (w/w) ethanol solution in beta particle. (ß )
water is boilled, the vapor produced also is 95% ethanol- An electron emitted by an unstable nucleus, when a
and it is not possible to obtain higher percentages of neutron decays into a proton and an electron. In some
ethanol by distillation. cases, beta radiation consists of positrons
balanced equation. balanced. ("antielectrons" which are identical to electrons but carry
A description of a chemical reaction that gives the a +1 charge.") Note that beta particles are created in
chemical formulas of the reactants and the products of nuclear decay; they do not exist as independent particles
the reaction, with coefficients introduced so that the within the nucleus.
number of each type of atom and the total charge is binary compound. Compare with compound.
unchanged by the reaction. For example, a balanced A compound that contains two different elements. NaCl
equation for the reaction of sodium metal (Na(s)) with is a binary compound; NaClO is not.
chlorine gas (Cl2(g)) to form table salt (NaCl(s)) would be bleach.
2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) = 2 NaCl(s), NOT Na(s) + Cl2(g) = NaCl(s). A dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite or calcium
Balmer series. Balmer lines. hypochlorite which kills bacteria and destroys colored
A series of lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen organic materials by oxidizing them.
that involve transitions to the n=2 state from states with block.
n>2. A region of the periodic table that corresponds to the
An emission spectrum that contains groups of sharp type of subshell (s, p, d, or f) being filled during the
peaks that are so close together that they are not Aufbau construction of electron configurations.
distinguishable separately, but only as a "band". Bohr atom. Bohr's theory; Bohr's atomic theory; Bohr model.
band spectrum. band spectra. Compare with line spectrum and A model of the atom that explains emission and
continuous spectrum. absorption of radiation as transitions between stationary
bar. electronic states in which the electron orbits the nucleus
5
Unit of pressure. 1 bar = 10 pascals = 1.01325 at a definite distance. The Bohr model violates the
atmospheres. Heisenberg uncertainty principle, since it postulates
barometer. Compare with manometer. definite paths and momenta for electrons as they move
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure. A around the nucleus. Modern theories usually use atomic
mercury barometer is a closed tube filled with mercury orbitals to describe the behavior of electrons in atoms.
inverted in a mercury reservoir. The height of the boiling point. (bp) standard boiling point; normal boiling point.
mercury column indicates atmospheric pressure (with 1 The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid
atm = 760 mm of mercury). An aneroid barometer is equal to the external pressure on the liquid. The
consists of an evacuated container with a flexible wall. standard boiling point is the temperature at which the
When atmospheric pressure changes, the wall flexes and vapor pressure of a liquid equals standard pressure.
boiling point elevation. calutron.
235 238
The boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling A device that separates isotopes (e. g. U from U) by
point of the pure solvent. Boiling point elevation is a ionizing the sample, accellerating the ions in a strong
colligative property. electric field, and then passing them through a strong
Boltzmann constant. (k) Boltzmann's constant. magnetic field. The magnetic field bends the trajectories
A fundamental constant equal to the ideal gas law of the ions with high charge-to-mass ratio more, allowing
constant divided by Avogadro's number, equal to 1.3805 ions to be separated by mass and collected.
-23 -1
× 10 J K . carbonate hardness. carbonate water hardness. Compare with
bond energy. Compare with bond enthalpy. water hardness.
Energy change per mole when a bond is broken in the Water hardness due to the presence of calcium and
gas phase for a particular substance. magnesium carbonates and bicarbonates. The
bond enthalpy. Compare with average bond enthalpy. "noncarbonate hardness" is due mostly to calcium and
Enthalpy change per mole when a bond is broken in the magnesium sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates.
gas phase for a particular substance. catalyst. catalyze; catalysis.
bond length. A substance that increases the rate of a chemical
The average distance between the nuclei of two bonded reaction, without being consumed or produced by the
atoms in a stable molecule. reaction. Catalysts speed both the forward and reverse
bond order. reactions, without changing the position of equilibrium.
1. In Lewis structures, the number of electron pairs Enzymes are catalysts for many biochemical reactions.
shared by two atoms. 2. In molecular orbital theory, the cathode. Compare with anode.
net number of electron pairs in bonding orbitals The electrode at which reduction occurs.
(calculated as half the difference between the number of cathode ray.
electrons in bonding orbitals and the number of A negatively charged beam that emanates from the
electrons in antibonding orbitals. cathode of a discharge tube. Cathode rays are streams of
Boyle's law. electrons.
The pressure of a ideal gas is inversely proportional to its cation. Compare with anion.
volume, if the temperature and amount of gas is held A cation is a positively charged ion. Metals typically form
constant. Doubling gas pressure halves gas volume, if cations.
temperature and amount of gas don't change. If the Charles' law.
initial pressure and volume are P1 and V1 and the final The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its
pressure and volume are P2V2, then P1V1 = P2V2 at fixed temperature in kelvins, if pressure and amount of gas
temperature and gas amount. remain constant. Doubling the kelvin temperature of a
Brönsted acid. Compare with acid. gas at constant pressure will double its volume. If V1 and
A material that gives up hydrogen ions in a chemical T1 are the initial volume and temperature, the final
reaction. volume and temperature ratio V2/T2 = V1/T1 if pressure
Brönsted base. Compare with base. and moles of gas are unchanged.
A material that accepts hydrogen ions in a chemical chelate.
reaction. A stable complex of a metal with one or more
Brownian motion. Brownian movement. polydentate ligands. For example, calcium complexes
Small particles suspended in liquid move spontaneously with EDTA to form a chelate.
in a random fashion. The motion is caused by unbalanced chemical bond. bond; bonding; chemical bonding.
impacts of molecules on the particle. Brownian motion A chemical bond is a strong attraction between two or
provided strong circumstantial evidence for the existence more atoms. Bonds hold atoms in molecules and crystals
of molecules. together. There are many types of chemical bonds, but
buffer. pH buffer; buffer solution. all involve electrons which are either shared or
A solution that can maintain its pH value with little transferred between the bonded atoms.
change when acids or bases are added to it. Buffer chemical change. reaction; chemical reaction. Compare with
solutions are usually prepared as mixtures of a weak acid physical change.
with its own salt or mixtures of salts of weak acids. For A chemical change is a dissociation, recombination, or
example, a 50:50 mixture of 1 M acetic acid and 1 M rearrangement of atoms.
sodium acetate buffers pH around 4.7. chemical equation.
Bunsen burner. A compact notation for describing a chemical change.
A gas burner with adjustable air intake, commonly used The formulas of the reactants are added together on the
in laboratories. left hand side of the equation; the formulas of the
caffeine. (C8H10N4O2) methyltheobromine; guaranine; 1,3,7- products are added together on the right side.
trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine. Coefficients are inserted before the formulas to ensure
A substance found in tea, coffee, and cola that acts as a that the equation is balanced. The phase in which each
stimulant. It is extremely soluble in supercritical fluid substance is found is usually indicated in parentheses
carbon dioxide and somewhat soluble in water; aqueous after each formula. For example, 2 H2(g) + O2(g) = 2
solutions of caffeine quickly break down. H2O(g) indicates that 2 moles of hydrogen gas combine
with one mole of oxygen gas to produce two moles of combustion. combustion reaction.
steam. A chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidizing
chemical property. chemical properties. Compare with physical agent that produces heat (and usually, light). For
property. example, the combustion of methane is represented as
Measurement of a chemical property involves a chemical CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) = CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l).
change. For example, determining the flammability of complete ionic equation. total ionic equation. Compare with net
gasoline involves burning it, producing carbon dioxide ionic equation.
and water. A balanced equation that describes a reaction occurring
chromatography. in solution, in which all strong electrolytes are written as
Chromatography is a method for separating mixtures dissociated ions.
based on differences in the speed at which they migrate compound Compare with element and mixture.
over or through a stationary phase. A compound is a material formed from elements
Clausius-Clapeyron equation. chemically combined in definite proportions by mass. For
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation predicts the example, water is formed from chemically bound
temperature dependence of vapor pressures of pure hydrogen and oxygen. Any pure water sample contains 2
liquids or solids: g of hydrogen for every 16 g of oxygen.
O O
ln (P/P ) = (∆H/R)(1/T – 1/T) concentration. Compare with dilution.
where P is the vapor pressure, P° is a vapor pressure at a 1. A measure of the amount of substance present in a
known temperature T°, ∆H is an enthalpy of vaporization unit amount of mixture. The amounts can be expressed
if the substance is a liquid or an enthalpy of sublimation as moles, masses, or volumes. 2. The process of
if it's a solid, R is the ideal gas law constant, and T is the increasing the amount of substance in a given amount of
temperature (in Kelvins). mixture.
cohesion. Compare with adhesion. condensation. condensed.
Attraction between like molecules. 1. The conversion of a gas into a liquid is called
colligative property. colligative; colligative properties. condensation. Condensation usually occurs when a gas is
Properties of a solution that depend on the number of cooled below its boiling point. 2. A reaction that involves
solute molecules present, but not on the nature of the linking of two molecules with the elimination of water (or
solute. Osmotic pressure, vapor pressure, freezing point another small molecule).
depression, and boiling point elevation are examples of congener.
colligative properties. 1. Elements belonging to the same group on the periodic
collision frequency. collision frequencies; frequency of collision. table. For example, sodium and potassium are
The average number of collisions that a molecule congeners. 2. Compounds produced by identical
undergoes each second. synthesis reactions and procedures.
collision theory. collision model. continuous spectrum. Compare with line spectrum and band
A theory that explains reaction rates in terms of collisions spectrum.
between reactant molecules. A plot of the relative absorbance or intensity of emitted
colloid. light vs. wavelength or frequency that shows a smooth
A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture composed of tiny variation, rather than a series of sharp peaks or bands.
particles suspended in another material. The particles are coordination number.
larger than molecules but less than 1 µm in diameter. The number of bonds formed by the central atom in a
Particles this small do not settle out and pass right metal-ligand complex. core electron. Compare with
through filter paper. Milk is an example of a colloid. The valence electron.
particles can be solid, tiny droplets of liquid, or tiny Electrons occupying completely filled shells under the
bubbles of gas; the suspending medium can be a solid, valence shell.
liquid, or gas (although gas-gas colloids aren't possible). copolymer.
column chromatography. A polymer composed of two or more different
Column chromatography is a method for separating monomers. The different monomers can be linked
mixtures. A solution containing the mixture is passed randomly, or in repeating sequences, or in blocks, or as
through a narrow tube packed with a stationary phase. side chains off the main chain.
Different substances in the mixture have different corrosion. corrode.
affinities for the stationary phase, and so move through Corrosion is a reaction that involves action of an oxidizing
the tube at different rates. This allows the substances in agent on a metal. The oxidizing agent is often oxygen
the mixture to be detected or collected separately as dissolved in water. See How Iron Rusts for examples.
they reach the end of the tube. coulomb. (C)
combination reaction. The SI unit of electric charge, equal to the amount of
A reaction in which two or more substances are charge delivered by a current of 1 ampere running for 1
chemically bonded together to produce a product. For second. One mole of electrons has a charge of about
example, 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 NaCl(s) is a combination 96487 C.
reaction.
covalent bond. covalent; covalently bound. Compare with metal cyanide complex. The complex is washed out of
covalent compound and ionic bond. the ore and reduced to metallic form using an active
A covalent bond is a very strong attraction between two metal (usually zinc).
or more atoms that are sharing their electrons. In Dalton's law. Dalton's law of partial pressure.
structural formulas, covalent bonds are represented by a The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the
line drawn between the symbols of the bonded atoms. sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were
covalent compound. molecular compound. Compare with ionic alone. For example, if dry oxygen gas at 713 torr is
bond and ionic compound. saturated with water vapor at 25 torr, the pressure of the
A compound made of molecules- not ions. The atoms in wet gas is 738 torr.
the compound are bound together by shared electrons. decomposition. decompose; decomposable; decomposition
Also called a molecular compound. reaction. Compare with synthesis.
critical point. critical state. A reaction in which a compound is broken down into
State at which two phases of a substance first become simpler compounds or elements. Compounds sometimes
indistinguishable. For example, at pressures higher than decompose if heated strongly or if subjected to a strong
217.6 atm andtemperatures above 374°C, the meniscus electric current (electrolysis).
between steam and liquid water will vanish; the two degenerate. degenerate orbital.
phases become indistinguishable and are referred to as a A set of orbitals are said to be degenerate if they all have
supercritical fluid. the same energy. This degeneracy can sometimes be
critical molar volume. (Vc) "lifted" by external electric or magnetic fields.
