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guidelines of competence

development in the study


field of music
Development of the concept of the European credit transfer and
accumulation system (ECTS) at the national level:
harmonization of the credit and implementation of the learning
outcomes based study programme design
(VP1-2.2-ŠMM-08-V-01-001)

Rima Rimšaitė
Vida Umbrasienė

guidelines of competence
development in the
study field of music

Vilnius
2012
Rima Rimšaitė
Vida Umbrasienė

guidelines of competence development in the study field


of music

© Vilniaus universitetas, 2012

ISBN 978-9955-526-99-5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................4
1. ARTS AND THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM.......................................................................7
1.1. Higher music education institutions in the Bologna Process .......................................................7
1.2. Specific features of music education ...........................................................................................8
1.3. Typical qualification degrees in the field of music........................................................................9
1.4. Typical degree programmes in music..........................................................................................10
1.5. Degree programme profiles.........................................................................................................12
1.6. Descriptors of cycles of study in the field of music ...................................................................14
2. COMPETENCES AND LEARNING OUTCOMES ......................................................................17
2.1. Higher music education competences and learning outcomes....................................................17
2.2. Generic competences ..................................................................................................................18
2.3. Subject-specific competences ....................................................................................................19
2.4. ECTS credits and competence development...............................................................................20
3. HIGHER MUSIC EDUCATION STUDENT’S WORKLOAD AND ITS CALCULATION......22
3.1. Competences and credits.............................................................................................................22
3.2. Recommendations for a modular and subject-specific degree programme structure..................23
4. METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPETENCE-BASED DEGREE
PROGRAMME .....................................................................................................................................25
4.1. Features of an effective degree programme................................................................................25
4.2. Degree programme design principles..........................................................................................26
4.3. Programme proportions and priorities.........................................................................................29
5. TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT.............................................................................31
6. DEGREE PROGRAMME UPDATING AND IMPROVEMENT.................................................34
Final provisions.......................................................................................................................................35
References................................................................................................................................................37
Annexes....................................................................................................................................................38
Annex 1. List of generic competences ......................................................................................................38
Annex 2. Distribution of generic competences according to their importance to the professional
activities of a musician..............................................................................................................................39
Annex 3. Distribution of subject-specific competences according to their importance to the
professional activities of a musician .......................................................................................................41
Annex 4. Assessment of the importance of generic competences and skills to the professional
activities of a musician..............................................................................................................................43
Annex 5. Comparison of assessments of the importance of subject-specific competences and skills of
employees who have completed Bachelor and Master degree programmes to professional activities....44
guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Introduction
In the past decade, higher education institutions have gradually been involved in the
political, social and economic life of Lithuania. Higher education, which has become a mass
phenomenon, is expected to not only produce youth education results and research relevant to
higher education institutions but also provide quality in higher education based on closer ties
with the public, labour market and student needs.
The concept of quality in higher education, the basis of Lithuania’s higher education
reform, is primarily associated with requirements for quality management and the development
of a culture of quality and is implemented by changing the concept of an academic credit. The
European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) has been used in Lithuania since
1999–2000 for the implementation of the Erasmus student exchange programme. The ECTS was
originally called the credit transfer system and was applied for the purpose of the recognition
of part-time studies abroad. The main idea of ECTS credits is student workload accounting to
achieve intended learning outcomes. Credits had been given only after successfully completing
the tasks and assessing the relevant outcomes.
However, in practice, credits had usually been formal and little related to learning content and
learning outcomes. Therefore, for the purpose of the implementation of the Law of the Republic of
Lithuania on Higher Education and Research1, one of the main goals is to implement a competence
and learning outcome-based credit system and switch to student-centred higher education.
Vilnius University has undertaken to achieve this goal by implementing the project
“Development of the National Concept of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation
System (ECTS): Credit Harmonisation and Creation and Implementation of the Methodology
for Learning Outcomes-Based Degree Programmes through Cooperation and Consensus”
(hereinafter “the ECTS project”). The main idea of the ECTS project is related to the need to
improve the study process, create preconditions for internationalisation at Lithuanian higher
education institutions by developing and implementing the national concept of the European
Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and applying the ECTS methodology
developed under the project Tuning Educational Structures in Europe2. The ECTS project is
aimed at developing a dualistic concept of an academic credit, which would lay the foundations
for internal quality assurance. Based on this concept, a credit should reveal the relationship and
harmony between the scope of learning and learning outcomes. One of the main tasks of the
ECTS project is to create a relevant methodology and recommendations that would help the
authors of degree programmes to prepare, update and improve student and learning outcomes-
oriented degree programmes.
“Guidelines of competence development in the study field of music” (hereinafter “the
guidelines”) is designed for music art studies. The guidelines analyses the issues of competence
development at a conservatoire. The concept of competences, their formulation and role in degree
programmes is based on not only the general ideas and results of the Tuning project but also on
documents of the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC), taking into account the laws of
Lithuania and higher music education traditions. The European Association of Conservatoires3
is a union embracing over 270 higher music education institutions (of 55 European countries),
which cooperate in tackling key higher music education issues and contribute to the development
of a common European Higher Education Area.

1
Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Higher Education and Research, Official Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2009, No. 54-2140.
2
http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/template/General_Brochure_final_version.pdf
3
European Association of Conservatoires (AEC), www.aecinfo.org

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

The guidelines consists of 6 chapters and 5 annexes containing material that may be useful
to both young and experienced teachers and help to improve their didactic competence. The first
chapter, “Arts in the higher education system”, describes the general characteristics of arts in
the higher education system: the place of a conservatoire in the Bologna Process and specific
features of the music field of study. It provides a brief overview of typical qualification degrees
in the field of music, typical degree programmes, and requirements for a degree programme
profile and Polifonia/Dublin descriptors, which summarise the main differences between the
music degrees awarded.
The second chapter, “Competences and learning outcomes”, provides the definitions of
these terms. It discusses the results of sociological studies of the professional field of music,
analyses generic and subject-specific competences, provides their maps, based on which the
intended learning outcomes of music studies should be formulated and degree programmes
should be developed. The new concept of a student and learning outcome-oriented credit is
discussed at the end of the chapter.
The third chapter, “Student workload in higher music education and its calculation”,
addresses the issues of the relationship between the competences developed and credits, and
provides recommendations on the modular and subject-specific degree programme structure.
The fourth chapter, “Competence-based degree programme development methodology”
specifies the characteristics of an effective degree programme and its development principles as
well as consistently explains the main competence-based degree programme development steps.
The fifth chapter, “Teaching, learning and assessment”, describes the assessment of competences
acquired and analyses examples of criteria for the assessment of achieved learning outcomes.
The sixth chapter, “Degree programme updating and improvement”, provides long-term
degree programme development guidelines.
Annexes to the publication provide five tables showing the results of a sociological
survey of employers and graduates of music programmes: generic competences (Annex 1), the
distribution of generic and subject-specific competences according to their importance to the
professional activities of graduates of music programmes (Annexes 2 and 3), assessment of the
importance of generic and subject-specific abilities and skills to the professional activities of
musicians (Annexes 4 and 5).
The main terms of the Tuning project used in this methodology4:
The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a student-centred
credit transfer and accumulation system, the key attributes of which are very clear definitions of
intended learning outcomes and learning processes and student workloads necessary to achieve them.
ECTS credit is a unit of measurement of the student workload required to master an
established level of intended learning outcomes. Higher education institutions applying the
ECTS have agreed that standard one-year full-time studies should correspond to 60 ECTS credits.
Since national legal acts provide for 1,500–1,800 learning hours per academic year, the actual
(national) value of 1 ECTS credit is equal to a 25–30 hour student workload. The Law of the
Republic of Lithuania on Higher Education and Research defines that student workload during
one year of study in Lithuania is 1,600 hours of study. It is proposed not to mechanically apply
arithmetic calculation for the purpose of evaluation of the value of one course unit or module
or another in Lithuanian credits in accordance with the requirements laid down in the Law on
Higher Education and Research, and to follow the recommendation that one credit should be
used to measure a 25–30 hour student workload instead. Thus, a specific number of hours for the
scope of a specific course unit or module should be given in view of the optimal time needed to
4
Bulajeva T., Jakubė A., Lepaitė D., Teresevičienė M., Zuzevičiūtė V. Updating degree programmes: competence development and learning
outcome assessment methodology. Vilnius, 2011. http://www4066.vu.lt/Projekto_rezultatai

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

achieve intended learning outcomes.


