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These are some of the related literatures both foreign and

local. The related literature acquires and possess information
about mental illness, depression, misconceptions about
depression, and teenage depression.


I. 5 Depression Myths We Need To Stop Believing

Misconception of depression was tackled by Allison Abrams

(2018) on her blog post on the page called ‘Psychology Today.’ In
2018 Allison Abrams said that depression is not a choice, she
also stated that depression is as deceptive and as persuasive as
a corrupt politician, convincing you of all sorts of untruths,
such as: “You have no right to be depressed. Look at all you
have. You should be grateful.” According to her, being
clinically depressed requires no justification.

II. 5 Misconceptions About Depression

In 2017 the Neurocore: Brain Performance Center stated

the 5 misconceptions about depression in their article.
Depression is more than feeling sad, Neurocore stated that it is
a mental illness that sticks with person for years. Depression
can affect people’s relationships and make seemingly simple tasks
feel like a battle. Neurocore also mentioned that it’s important
for every individual to remember that depression is a medical
condition and people should treat it as such. The Neurocore also
said that there are different types of depression. They have
mentioned that positive thinking can help to lessen the symptoms
of depression but when a person is experiencing depression, there
is a chemical imbalance happening in the brain.
III. Myths and Misconceptions about Depression

Last 2018, HealthHub posted an article that straight things

about depression that it can happen to anyone regardless of sex,
race or age. It was also mentioned that persistent feelings of
sadness is one of the symptoms of depression. However, depression
also involves physical symptoms such as changes in appetite and
quality of sleep, emotional symptoms such as feelings of
worthlessness and changes in behaviour such as the loss of
interest in our usual activities. For people experiencing
depression, these symptoms continue for more than two weeks.

IV. Depression In Teens

According to MHA (Mental Health America) post in 2018, the

factors such as unrealistic academic, social, or family
expectations can cause strong feelings of tension or sense of
rejection and can lead to deep disappointment. Teens often
overreact when things go wrong at school or home. Generation-Z
often think that life is unfair and life never favours the youth
and it’s what makes the teenagers stressed out and confused.
Teens tend to get pressured by the conflicting message from
parents, school and society that makes it worse. Today’s teens
see more of what life has to offer — both good and bad — on
television, at school, in magazines and on the Internet.

V. Teenage Depression

Jane Framingham, Ph. D (2018) indicated that teenagers

experience depression similarly with adults but their emotions
are more intense and greater volatility. Feeling down for a
particular reason such as getting low scores on exams is normal
or relationship issues are also normal. But feeling down for
months and so with no particular reason may be a sign of
undiagnosed depression. Teenage depression is a serious case but
can be treated when the person is aware of the signs and
symptoms. Though the term “depression” can describe a normal
human emotion, it also can refer to a mental disorder. Depressive
illness in teenagers is defined when the feelings of depression
persist and interfere with the teen’s ability to function.

Local Literature

I. Teen Depression

Jose Pujalte Alte, Jr. (2018) wrote an article for the

Manila Bulletin stating the possible symptoms that a certain
teenager may show if the said individuals are experiencing the
mental illness called depression. Jose Pujalte Alte, Jr. (2018)
also stated that when a person is depressed he can experience
being sad, empty, or tearful and in teen it may come in
irritation. Alte, Jr. (2018) also mentioned that if a teenager is
experiencing depression that person will have troubles on gaining

II. Mental Health of Filipinos

The Philippine Star Global posted an article in 2018 that

was written by Sara Soliven De Guzman. De Guzman (2018)
mentioned on her article that Philippines has the highest number
of depressed people in the Southeast Asia. De Guzman (2018) also
revealed the organization called Natasha Goulbourne Foundation
(NGF), the foundation’s advocacy is to bring depression to light
by spreading awareness, by information dissemination and
education. Another advocacy of the said foundation is to prevent

III. Is It Really All in The Mind?

The article ‘Is it really all in the mind?’ written by Dr.
Kaycee Reyes (2018) states that it’s normal to be sad but when
the feeling goes on for weeks or months, accompanied with
irritability, fatigue, feeling helpless or hopeless, suicidal
tendencies, and so on, may be a sign of depression. The article
also mentioned that according to the National Statistics Office
(NSO) mental illness is the third most common form of disability
in the Philippines.