The molar volume at the critical point. density. (ρ,d) Compare with specific gravity.
critical pressure. (Pc) Mass of a substance per unit volume. Saying "the density
3
The pressure at the critical point. of mercury is 13.55 g/cm " is the same as saying "the
3
critical temperature. (Tc) mass of exactly 1 cm of mercury is 13.55 g".
2
The temperature at the critical point. A gas above the deuterium. (D, H)
critical temperature will never condense into a liquid, no An isotope of hydrogen that contains one neutron and
matter how much pressure is applied. Most substances one proton in its nucleus.
have a critical temperature that is about 1.5 to 1.7 times dialysis.
the standard boiling point, in kelvin. Dialysis is the separation of components in a mixture by
crystal. passing them across a semipermeable membrane.
A sample of a crystalline solid that has a regular shape diamagnetism. diamagnetic. Compare with paramagnetism.
bound by plane surfaces (facets) that intersect at Diamagnetic materials are very weakly repelled by
characteristic angles. The shape results from the magnetic fields. The atoms or molecules of diamagnetic
arrangement of the substances atoms, ions, or materials contain no unpaired spins.
molecules. Most crystals contain defects that can diatomic molecule. Compare with binary compound and
strongly affect their optical and electrical properties. polyatomic molecule.
crystal field splitting energy. (∆) A molecule that contains only two atoms. All of the
Ligands complexed to a metal ion will raise the energy of noninert gases occur as diatomic molecules; e. g.
some of its d orbitals and lower the energy of others. The hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine are H2,
difference in energy is called the crystal field splitting O2, N2, F2, and Cl2, respectively.
energy. diffusion. diffuse. Compare with effusion.
crystal field theory. crystal field. The mixing of two substances caused by random
The color, spectra, and magnetic properties of metal- molecular motions. Gases diffuse very quickly; liquids
ligand complexes can be explained by modeling the diffuse much more slowly, and solids diffuse at very slow
effect of ligands on metal's d orbital energies. (but often measurable) rates. Molecular collisions make
crystalline solid. crystalline. Compare with amorphous. diffusion slower in liquids and solids.
A solid that has a repeating, regular three-dimensional diffusion rate. rate of diffusion. Compare with effusion.
arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions. The number of randomly moving molecules that pass
crystallization. fractional crystallization; crystallisation. through a unit area per second. Diffusion rates are
The process of forming pure crystals by freezing a liquid, fastest when a large concentration difference exists on
evaporating a solution, or precipitating a solid from either side of the unit area. Diffusion rates increase with
solution. Impurities remain in the liquid, so crystallization temperature, and decrease with increasing pressure,
is often to purify solid substances. molecular weight, and molecular size.
2+
cupric. (Cu ) cupric ion. dilution.
2+
Deprecated. 1. the copper(II) ion, Cu . 2. A compound Adding solvent to a solution to lower its concentration.
that contains copper in the +2 oxidation state. dipole-dipole interaction. dipole-dipole force.
+
cuprous. (Cu ) cuprous ion. Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged
+
Deprecated. 1. the copper(I) ion, Cu . 2. A compound that poles of two or more dipoles.
contains copper in the +1 oxidation state. displacement. displacement reaction; replacement reaction;
cyanide process. replacement.
A method for separating a metal from an ore. Crushed A reaction in which a fragment of one reactant is
ore is treated with cyanide ion to produce a soluble replaced by another reactant (or by a fragent of another
reactant). Displacement reactions have the same number
of products as reactants, and are described by equations
of the form A + BC AB + C (single displacement) or AB +
CD AC + BD (double displacement).
disproportionation. disproportion; disproportionate;
disproportionating.
A reaction involving a substance that produces two
different forms of the substance, one more oxidized and
the other more reduced than the original.
dissolved oxygen. DO. effective nuclear charge. (Zeff) Compare with atomic number.
The amount of oxygen dissolved in a solvent (usually The nuclear charge experienced by an electron when
water). Dissolved oxygen levels are used as a general other electrons are shielding the nucleus.
indicator of water quality. efflorescent. efflorescence; efflorescing. Compare with
distillate. deliquescent and hygroscopic.
The vapor collected and condensed from a distillation. Efflorescent substances lose water of crystallization to
distillation. the air. The loss of water changes the crystal structure,
Distillation is a technique for separating components of a often producing a powdery crust.
mixture on the basis of differing boiling points. The effusion. effuse. Compare with diffusion and diffraction.
mixture is heated, vaporizing some of the components. Gas molecules in a container escape from tiny pinholes
The vapor is collected and condensed to isolate the into a vacuum with the same average velocity they have
components with the lowest boiling points. inside the container. They also move in straight-line
domoic acid. trajectories through the pinhole.
Domoic acid is a toxic amino acid produced by certain electric charge. charge.
species of algae. Domoic acid binds to a receptor that A property used to explain attractions and repulsions
helps nerve cells control the flow of ions across their cell between certain objects. Two types of charge are
membranes. The receptor no longer works correctly, and possible: negative and positive. Objects with different
the uncontrolled flux of ions damages and eventually kills charge attract; objects with the same charge repel each
the nerve cell. other.
double displacement. double displacement reaction; double electric dipole. dipole.
replacement; double replacement reaction; double exchange; An object whose centers of positive and negative charge
exchange; metathesis. do not coincide. For example, a hydrogen chloride (HCl)
A double displacement or metathesis is a reaction in molecule is an electric dipole because bonding electrons
which two reactants trade fragments: are on average closer to the chlorine atom than the
AB + CD = AC + BD hydrogen, producing a partial positive charge on the H
Most commonly, the fragments are ions, e. g. end and a partial negative charge on the Cl end.
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) = AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) electric dipole moment. (µ) dipole moment.
dry cell. Leclanché cell. A measure of the degree of polarity of a polar molecule.
A electrolytic cell that uses a moist paste rather than a Dipole moment is a vector with magnitude equal to
liquid as an electrolyte. Flashlight batteries are dry cells charge separation times the distance between the
with a zinc cup for an anode, a carbon rod for a cathode, centers of positive and negative charges. Chemists point
and a paste made of powdered carbon, NH4Cl, ZnCl2, and the vector from the positive to the negative pole;
MnO2 for an electrolyte. physicists point it the opposite way. Dipole moments are
ductile. ductility. Compare with malleable. often expressed in units called Debyes.
Capable of being drawn into wire. Metals are typically electrochemical cell. electric cell.
ductile materials. A device that uses a redox reaction to produce electricity,
dynamic equilibrium. equilibrium. Compare with position of or a device that uses electricity to drive a redox reaction
equilibrium. in the desired direction.
Dynamic equilibrium is established when two opposing electrolysis.
processes are occuring at precisely the same rate, so that The process of driving a redox reaction in the reverse
there is no apparent change in the system over long direction by passage of an electric current through the
periods of time. reaction mixture.
ebulliometry. ebulliometric. electrolyte.
Determination of average molecular weight of a A substance that dissociates fully or partially into ions
dissolved substance from the boiling point elevation of when dissolved in a solvent, producing a solution that
the solution. conducts electricity. See strong electrolyte, weak
EDTA. ethylenediaminetetracetic acid; versine. electrolyte.
A polydentate ligand that tightly complexes certain metal electrolytic cell.
ions. EDTA is used as a blood preservative by complexing A device that uses electricity from an external source to
free calcium ion (which promotes blood clotting). EDTA's drive a redox reaction.
ability to bind to lead ions makes it useful as an antidote
for lead poisoning.
-
electron. (e ) Compare with proton and neutron. emulsion. Compare with colloid.
A fundamental consituent of matter, having a negative A colloid formed from tiny liquid droplets suspended in
-19
charge of 1.602 176 462 × 10 coulombs ± 0.000 000 another, immiscible liquid. Milk is an example of an
-19 -31
063 × 10 coulombs and a mass of 9.109 381 88 × 10 emulsion.
-31
kg ± 0.000 000 72 × 10 kg [1998 CODATA values]. endpoint. end point. Compare with equivalence point.
electron configuration. electronic configuration. The experimental estimate of the equivalence point in a
A list showing how many electrons are in each orbital or titration.
subshell. There are several notations. The subshell enthalpy of atomization. (∆Hat) atomization enthalpy; heat of
notation lists subshells in order of increasing energy, with atomization.
the number of electrons in each subshell indicated as a The change in enthalpy that occurs when one mole of a
2 2 3
superscript. For example, 1s 2s 2p means "2 electrons compound is converted into gaseous atoms. All bonds in
in the 1s subshell, 2 electrons in the 2s subshell, and 3 the compound are broken in atomization and none are
electrons in the 2p subshell. formed, so enthalpies of atomization are always positive.
electronegativity Compare with ionization energy and electron enthalpy of fusion. (∆Hfus) heat of fusion; molar heat of fusion;
affinity. molar enthalpy of fusion.
Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction an atom The change in enthalpy when one mole of solid melts to
has for bonding electrons. Bonds between atoms with form one mole of liquid. Enthalpies of fusion are always
different electronegativities are polar, with the bonding positive because melting involves overcoming some of
electrons spending more time on average around the the intermolecular attractions in the solid.
atom with higher electronegativity. enthalpy of hydration. (∆Hhyd) hydration enthalpy; heat of
electrorefining. hydration.
Electrorefining is a method for purifying a metal using The change in enthalpy for the process
electrolysis. An electric current is passed between a
sample of the impure metal and a cathode when both A(g) A(aq)
are immersed in a solution that contains cations of the
metal. Metal is stripped off the impure sample and where the concentration of A in the aqueous solution
deposited in pure form on the cathode. approaches zero. Enthalpies of hydration for ions are
element Compare with compound and mixture. always negative because strong ion-water attractions are
An element is a substance composed of atoms with formed when the gas-phase ion is surrounded by water.
identical atomic number. The older definition of element enthalpy of sublimation. (∆Hsub) heat of sublimation.
(an element is a pure substance that can't be The change in enthalpy when one mole of solid vaporizes
decomposed chemically) was made obsolete by the to form one mole of gas. Enthalpies of sublimation are
discovery of isotopes. always positive because vaporization involves
element symbol. overcoming most of the intermolecular attractions in the
An international abbreviation for element names, usually sublimation.
consisting of the first one or two distinctive letters in enthalpy of vaporization. (∆Hvap) heat of vaporization.
element name. Some symbols are abbreviations for The change in enthalpy when one mole of liquid
ancient names. evaporates to form one mole of gas. Enthalpies of
elementary reaction. Compare with net chemical reaction. vaporization are always positive because vaporization
A reaction that occurs in a single step. Equations for involves overcoming most of the intermolecular
elementary reactions show the actual molecules, atoms, attractions in the liquid.
and ions that react on a molecular level. environmental chemistry. chemical ecology.
emission spectrum. emission spectra. Compare with absorption The study of natural and man-made substances in the
spectrum. environment, including the detection, monitoring,
A plot of relative intensity of emitted radiation as a transport, and chemical transformation of chemical
function of wavelength or frequency. substances in air, water, and soil.
emollient. enzyme.
A substance added to a formulation that gives it Protein or protein-based molecules that speed up
softening ability. For example, oils that can soften skin chemical reactions occurring in living things. Enzymes act
are added as emollients in some skin creams. as catalysts for a single reaction, converting a specific set
empirical formula. simplest formula. Compare with molecular of reactants (called substrates) into specific products.
formula. Without enzymes life as we know it would be impossible.
