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A Novel Three Phase Five Level Inverter for Hybrid Solar –Wind Energy System

Simhadri .Lakshmi Sirisha, Asst.Professor, VNITSW,Palakaluru. Email: slsirisha.s@gmail.com


Ravipati. Srikanth,Asst.Professor,VNITSW,Palakalur. Email: ravipatister@gmail.com
Sk.Rafi, Asst.Professor,VNITSW,Palakalur. Email: raffi206@gmail.com
Abstract
At present, the whole world is going through a severe energy crisis due to the non replenish
able nature of fossil fuels which are major sources of conventional energy. In addition to limited
availability of conventional energy sources, they also contribute heavily towards environmental
pollution. In this scenario, renewable energy sources has got significant role to play in meeting
global energy demand. Solar and wind energy systems are the most popular types of grid
connected renewable energy systems. We are presenting a new system configuration for
interfacing the hybrid solar and wind energy system to the grid. This configuration is flexible and
it allows these two renewable energy sources to supply the load together or independently
depending upon their availability. The configuration proposed here uses a modified five-level
inverter for converting DC voltage generated from renewable energy sources to AC voltage at
desired frequency. The usage of five-level inverter reduces Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in
output voltage and helps in eliminating bulk filters required at the output side. Simulation study
of the proposed system is carried out using MATLAB Simulink.

KEYWORDS: Hybrid Energy System, Pitch Angle Controller, Boost Converter, Multilevel
Inverter.

1. Introduction demand for electricity is rapidly increasing.


Due to the critical condition of But the available base load plants are not
industrial fuels which include oil, gas and able to supply electricity as per demand. So
others, the development of renewable energy these energy sources can be used to bridge
sources is continuously improving. This is the gap between supply and demand during
the reason ,renewable energy sources have peak loads. This kind of small scale stand-
become more important these days .Few alone power generating systems can also be
other reasons include advantages like used in remote areas where conventional
abundant availability in nature, eco-friendly power generation is impractical.
and recyclable. Many renewable energy In this paper, a wind-photovoltaic
sources like solar, wind, hydel and tidal are hybrid power generation system model is
available. Among these renewable sources studied and simulated. A hybrid system is
solar and wind energy are the world’s fastest more advantageous as individual power
growing energy resources. With no emission generation system is not completely reliable.
of pollutants, energy conversion is done When any one of the system is shutdown the
through wind and PV cells. Day by day, the other can supply power.
The entire hybrid system comprises draw input current with low distortion, and
of PV and the wind systems. The PV system can operate at wide range of switching
is powered by the solar energy which is frequencies from fundamental frequency to
abundantly available in nature. PV modules, very high frequency. This paper presents a
maximum power point tracking systems modified form of multilevel inverter which
make the PV energy system. The light uses less number of switches and input DC
incident on the PV cells is converted into sources.
electrical energy by solar energy harvesting 2. Proposed System
means. Induction turbine, gear box, The block diagram of the proposed structure
generator and an AC- DC converter are is as shown in the Fig :2.1.
included in the wind energy system. The
wind turbine is used to convert wind energy
to rotational mechanical energy and this
mechanical energy available at the turbine
shaft is converted to electrical energy using
a generator. Hybrid generation systems that
use more than a single power source can
greatly enhance the certainty of load
demands all the time. Even higher
Fig:2.1 Block Diagram of the proposed structure
generating capacities can be achieved by
hybrid system. In stand-alone system we can The two input sources are solar and
able to provide fluctuation free output to wind power. The system is capable of
irrespective of weathers condition. operating independently with one of the
sources active, which means it can operate
In this paper dc bus voltage is kept with solar power alone or with wind power
constant using boost converter for solar alone. The solar panel used is capable of
photovoltaic system and wind energy generating 160V. But the panel voltage may
be less than 12V if the solar radiation is
system. A five level inverter is used to
insufficient and can fall below 160V.The
convert the dc voltage from hybrid system to output of the solar panel is fed through a
ac voltage and connect to the grid. boost converter to keep the output of the
Multilevel inverters synthesize a desired solar panel voltage to a constant value of
voltage from several levels of direct current 400V. The wind generator used is a
voltages as inputs. As the number of levels Permanent Magnet synchronous generator.
increases, the synthesized output waveform But the output voltage of the wind generator
varies with wind speed. Hence the output of
approaches towards required sine wave.
the wind generator is fed through a boost
Main advantages of using multilevel inverter converter to make the output voltage to a
topology are reduction of power ratings of constant value of 400V. Hence the source
individual power devices and reduction in selector will be selecting the source as per
their cost. The attractive features of a their availability from either solar or wind
multilevel inverter are that they can generate power. This output is fed to a 5 level
the output voltages with very low THD, can multilevel inverter which converts it to ac.
3. Pv Cell Modeling series-parallel combination to form PV
An ideal solar cell is modelled by a arrays. The mathematical model used to
current source in parallel with a diode. simplify the PV array is represented by the
However no solar cell is ideal there by shunt equation
and series resistance are added to the model
as shown in Fig. 4. Rs is the series resistance (3)
whose value is very small. Rp is the Where I is the PV array output current,
equivalent shunt resistance whose value is V is the PV array output voltage, ns is the
very high. number of cells in series, np is the
Applying Kirchoff’s current law at the node number of cells in parallel, q is the charge of
where current source (Iph), diode, Rp and Rs an electron, k is the Boltzman’s constant, A
meet, we get, is the p-n junction ideality factor, T is the
cell temperature, and Irs is the cell reverse
(1) saturation current. The factor A determines
We get the following equation for the PV deviation of cell from the ideal p-n junction
cell current characteristics and its value ranges from 1 to
5. The photo current Iph depends on the solar
radiation and cell temperature as follows
(2)
where Iph is insolation current, I is the cell (4)
current, Iscr is the reverse saturation current, Where Iscr is the cell short circuit
V is the cell voltage, Rs is the series current at reference temperature and
resistance, Rp is the parallel resistance, and radiation, Ki is the
Vt is the thermal voltage. short circuit current temperature coefficient
The building block of PV and S is the solar radiation in MW/cm2.
array is a solar cell, which is basically a p-n The Simulink model of PV array is shown in
junction that converts light energy into Fig:3.2 .
electricity. The equivalent circuit is shown The model includes three subsystems, one
in Fig:3.1 subsystem to model PV module and two
more subsystems to model Iph and Irs.