IV. A Cry For Help

A cry for help talks about the mental illness, suicide

cases rising among youth and was written by Sofia Tomacruz
(2018). Sofia Tomacruz (2018) stated that young people today tend
to be more disconnected despite the internet supposedly opening
up the world to everyone. She also mentioned that youth today are
too pressured, very stress, live very complicated lives and tend
to be socially disconnected due social media and a lot of to do
things and too many things to prove.

V. Understanding Depression

In an article written by Maria Victoria Rufno (2018), she

emphasized that mental health is one of the most important issues
that needs to be addressed. It is said that the individual feels
miserable, lonely, let down. In the article Rufno (2018) stated
the traits of depression (sadness, irritability loss of interest
in normal activities; thoughts of suicide or death; tiredness,
disturbance in sleep or appetite). She also mentioned some facts
about depression. In 2018, Maria Victoria Rufno said that
depression does not go away and it can be modified. And when an
individual is depressed, suicidal thoughts will occur, the
condition fluctuates. The behavior of a person will be complex
and it has an impact on family and lifestyle.


Foreign Studies

I. Understanding Depression in Children and Adolescents

A thesis written by Junette Rantila and Trishna Shrestha

(2011). As per their study, depression is an illness where the
feelings of depression persist and intervene with the child or
adolescent functional ability. They also stated in their study
that depression is not always manifested in sadness, but by
irritability, boredom, or an inability to feel pleasure. In the
research study it was also mentioned that depressed mood in
adolescents is referred as a common phase experience.

II. The Monster in the Closet: Misperception of Mental Illness

Sarah Alexandra Bernstein (2010) stated in the study that

mental illness varies according to the values and beliefs that
shape the culture (Watters, 2010). For example, some cultures
have symptoms that would be considered a mental illness according
to biomedical healthcare systems, but for that group are
indicative of common behavior seen in everyday life (Clark,

III. Universal Prevention of Anxiety and Depression in School


Åhlén, Johan (2018) mentioned on the study that anxiety and

depression are common in children and adolescents, and involve
individual suffering, risk of future psychiatric problems, and
high costs to society.

IV. Factors Affecting Depression among Teenagers in Port Said


According to Journal of Nursing and Health Science (2015), it

was believed by the researchers that only adults suffer from
depression. They now know however, teenagers and children also
suffer from it. When teenagers are depressed, they feel sad and
self- critical, they also believe that others are critical of
them. Depressed teenagers are overwhelmed at having to make
simple decisions. They often neglect their appearance and may act
out their frustrations in an aggressive fashion. Their study
found out that depression is more common among students who had
negative feelings toward school and suffering from school

V. Stress in High School Students: A Descriptive Study

Open Access Pub (2018) studied the stress in High School

Students which resulted to knowing that the main sources of
stress in the academic environments are exams, homework and work
outside of school, giving presentations, competition with
classmates, and academic overload and animal models. However, not
all sources of stress are academic. There are also important
stressors such as family problems, anxiety, difficulty adapting
to change and body image perception. Negative outcomes associated
with stress can result into suicide but the most common among
students are depression and anxiety.

Local Studies
I. Depression Among College and High School Students of Ilocos
Sur Polytechnic State College, Cevantes Campus, Ilocos Sur

As stated on the study, when depression strikes, many people

demand physical aches and pains such as headache, stomach ache
and lower back pains any or all, of which can be quite severe.
Deep sadness is characterized to depression. It is also common to
the “blues” to creep up, the spirit of heaviness seem to come
through all over them. Crying is common in depressed people.
Depression leads to withdrawal from the outside world. The person
tends to be careless around the environment.

II. Adolescent Experiences of Stress and Coping Strategies of

Students in the University of San Carlos GIRLS Highschool:
Basic for a Stress Management Progam

Raymonette Gaberte Baluyot (1999) mentioned in the study that

school adds the major stress in an adolescence life. The study
explained that it is because of academic pressures. But the study
also mentioned that pubertal change is quite dramatic, and said
that there is no evidence that those biological changes alone
produce any behavioural effects in developing young people. The
study also talked about the Peers, Baluyot mentioned in the study
that teenager seeks from others in order to cope with physical,
emotional and social changes of adolescence.

III. Mental Health of Selected Teenage Mothers at Barangay 175

Libis,Camarin Caloocan City: Basis for Parenting
Intervention Program

The Researchers indicated that Depression is the leading

causes of mental health of teenage mothers, the post-millennial
girls experience post traumatic depression (PPD) after giving
birth will continue to adulthood. The unnecessary feelings the
teenage mothers that feel lead them to feel depressed and the
giving birth to a child also contributes to the feeling the
individual feels.