Empirical formulas show which elements are present in a equivalence point. Compare with end point.
compound, with their mole ratios indicated as subscripts. The equivalence point is the point in a titration when
For example, the empirical formula of glucose is CH2O, enough titrant has been added to react completely with
which means that for every mole of carbon in the the analyte.
compound, there are 2 moles of hydrogen and one mole equivalent. Compare with normality.
of oxygen. 1. The amount of substance that gains or loses one mole
of electrons in a redox reaction. 2. The amount of
substances that releases or accepts one mole of
hydrogen ions in a neutralization reaction. 3. The amount
of electrolyte that carries one mole of positive or first order reaction. Compare with zero order reaction and
2+
negative charge, for example, 1 mole of Ba (aq) is 2 second order reaction.
2+
equivalents of Ba (aq). The sum of concentration exponents in the rate law for a
eutectic mixture. first order reaction is one. Many radioactive decays are
A mixture of two or more substances with melting point first order reactions.
lower than that for any other mixture of the same flash point. Compare with auto-ignition temperature.
substances. The temperature when vapor pressure of a substance
evaporation. vaporization. becomes high enough to allow the air/vapor layer over
Conversion of a liquid into a gas. the substance to be ignited. Ether and acetone have flash
evaporate. points below room temperature, which makes them very
To convert a liquid into a gas. dangerous.
excited state. Compare with ground state. foam. Compare with colloid.
An atom or molecule which has absorbed energy is said A colloid in which bubbles of gas are suspended in a solid
to be in an excited state. Excited states tend to have or liquid. Aerogel (solid smoke) and Styrafoam are
short lifetimes; they lose energy either through collisions examples of solid foams; whipped cream is an example of
or by emitting photons to "relax" back down to their a liquid foam.
ground states. formation. formation reaction.
excitotoxin. A reaction that forms one mole of a compound from its
An excitotoxin is a toxic molecule that stimulates nerve elements in their most stable forms. For example, the
cells so much that they are damaged or killed. Domoic formation reaction for water is H2(g) + ½O2 H2O(l).
acid and glutamate are examples of excitotoxins. formula unit. Compare with empirical formula.
experimental yield. actual yield. Compare with theoretical yield One formula weight of a compound.
and percent yield. formula weight. formula mass. Compare with molecular weight
The measured amount of product produced in a chemical and empirical formula.
reaction. The formula weight is the sum of the atomic weights of
extensive property. extensive; extensive properties. Compare the atoms in an empirical formula. Formula weights are
with intensive property. usually written in atomic mass units (u).
A property that changes when the amount of matter in a fractional distillation. Compare with distillation.
sample changes. Examples are mass, volume, length, and A technique for separation of liquid mixtures by
charge. distillation that uses a tower attached to a flask
extraction. containing the mixture to perform multiple distillations.
A technique for separating components in a mixture that Vapor moving up the column condenses on packing
have different solubilities. For example, caffeine can be material inside the column, trickles down the column,
separated from coffee beans by washing the beans with and again vaporises. The more volatile component can
supercritical fluid carbon dioxide; the caffeine dissolves then be drawn off at the top of the component, while the
in the carbon dioxide but flavor compounds do not. less volatile component remains at the bottom.
Vanillin can be extracted from vanilla beans by shaking free radical.
the beans with an organic solvent, like ethanol. A free radical is a molecule with an odd number of
f orbital. f-orbital. electrons. Free radicals do not have a completed octet
An orbital with angular momentum quantum number ℓ= and often undergo vigorous redox reactions. Free
2. The f orbitals generally have 3 nuclear nodes and radicals produced within cells can react with membranes,
rather complex shapes. enzymes, and genetic material, damaging or even killing
ferric. ferric ion. the cell. Free radicals have been implicated in a number
3+
Deprecated. 1. the iron(III) ion, Fe . 2. A compound that of degenerative conditions, from natural aging to
contains iron in the +3 oxidation state. Alzheimer's disease.
ferroin. freezing point. (mp) standard melting point; normal melting
2+
A blood-red complex of Fe ion with 1,10- point; melting point.
phenanthroline, used as a redox indicator. Ferroin The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid
changes from red to pale blue when oxidized. is equal to the vapor pressure of the corresponding solid
ferrous. ferrous ion. form. The liquid and solid forms can coexist at
2+
Deprecated. 1. the iron(II) ion, Fe . 2. A compound that equilibrium at the freezing point. The standard melting
contains iron in the +2 oxidation state. point is the melting point at standard pressure.
first ionization energy. (IE,IP) first ionization potential. Compare freezing point depression. (∆Tfp)
with second ionization energy, adiabatic ionization The freezing point of a solution is always lower than the
energy, vertical ionization energy, electronegativity, and freezing point of the pure solvent. The freezing point
electron affinity. depression is roughly proportional to the molality of
The energy needed to remove an electron from an solute particles in the solution. Freezing point depression
isolated, neutral atom. is an example of a colligative property of a solution.
gas. gases; vapor.
Matter in a form that has low density, is easily
compressible and expandable, and expands
spontaneously when placed in a larger container. An element of group VIIA (a. k. a. Group 18). The name
Molecules in a gas move freely and are relatively far means "salt former"; halogens react with metals to form
apart. "Vapor" often refers to a gas made of a substance binary ionic compounds. Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl),
that is usually encountered as a liquid or solid; for bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At) are known at
example, gaseous H2O is called "water vapor". this time.
gel. Compare with colloid. heavy water. (D2O)
2 1
A gell is a sol in which the solid particles fuse or entangle Water that contains H, rather than H. Heavy water is
to produce a rigid or semirigid mixture. For example, about 11% denser than ordinary water.
gelatin dissolved in water produces a sol of protein Henry's Law. Henry's law constant.
molecules. When the gelatin is cooked, the protein Henry's law predicts that the solubility (C) of a gas or
chains entangle and crosslink, forming a gel which is a volatile substance in a liquid is proportional to the partial
mesh of solid protein with trapped pockets of liquid pressure (P) of the substance over the liquid:
inside. Fruit jellies are also gels P = kC
geometric isomer. where k is called the Henry's law constant and is
Geometric isomers are molecules that have the same characteristic of the solvent and the solute.
molecular formula and bond connections, but distinctly heterogeneous mixture. heterogeneous. Compare with
different shapes. homogeneous mixture, solution, element, and compound.
glutamate. A sample of matter consisting of more than one pure
Ionic salts of glutamic acid used as flavor enhancers in substance and more than one phase. Blood, protoplasm,
many foods. Glutamate is usually manufactured by acid milk, chocolate, smoke, and chicken soup are examples
hydrolysis of vegetable proteins. Besides being a basic of heterogeneous mixtures.
building block of proteins, glutamate functions as a high performance liquid chromatography. HPLC.
neurotransmitter that helps neurons grow new An efficient form of column chromatography that pumps
connections; as such, glutamate plays an important role a liquid solution of the sample at very high pressure
in learning and memory. At high concentrations, through a column packed with a stationary phase made
glutamate can function as an excitotoxin. of very tiny particles. The high pressure pumps required
glutamate receptors. make HPLC an expensive technique.
Glutamate receptors are protein molecules that helps high spin complex. high-spin complex.
gate the flow of ions across a nerve cell's membrane. A metal-ligand complex with the same number of
They play a role in the formation of new connections unpaired electrons as the uncomplexed metal ion. When
between nerve cells (and so, in learning and memory). a weak ligand complexes the metal ion, the crystal field
The receptors are normally activated by aspartate and splitting is small and the electrons can still occupy all of
glutamate. In amnesic shellfish poisoning, domoic acid the d orbitals without pairing.
acts as an excitotoxin that very strongly activates some homogeneous mixture. solution. Compare with heterogeneous
of these receptors, preventing their proper functioning. mixture, element and compound.
glyceride. monoglyceride; diglyceride; triglyceride. A sample of matter consisting of more than one pure
Glycerides are fats and oils that are esters of glycerol substance with properties that do not vary within the
with one or more fatty acids. Monoglycerides, sample.
diglycerides, and triglycerides contain one, two, and humectant.
three fatty acids linked to the glycerol, respectively. A substance that absorbs or retains moisture, added to a
ground state. Compare with excited state. product to keep it from drying out.
The lowest energy state for an atom or molecule. When Hund's rule. rule of maximum multiplicity.
an atom is in its ground state, its electrons fill the lowest A rule of thumb stating that subshells fill so that the
energy orbitals completely before they begin to occupy number of unpaired spins is maximized, or "spread them
higher energy orbitals, and they fill subshells in out and line them up."
accordance with Hund's rule (usually!) hydrate. Compare with addition compound.
group. A hydrate is an addition compound that contains water in
1. A substructure that imparts characteristic chemical weak chemical combination with another compound. For
behaviors to a molecule, for example, a carboxylic acid example, crystals of CuSO4·5 H2O (copper sulfate
group. (also: functional group). 2. A vertical column on pentahydrate) are made of regularly repeating units,
the periodic table, for example, the halogens. Elements each containing 5 molecules of water weakly bound to a
that belong to the same group usually show chemical copper(II) ion and a sulfate ion.
similarities, although the element at the top of the group hydrazine. (NH2NH2)
is usually atypical. A colorless, fuming, corrosive liquid that is a powerful
half life. reducing agent. NH2NH2 is used in jet and rocket fuels,
The half life of a reaction is the time required for the and as an intermediate in the manufacture of
amount of reactant to drop to one half its initial value. agricultural, textile, photographic, and industrial
halide. halide ion. chemicals.
A compound or ion containing fluorine, chlorine, hydrocarbon. Compare with alkane, alkene, alkyne, and organic.
bromine, iodine, or astatine.
halogen. group VIIA; group 18.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only ideal gas law constant. (R) ideal gas constant; universal gas
hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbons are the constant.
alkanes. A constant R equal to PV/(nT) for ideal gases, where the
hydrogen bond. hydrogen bonding. pressure, volume, moles, and temperature of the gas are
An especially strong dipole-dipole force between P, V, n, and T, respectively. The value and units of R
molecules X-H...Y, where X and Y are small depend on the units of P, V, and T. Commonly used
3 -1 -1
electronegative atoms (usually F, N, or O) and ... denotes values and units of R include: 82.055 cm atm K mol ;
-1 -1 -1 -1 -
the hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for 0.082055 L atm mol K ; 8.31434 J mol K ; 1.9872 cal K
1 -1 -1 -1 3 -1 -1
the unique properties of water and they loosely pin mol ; 8314.34 L Pa mol K ; 8.31434 Pa m mol K .
biological polymers like proteins and DNA into their ideal solution.
characteristic shapes. All molecules in an "ideal solution" interact in exactly the
+
hydronium ion. (H3O ) hydronium. same way; the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and
+
The H3O ion, formed by capture of a hydrogen ion by a solute-solute intermolecular forces are all equivalent.
water molecule. A strong covalent bond is formed Ideal solutions obey Raoult's law exactly. Real solutions
between the hydrogen ion and water oxygen; all behave ideally only when they are very dilute.
hydrogen ions in aqueous solution are bound inside immiscible. immiscibility. Compare with miscible and partial
hydronium ions. miscibility.
hydrophilic. hydrophilicity; hydrophilic group. Two liquids are considered "immiscible" or unmixable if
A polar molecule or group that can form strong hydrogen shaking equal volumes of the liquids together results in a
bonds with water. meniscus visible between two layers of liquid. If the
hydrophobic. hydrophobicity; hydrophobic group. liquids are completely immiscible, the volumes of the
A nonpolar molecule or group that has little affinity for liquid layers are the same as the volumes of liquids
water. Hydrophobic groups on molecules in solution tend orginally added to the mixture.
to turn in on themselves or clump together with other incomplete octet.
hydrophobic groups because they are unable to disrupt 1. An atom with less than eight electrons in its valence
the network of strong hydrogen bonds in the water shell. 2. An atom with less than eight total bonding and
around them. nonbonding electrons in a Lewis structure, for example, B
-
hydroxide. (OH ) hydroxide ion. Compare with hydroxyl. in BH3 has an incomplete octet.