Competence (or competency) is a dynamic combination of knowledge, skills, values
and attitudes, which facilitates adequate performance of activities. The key components of
competences acquired and developed during studies include:
• Knowledge of a certain subject and its understanding;
• Abilities to apply existing knowledge in certain situations;
• Values and attitudes.
Competence is an integral part of a qualification. A qualification typically consists of
several competences.
Intended learning outcomes5 are combinations of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, which
should be acquired by a student after successfully completing a certain part of the process of study, i.e. a
course unit, module and/or a whole degree programme. Intended learning outcomes define the level of
competence aspired for by a student and are part of the description of a degree programme.
Achieved learning outcomes means an individual level of competence achieved by a
student, which is determined by assessing intended learning outcomes (of a programme, module
or course unit).
Student workload means time measured in hours that must be given to a statistical student to
enable the student to successfully carry out all the tasks of a course unit, module or a whole degree
programme in the forms provided for in the degree programme (lectures, seminars, projects, practical
work, individual work, examinations, etc.) in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes.
Degree programme profile is a description of the main characteristics, features and specific
objectives of a degree programme, which defines the distinctiveness of a degree programme
from other degree programmes.
Degree programme structure means the arrangement of degree programme components in
view of the intended learning outcomes. The degree programme structure can be subject based or
modular. An annual number of credits (60 ECTS credits) and a target number of credits per semester
(30 ECTS credits) are established in both cases of the degree programme structure. A subject based
degree programme consists of a sequence of individual course units of different lengths, in which
intended learning outcomes and the final assessment of their achievement are determined for each
course unit. A different number of credits can be given to each course unit in subject based degree
programmes. A modular degree programme consists of a sequence of standard-sized modules, in
which intended learning outcomes and the final assessment of their achievement are determined
for each module. Both subject based and modular degree programmes can be implemented during
terms or by simply establishing an annual number of credits.
Module is a standard-sized part of a degree programme, which has a defined purpose,
intended learning outcomes and assessment criteria. A module is “a unit of a degree programme,
the size of which in credits is always the same or the size of which is multiplied twice or three
times, i.e. the values of larger programme units – modules – are multiples”6. The volume of
each module can be either a well-defined value, e.g. 5 credits, or a multiple of that value, e.g. 10
credits, 15 credits, 20 credits, etc.
The authors express their gratitude to Dr. Jeremy Cox, an ECTS project consultant and arts
group expert (AEC, Netherlands), who gave invaluable comments and recommendations to the
authors of these guidelines.

5
The term intended (expected) study results may be used in other sources.
6
A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles Including Programme Competencies and Programme Learning Outcomes. Bilbao,
Groningen and the Hague: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto, 2010. ISBN 978-84-9830-375-9. http://www2.archimedes.ee/enic/File/
Tuning_Guide_Publicada_CoRe.pdf

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

1. ARTS AND THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM


All over the world, art studies are recognised as a specific area of higher education. Music,
dance, theatre, film, fine arts and other fields of art are associated not only with professional crafts
but also with creative discoveries and a search for one’s own niche in the world of art, which
is difficult to plan, foresee or predict its results. This is a much individualised activity aimed at
continuous renewal and a search for undiscovered forms of art. Artists create by not only developing
but also denying the traditional forms of art, thus often openly challenging or denying the tradition
itself. Thus, art studies are everyday creative and intellectual challenges.
Dynamic and changing contemporary art education is part of the higher education system.
However, due to the specific features of the nature of art and creation as well as field characteristics,
art education should be rather flexible than strictly reglamented by the national higher education
law. Therefore, when preparing requirements for the art fields of study, it is desirable not only
to define the standards but also leave enough freedom to artists to adapt to the rapidly changing
life, which is influenced by new science and technology development opportunities and the rapid
development of creative industries. This would facilitate expansion of creative cooperation and
promotion of the emergence of new forms of art while developing a common higher education area.

1.1. Higher music education institutions in the Bologna Process

Higher music education in Europe is usually provided by conservatoires, academies, higher


music education schools and music universities. As with all art studies, one of the most important
goals of higher music education is development of the practical skills and creativity of students.
In the course of the implementation of higher education reforms in the music field of study, it
is very important to pay attention to the specific features and certain specific problems of music
education. The music field of study is characterised by a specific structure of studies, specific
teaching methods, assessment forms, employment indicators, traditional jobs, and requirements
for the performance of higher education institutions. The main differences include:
1. Music education means development of artistic individuality. Therefore, the main form
of work of teachers at many institutions providing higher education in music and other
fields of art is individual work with one student or small groups of 2–5 students. This
is not a characteristic feature of other fields of study and requires a greater investment
in professional training;
2. Music is a diverse area: creation, performance, interpretation, theory, criticism, etc.
The need to develop practical (artistic) skills and accumulate professional experience
is essential. Therefore, the training of music professionals often combines formal and
non-formal education, which is closely related to professional music practice;
3. The training of artists is not limited to the development of professional skills and
intellectual abilities. Artists grow as individuals, developing their inner potential as
musicians associated with innate musical talents. Therefore, the duration of university
music education cannot be determined in view of the typical duration of the first cycle
(3 years) indicated in the Bologna Declaration. The desirable duration of first-cycle
music education at a higher education institution should be four years;
4. Higher education institutions perform academic activities, support and promote
scientific research of art and its phenomena, but also intensively develop artistic, creative
and other innovative activities. Therefore, when assessing higher music education
institutions, in addition to scientific activity criteria, it is desirable to formulate artistic

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

and creative activity assessment criteria, which show linkages between the mission of
a higher education institution and the quality of higher education;
5. Graduates of music art often have no typical jobs underlying the employability indicators
which are important in the Bologna Declaration. They often are freelance artists or
create their own unique workplaces. Therefore, the officially used labour market
demand indicators for professionals related to employment in specific workplaces do
not always reflect the real situation;
6. Persons who have already possessed professional skills in music at quite a high level
are admitted to higher music education schools. Candidates to higher music education
schools must take entrance examinations during which a panel of music professionals
check their specific music abilities and select the best candidates. The main criteria for
admission are always special abilities and the level of artistic abilities established by a
higher education institution rather than general education indicators. Therefore, mass
higher education features are not typical of higher music education;
7. Education of a professional musician based on dominant individual work of a teacher
and a student from the lowest to the highest education links is a global tradition. In
order to maintain the level of professionalism and ensure a smooth transition from
primary to top cycles, it is necessary to create comparable qualification requirements
and the principles of student assessment during entrance examinations. This would
expand international cooperation and teacher and student mobility opportunities.