Fig :3.1 Block diagram of PV cell


The current source Iph represents the cell
photo current, Rj is used to represent the
non-linear impedance of the p-n junction,
Rsh and Rs are used to represent the intrinsic
shunt and series resistance respectively. Fig:3.2 Simulink Model of PV Arrray
Normally value of Rsh is very large and The Specifications of the solar array is as
Rs is very small, hence both can be specified in the Table : 3.1. The output
neglected to simplify the analysis. PV cells voltage of the simulink model of PV Array
are grouped in larger units called PV is shown in Fig: 3.3
modules which are further interconnected in
Characterstics Specifications
Nominal voltage(volts) 12
Open circuit voltage(volts) 21
Voltage at max power,pmax 16.8
Current at max power 2.2
Short circuit current 2.55
Max rated 37
power,pmax(watts)
Number of cells 36

Table : 1 Specifications of Solar Array Fig: 4.1 Simulink model of the Wind Turbine generator
200 250
solar panel o/p voltage

o/p voltage from wind


150 200

100 150

100
50

50
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
time 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Fig: 3.3 Output Voltage of Solar Panel time
4. Wind Energy System 4.2 The Output Voltage of Wind energy System
The wind generator used is a permanent
magnet DC generator. The Simulink model
of the wind turbine generator is shown in
Fig:4.1 Wind turbine generates a torque
which is used to drive the generator. The
most commonly used generators are singly
fed and doubly fed induction generators.
They produce alternating voltage as output.
But in our application we require DC output. Fig:4.3 Block Diagram Of Pitch Angle Controller

Hence we used a permanent magnet dc The Pitch angle controller designed in


generator. The output voltage of the Wind Matlab/Simulink is shown in Fig:4.4 Here,
Energy System is shown in Fig: 4.2 pitch compensator is also designed with
4.1 Pitch Angle Controller Proportional gain (Kp):1.5, Integral gain
(Ki):6, output max. Limit: 45, min. limit: 0,
The pitch angle is kept constant at zero
Pitch Gain: 500.
degree until the speed reaches point D speed
of the tracking characteristic. Beyond point
D the pitch angle is proportional to the speed
deviation from point D speed. For
electromagnetic transients in power systems
the pitch angle control is of less interest. The
wind speed should be selected such that the
rotational speed is less than the speed at
point D.
Fig :4.4 Pitch angle controller Simulink Diagram
S.No Parameter Value 500

wind voltage after boost


1. Pitch Angle 500 400

300

200
Table: 2 Pitch Angle Controller
100

5. Dc-Dc Converter 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
For converting dc voltage generated from time

solar photovoltaic system and wind energy Fig : 5.3 Boost output voltage of Wind Energy System

system to battery voltage level, two DC-DC


6. Multilevel Inverter
converters are used here. Boost converter is
used to boost up the voltage of solar The single phase five-level inverter
photovoltaic system. The circuit of boost uses a full bridge configuration with an
converter is as shown in Fig:5.1 auxiliary circuit. The circuit diagram is
shown in Fig : 6.1