- -
1. The OH ion. 2. Compounds containing the OH ion. See indicator.
also: hydroxide compounds. A substance that undergoes an sharp, easily observable
hygroscopic. change when conditions in its solutions change. See, for
Able to absorb moisture from air. For example, sodium example, acid-base indicator and redox indicator.
hydroxide pellets are so hygroscopic that they dissolve in inductive effect. inductance effect.
the water they absorb from the air. An inductive effect is the polarization of a chemical bond
hygroscopicity. caused by the polarization of an adjacent bond. (Field
The ability of a substance to absorb moisture from air. effects are polarization caused by nonadjacent bonds).
For example, sodium hydroxide pellets are so inert pair. inert pair effect.
hygroscopic that they dissolve in the water they absorb Valence electrons in an s orbital penetrate to the nucleus
from the air. better than electrons in p orbitals, and as a result they're
hypertonic. Compare with osmotic pressure. more tightly bound to the nucleus and less able to
Describes a solution which has higher osmotic pressure participate in bond formation. A pair of such electrons is
than some other solution (usually, higher osmotic called an "inert pair". The inert pair effect explains why
4+ 2+ 4+
pressure than cell or body fluids). Freshwater fish die if common ions of Pb are Pb and Pb , and not just Pb as
placed in seawater because the seawater is hypertonic, we might expect from the octet rule.
and causes water to leave the cells in fish's body. infrared spectroscopy. IR spectroscopy.
hypotonic. Compare with osmotic pressure. A technique for determining the structure (and
Describes a solution which has lower osmotic pressure sometimes concentration) of molecules by observing
than some other solution (usually, lower osmotic how infrared radiation is absorbed by a sample.
pressure than cell or body fluids). Washing your contact inorganic chemistry.
lenses with distilled water rather than saline is painful The study of inorganic compounds, specifically their
because distilled water is hypotonic; it causes water to structure, reactions, catalysis, and mechanism of action.
move into cells, and they swell and burst. inorganic compound. inorganic. Compare with organic.
ideal gas. ideal gases; perfect gas; ideal gas law. A compound that does not contain carbon chemically
A gas whose pressure P, volume V, and temperature T bound to hydrogen. Carbonates, bicarbonates, carbides,
are related by PV = nRT, where n is the number of moles and carbon oxides are considered inorganic compounds,
of gas and R is the ideal gas law constant. Ideal gases even though they contain carbon.
have molecules with negligible size, and the average insoluble. insolubility. Compare with soluble.
molar kinetic energy of an ideal gas depends only on its Refers to a substance that does not dissolve in a solvent
temperature. Most gases behave ideally at sufficiently to any significant degree. Compounds with solubilities of
low pressures. less than 1 g per liter of water are often referred to as
'insoluble', even though they do dissolve to a small The radii of anions and cations in crystalline ionic
extent. compounds, as determined by consistently partitioning
integrated rate law. the center-to-center distance of ions in those
Rate laws like d[A]/dt = -k[A] give instantaneous compounds.
concentration changes. To find the change in ionization energy. (IE,IP) ionization potential. Compare with
concentration over time, the instantaneous changes adiabatic ionization energy, vertical ionization energy,
must by added (integrated) over the desired time electronegativity, and electron affinity.
interval. The rate law d[A]/dt = -k[A] can be integrated The energy needed to remove an electron from a
from time zero to time t to obtain the integrated rate law gaseous atom or ion.
ln([A]/[A]o = -kt, where [A]o is the initial concentration of isoelectronic.
A. Refers to a group of atoms or ions having the same
- +
intensive property. intensive; intensive properties. Compare with number of electrons. For example, F , Ne, and Na are
extensive property. isoelectronic.
A property that does not change when the amount of isotope. isotopic; isotopy. Compare with isomer, allotrope, isobar,
sample changes. Examples are density, pressure, and isotone.
temperature, color. Atoms or ions of an element with different numbers of
intermediate. reactive intermediate; reaction intermediate. neutronsin their atomic nucleus. Isotopes have the same
A highly reactive substance that forms and then reacts atomic number but different mass number. Isotopes
further during the conversion of reactants to products in have very similar chemical properties but sometimes
a chemical reaction. Intermediates never appear as differ greatly in nuclear stability.
products in the chemical equation for a net chemical isotopic abundance. Compare with natural abundance.
reaction. The fraction of atoms of a given isotope in a sample of an
intermolecular force. element.
An attraction or repulsion between molecules. isotopic mass. isotopic masses.
Intermolecular forces are much weaker than chemical The mass of a single atom of a given isotope, usually
bonds. Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole interactions, and given in daltons.
London forces are examples of intermolecular forces. IUPAC
ion. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, an
An atom or molecule that has acquired a charge by either organization which sets international standards for
gaining or losing electrons. An atom or molecule with chemical nomenclature, atomic weights, and the names
missing electrons has a net positive charge and is called a of newly discovered elements.
cation; one with extra electrons has a net negative kilogram. (kg)
charge and is called an anion. The kilogram (kg) is the base unit of mass in the SI system
ion exchange. ion exchange resin; ion exchanger. of units. The standard kilogram is a 1 kg corrosion
Ion exchange is a method of separating ions from a resistant platinum/iridium cylinder, carefully preserved in
solution by reversibly binding them onto a resin that has the suburbs of Paris (with a backup copy kept in
charged sites on its surface. Ion exchangers are used to Gaithersburg, Maryland.) Efforts are underway to replace
remove metal ions from drinking water. these artifacts by redefining the kilogram as the mass of
ionic bond. ionically bound; ionic bonding. Compare with covalent a certain number of silicon atoms.
bond. kinetic energy. Compare with potential energy.
An attraction between ions of opposite charge. The energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion.
+
Potassium bromide consists of potassium ions (K ) An object of mass m moving at velocity v has a kinetic
- 2
ionically bound to bromide ions (Br ). Unlike covalent energy of ½mv .
bonds, ionic bond formation involves transfer of Kw. Kw.
electrons, and ionic bonding is not directional. Symbol for the autoprotolysis constant for water, equal
-14
ionic compound. salt. Compare with covalent compound and to 1.01 × 10 at 25°C.
ionic bond. lanthanide. Compare with actinide and inner transition metals.
A compound made of distinguishable cations and anions, Elements 57-70 are called lanthanides. Electrons added
held together by electrostatic forces. during the Aufbau construction of lanthanide atoms go
ionic dissociation. ionize; ionization. into the 4f subshell.
When ionic substances dissolve, their ions are lanthanide contraction.
surrounded by solvent molecules and separated from An effect that causes sixth period elements with filled 4f
each other. This phenomena is also called ionization. subshells to be smaller than otherwise expected. The
ionic equation. complete ionic equation . Compare with net ionic intervention of the lanthanides increases the effective
equation and molecular equation. nuclear charge, which offsets the size increase expected
An ionic equation is a balanced chemical equation in from filling the n=6 valence shell. As a consequence, sixth
which strong electrolytes are written as dissociated ions. period transition metals are about the same size as their
+ - + -
For example, Ag (aq) + NO3 (aq) + Na (aq) + Cl (aq) = fifth period counterparts.
+ -
AgCl(s) + Na (aq) + NO3 (aq) is an ionic equation; lattice.
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) = AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) is not. A regular array of ions or atoms.
ionic radius. Compare with atomic radius. law of combining volumes. Gay-Lussac's law.
When gases react, they do so in a definite proportion by litmus paper. litmus test.
volume, if the volumes are measured at the same Paper impregnated with litmus, usually cut in narrow
pressure and temperature. For example, in the reaction strips. Dipping red litmus paper into a basic solution
N2(g) + 3 H2(g) = 2 NH3(g), 3 liters of hydrogen will react turns it blue; dipping blue litmus paper into an acidic
with 1 liter of nitrogen to give 2 liters of ammonia if all solution turns it red.
volumes are measured at the same temperature and London force. dispersion force.
pressure. An intermolecular attractive force that arises from a
law of conservation of mass. cooperative oscillation of electron clouds on a collection
There is no change in total mass during a chemical of molecules at close range.
change. The demonstration of conservation of mass by lone pair. nonbonding pair; unshared pair.
Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century was a Electrons that are not involved in bonding.
milestone in the development of modern chemistry. low spin complex. low-spin complex. Compare with high spin
law of definite proportions. complex.
When two pure substances react to form a compound, A metal-ligand complex with fewer unpaired electrons
they do so in a definite proportion by mass. For example, than the uncomplexed metal ion. When a strong ligand
when water is formed from the reaction between complexes the metal ion, the crystal field splitting is large
hydrogen and oxygen, the 'definite proportion' is 1 g of H and some electrons pair rather than occupying the higher
for every 8 g of O. energy d orbitals.
law of multiple proportions. magnetic quantum number. (mℓ)
When one element can combine with another to form Quantum number that labels different orbitals within a
more than one compound, the mass ratios of the subshell. mℓ can take on values from -ℓ to +ℓ. The
elements in the compounds are simple whole-number number of orbitals in a subshell is the same as the
ratios of each other. For example, in CO and in CO2, the number of possible mℓ values.
oxygen-to-carbon ratios are 16:12 and 32:12, main group elements.
respectively. Note that the second ratio is exactly twice Elements of the s and p blocks.
the first, because there are exactly twice as many malleable. malleability. Compare with ductile.
oxygens in CO2 per carbon as there are in CO. Capable of being hammered into sheets. Metals are
Lewis structure. electron dot structure; dot structure. typically malleable materials.
A model pioneered by Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving manometer. Compare with barometer.
Langmuir that represents the electronic structure of a An instrument for measuring gas pressures. A mercury or
molecule by writing the valence electrons of atoms as oil manometer measures gas pressure as the height of a
dots. Pairs of dots (or lines) wedged between atoms fluid column the gas sample is able to support. Open
represent bonds; dots drawn elsewhere represent manometers measure gas pressure relative to
nonbonding electrons. atmospheric pressure.
ligand. mass. (m) Compare with weight.
1. In inorganic chemistry, a molecule or ion that binds to Mass is a measure of the tendency of an object to resist
a metal cation to form a complex. 2. In biochemistry, a acceleration. It's harder to roll a tractor trailer than a
molecule that binds to a receptor, having a biological roller skate; the tractor trailer has a far greater mass.
effect. mass number. (M,A) Compare with atomic number and atomic
limiting reactant. limiting reagent. weight.
The reactant that limits the amount of product produced The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom or
in a chemical reaction. For example, mixing one mole of ion. In nuclide symbols the mass number is given as a
H2(g) with one mole of O2 produces one mole of steam leading superscript. In isotope names (e. g. carbon-14,
(H2O(g)), with half a mole of O2(g) remaining. The sodium-23) the mass number is the number following the
hydrogen gas limits the amount of steam produced in element name.
this case. mass percentage. ((w/w)%)
line spectrum. line spectra; line emission spectrum. Compare with Mass percentages express the concentration of a
band spectrum and continuous spectrum. component in a mixture or an element in a compound.
A emission spectrum that contains very sharp peaks, For example, household bleach is 5.25% NaOCl by mass,
corresponding to transitions between states in free meaning that every 100 g of bleach contains 5.25 g of
atoms. For example, the line spectrum of hydrogen NaOCl. Mass percentage can be calculated as 100% times
contains 4 sharp lines in the visible part of the spectrum. the mass of a component divided by the mass of the
liquid. mixture containing the component.