1.2. Specific features of music education

Seeking qualification by studying the chosen specialisation in the field of music means
commitment to lifelong learning exploring an inexhaustible area, which is broad and rich, complex
and challenging. Music is the art of sounds including the creation, performance and perception of
music. Professional musicians must be able to link theoretical knowledge with practical skills, have a
critical understanding of artistic phenomena, combine physical and intellectual abilities with developed
emotional and other non-verbal communication skills. “For music is intrinsically interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary, international and multicultural; it fosters creativity and craftsmanship and practical
skills; it provides a liberal education - historical, sociological, aesthetic and analytical - in an art that
answers a deep and enduring human need, both in Western civilisation and almost every civilisation
known to history; its links with mathematics, science and technology are profound and inescapable”7.
Music is both a creative and performance art encompassing various aspects of expression
such as artistic, technical, interpretative, reproductive, improvisatory, social, aesthetic and
philosophical. The multiculturalism and interdisciplinary nature of music education is confirmed
by the study of the art of music in historical, chronological, geographical, sociological,
psychological, aesthetic and philosophical aspects.
The music field of study is very specific and complex, orientated towards the development
of practical and artistic skills of students. The development of artistic skills and maturation of an
artist (musician) takes longer than the training of the vast majority of professionals in other areas.
Therefore, the workload of a music student is much larger than that of most students of other
fields. Music art degree programmes can be conditionally divided into the groups of performance
art, conducting, composition, musicology, music education and music technology. Performance

7
Subject Benchmark Statement Music-UK-QAA. http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/gcfp-files/QF_Music.pdf

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

art and composition are typical degree programmes in the music field of study, which have
several common specific features of the field of music already mentioned above:
1. Are usually orientated towards the training of practicing music professionals;
2. The main form of teaching in the most typical music degree programmes for a performer
or composer is individual studies (one teacher and one student in a classroom);
3. The main form of learning is individual independent practical studies (playing a
selected instrument, singing, conducting or creative work);
4. The specificity (complexity) of music and the scope of the field require students to
devote most of their time to the development of a chosen instrument (voice) playing
technique and artistic skills, and the development of these skills should continue
throughout the period of active performance of music, i.e. studying, work (concerts),
usually including the holiday period;
5. There is interdisciplinary and multicultural music education.

1.3. Typical qualification degrees in the field of music

Music education belongs to the art study area, the field of music. As already mentioned
above, these studies have a long tradition in Europe, are easily recognisable and universally
recognised.
In Lithuania, music professionals are trained at colleges, universities and the only
specialised school, the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre. Degree programmes in the
field of music include three cycles: the first cycle is professional Bachelor of Music and Bachelor
of Music degree studies, the second cycle is Master of Music degree studies and the third cycle
is Doctor of Art degree studies. Successful graduates of the studies are awarded professional
Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Music, Master of Music and Doctor of Art degrees.
The higher education qualification degrees of professional Bachelor, Bachelor and Master
are defined in the Lithuanian Law on Higher Education, national and European documents:
1. National descriptors for fields of study;
2. Descriptors for Lithuanian higher education cycles under preparation (2011);
3. Higher education cycles (3 cycles) are regulated by the Framework for Qualifications
of the European Higher Education Area8;
4. Qualification levels (8 levels) are regulated by the Lithuanian Qualifications Framework
(LQF9),
5. Dublin Descriptors describing the achieved learning outcomes of three study cycles,
which the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area is
based on;
6. the Polifonia/Dublin Descriptors of qualifications for three cycles of music field drawn
up by the working group of the European Association of Conservatories (AEC).
Non-university higher education institutions (colleges) offer professional Bachelor degree
studies in the field of music and award a professional Bachelor of Music qualification degree (3
years, 180 ECTS credits). The following degree programmes awarding a professional Bachelor
qualification degree in the field of music were registered in the AIKOS information system of
the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania in 2010: popular music,
entertainment music and folk music.
8
Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area, http://www.bologna-bergen2005.no/Docs/00-Main_doc/050218_QF_
EHEA.pdf [viewed on 26 October 2011].
9
Resolution No 535 of 4 May 2010 of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania approving the Lithuanian Qualifications Framework, Official
Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2010, No. 56-2761.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

In Lithuania, typical university degree programmes in the field of music include


performance art, composition, music theory and criticism (musicology in the field of art criticism
in the humanities area of study), folk music (ethnomusicology in the field of art criticism in the
humanities area of study). According to the new List of Areas and Fields of Study at Higher
Education Institutions and the List of Qualification Degrees approved by the Government of
the Republic of Lithuania in 200910, sound directing and music technology are music field
programmes, the graduates of which are awarded a degree in music technology and industry
(Bachelor or Master). These are generally first cycle (4 years, 240 ECTS credits) and second
cycle (2 years, 120 ECTS credits) degree programmes. Those who successfully complete these
university degree programmes and acquire competences required to acquire a qualification are
awarded Bachelor of Music or Master of Music qualifications.
Music studies in the highest – third – cycle are only organised at university higher
education institutions. Since 2010, music studies in the third – Doctor of Art – cycle in Lithuania
have been organised and the Doctor of Art degree has been successfully awarded to graduates
by the only higher education institution, the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre. All
cycles of study completed at accredited Lithuanian and European higher education institutions
are recognised where students aspire for a higher degree. The continuity of studies in a selected
field and specialisation in higher cycles is theoretically ensured in this way. However, the artistic
abilities and subject-specific competences of those aspiring for a higher degree are usually tested
during entrance examinations.
In addition to qualification-awarding degree programmes, higher education institutions
can offer various non-degree programmes: continuous learning, preparatory studies, bridging
studies, etc. For example, graduates who have acquired a professional Bachelor of Music degree in
colleges, completed bridging studies, accumulated missing credits and successfully passed entrance
examinations have an opportunity to continue Master degree studies of a chosen specialisation.

1.4. Typical degree programmes in music

All degree programmes in music can be grouped according to general areas of research:
the study of the origin of musical texts (listening to music or recording of music); the study of
the music repertoire and its cultural contexts; knowledge of the history of music and traditions of
public performance of music; knowledge of musical processes – creation, performance, analysis
and criticism; ability to express musical ideas in hearing, notation and verbal articulation; close
interaction between music theory and practice and its perception; development of musical skills;
development of creativity. The nature of music education is typically the study of a specialised
field of music aimed at training music performers, composers and theorists meeting high artistic
standards.
One of the distinctive features of the field of music is the focus of performance studies
on one of the main styles of music: classical and modern music, early music, jazz, pop, rock
or folk music. Future artists of the highest qualification who play classical and early music as
well as folk music usually study under the degree programmes of performance art at university
level according to the selected branch (main instrument or singing) and acquire the qualification
of a bachelor or master. Jazz musicians in Lithuania can choose between the branches of a
professional bachelor, university bachelor and master degree programmes. Pop musicians in
Lithuania usually study at colleges and acquire the qualification of a professional bachelor, while
in other European countries the study of pop music (mostly the study of pop and jazz music
10
Government Resolution No. 1749 of 23 December 2009 approving the List of Areas and Fields of Study at Higher Education Institutions and
the List of Qualification Degrees, Official Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2009, No. 158-7135.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

together) are also organised at universities.