Fig: 5.1 Simulink Model of Boost Converter


The Relationship between voltage and
current in inductor is: 𝑖 = 1𝐿 ∫0𝑡 𝑉𝑑𝑡 + 𝑖𝑜
For a constant rectangular pulse Fig: 6.1 Single Phase Five-level inverter
𝑉𝑡
𝑖= + 𝑖𝑜 The voltage across each DC
𝐿
From the above we can see that the current is a linear capacitor is Vdc/2. The operational principle
ramp, when the voltage is a constant pulse of the proposed inverter is to generate five
(𝑉𝑖𝑛−𝑉 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠)𝑇𝑜𝑛 levels of output voltage, Vdc, Vdc/2, 0, -
𝛥𝑖 =
𝐿
And when the MOSFET switches off the current is
Vdc/2 and - Vdc. An auxiliary circuit
(𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡−𝑉 𝑖𝑛+𝑉𝐷)𝑇𝑜𝑓𝑓 consisting of four diodes and switch S1 is
𝛥𝑖 =
𝐿 used between the DC capacitors and the full-
Equating the above equations, bridge inverter for generating five voltage
𝑉𝑖𝑛−𝑉𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠∗𝐷
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = (1−𝐷)
− 𝑉𝐷 levels at the output. Using proper switching
If we neglect the drops across the transistor & diode sequence in this modified circuit generates
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = (1−𝐷)
𝑉𝑖𝑛 five levels in output voltage. Table:1 shows
the switching sequence used for generating
The inductor is designed by
(𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡−𝑉𝑖𝑛+𝑉𝐷)(1−𝐷) five levels at the output voltage.
𝐿=
min(𝑖 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑) 𝑓
500 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Vinv
solar voltage after boost

400 0 1 0 0 1 Vdc
300 1 0 0 0 1 Vdc/2
200
0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 1
100
1 0 0 1 0 -Vdc/2
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0 1 1 0 -Vdc
time
Fig: 5.2 Boost o/p voltage of Solar Panel
Table :3 Switching Sequence
1000

3 level o/p voltage


500

Fig: 6.2 The ideal output voltage of multilevel inverter.


7. Simulation Results: -500

Proposed system to generate five level


-1000
output voltage is simulated using Matlab 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
time
Simulink software. The Simulink diagram
of Hybrid energy system is shown in Fig: Fig: 7.4 Three level Output voltage waveform
7.1 . The simuink diagram of Five level
inverter is shown in Fig: 7.2. 1000

3 level o/p voltage


500

-500

-1000
0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8
time
Fig: 7.1 Simulink Diagram of Hybrid Energy System Fig : 7.5 Three level output voltage from
(0.5 sec to 0.8 sec)
2000
5 level o/p voltage

1000

-1000

-2000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
time
Fig: 7.6 Five level Output voltage waveform
Fig : 7.2 Simulink Diagram of Five Level Inverter.
2000
The Output waveforms are shown from Fig: 7.3 to
7.8
5 level o/p voltage

1000

-1000

-2000
0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8
time
Fig: 7.7 Five level Output voltage waveform( .5 sec to 0.8sec)

Fig: 7.3 The Torque and speed output waveforms of wind energy
system.
[5] S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A
2000
review of single-phasegrid connected inverters for
photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol.
3 phase five level o/p

1000 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep./Oct. 2000

[6] L. M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel Converters


0
as a Utility Interface for Renewable Energy
Systems,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer
-1000 Meeting, Seattle, Washington, July 15-20, 2000, pp.
1271-1274

-2000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 [7] S. A. Khajehoddin, A. Bakhshai, P. Jain, “The
time Application of the Cascaded Multilevel onverters in
7.8 Three phase five level output voltage Waveform Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems,” IEEE
Canada Electrical Power Conference, 25-26 Oct.
2007, pp. 296-301
Conclusion
In this paper the modeling and [8] S. Alepuz, S. Busquets-Monge, J. Bordonau, J.
simulation of a five level inverter fed from Gago, D. Gonzalez, and J. Balcells, “Interfacing
hybrid energy sources has been presented. renewable energy sources to the utility grid using a
Solar and wind power are the two sources three-level inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.
53, no. 5, pp. 1504–1511, Oct. 2006
being used. The five level inverter topology
[9] Jeyraj selvaraj and Nazrudin A.Rahim,
used in proposed system has minimum “Multilevel inverter for grid connected pv system
number of switches and DC sources emplyoing digital PI controller,” IEEE Transactions
compared to conventional cascaded H- on Industrial Electronics, vol.56, No1.,January 2009.
bridge config -uration. Detailed simulation [10]Shagar Banu M, Vinod S, Lakshmi.S, “Design of
DC-DC converter for hybrid wind solar energy
study is carried out to evaluate the dynamic
system,” 2012 International conference on
performance of the proposed system under Computing Electronics and Electrical Technologies.
different worst case conditions. It is found
from simulation studies that the performance Simhadri Lakshmi Sirisha has obtained her
of the proposed hybrid energy system is M.Tech from VVIT, Nambur & completed B.Tech
good for all the tested conditions. from Vignan’s Engineering College, Vadlamudi. Her
Areas of interest are Hybrid Energy Systems,
References
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Sk.Rafi has obtained his M.Tech from VVIT
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Nambur & completed B.Tech from Vignan’s Lara
Achieving Loss and Thermal Redistribution under
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