A state of matter that has a high density and is mass spectrometer.
incompressible compared to a gas. Liquids take the shape An instrument that measures the masses and relative
of their container but do not expand to fill the container abundances of a sample that has been vaporized and
as gases do. Liquids diffuse much more slowly than ionized.
gases. mass spectrometry. mass spectroscopy.
litmus. (of elements) A method for experimentally determining
A mixture of pigments extracted from certain lichens that isotopic masses and isotopic abundances. A sample of an
turns blue in basic solution and red in acidic solution. element is converted into a stream of ions and passed
through an electromagnetic field. Ions with different molecules and has a mass equal to the substance's
charge-to-mass ratios are deflected by different molecular weight, in grams.
amounts, and strike different spots on a film plate or mole fraction.
other detector. From the position of the spots, the mass Concentration of a substance in a mixture measured as
of the ions can be determined; from the intensity of the moles of the substance per mole of mixture. For
spot, the relative number of ions (the isotopic example, the mole fraction of oxygen in air is about 0.21,
abundance) can be determined. which means that 1 mol of air contains about 0.21 mol
mass spectrum. mass spectra. O2.
A plot showing the results of a mass spectrometry molecular equation. Compare with ionic equation.
experiment, which shows the presence of particles with A molecular equation is a balanced chemical equation in
different masses as a series of sharp, separate peaks. The which ionic compounds are written as neutral formulas
position of the peaks on the x-axis indicates the mass of rather than as ions. For example, AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) =
+
the particles; the peak heights indicate the relative AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) is a molecular equation; Ag (aq) +
- + - + -
abundance of the particles. NO3 (aq) + Na (aq) + Cl (aq) = AgCl(s) + Na (aq) + NO3 (aq)
matter. is not.
Matter is anything that has mass. Air, water, coffee, fire, molecular formula. formula; chemical formula. Compare with
human beings, and stars are matter. Light, X-rays, empirical formula.
photons, gravitons, information, and love aren't matter. A notation that indicates the type and number of atoms
meniscus. meniscuses; menisci. in a molecule. The molecular formula of glucose is
A phase boundary that is curved because of surface C6H12O6, which indicates that a molecule of glucose
tension. contains 6 atoms of carbon, 12 atoms of hydrogen, and 6
metal. metallic. Compare with nonmetal and metalloid. atoms of oxygen.
A metal is a substance that conducts heat and electricity, molecular geometry.
is shiny and reflects many colors of light, and can be 1. The three-dimensional shape of a molecule. For
hammered into sheets or drawn into wire. Metals lose example, methane (CH4) has a tetrahedral molecular
electrons easily to form cations. About 80% of the known geometry. 2. The study of molecular shapes.
chemical elements are metals. molecular model stick model; ball and stick model; spacefilling
miscible. miscibility; liquid miscibility. Compare with immiscible model.
and partial miscibility. A representation of a molecule. The model can be purely
Two liquids are considered "miscible" or mixable if computational or it can be an actual physical object. Stick
shaking them together results in a single liquid phase, models show bonds, ball-and-stick models show bonds
with no meniscus visible between layers of liquid. and atoms, and spacefilling models show relative atomic
mixed glyceride. Compare with glyceride. sizes.
A diglyceride or triglyceride that contains more than one molecular orbital. Compare with atomic orbital and orbital.
type of fatty acid connected to glycerol via an ester A wavefunction that describes the behavior of an
linkage. Natural oils and fats usually contain several electron in a molecule. Molecular orbitals are usually
different mixed glycerides. spread across many atoms in the molecule, and they are
molality. (m) Compare with molarity. often described as a combination of atomic orbitals on
Concentration measured as moles of solute per kilogram those atoms.
of solvent. For example, a 1 m NaCl solution contains 1 molecular sieve.
mole of NaCl per kilogram of water. Molalities are A material that contains many small cavities
preferred over molarities in experiments that involve interconnected with pores of precisely uniform size.
temperature changes of solutions, e. g. calorimetry and Zeolites are an example. Molecular sieves adsorb
freezing point depression experiments. molecules that are small enough to pass through their
molar. pore systems- especially water. They are often used as
1. Of or pertaining to moles. 2. An synonym for molarity; drying agents, and to separate large molecules from
for example, a "six molar solution of hydrochloric acid" smaller ones in preparatory work and in exclusion
contains 6 moles of HCl per liter of solution. chromatography.
molar volume. molecular weight. molecular mass. Compare with formula weight
The volume occupied by one mole of a material. For and molecular formula.
example, the molar volume of an ideal gas at STP is 22.4 The average mass of a molecule, calculated by summing
L/mol. the atomic weights of atoms in the molecular formula.
molarity. (M) molar concentration. Note that the words mass and weight are often used
Concentration of a solution measured as the number of interchangeably in chemistry.
moles of solute per liter of solution. For example, a 6 M molecule. Compare with atom and ion.
HCl solution contains 6 moles of HCl per liter of solution. The smallest particle of an element or compound that
mole. (mol) retains the chemical properties of the element or
SI unit for amount of substance, defined as the number compound. A molecule is a collection of chemically
of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12. One mole of a bound atoms with characteristic composition and
molecular compound contains Avogadro's number structure. Making or breaking bonds in a molecule
changes it into a new molecule. Ionic compounds are not
composed of molecules, because there is no distinct neutral.
collection of ions that are chemically bound in the 1. having no net electrical charge. Atoms are electrically
crystal. neutral; ions are not. 2. A solution containing equal
+ -
momentum. (p) concentrations of H and OH .
Momentum is a property that measures the tendency of neutralization reaction. neutralization; acid-base reaction.
+
a moving object to keep moving in the same direction. A chemical change in which one compound aquires H
Increasing the speed of an object increases its from another. The compound that receives the hydrogen
momentum, and a heavy object will have more ion is the base; the compound that surrenders it is an
momentum than a lighter one moving at the same acid.
1
speed. For a particle with mass m and velocity v, the neutron. (n, 0n) Compare with proton and electron.
momentum of the particle is mv. An elementary particle found the atomic nucleus of all
monodentate. stable atoms except the hydrogen-1 atom. Neutrons
A ligand that has only one atom that coordinates directly have no charge and have a mass of 1.008665 daltons.
to the central atom in a complex. For example, ammonia Newtonian fluid. Compare with non-Newtonian fluid.
and chloride ion are monodentate ligands of copper in A fluid whose viscosity doesn't depend on gradients in
2+ 2+
the complexes [Cu(NH3)6] and [CuCl6] . flow speed. Gases and low-molecular weight liquids are
monomer. usually Newtonian fluids.
A small molecule that is linked with large numbers of nitric acid. (HNO3) aqua fortis.
other small molecules to form a chain or a network A corrosive liquid with a sharp odor that acts as a strong
(polymer). acid when dissolved in water. Nitric acid is used to
MSDS. material safety data sheet. synthesize ammonium nitrate for fertilizers, and is also
Safety information sheet for a particular substance that used in the manufacture of explosives, dyes, and
lists physical properties, hazards, cleanup and disposal pharmaceuticals. Salts of nitric acid are called nitrates.
procedures, fire and explosion data, and protective noble gas core. ([X], where X is the symbol of an inert gas
equipment required. element) core configuration. Compare with valence shell.
MSG. monosodium glutamate. All completely filled shells underneath the valence shell.
MSG is monosodium glutamate, used as a flavor nomenclature.
enhancer in many foods. A system for naming things. For example, "organic
multiple bonds. nomenclature" is the system used to name organic
Sharing of more than one electron pair between bonded compounds.
atoms. A double bond consists of two shared pairs of nonmetal. (metal,metalloid) non-metal.
electrons; a triple bond consists of three shared pairs. A nonmetal is a substance that conducts heat and
natural abundance. Compare with isotopic abundance. electricity poorly, is brittle or waxy or gaseous, and
The average fraction of atoms of a given isotope of an cannot be hammered into sheets or drawn into wire.
element on Earth. Nonmetals gain electrons easily to form anions. About
natural gas. 20% of the known chemical elements are nonmetals.
A mixture of methane and other gases, found trapped nonelectrolyte.
over petroleum deposits under the earth. A nonelectrolyte is a substance which does not ionize in
net ionic equation. Compare with net ionic equation and solution.
molecular equation. non-Newtonian fluid. Compare with Newtonian fluid.
A net ionic equation is an ionic equation with all A fluid whose viscosity changes when the gradient in flow
DEFINE[spectator ions">spectator ions eliminated. For speed changes. Colloidal suspensions and polymer
+ - + -
example, Ag (aq) + NO3 (aq) + Na (aq) + Cl (aq) = AgCl(s) + solutions like ketchup and starch/water paste are non-
+ -
Na (aq) + NO3 (aq) is an ionic equation; the net ionic Newtonian fluids.
+ -
equation would be Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) = AgCl(s) because the nonparticulate.
sodium and nitrate ions are spectators (they appear on Not composed of distinct particles.
both sides of the ionic equation. nonpolar.
network covalent solid. network covalent substance. Having a relatively even or symmetrical distribution of
A substance which consists of an array of atoms held charge.
together by an array of covalent bonds. A crystal of a nonpolar molecule.
network covalent solid is actually a single, gigantic A molecule in which the center of positive charge and the
molecule. Diamond and quartz are examples. center of negative charge coincide. Examples are CCl4
neurotransmitter. and CO2; counterexamples are CHCl3 and H2O.
Neurotransmitters are molecules that are used to carry normality. (N) normal. Compare with molarity and equivalent.
signals from one neuron to another. One neuron releases A measure of solution concentration, defined as the
the neurotransmitter near another neuron's receptors. number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution.
The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap between nuclear binding energy.
the neurons and locks into a receptor site on the surface Energy needed to break an atomic nucleus into separate
of the downstream neuron. This induces a change in the protons and neutrons.
downstream neuron.
nucleation. Passage of solvent molecules from a dilute solution
The process of providing sites for 1) new bubbles to form through a semipermeable membrane to a more
in a liquid that is boiling or supersaturated with gas; 2) concentrated solution.
new droplets to condense from a supersaturated vapor, osmotic pressure.
or 3) new crystals to form in a supersaturated solution. Pressure which must be applied to a solution to prevent
Nucleation sites can be scratches in a surface, dust water from flowing in via a semipermeable membrane.
particles, seed crystals, and so on. oxidation. oxidize; oxidizing; oxidized. Compare with reduction.
nucleon. Compare with proton, neutron and atomic nucleus. Oxidation is the loss of one or more electrons by an
A proton or a neutron in the atomic nucleus. atom, molecule, or ion. Oxidation is accompanied by an
nuclide. Compare with atomic nucleus and nuclide symbol. increase in oxidation number on the atoms, molecules,
An atom or ion with a specified mass number and atomic or ions that lose electrons.
number. For example, uranium-235 and carbon-14 are oxidation number. oxidation state; positive valence.
nuclides. A convention for representing a charge of an atom
nuclide symbol. Compare with atomic nucleus, nuclide and embedded within a compound, if the compound were
element symbol. purely ionic. For example, H2O is a covalent compound; if
+
A symbol for an nuclide that contains the mass number it were ionic, the hydrogens would be H (oxidation
2-
as a leading superscript and the atomic number as a number +1) and the oxygen would be O (oxidation
leading subscript. For ions, the ionic charge is given as a number -2). Oxidation number rises for at least one atom
trailing superscript. For example, the nuclide symbol for in a compound that is oxidized; oxidation number
35 -
the most common form of the chloride ion is 17Cl , becomes smaller if the compound is reduced.
where 35 is the mass number, 17 is the atomic number, oxidizing agent. oxidant; oxidizer. Compare with reducing agent.
and the charge on the ion is -1. The atomic number is A reactant that removing electrons from other reactants
sometimes omitted from nuclide symbols. in a chemical reaction. Oxidizing agents cause other
octane. (C8H18) Compare with alkane and hydrocarbon. substances to be oxidized in chemical reactions while
Flammable liquid compounds found in petroleum and they themselves are reduced. For example, nitrate ion is
natural gas. There are 18 different octanes- they have an oxidizing agent in the following reaction:
different structural formulas but share the molecular
formula C8H18. Octane is used as a fuel and as a raw + - 2+
Cu(s) + 4 H (aq) + 2 NO3 (aq) Cu (aq) + 2 H2O(ℓ) + 2
material for building more complex organic molecules. It NO2(g)
is the eighth member of the alkane series.
octet. Copper gets oxidized (its oxidation number goes from 0
A set of eight valence electrons. to +2) while the nitrogen gets reduced (from +5 in nitrate
octet rule. to +4 in nitrogen dioxide).