In Lithuania, the Art of Perforance (LMTA, KU, VMU11) degree programme is the typical
programme for classical (including modern music), jazz and folk music which may cover as
many branches as there are musical instruments/voices of singers and professional performers
of a particular instrument/singing required. The specialisations of the degree programme in
classical and contemporary music performance art have typical features according to the nature
of performance of music (sound production) and could be grouped into specialisation groups:
singing, keyboard, string instruments, wind instruments and percussion instruments, folk
instruments and conducting (choir, symphonic music and military brass band). Such grouping of
specialisations is useful when preparing surveys at typical workplaces of graduates.
In addition to universal musician’s skills (artistic, music performance and other skills),
a graduate of jazz music studies should be able to improvise (maximally developed ability to
spontaneously convey chosen jazz music material and the form of performance). In addition to
the selected jazz specialisation in the main instrument (voice), students often acquire competences
required for the profession of a music director (big band conductor). Teaching and learning forms
in jazz studies differ from other performance art specialisations. Therefore, jazz music studies
could be organised as a separate degree programme.
Choir, symphonic music and opera conductors study under the performance art degree
programme where conducting is one of the branches of the degree programme in the field of
performance art. The following requirements, which are higher than those applied to students
choosing instrument or singing branches, are set for those applying for symphonic music and
opera conducting studies: those applying for first (Bachelor) cycle studies in conducting must
already have a Bachelor of Music qualification in a chosen specialisation (preferably in choral
conducting or any orchestral instrument), and the main intended learning outcomes are different.
Therefore, conducting (specialisations: choral conducting, symphonic music conducting, military
brass band conducting) could be also a separate degree programme.
Composition is a typical degree programme focused on the creation of music texts and
musical ideas. It is difficult to determine a future typical workplace of a composition graduate
(composer). A successful composer usually works as a freelance artist and his sources of income
are author’s fees for creative work and income from reproduction/recording/distribution of created
music or his portfolio based career which is usually multiple like a music performer’s, i.e. teacher
of music (additionally acquired qualification of a teacher), music technology specialist, sound
editor, event organiser, project author and various author’s works related to music arrangement,
instrumentation, creation and reproduction as well as other works related to music or art industries.
The concept of the degree programme in composition is usually formed by academic staff, taking
into account the issue of employment of composition students. However, when formulating the
main intended learning outcomes of the programme and competences acquired during the studies,
it is advisable to check them by surveying graduates and other social stakeholders: associations
and unions uniting composers and performers, professional musicians and their organisations,
as well as music industry representatives. Classical composition studies can be expanded by
alternative specialisations or new degree programmes, such as music technology, film, television
and multimedia composition, sound design, etc.
Each higher education institution decides how many quality degree programmes in the field
of music and programme specialisations in line with the national culture and education strategy
and market needs it can offer students. European (in particular United Kingdom) experience
shows that due to simple economic calculations, higher education institutions offer as few degree
11
LMTA – Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre; KU – Klaipėda University; VMU– Vytautas Magnus University

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

programmes in the field of music as possible: the objectives of degree programmes and the main
intended learning outcomes are summarised as much as possible and a wide variety of courses
is offered.
Typical degree programmes in the field of music do not provide the professional
qualifications regulated by the state. Since 2010, the studies of music didactic and pedagogy
have been provided in the area of social sciences, field of pedagogy. Graduates also receive
the professional qualification of a teacher regulated by the state in addition to the academic
qualification (bachelor of music pedagogy, master of music pedagogy).
The purpose of university music degree programmes is to train artists with a broader
profile and provide them with appropriate theoretical knowledge (first cycle) and art research-
based knowledge (second cycle) to enable them to apply their knowledge and skills in practice
in a changing professional music market meeting public needs or to create jobs for themselves.
During university Bachelor degree music studies, performers are trained in a complex
manner: artistic and music performance skills are developed by providing detailed theoretical
and music history knowledge. This makes them different from professional Bachelor degree
studies, which are more orientated towards the improvement of subject-specific skills through
professional practice. Nevertheless, more and more professional Bachelor degree programmes
are enriched with theoretical and historical knowledge, which is more typical of university
studies, and professional practice has become an integral part of university studies.

1.5. Degree programme profiles

The parties to the Bologna Process have agreed to create a common European Higher
Education Area and implement transparent student-centred three-cyle (Bachelor, Master and
Doctor) degree programmes. The ECTS has been created as a tool for measuring a typical student
workload, facilitating student mobility and recognising learning outcomes. Student-centred
programmes require a paradigm change as well as changes in the thinking of the academic
community and administrative staff involved in the development and implementation of degree
programmes. This has encouraged the emergence of Tuning Educational Structures in Europe, or
simply Tuning, complementing the Bologna Process and developing the objectives of the process.
A Tuning network and a Tuning process, which has an effect on the development of higher
education in many countries, have been developed in the course of Tuning project activities. The
main objective of this process is to transform the logical connections between the traditional
cycles of study (Bachelor, Master and Doctor) highlighting the result, i.e. competences acquired,
rather than knowledge sought to be provided to students of a specific cycle of study12. Given a
change in the prevailing relationship between a teacher and a student, student activities, namely
learning, studying, acquisition of competences and qualifications, become the centre of attention.
According to Tuning concept proponents, a student-centred degree programme facilitates
better alignment of degree programmes with the changing labour market needs, international
application of qualifications acquired, assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal
learning outcomes.
International Tuning process experts in association with ENIC and NARIC13 recognition
and accreditation experts of several European countries have prepared a typical model of a
degree programme descriptor, a descriptor preparation manual and a glossary. The descriptor has
been tested by European universities, higher education experts and recognition institutions. It
12
A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles.
13
ENIC is a European network of academic mobility and qualification recognition information centres; NARIC means national academic
recognition information centres. Source: www.skvc.lt

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

has been decided that the proposed descriptor model should contain the most important summary
information on a degree programme, which is understood by the authors of the programme,
students, employers and accreditation and recognition institutions.
According to the Tuning methodology, degree programme profiles are descriptions of the
main programme competences and learning outcomes as well as the main features of degree
programmes related to the objectives of the programme and showing how the programme relates
to the course units of a field of study and to the professional world14.
The recommended degree programme profile must provide concise information on the
intended learning outcomes, methods and measures of a degree programme that would facilitate
the achievement of the intended learning outcomes and demonstration of acquired competences.
A degree programme profile must be linked with the descriptors of both the field of study and
the qualification level awarded. The profile specifies the key generic competences and subject-
specific knowledge, skills and competences necessary to acquire a qualification as well as
formulates the main intended learning outcomes of the degree programme15.
A degree programme profile is usually prepared by a programme committee, which
generally consists of teachers, higher education administrators and students, and is approved
in accordance with the internal degree programme regulation of a higher education institution.
Each, particularly new, programme should be based on public needs. Therefore, it is necessary to
analyse and define the linkages between the programme and the vision of a programme created
by the academic community as well as the needs of students, employers and society.
A degree programme profile must reflect the interests of different groups, such as students,
society, the professional sector and the academic sector. The main highlights of profiles of the
same study field (branch) created by different higher education institutions – intended learning
outcomes and/or distinctive features of a programme – may differ. For example, some higher
education institutions may orientate themselves exclusively towards the training of music
performers (artists) and demand that entrants have a relevant level (standard) of training, while
others may train a more versatile professional or a specialist in several fields of music, such as
a music engineer, music manager and music teacher. Therefore, requirements for entrants and
the nature of degree programmes will differ. These differences and typical programme features
must be specified in degree programme profiles. The authors of degree programmes in the field
of music should seek to ensure a variety of degree programmes, cycles and profiles in this field
as well as a continuous programme updating process in order to ensure international quality
standards and adaptability to the changing needs of society and the professional music (art)
world. Lithuanian national ECTS project strategic and horizontal group experts in association
with international experts have adapted a degree programme profile model developed by Tuning
process specialists and recommend it for use by all Lithuanian higher education institutions. The
degree programme profile consists of the following main entries:
1. programme data: name of the degree programme, area of study and specialisation, state
code of the programme, name of higher education institution that has prepared and is
implementing the programme, language(s) in which the programme taught, type of
study (university, non-university), cycle of study, level qualification (according to the
LQF16), duration of study in years, scope of study in credits, total student workload in
hours, number of contact hours, number of individual work hours, area of study, field
(branch) of study, a related field or branch (if any), qualification degree and professional
14
Universities‘ contribution to the Bologna Process. An Introduction, 2nd Edition, 2008, 151.
Learning outcomes define the scope, level or standard of competences, including knowledge acquired (See A Tuning Guide to Formulating
15