A guideline for building Lewis structures that states that paramagnetism. paramagnetic. Compare with diamagnetism and
atoms tend to gain, lose, or share valence electrons with ferromagnetism.
other atoms in a molecule until they hold or share eight Paramagnetic materials are attracted to a magnetic field
valence electrons. The octet rule almost always holds for due to the presence of least one unpaired spin in their
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine; it is regularly atoms or molecules.
violated for other elements. partial miscibility. partially miscible. Compare with miscible and
orbital. immiscible.
A wavefunction that describes what an electron with a Two liquids are considered partially miscible if shaking
given energy is doing inside an atom or molecule. equal volumes of the liquids together results in a
order. order of reaction; reaction order. meniscus visible between two layers of liquid, but the
The order of a reaction is the sum of concentration volumes of the layers are not identical to the volumes of
exponents in the rate law for the reaction. For example, a the liquids originally added.
2
reaction with rate law d[C]/dt = k[A] [B] would be a third particulate.
order reaction. Noninteger orders are possible. Composed of distinct particles. Smoke is particulate; pure
organic. organic compound. Compare with inorganic compound. gases are not.
Compounds that contain carbon chemically bound to parts per million. (ppm)
hydrogen. They often contain other elements Concentration expressed as parts of solute per million
(particularly O, N, halogens, or S). Organic compounds parts of solution. Usually refers to parts per million by
were once thought to be produced only by living things. mass. For example, a 10 ppm NaCl solution can be
We now know that any organic compound can be written as: 10 mg NaCl/kg solution, 10 µg NaCl/g
synthesized in the laboratory (although this can be solution, 10 ng NaCl/mg solution. In very dilute aqueous
extremely difficult in practice!) solutions, ppm is approximately equal to mg solute per
osmometry. Compare with osmosis. liter of solution.
Determination of the average molecular weight of a pascal. (Pa)
dissolved substance from measurements of osmotic The SI unit of pressure, equal to a force of one newton
pressure. per square meter. 101325 pascals = 1 atmosphere; 10
5

osmosis. Compare with reverse osmosis. pascals = 1 bar.


Pauli principle. exclusion principle; Pauli exclusion; Pauli exclusion phases: an oil-rich liquid, and a vinegar-rich liquid.
principle. Shaking the bottle breaks the phases up into tiny
No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 droplets, but there are still two distinct phases. 2. In
quantum numbers. Because the n, , and m quantum wave motion, phase is the fraction of a complete cycle
numbers address a particular orbital, and because the ms that has passed a fixed point since the current cycle
quantum number has only two possible values, the Pauli began. The phase is often expressed as an angle, since a
principle says that a maximum of two electrons can full cycle is 360^deg; (2π). Two waves are "in phase" if
occupy an atomic orbital- and these electrons must have the peaks of one wave align with the peaks of the other;
opposite spins. they are "out of phase" if the peaks of one wave align
penetration. Compare with shielding. with the troughs of the other.
Electrons in penetrating orbitals can reach the nucleus. phase boundary.
The n and ℓ quantum numbers determine how well an A phase boundary is a surface where two samples of
orbital penetrates. Lower n and lower ℓ values mean matter with different properties are in contact. The
better penetration. A low n value means the orbital is surface of a gas bubble in water or the surface of a
small. A low ℓ value means the orbital has fewer nuclear crystal are examples of phase boundaries.
nodes (planes that pass through the nucleus where the phase diagram. phase map.
probability of locating the electron is zero). A map that shows which phases of a sample are most
In order of decreasing penetration, the subshells are s > p stable for a given set of conditions. Phases are depicted
> d > f. A 1s orbital penetrates better than a 2s orbital. as regions on the map; the borderlines between regions
percent yield. percentage yield. Compare with theoretical yield correspond to conditions where the phases can coexist in
and actual yield. equilibrium.
Percent yield equals experimental yield divided by phenolphthalein.
theoretical yield times 100%. An organic compound used as an acid-base indicator. The
perfect crystal. compound is colorless in acidic solution and pink in basic
A crystal with no defects or impurities made of solution (with the transition occuring around pH 8.3).
completely identical repeating subunits. Further, a Phenolpthalein was used for many years as a laxative in
perfect crystal has only one possible arrangement of very low concentrations- high concentrations are toxic!
subunits, with every subunit making exactly the same physical change. Compare with chemical change.
contribution to the total energy of the crystal. A change which does not transform one substance into
period. another. For example, freezing water is a physical change
Rows in the periodic table are called periods. For because both water and ice are H2O. However,
example, all of the elements in the second row are electrolysis of water would not be a physical change
referred to as 'second period elements'. All elements because passing a strong electric current through water
currently known fall in the first seven periods. can decompose it into H2 and O2.
periodic law. physical property. physical properties. Compare with chemical
The periodic law states that physical and chemical property.
properties of the elements recur in a regular way when Measurement of a physical property may change the
the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic arrangement but not the structure of the molecules of a
number. material. Examples of physical properties are density,
periodic table. color, boiling point, volume, temperature, and mass.
An arrangement of the elements according to increasing pi bond. (π-bond) Compare with sigma bond.
atomic number that shows relationships between In the valence bond theory, a pi bond is a valence bond
element properties. formed by side-by-side overlap of p orbitals on two
periodic trend. bonded atoms. In most multiple bonds, the first bond is a
A regular variation in element properties with increasing sigma bond and all of the others are pi bonds.
atomic number that is ultimately due to regular plasma.
variations in atomic structure. 1. In biology, the fluid in which blood cells or lymph cells
permanent hardness. permanent water hardness. Compare with are suspended. 2. A gaslike state of matter consisting of
temporary hardness and water hardness. positively charged ions, free electrons, and neutral
Water hardness that remains after boiling the water, particles. Plasma is found in stars, the sun, the solar
mainly due to dissolved calcium sulfate. Chlorides also wind, lightning, and fire.
contribute to permanent hardness. poise. (P)
pH A cgs unit of resistance to fluid flow (viscosity). If a force
2
pH is a measure of effective concentration of hydrogen of 1 dyne is needed to force two fluid layers with 1 cm
ions in a solution. It is approximately related to the area that are 1 cm apart past each other at a speed of 1
+ +
molarity of H by pH = - log [H ] cm/s, the liquid has a viscosity of 1 poise.
phase. in phase; out of phase; wave phase. polar bond. Compare with covalent bond and ionic bond.
1.A phase is a part of a sample of matter that is in A bond involving electrons that are unequally shared.
contact with other parts but is separate from them. Polar bonds can be thought of as intermediate between
Properties within a phase are homogeneous (uniform). the extremes represented by covalent bonds and ionic
For example, oil and vinegar salad dressing contains two bonds.
polar molecule. polar. Compare with covalent compound, ionic pressure. (P)
compound and polar bond. Force per unit area. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal,
An asymmetric molecule containing polar bonds. H2O, defined as one newton per square meter. Other common
NH3, and HCl are examples of polar molecules. Non- pressure units are the atmosphere, the bar, and the Torr.
examples are CO2, CCl4, and BCl3 which contain polar principal quantum number. (n)
bonds but are nonpolar because they have symmetric The quantum number that determines the size and (in
shapes. Alkanes are usually asymmetric but are nonpolar hydrogen atoms) the energy of an orbital. n is used to
because they contain no polar bonds. Polar molecules label electron shells. n may take on integer values from 1
are electric dipoles and they attract each other via to infinity.
dipole-dipole forces. product. Compare with reactant.
polyatomic ion. Compare with molecule, ion and polyatomic A substance that is produced during a chemical change.
molecule. propane. (C3H8) Compare with alkane and hydrocarbon.
A polyatomic ion is a charged particle that contains more A colorless, odorless, flammable gas, found in petroleum
than two covalently bound atoms. See Polyatomic Ions and natural gas. It is used as a fuel and as a raw material
for more. for building more complex organic molecules. Propane is
polyatomic molecule. Compare with polyatomic ion and diatomic the third member of the alkane series.
molecule. propellant.
A polyatomic molecule is an uncharged particle that 1. A mixture of fuel and oxidizing agent that reacts to
contains more than two atoms. produce a high-energy stream of product gases that can
polydentate. polydentate ligand. produce thrust. For examples, see What makes a good
A ligand that has more than one atom that coordinates rocket fuel? 2. A compressed gas used to push a material
directly to the central atom in a complex. Polydentate through a nozzle, forming an aerosol or a foam. For
ligands are called chelating agents when two or more example, nitrogen or propane are used as propellants for
coordinating atoms are attached to the same metal ion in shaving cream; nitrous oxide is used as a propellant for
a complex. For example, EDTA or whipped cream.
+
ethylenediaminotetracetic acid is a hexadentate ligand of proton. (p ) Compare with electron and neutron.
calcium ion. An elementary particle found the atomic nucleus with a
polymer. positive charge equal and opposite that of the electron.
A large molecule made by linking smaller molecules Protons have a mass of 1.007276 daltons.
("monomers") together. proton donor. acid. Compare with base.
+
polymerization. Because a free H ion is technically a bare proton, acids
A process that links smaller molecules together to form a are sometimes referred to as "proton donors" because
larger molecule. they release hydrogen ions in solution. The term "proton
polymerize. donor" is misleading, since in aqueous solution, the
To link smaller molecules together to form a larger hydrogen ion is never a bare proton- it's covalently
+
molecule. bound to a water molecule as an H3O ion. Further, acids
polymorph. polymorphism; polymorphic. Compare with isotope don't "donate" protons; they yield them to bases with a
and allotrope. stronger affinity for them.
Solid substances that occur in several distinct forms. pseudocore.
Polymorphs have different chemical and physical Electrons in d or f subshells which are outside the noble
properties. allotropes are polymorphs of elements. gas core.
potential difference. electrical potential difference. pure substance. substance.
Work that must be done to move an electric charge A sample of matter that cannot be separated into simpler
between specified points. Electric potential differences components without chemical change. Physical changes
are measured in volts. can alter the state of matter but not the chemical
potential energy. Compare with kinetic energy. identity of a pure substance. Pure substances have fixed,
energy an object possesses by virtue of its position. For characteristic elemental compositions and properties.
example, lifting a mass mby h meters increases its pyrophoric. pyrophoric solid.
potential energy by mgh, where g is the acceleration due Catches fire spontaneously when exposed to air at
to gravity. normal room temperature. For example, powdered
precipitate. ppt. potassium metal is pyrophoric.
An insoluble substance that has been formed from qualitative analysis. Compare with quantitative analysis.
substances dissolved in a solution. For example, mixing A chemical analysis that detects the presence of a
silver nitrate and sodium chloride solutions produces a substance in a sample.
precipitate, insoluble silver chloride (along with soluble quantitative analysis. Compare with qualitative analysis.
sodium nitrate. A chemical analysis that determines the concentration of
precipitation. a substance in a sample.
Precipitation is the conversion of a dissolved substance radioactivity. radiation; radioactive.
into insoluble form by chemical or physical means. Spontaneous emission of particles or high-energy
electromagnetic radiation from the nuclei of unstable
atoms. "Radiation" refers to the emissions, and Reduction is gain of one or more electrons by an atom,
"radioactive source" refers to the source of the radiation. molecule, or ion. Reduction is accompanied by a
Raoult's law. decrease in oxidation number.
The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution resonance.
equals the mole fraction of the solvent times the vapor Description of the ground state of a molecule with
pressure of the pure solvent. delocalized electrons as an average of several Lewis
rate constant. (k) structures. The actual ground state doesn't switch rapidly
A rate constant is a proportionality constant that appears between the separate structures: it is an average.
in a rate law. For example, k is the rate constant in the resonance effect. mesomeric effect.
rate law d[A]/dt = k[A]. Rate constants are independent If electron density at a particular point in a molecule is
of concentration but depend on other factors, most higher or lower than what you'd expect from a single
notably temperature. Lewis structure, and various canonical structures can be
rate law. drawn to show how electron delocalization will explain
A rate law or rate equation relates reaction rate with the the discrepancy, the difference in electron density is
concentrations of reactants, catalysts, and inhibitors. For called a "resonance effect" or "mesomeric effect".
example, the rate law for the one-step reaction A + B C reverse osmosis. Compare with osmosis.
is d[C]/dt = k[A][B]. Solvent molecules flow spontaneously from a dilute
reactant. Compare with product. solution through a semipermeable membrane to a more
A substance that is consumed during a chemical change. concentrated solution (osmosis). In reverse osmosis,
reaction mechanism. mechanism. pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution to
A list of all elementary reactions that occur in the course force the flow of solvent to go from more concentrated
of an overall chemical reaction. to more dilute solution. Reverse osmosis is used to
reaction rate. produce fresh water from sea water.
A reaction rate is the speed at which reactants are salt bridge.
converted into products in a chemical reaction. The A tube (often filled with ion-laced agar) that allows two
reaction rate is given as the instantaneous rate of change solutions to be in electrical contact without mixing in an
for any reactant or product, and is usually written as a electrochemical cell.
derivative (e. g. d[A]/dt) with units of concentration per SATP. standard ambient pressure and temperature. Compare with
-1 -1
unit time (e. g. mol L s ). STP and standard state.
rearrangement reaction. isomerization; isomerize. Used to describe a substance at standard pressure and a
A reaction in which a reactant and product are isomers of temperature of 25°C (298.15 K).
each other. Chemical bonds within the reactant are saturated fat. Compare with unsaturated fat.
broken and reformed to produce the product. A lipid that contains no carbon-carbon double bonds.
redox indicator. oxidation-reduction indicator. Animal fats like butter and lard are composed of
An organic molecule that has reduced and oxidized forms saturated fat. Saturated fats tend to be waxy or greasy
with different colors; interconversion of the reduced and solids.
oxidized forms of the indicator must be reversible. saturated solution. Compare with supersaturated solution.
Ferroin is an example. A solution which does not dissolve any more solute.
redox reaction. electrochemical reaction; oxidation-reduction When a saturated solution is placed in contact with
reaction; redox. additional solute, solute neither dissolves nor is
A reaction that involves transfer of electrons from one deposited from a saturated solution.
substance to another. Redox reactions always involve a second ionization energy. (IE,IP) second ionization potential.
change in oxidation number for at least two elements in Compare with first ionization energy, adiabatic ionization
the reactants. energy, vertical ionization energy, electronegativity, and
redox titration. oxidation-reduction titration. electron affinity.
A titration based on a redox reaction. For example, iron The energy needed to remove an electron from an
in water can be determined by converting dissolved iron isolated +1 ion. The third ionization energy would be the
2+
to Fe and titrating the solution with potassium energy required to remove an electron from an isolated
permanganate (KMnO4), a powerful oxidizing agent. +2 ion, and so on.
reducing agent. reductant. Compare with oxidizing agent. second order reaction. Compare with zero order reaction and first
A reducing agent is a substance that reduce another order reaction.
substance by supplying electrons to it. Reducing agents A reaction with a rate law that is proportional to either
cause other substances to be reduced in chemical the concentration of a reactant squared, or the product
reactions while they themselves are oxidized. For of concentrations of two reactants.
example, tin(II) is a reducing agent in the following sedimentation.
reaction: Separation of a dense material (usually a solid) from a
less dense material (usually a liquid) by allowing the
2+ 3+ 4+ 2+ denser material to settle out of the mixture.
Sn (aq) + 2 Fe (aq) Sn (aq) + 2 Fe (aq)

reduction. reduce; reduced; reducing. Compare with oxidation.


semipermeable membrane. solvent extraction.
A membrane that allows some but not all of the Solvent extraction is a method for separating mixtures by
components in a mixture to pass through it. exploiting differences in the solubilities of the
Semipermeable membranes are used in dialysis. components. For example, a coffee machine extracts the
shell. Compare with subshell. soluble components of ground coffee with water, and
A set of electrons with the same principal quantum leaves the insoluble components behind. The sample is
number. The number of electrons permitted in a shell is shaken or mixed with solvent (or with two immiscible
2 2
equal to 2n . A shell contains n orbitals, and n subshells. solvents) to effect the separation. The "like dissolves
shielding. Compare with penetration. like" is a useful guide for selecting solvents to use in the
Electrons in orbitals with high penetration can shield the extraction. Nonpolar substances are usually successfully
nucleus from less penetrating electrons. Because they extracted into nonpolar solvents like hexane or
are closer to the nucleus on average, they repel those methylene chloride. Polar and ionic substances are often
farther away and lessen the effective nuclear charge for extracted with water.
the more distant electrons. sorption. Compare with adsorption and absorption.
sigma bond. (σ- bond) Compare with pi bond. Assimilation of molecules of one substance by a material
In the valence bond theory, a sigma bond is a valence in a different phase. Adsorption (sorption on a surface)
bond that is symmetrical around the imaginary line and absorption (sorption into bulk material) are two
between the bonded atoms. Most single bonds are sigma types of sorption phenomena.
bonds. specific gravity. specific gravities. Compare with density.
soap. The mass of a unit volume of a substance relative to the
A salt of a fatty acid. For example, sodium stearate is a mass of a unit volume of water. Temperature must be
soap made by neutralizing stearic acid. Commercial soaps specified when reporting specific gravities, since the
are mixtures of fatty acid salts. density of the substance and of water change with
sol. temperature. Specific gravities are often reported
A colloid with solid particles suspended in a liquid. relative to water at 4°C; at that temperature, water has a
Examples are protoplasm, starch in water, and gels. density of 1.00000 g/mL and the specific gravity of a
solid. substance is equal to its density in g/mL.
A solid is a relatively dense, rigid state of matter, with a spectator ion.
definite volume and shape. Molecules in solids are often A spectator ion is an ion that appears as both a reactant
packed close together in regularly repeating patterns, and a product in an ionic equation. For example, in the
and vibrate around fixed positions. ionic equation
+ - + - +
solubility. solubilities; equilibrium solubility; solubleness. Ag (aq) + NO3 (aq) + Na (aq) + Cl (aq) = AgCl(s) + Na (aq)
-
The solubility of a substance is its concentration in a + NO3 (aq)
saturated solution. Substances with solubilities much less the sodium and nitrate ions are spectator ions.
than 1 g/100 mL of solvent are usually considered spectrophotometry. spectrophotometric.
insoluble. The solubility is sometimes called "equilibrium Determination of the concentration of a material in a
solubility" because the rates at which solute dissolves sample by measurement of the amount of light the
and is deposited out of solution are equal at this sample absorbs.
concentration. spectroscopy. spectrometry; spectroscopic.
solubilizing group. Spectroscopy is analysis of the interaction between
A group or substructure on a molecule that increases the electromagnetic radiation and matter. Different types of
molecule's solubility. Solubilizing groups usually make radiation interact in characteristic ways with different
the molecule they are attached to ionic or polar. For samples of matter; the interaction is often unique and
example, hydrocarbon chains can be made water-soluble serves as a diagnostic "fingerprint" for the presence of a
by attaching a carboxylic acid group to the molecule. particular material in a sample. Spectroscopy is also a
soluble. Compare with insoluble. sensitive quantitative technique that can determine trace
Capable of being dissolved in a solvent (usually water). concentrations of substances.
soluble salt. spectrum.
An ionic compound that dissolves in a solvent (usually 1. A sequence of colors produced by passing light
water). through a prism or diffraction grating. 2. A range of
solute. wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. 3. A plot that
A substance dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. shows how some intensity-related property of a beam of
solution. homogeneous mixture. Compare with heterogeneous radiation or particles depends on another property that
mixture. is related to dispersal of the beam by a prism, a magnet,
A sample of matter consisting of more than one pure or some other device. For example, a plot of light
substance with properties that do not vary within the absorbance vs. wavelength is an absorption spectrum; a
sample. Also called a homogeneous mixture. plot of ion abundance vs. mass is a mass spectrum.
solvent. spin.
The most abundant component in a solution. Electrons have an intrinsic angular momentum that is
similar to what would be observed if they were spinning.
Electron spin is sometimes called a "twoness" property
because it can have two values, referred to as "spin up" A strong electrolyte is a solute that completely
and "spin down". Nuclei can have spins of their own. dissociates into ions in solution. Solutions of strong
spin pair. (↑↓) paired spins; electron pair; paired electrons. electrolytes conduct electricity. Most soluble ionic
Compare with unpaired spin. compounds are strong electrolytes.
Two electrons with opposite spins, usually occupying the strong ligand. strong field ligand. Compare with weak ligand.
same orbital. A ligand that causes a large crystal field splitting which
standard molar volume. results in a low-spin complex.
The volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas at STP, equal to structural formula. Compare with molecular formula and
22.414 liters. empirical formula.
o
standard pressure. (P° or P ) A structural formula is a diagram that shows how the
Standard pressure is a pressure of 1 bar. Before 1982, the atoms in a molecule are bonded together. Atoms are
standard pressure was 1 atm (1 atm = 1.01325 bar). represented by their element symbols and covalent
standard solution. bonds are represented by lines. The symbol for carbon is
A solution of precisely known concentration. often not drawn. Most structural formulas don't show
the actual shape of the molecule (they're like floor plans
that show the layout but not the 3D shape of a house).
state of matter. sublimation. sublimate; sublimating.
There are three common states of matter: gases, liquids, Conversion of a solid directly into a gas, without first
and solids. States of matter differ in the way the melting into a liquid.
molecules are arranged at the molecular level, but not in subshell. sublevel.
the structure of the molecules themselves. Other states A set of electrons with the same azimuthal quantum
(the plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate states) are number. The number of electrons permitted in a subshell
uncommon on Earth. is equal to 2ℓ + 1.
stationary phase. sugar.
A stationary phase is a substance that shows different A carbohydrate with a characteristically sweet taste.
affinities for different components in a sample mixture in Sugars are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides,
a separation of the mixture by chromatography. The or trisaccharides.
mobile phase (a solution containing the sample) flows supercritical fluid.
over or through the stationary phase to effect the A fluid state that occurs when the pressure and
separation. temperature exceed the substance's critical pressure and
stoichiometry. critical temperature. Supercritical fluids fill their
1. Ratios of atoms in a compound. 2. Ratios of moles of containers like gases but dissolve substances like liquids,
compounds in a reaction. 3. A branch of chemistry that which makes them very useful as solvents. Their density
quantitatively relates amounts of elements and and other properties are intermediate between gases
compounds involved in chemical reactions, based on the and liquids.
law of conservation of mass and the law of definite supercooling. supercooled; supercool.
proportions. Liquids at temperatures below their normal freezing
STP. standard temperature and pressure. Compare with SATP and points are said to be "supercooled".
standard state. superoxide. superoxide ion.
Used to describe a substance at standard pressure and a A binary compound containing oxygen in the -½
temperature of 0°C (273.15 K). oxidation state. For example, KO2 is potassium
stripping. superoxide, an ionic compound containing the
-
Stripping is a technique for removing volatile superoxide ion, O2 .
components in a mixture by bubbling a stream of an supersaturated solution. supersaturated.
chemically unreactive gas (like nitrogen) through the A supersaturated solution has concentration of solute
sample, and then 'scrubbing' the nitrogen through a that is higher than its solubility. A crystal of solute
solution or solid adsorbent that can recover the volatile dropped into a supersaturated solution grows; excess
materials. solute is deposited out of the solution until the
strong acid. Compare with weak acid. concentration falls to the equilibrium solubility.
A strong acid is an acid that completely dissociates into surface tension.
hydrogen ions and anions in solution. Strong acids are The work required to expand the surface of a liquid by
strong electrolytes. There are only six common strong unit area.
acids: HCl (hydrochloric acid), HBr (hydrobromic acid), HI surfactant.