Degree Programme Profiles).


16
Lithuanian Qualifications Framework.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

qualification (if any) awarded, degree programme coordinator, contact details of the
degree programme coordinator, the name of the institution accrediting the programme
and the year of accreditation (the date until which the programme is accredited);
2. purpose of the programme: objectives defined in a few clear and logical sentences;
3. characteristics / programme profile: he main discipline(s) subject area(s); nature of
the degree programme – general or specialist focus, orientation (research, practice
based, applied, ets.); distinctive features of the programme (e.g. programmes in the
field of music are characterised by continuous competence development); admission
requirements and opportunities for the recognition of previous learning;
4. further study opportunities;
5. career opportunities;
6. learning and teacing approaches, and assessment methods;
7. key competences of the degree progamme: generic and subject-specific;
8. complete list of programme learning outcomes: generic and subject-specific.
The degree profile of the programme should not be longer than a few pages. The basis of
the profile is objective of the programme, competences and intended learning outcomes. There
should be a maximum of 15–20 intended learning outcomes (generic and subject-specific).
Important information describing the programme profile is nature of the programme (theoretical
or applied), distinctive features of the programme (international, interdisciplinary studies, a
joint programme, other important information on the distinctiveness of the degree programme),
level of qualification (compliance with the Dublin Descriptors and Polifonia/Dublin Descriptors
(PDD), the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area17 and the
Lithuanian Qualifications Framework), and career opportunities.

1.6. Descriptors of cycles of study in the field of music


(Polifonia/Dublin Descriptors)

The specific nature of studies in the field of music requires that the acquired competences
and artistic skills are tested during transition from one study cycle to another (compulsory
entrance examinations to test artistic skills and subject-specific competences). Therefore,
academic and artistic standards of each cycle and their level are clearly defined and harmonised
at European level. The descriptors of the European framework of qualifications for the higher
education area are used to describe the qualifications of all three cycles in the field of music.
These so-called Dublin Descriptors describe individual cycles of three-cycle higher education
identifying knowledge and understanding, the application of knowledge and understanding,
ability to make judgements, communication skills and ability to learn. The Polifonia Tuning
working group of the European Association of Higher Education Institutions has drawn up a
number of documents, including the descriptors of music qualifications, the so-called Polifonia/
Dublin Descriptors (PDD)18. The descriptors of music qualifications comply with the Dublin
descriptors and are supplemented by such attributes characteristic to the field of music as training
the artistic abilities and more attention to practical achievements. PDD descriptors are intended
for the authors of higher education degree programmes in the field of music.

17
Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area
18
Reference Points for the Design and Delivery of Degree Programmes in Music. Bilbao: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto, 2009.
http://aecsite.cramgo.nl/DownloadView.aspx?ses=22925

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Table 1. Dublin and Polifonia/Dublin Descriptors

Dublin Descriptors Polifonia/Dublin Descriptors


Qualification degrees that signify completion of the Qualification degrees that signify completion of the
first cycle of higher education are awarded to students first cycle of higher education are awarded to students
who: who:
1) have demonstrated knowledge and understanding 1) have demonstrated skills, knowledge and artistic
in a field of study that builds upon their general understanding in the area of music built during studies
secondary education, and is typically at a level that, above general education and are typically at a level that
whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes is supported by professional knowledge and practice
some aspects that will be informed by knowledge of and includes some advanced aspects of understanding
the forefront of their field of study; of music and creative interaction;
2) can apply their skills, knowledge and artistic
2) can apply their knowledge and understanding in a
understanding in the area of music in a manner that
manner that indicates a professional approach to their
indicates a professional approach to their work
work or vocation, and have competences typically
or vocation, and have competences demonstrated
demonstrated through devising and sustaining
practically/creatively as well as through devising and
arguments and solving problems within their field of
sustaining arguments and solving problems within
study;
their area of study;
3) have the ability to gather and interpret important
3) have the ability to gather and interpret relevant
information (usually in the area of music), make
data (usually within their field of study) to inform
judgements related to practical/creative activity that
judgements that include reflection on relevant social,
includes reflection on artistic and, where relevant,
scientific or ethical issues;
social, scientific and ethical issues;
can communicate information, ideas, problems 4) can express and communicate artistic understanding,
and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist ideas, information, problems and solutions to both
audiences; specialist and non-specialist audiences;
5) have developed those learning skills that are 5) have the learning and practical/creative skills to
necessary for them to continue to undertake further allow them to continue to study in an autonomous
study with a high degree of autonomy. manner.
Qualification degrees that signify completion of the Qualification degrees that signify completion of the
second cycle of higher education are awarded to second cycle of higher education are awarded to
students who: students who:
1) have demonstrated skills, knowledge and artistic
have demonstrated knowledge and understanding
understanding in the field of music that are founded
that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances
upon and extend and/or enhance those typically
that typically associated with Bachelor’s level, and
associated with first cycle level, and that provide a
that provides a basis or opportunity for originality
basis or opportunity for originality in developing
in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a
and/or applying ideas, in the practical and/or creative
research context;
sphere, often with a research dimension;
2) can apply their knowledge and understanding, 2) can apply their skills, knowledge, artistic
and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar understanding and problem-solving abilities in
environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) new or unfamiliar environments within broader
contexts related to their field of study; (multidisciplinary) contexts related to the area of study;
3) have the ability to integrate knowledge and 3) have the ability to in the practical and/or creative
handle complexity, and formulate judgements with sphere to integrate knowledge and handle complexity
incomplete or limited information, but that include with incomplete or limited information, and to link
reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked these judgements to reflection on artistic and, where
to the application of their knowledge and judgements; relevant, social and ethical responsibilities;
4) can communicate their conclusions, and the 4) can clearly and unambiguously communicate
knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to their conclusions and/or artistic choices as well as
specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and communicate logical and knowledge-based conclusions
unambiguously; to both specialist and non-specialist audiences;
5) have the learning skills to allow them to continue to 5) have the learning and practical/creative skills
study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or to allow them to continue to study in a largely self-
autonomous. directed or autonomous manner.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Qualification degrees that signify completion of Qualification degrees that signify completion of
the third cycle of higher education are awarded to the third cycle of higher education are awarded to
students who: students who:
1) have demonstrated a profound and systematic
1) have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a
understanding of the area of musical study, together
field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of
with mastery of artistic and other skills associated with
research associated with that field;
that area and of relevant methods of research;
2) have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, 2) have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design,
implement and adapt a substantial process of research implement and adapt a substantial process of research
with scholarly integrity; with artistic and scholarly integrity;
3) have made an original contribution through research
3) have made a contribution through original research
and inquiry that extends the frontier of knowledge and
that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing
artistic understanding by developing a substantial body
a substantial body of work, some of which merits
of work, some of which merits national or international
national or international refereed publication;
refereed publication;
4) are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synt-
4) are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and
hesis of new and complex ideas, artistic concepts and
synthesis of new and complex ideas;
processes;
5) can communicate with their peers, the larger schol- 5) can communicate with their peers, the larger artistic
arly community and with society in general about their and scholarly community and with society in general
areas of expertise; about their areas of expertise;
6) can be expected to be able to promote, within
6) can be expected to play a creative, proactive role
academic and professional contexts, technological,
in the advancement of artistic understanding within a
social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based
knowledge based society.
society.