(hydroiodic acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), HClO4 (perchloric A material that spreads along a surface, changing the
acid), and HNO3 (nitric acid). properties of the surface. For example, soap spreads over
strong base. a water surface and lowers its surface tension.
A strong base is an base that completely dissociates into synthesis. synthesize; synthetic reaction. Compare with
ions in solution. Strong bases are strong electrolytes. The decomposition.
most common strong bases are alkali metal and alkaline Formation of a complex product from simpler reactants.
earth metal hydroxides. For example, water can be synthesized from oxygen and
strong electrolyte. Compare with weak electrolyte. hydrogen gas: H2(g) + ½O2(g) H2O(l).
temporary hardness. temporary water hardness. Compare with concentration on the plot, so that the endpoint can be
permanent hardness and water hardness. determined from the point of maximal slope.
The component of total water hardness that can be torr. Torr; mm Hg. Compare with barometer and pressure.
removed by boiling the water. Ca(HCO3)2 and A unit of pressure, defined so that 760 Torr is exactly 1
Mg(HCO3)2_ are responsible for temporary hardness. atmosphere. A Torr is equivalent to 1 mm Hg on
teratogen. barometer readings taken at 0°C; at other temperatures,
A substance that can cause deformities in embryos. the conversion from mm Hg to Torr is approximately
-4
Dioxin is a teratogen. p(Torr) = p(mm Hg) × (1 - 1.8×10 t), where t is in °C.
theoretical yield. maximum yield; stoichiometric yield. Compare transition metal. transition element; outer transition element.
with actual yield and percent yield. An element with an incomplete d subshell. Elements
The amount of product obtained when all of the limiting which have common cations with incomplete d subshells
reagent reacts. are also considered transition metals. Elements with
thermoplastic. Compare with thermosetting. incomplete f subshells are sometimes called "inner
A polymer that softens or melts on heating, and becomes transition elements".
rigid again on cooling. Thermoplastic polymer chains are triple bond. (≡)
not cross-linked. Polystyrene is a thermoplastic. A covalent bond that involves 3 bonding pairs. In the
thermosetting. thermosetting plastic. Compare with valence bond theory, one of the bonds in a triple bond is
thermoplastic. a sigma bond and the other two are pi bonds. For
A polymer that solidifies on heating and cannot be example, the central bond in acetylene is a triple bond:
remelted. The setting action results from crosslinking of H-C≡C-H.
the polymer chains at high temperature- a process that is Tyndall effect.
not reversed by cooling and reheating. Light passing through a colloid is scattered by suspended
thin layer chromatography. (TLC) Compare with chromatography. particles. The light beam becomes clearly visible; this
A technique for separating components in a mixture on phenomenon is called the Tyndall effect. For example,
the basis of their differing polarities. A spot of sample is car headlight beams can be seen in fog, but the beams
placed on a flat sheet coated with silica and then carried are invisible in clear air.
along by a solvent that soaks the sheet. Different unimolecular reaction.
components will move different distances over the A reaction that involves isomerization or decomposition
surface. TLC is a useful screening technique in clinical of a single molecule.
chemistry; for example, it can be used to detect the unit cell.
presence of drugs in urine. The simplest arrangement of atoms or molecules that
thio-. regularly repeats in a crystal structure.
A prefix that means, "replace an oxygen with sulfur". For unpaired spin. (↑) unpaired electron. Compare with paired spin.
2- 2-
example, sulfate ion is SO4 ; thiosulfate ion is S2O3 . A single electron occupying an orbital.
- -
Cyanate ion is OCN ; thiocyanate ion is SCN . unsaturated compound.
thixotropic fluid. thixotropy. An organic compound with molecules containing one or
A liquid that becomes less viscous when stirred. Paint more double bonds.
and printing inks are thixotropic fluids; they are unsaturated fat. Compare with saturated fat.
formulated so that they flow more freely when brushed A lipid containing one or more carbon-carbon double
or rolled. bonds. Unsaturated fats tend to be oily liquids and are
titrant. obtained from plants.
The substance that quantitatively reacts with the analyte valence.
in a titration. The titrant is usually a standard solution The number of hydrogen atoms that typically bond to an
added carefully to the analyte until the reaction is atom of an element. For example, in H2O, oxygen has a
complete. The amount of analyte is calculated from the valence of 2; carbon in CH4 has a valence of four.
volume of titrant required for complete reaction. valence bond.
titration. In the valence bond theory, a valence bond is a chemical
A procedure for determining the amount of some bond formed by overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals on
unknown substance (the analyte) by quantitative two different atoms.
reaction with a measured volume of a solution of valence electron.
precisely known concentration (the titrant). Electrons that can be actively involved in chemical
titration curve. change; usually electrons in the shell with the highest
A plot that summarizes data collected in a titration. A value of n. For example, sodium's ground state electron
2 2 6 1
linear titration curve plots moles of analyte (or, some configuration is 1s 2s 2p 3s ; the 3s electron is the only
quantity proportional to moles of analyte) on the Y axis, valence electron in the atom. Germanium (Ge) has the
2 2 6 2 6
and the volume of titrant added on the X axis. Nonlinear ground state electron configuration 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
10 2 2
plots use the log of the concentration of the analyte 3d 4s 4p ; the 4s and 4p electrons are the valence
instead. Nonlinear titration curves are often used for electrons.
neutralization titrations (pH vs. mL NaOH solution). Logs
are used to exaggerate the rate of change of
valence shell. voltaic pile.
The shell corresponding to the highest value of principal An early battery consisting of disks of dissimilar metals
quantum number in the atom. The valence electrons in (usually zinc and copper) separated by moist paper or
this shell are on average farther from the nucleus than cloth soaked in an electrolyte solution.
other electrons; they are often directly involved in voltammeter.
chemical reaction. An instrument for measuring voltages and amperages
van der Waals equation. volume percentage. ((v/v)%)
A semiempirical equation that describes the relationship Volume percentages express the concentration of a
between pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and component in a mixture or an element in a compound.
moles of gas (n) for a real gas. The equation is (P + For example, 95% ethanol by volume contains 95 mL of
2 2
n a/V )(V - nb) = nRT, where a and b are constants that ethanol in 100 mL of solution (NOT in 100 mL of water!)
include the effects of molecular attractions and water gas. blue gas; synthesis gas.
molecular volume. a and b are usually fitted to A fuel gas used in industrial synthesis of organic
experimental data for a particular gas. chemicals, and in welding, glassmaking, and other high-
van der Waals force. temperature industrial applications. Water gas made by
A force acting between nonbonded atoms or molecules. passing steam over a bed of hot coal or coke. It consists
Includes dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and mainly of of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2),
London forces. contaminated with small amounts of CO2, N2, CH4, and
van der Waals radius. van der Waals radii. O2.
One half the distance between two nonbonded atoms,
when attractive and repulsive forces between the atoms water hardness. hard water. Compare with water softener.
are balanced. Hard water is water contaminated with compounds of
vapor pressure lowering. vapour pressure depression; vapor calcium and magnesium. Dissolved iron, manganese, and
pressure depression. strontium compounds can also contribute to the "total
A colligative property of solutions. The vapor pressure of hardness" of the water, which is usually expressed as
a solution is always lower than the vapor pressure of the ppm CaCO3. Water with a hardness over 80 ppm CaCO3 is
pure solvent; the ratio of solution to pure solvent vapor often treated with water softeners, since hard water
pressures is approximately equal to the mole fraction of produces scale in hot water pipes and boilers and lowers
solvent in the solution. the effectiveness of detergents.
vinyl. polyethylene. water of crystallization. water of hydration.
A polymer made by linking ethylene (CH2=CH2) or Water that is stoichiometrically bound in a crystal; for
substituted ethylene molecules together. The example, the waters in copper sulfate pentahydrate.
temperature when vapor pressure of a substance A fuel gas used in industrial synthesis of organic
becomes high enough to allow the air/vapor layer over chemicals, and in welding, glassmaking, and other high-
the substance to be ignited. Ether and acetone have flash temperature industrial applications. Water gas made by
points below room temperature, which makes them very passing steam over a bed of hot coal or coke. It consists
dangerous mainly of of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2),
viscosity. (η) coefficient of viscosity. contaminated with small amounts of CO2, N2, CH4, and
The resistance a liquid exhibits to flow. Experimentally, O2.
the frictional force between two liquid layers moving water softener. soft water; water softening. Compare with water
past each other is proportional to area of the layers and hardness.
the difference in flow speed between them. The constant A material that lowers water hardness when dissolved in
of proportionality is called "viscosity" or "coefficient of water. For example, sodium carbonate ("washing soda")
2+
viscosity", and is given the symbol η. The time required softens water by precipitating Ca ions as CaCO3.
2+ +
for a liquid to drain out of a capillary tube is directly Zeolites soften water by exchanging Ca ions with Na
proportional to its viscosity. The poise is a non-SI unit ions.
frequently used to express viscosities. water softening. Compare with water softener and water
vitamin. hardness.
2+ 2+
A substance that is critical for proper functioning of a Removal of Ca and Mg from water to prevent
living organism that the organism is unable to produce in undesirable precipitation reactions from occurring in
sufficient quantities for itself. plumbing, pools, washwater, and boilers.
volt. (V) weak acid. Compare with strong acid.
The SI unit of electrical potential. One volt equals one An acid that only partially dissociates into hydrogen ions
joule per coulomb. and anions in solution. Weak acids are weak electrolytes.
voltage. (V) Recognize weak acids by learning the six common strong
A measured electric potential, in volts. acids; any acid that doesn't appear on the list of strong
voltaic cell. galvanic cell. acids is usually a weak acid.
An electrochemical cell that spontaneously generates
electrical energy.
weak base. Compare with strong base.
A base that only partially dissociates into ions in solution.
Weak bases are weak electrolytes. Ammonia is an
example of a weak base; the reaction NH3 + H2O
+ -
NH4 + OH is reversible.
weak electrolyte. Compare with strong electrolyte.
A weak electrolyte is a solute that incompletely
dissociates into ions in solution. For example, acetic acid
partially dissociates into acetate ions and hydrogen ions,
so that an acetic acid solution contains both molecules
and ions. A solution of a weak electrolyte can conduct
electricity, but usually not as well as a strong electrolyte
because there are fewer ions to carry the charge from
one electrode to the other.
weak ligand. weak field ligand. Compare with strong field ligand.
A ligand that causes a small crystal field splitting which
results in a high-spin complex.
wetting. wet.
Covering with a surface with thin film of liquid. Liquid
beads up on a surface if it cannot wet it.
x-ray crystallography.
Determination of three dimensional arrangement of
atoms in a crystal by analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns.
x-ray spectrum. x-ray spectra.
A set of characteristic x-ray frequencies or wavelengths
produced by a substance used as a target in an x-ray
tube. Each element has a characteristic x-ray spectrum,
and there is a strong correlation between atomic number
and the frequencies of certain lines in the x-ray
spectrum.
xenon. Xe.
Element 54, a colorless, inert gas used to fill cathode ray
tubes.
yield. experimental yield; actual yield. Compare with theoretical
yield and percent yield.
The amount of product actually obtained in a chemical
reaction.
zeolite.
Addition compounds of the type Na2O·Al2O3·n SiO2·m
H2O, with calcium sometimes replacing or present with
the sodium. The sodium in the zeolite exchanges with
calcium in water, making zeolites useful for water
softening. The porous structure of zeolites also makes
them effective molecular sieves used as gas adsorbents
and drying agents. Artificial zeolites are used as ion
exchange resins.
zero order reaction. Compare with first order reaction and second
order reaction.
A reaction with a reaction rate that does not change
when reactant concentrations change
zincography.
Process of etching unprotected parts of a zinc plate with
strong acids to produce a printing surface.
zone refining.
A method for purifying solids based on the fact that
solutes tend to concentrate in the liquid when a solution
is frozen. A solid bar is drawn slowly over a heat source
and melted in a narrow band; impurities are carried
along in the melted band until the end of the bar is
reached.