The entire area of music studies is constantly changing and searching for new forms so each
higher education institution can discover its own profile of music studies and unconventional form
of studies, e.g. studies in the field of music interacting with other higher education disciplines
such as aesthetics, psychology, sociology, therapy, journalism, critique, technologies, etc.; new
fields of music (e.g. electro-acoustic music); studies related to the field of music (e.g. music
technology, sound direction (sound design), music management, etc.).
Higher education institutions should create possibilities for future music professionals to
acquire additional knowledge and skills which the graduates will be able to use looking for new
employment opportunities or creating them themselves. It is recommended to offer optional
disciplines to music performers which would broaden the competences of music performers.
Advisable knowledge can be acquired by studying the basics of management, improvisation,
music technology and instrumentation (arrangement of works). Those seeking a teacher
qualification are recommended to choose related educational studies.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

2. COMPETENCES AND LEARNING OUTCOMES


The term “competences” used in these Guidelines is based on the conception set in the
Tuning project and acceptable to music studies as well19. Competences represent a dynamic set
of human qualities necessary for good performance of a specific task. These are cognitive and
metacognitive skills, demonstration of knowledge and understanding, interpersonal, intellectual
and practical skills, and ethical values. Competences are developed in all course units and
assessed at different stages of a programme. Some competences are specific to a field of study
(subject-specific competences), while others are common to any degree programme (generic
competences). It is normally the case that competence development proceeds in an integrated
and cyclical manner throughout the programme.
Intended learning outcomes are defined in each degree programme. According to the Tuning
methodology, learning outcomes describe what a learner is expected to know, understand and
be able to demonstrate after successful completion of a process of learning. Learning outcomes
are statements of a specific level of competence that a student is expected to achieve. They are
directly related to the descriptions of cycles of study and the qualifications framework. Thus,
in the process of learning, learning outcomes defined by the level of competence are a certain
indicator of a student’s readiness for a profession and life.

2.1. Higher music education competences and learning outcomes

Competences in higher music education are quite new phenomena. The working group
of the European Association of Conservatories (AEC) thoroughly examined the impact of
the Bologna Declaration on the training of music artists and decided that learning outcomes
(i.e. competences) must cover three areas: practical skills, theoretical foundation and generic
competences20. In the context of the Tuning project, practical skills and theoretical foundation
are represented by subject-specific competences. They should be important for all degree
programmes in the field of music.
On the basis of the recommendations of the European Association of Conservatoires, the
ECTS project music working group drew up a list of subject-specific and generic performance
art competences, which has been checked in a professional activity research of the field of music.
The purpose of this research was to examine how much the competences traditionally formed at
higher education institutions were recognisable and recognised in the labour market. Employees
of cultural and educational institutions practicing their speciality (public and private music
schools and gymnasiums, choirs, orchestras, ensembles, the Lithuanian Academy of Music and
Theatre, etc) and freelance musicians who acquired Bachelor or Master of Music degrees at higher
education institutions in 2005–2009 were interviewed during the research. The research was
carried out amid employer and graduate surveys aimed at finding out the opinion of employers
on the abilities and skills (i.e. subject-specific and generic competences) that, in their opinion,
are really important for a successful professional career and perhaps forming qualification units
which specific study modules could be based on.
During the survey, preliminary lists of subject-specific and generic competences were
approved and revised, preparation of specialist for work was assessed, new capacities and skills
acquired in the workplace were specified, missing skills and capacities were identified and
proposals were made for the improvements of degree programmes. The research is valuable in
19
A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles
20
Reference Points for the Design and Delivery of Degree Programmes in MUSIC

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

that it lends a new dimension to the development of competence-based degree programmes, i.e.
the opinion of employers on the preparedness of music professionals for a particular job. This
research should become a tool for implementing qualitative changes in the training of music
professionals.
The research results today are a valuable source of information, which checks the viability
of implicit competences in practice and facilitates the use of experience in the professional field
of activity in updating and creating new degree programmes in the field of music.

2.2. Generic competences

The main mission of a higher education institution is to help students prepare for their
profession. In addition to this objective, it is equally important to create the conditions for young
specialists to acquire capacities to live in a constantly changing world. This aimed is pursued at
higher education institutions by developing generic competences. These competences are used at
higher education institutions to develop and foster the culture and capacity for lifelong learning,
teach how to discover one’s niche on the labour market and survive there, develop awareness,
public activity, civic and personal responsibility for one’s quality of life. They are also very
important for the professional life of music performers.
The working groups of the ECTS project prepared a universal list for all fields of studies
comprising 32 generic competences on average presented in the Annex 1. This list has been
approved by the representatives of all fields of study participating in the project. This list was
tested during the sociological survey and validated as suitable for all fields of studies participating
in the survey.
The groups of participants in the research in the field of music – employers and graduates
of music studies – tend to believe that all the competences included in the said list are very
important in professional activities. However, some of them doubt whether a higher education
institution is capable of developing all the competences, as, in their opinion, they are more
related to personal qualities. Most graduates believe that the ability to motivate people to pursue
common goals or the ability to work independently named by employers as the most important
is not the most important in a professional musician’s career.
A quantitative sociological survey has shown that, in the employers’ opinion, the following
five competences are of utmost importance to the professional activities of musicians in all cycles
of study:
1. ability to put knowledge into practice;
2. knowledge of the subject area and understanding of their profession;
3. ability to create new ideas (creativity);
4. ability to work in a group;
5. ability to learn.
Graduates of music studies named the following generic competences as the most important
in their professional activities:
1. communication skills and team communication;
2. ability to communicate with people who are not experts in the professional area of an
employee;
3. ability to make decisions;
4. ability to work in an international environment (language skills, ability to interact with
representatives of other cultures);
5. creativity and entrepreneurship;

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

6. ability to put knowledge into practice;


7. native language, ability to communicate in writing and write without mistakes;
8. ability to work in a group;
9. ability to learn;
10. awareness of safety and well-being.
See the list of generic competence breakdown according to their importance to the music
performer’s professional activity (for graduates from bachelor and master degree programmes)
in the Annex 2.

2.3. Subject-specific competences

Subject-specific competences and learning outcomes in the field of music have been
formulated on the basis of existing music professional training traditions in Lithuania, sociological
survey results and the Tuning project experience of the European Association of Conservatoires.
The initial list of 30 subject-specific competences was prepared for the sociological survey on
the basis of the degree programme in Art of Performance of the Lithuanian Academy of Music
and Theatre. Produced during the professional activity research, a rating of the importance of
these competences in Bachelor and Master degree studies is provided in Annex 2. It is important
to note that the opinions of employers and graduates on the presented list of competences and
the importance of competences differed very little. In the opinion of both groups of respondents,
competences associated with the performance technique and artistic expression skills are of
utmost importance.
Discussing the list of subject-specific competences of musicians and employer survey
results, the opinions of the majority of music graduates coincided with the opinion of employers
on the abilities and skills identified as the most important: ability to control artistic expression and
performance technique skills, ability to professionally perform different styles, genres and forms
of music, have knowledge of the traditions of interpretation of different styles, genres and forms
of music, ability to analyse, critically evaluate and independently manage individual artistic
skills, ability to publicly perform a repertoire in various cultural and social contexts, develop
experience in public performances and knowledge of performance excellence standards, as well
as ability to convey a distinctive artistic concept. In addition, graduates were more inclined to
attach more importance than employers to the ability to cooperate with artists of other areas.
Discussing the list of subject-specific competences, performing art graduates repeatedly said that
all of the listed competences were important in the professional activities of musicians. Most of
them believed they had acquired one or another level of the listed abilities or skills during their
studies.
The qualitative part of the sociological survey and the opinion of graduates of the music
performance programme have revealed that the higher education institution could give more
attention to the following skills:
1. Management (organisation of concerts);
2. Psychology knowledge and skills (preparation for the stage, stage fright management,
self-confidence, ability to concentrate);
3. Movement training (stage movement, dance, acting, stage speech and fencing);
4. Law basics (copyright agreements);
5. Information technology (computer music programmes, application of technologies in
the music industry);
6. Foreign languages (phonetics for singers);

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

7. Occupational safety (health sciences and sports);


8. Some specific subjects (jazz, electronic music, sound recording).
In addition to the abovementioned abilities, much attention during the discussions was given
to the ability to create job opportunities, but doubts were also expressed as to whether this could
be developed during studies. In addition, some graduates said they saw lack of self-expression
and freedom of interpretation while studying, but those objecting to this opinion said that first of
all it was necessary to master the basics of a profession and only then to interpret. Discussing the
ability to control their body and emotions on stage, graduates said that examinations were not an
appropriate method of assessment. Some of them said that during performance art studies, more
attention should be paid to the knowledge of psychology, which was particularly important to
those engaged in teaching.
Discussing the subject-specific competences of musicians, participants in the discussions
pointed out that human qualities, which could not be acquired during studies, communication
with other artists and the ability to look at yourself from a distance were important in their
professional activities. A university cannot prepare an artist for all possible stress. Such situations
cannot be created artificially and therefore much depends on the personal qualities and motivation
of students.
See the list of subject-specific (music) competence breakdown according to their importance
to the music performer’s professional activities (for graduates from bachelor and master degree
programmes) in the Annex 3.

2.4. ECTS credits and competence development

The aim to create a single European Higher Education Area and harmonise the structures
of national education systems set in the Bologna Declaration (1999) encouraged the signatory
countries to introduce the credit accumulation and transfer system ECTS at all higher education
institutions. This commitment is also stipulated in the Law on Education and Studies (2009) of
Lithuania. It says: „a study credit means a unit of the volume of studies, by which study results
and student’s working time are measured. 1,600 hours of one academic year shall equal to 60
credits.“
Thus, credits are given in view of the time necessary for the study of a specific course unit
or module, which is needed to acquire specific learning outcomes or subject-specific and generic
competences of a planned level of study. In this regard, a credit in the modern context becomes
a currency that shows the value of a competence related to the time needed to acquire it. A
higher education credit system helps to plan and conduct studies, assess learning outcomes and
cooperate in recognising and transferring competences acquired from one degree programme to
another.
The issue of competence development and implementation of learning outcomes becomes
important in this context. It is important for not only completing a certain cycle of study and
certifying a qualification acquired but also for assessing competences acquired at the end of each
cycle of study (e.g. a course unit or module during studies). Learning outcomes assessments
may take different content and form but the aim of every higher education institution should be
the development of independence of a artist by constantly changing the forms of teaching which
would make it possible to learn how to apply the capacities developed at the higher education
institution in practice. For instance, teaching forms could be related to the improvement of the
technique of artistic skills, studies of the facts of art and artistic concepts in the first academic
year, mastering these skills, facts and concepts in the second and third years, synthesis of the

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

acquired capacities, their studies in the broader context and more diverse areas of art studies in
the fourth year. One of the most important purposes of studies of the second cycle should be the
creation of conditions for individuality and independence, encouragement to look for individual
artistic concepts.
The most rational way to determine whether intended learning outcomes have been
implemented is to define and identify certain features of a desired level of learning outcomes,
i.e. to determine its lowest level. However, music studies are distinctive in this respect as well,
as students admitted to higher education institutions stand out for different artistic maturity and
different theoretical knowledge, i.e. a different level of existing competences, from the first
course. Since universities are primarily orientated towards an average student and it is very
difficult to describe an average student in the area of art, it is recommended to enable more
talented and most motivated students to seek better results. Institutions of higher education in
music should facilitate examination of existing or acquired skills and selection of the level of
study in view of the skills and needs.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

3. HIGHER MUSIC EDUCATION STUDENT’S WORKLOAD AND ITS


CALCULATION
In higher music education, the formulation of learning outcomes using the vocabulary of
competences and assignment of credits have some features related to the special nature of music
art and artistic activities. In this respect, music, just like other arts, is exceptional in the context
of university higher education as it is primarily focused on developing practical and creative
capacities of the student. In art, perfection is expressed by the level of excellence rather than the
quantity of acquired new competences.
Raising the level of excellence of subject-specific competences of music professionals
requires a great deal of autonomous work. It is time which usually spans beyond the traditional
hours of a working day but must be measured in terms of credits according to the study time
accounting requirements. It is not easy as students of performance art improve their excellence by
playing for at least 7–8 hours every day. In addition, the input of autonomous work in improving
the technique of performance art differs in different groups of musical instruments. For instance,
the time indicated for wind instruments or singers is physically too demanding. Therefore, tying
subject-specific competences with a particular number of credits which should represent time
is relative and can only partially reflect the reality. Therefore, credits in performance art degree
programmes indicate the hypothetical ratio of time input between the components of the degree
programme improving the practical skills of performance art and disciplines developing the
theoretical competences and do not reflect the actual situation.

3.1. Competences and credits

The assignment of competence-based credits to a discipline or module and their allocation


in the degree programme is directly related to the Lithuanian laws on higher education and study
organisation policies of each higher education institution. For instance, the document Specification
of General Requirements for Degree First Cycle and Integrated Studies 21 states that the disciplines
of the field of study must comprise at least 165 credits, general disciplines of university studies
must comprise at least 15 credits and disciplines set by the university and chosen by the student,
which are intended for deeper specialisation in the same field (branch), or a module(s) of another
field (branch) or a discipline(s) or general disciplines of university studies, practical training as well
as elective disciplines chosen by the student may comprise no more than 60 credits. Within the
scope of these requirements, a university can independently set the structure of degree programmes
according to available resources and needs and possibilities of students.
The calculation of the student workload under one or another discipline or module should
first of all involve:
1. determination of the importance of competences formed for every discipline or module
and the level of complexity for the desired qualification degree;
2. determination of the weight of a course unit or module in a degree programme for a
specific qualification degree;
3. determination of the type of a course unit or module (compulsory, optional, knowledge-
deepening, expanding, etc.);
4. the foreseeing of the volume of work and tasks necessary to achieve the planned
purposes of studies;
21
Order No V-501 of 9 April 2010 of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania approving the specification of general
requirements for degree-awarding first-cycle and integrated degree programmes, Official Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2010, No. 44-2139.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

5. the foreseeing of the most rational forms and methods of studies enabling to form the
planned competences;
6. the determination of the ratio between the contact hours and autonomous work hours
necessary to complete the tasks and prepare for the assessment of acquired competences;
7. the planning of stages of work.
This information clearly shows that the calculation of the student workload is a rather
complex exercise forcing to think about the content of the discipline and amount of knowledge
to be provided as well as the broader context of the discipline or module, i.e. how and to which
degree it is really important for a particular qualification, how much and what is necessary for the
student preparing for a specific workplace. Studies oriented towards the needs and possibilities
of a student and credits given for acquired competences clearly affect the didactic provisions of
work at a higher education institution. Naturally, it is not the scope of studies measured in hours
that determines the level of student preparation but a number of other factors such as the talents
and motivation of a student, teacher’s ability to organise work and use the most appropriate tools
for the achievement of the relevant objectives. The workload of students is directly related to the
rational scope of tasks for the acquisition of required competences, teaching methods and forms
of studies, the procedure for assessment of achievements and assessment of the final result.
Studies should become a creative laboratory based on cooperation between teachers and students
where work is planned, implemented and assessed through continuous feedback on successes
and failures of the study process.
According to the latest approach, credits in a degree programme primarily mean acquired
competences of an intended level, i.e. confirm the learning outcomes achieved. Assessment
procedures and criteria that should be presented in the most appropriate form to assess achieved
learning outcomes become crucial for checking competences acquired.

3.2. Recommendations for a modular and subject-specific degree


programme structure

The introduction of a competence-based higher education credit system in addition to


the subject-specific one also offers a modular higher education structure, which in its essence
is more favourable for the achievement of learning outcomes expressed as competences. A
module today is interpreted as a grouping of related course units based on the opportunity to
combine the skills developed into rational complexes. The theoretical possibility of developing
a degree programme based on five credit modules was discussed during the implementation of
the ECTS project. Given the complexity of artistic skills, this scope provides an opportunity to
more flexibly formulate, change and update study plans without destroying the whole degree
programme structure.
Modular studies force to think globally and ensure that the programme cannot be
subdivided into unrelated fragments. They encourage teachers to cooperate, design a common
curriculum and look for newer teaching methods. In other words, modular studies are focused on
the competence design process, on the structure where the curriculum is the means to achieve the
purpose. In the subject-specific system, priority is given to the content of a course unit, i.e. what
and how much students will learn from an isolated course unit. The negative aspect of modular
studies is associated with a certain loss of freedom by the teacher, inevitable reduction in the
number of contact hours for certain disciplines.
Both the subject-based and modular system of studies are acceptable for music studies. The
most important thing is approach to credits and their role in the design of degree programmes.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

If a degree programme is created using the bottom-up approach, the role of such disciplines
for the degree programme and, automatically, the role for the acquired qualification, is unclear.
In such a situation, there is always a danger to overestimate the role of some disciplines and
fail to meet the requirements of the field of studies or qualification. From the student’s point
of view, this would mean that the requirements are inadequate (are too high of too low) and
require too much (or too little) time to acquire competences necessary for a qualification. The
top-down development of a degree programme starts with close-up intended learning outcomes,
i.e. determination of differences between cycles of study, competences and their levels each year
of study, selection of the most appropriate course units or modules and ways to implement the
intended learning outcomes.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

4. METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A


COMPETENCE-BASED DEGREE PROGRAMME
The Law on Education and Studies states that the degree programme means a totality of
the content, methods and material measures of studies of a certain study field, the academic and
professional staff employed for the studies, and the description of the said totality. Historically,
music degree programmes were designed according to the tradition and specific professional
needs which are necessary for work in music areas. As a rule, music specialists are trained
by professional performers, composers and musicologists working in music ensembles or
institutions related to music activities.
Almost all higher music education schools provide practical performance disciplines such
as the main and additional instrument, chamber ensembles, orchestra, opera study, choir, etc.
Traditionally, practical disciplines are complemented by theoretical studies of music, fundamentals
of pedagogy, disciplines of culture and philosophy which create the foundations for humanitarian
education. The complex of these disciplines usually makes the foundation of the degree programme
of each higher music education school. Modernisation and updating of degree programmes was
usually based on enthusiasm and individual initiative by simply enriching degree programmes with
new disciplines without taking account of their role and necessity in educating a specialist.
As the economic environment began to change, higher music education institutions, like
other universities, had to look for possibilities to work more cost-effectively and abandon excessive
studies raising the costs of training of artists. Degree programmes can no longer be improved in the
manner described above. The curriculum had to be revised and the value of each component had
to be checked. The new situation requires to set a certain sequence of priorities and abandon many
things, create a new concept of studies which could be used as a framework to design programmes
that are cost-effective for higher education institutions and useful for students. In addition, the
creation of the new model of degree programmes should facilitate their smooth improvement and
modification according to changes in the situation, students and labour market needs.

4.1. Features of an effective degree programme

Degree programmes in Lithuania are regulated by laws and implementing legislation, which
are periodically amended and improved. It is likely that the main purpose of this change is to seek
quality, enrich higher education and study opportunities by developing international cooperation,
seek transparency and comparability of studies. Each country and higher education institution
has national traditions and experience, the spread of which provides new study opportunities
and new opportunities for students. Therefore, certain international agreements and regulations
aimed at creating a common language, expanding communication and cooperation opportunities
as well as providing clarity are useful. In this regard, competence and ECTS credit-based degree
programmes could be a useful tool for achieving said goals.
According to the documents of the Polifonia working group of the European Association
of Conservatoires, an effective degree programme model has the following typical features22:
1. appropriate proportions and priorities: programme components must be harmonised in
terms of priorities and scope;
2. optimal scope and content: the programme should not be overloaded, correspond to the
institution’s resources, enable the student to make a choice;
3. flexibility: the programme should allow to study according to the possibilities and
22
Cox J. Handbook on Curriculum Design and Development in Higher Music Education. AEC, Utrecht, 2007, 38.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

needs, respond flexibly to changing external conditions and professional requirements;


4. progressiveness: the programme must allow students to improve during studies and
raise their excellence level by choosing disciplines or modules or the level of their
difficulty;
5. focus on the student: studies should not be limited to the choice of disciplines or modules.
They should be an active medium for teaching and learning activities encouraging and
enabling improvement;
6. attention to learning: teaching and learning methods and assessment should encourage
learning and achievement of learning outcomes.
The above-mentioned generic and subject-specific competences and sociological surveys
which validated them are the language and the tool which may help set up some guidelines acceptable
to every tradition and enabling higher education institutions to share the existing experiences.
The policy of studies focused on the student related to competences and their development
also modifies the strategy of degree programme design. The above-mentioned generic and subject-
specific competences are at the core of the degree programme design. They are used as a basis to
set intended learning outcomes, design curriculum and create the assessment criteria for acquired
competences. In this respect, the creation of the degree programme essentially becomes a tool for
the development of competences where the purpose (learning outcomes) must be set first of all,
measures to achieve the purpose must be chosen (study content, teaching and learning methods),
stages foreseen (programme structure) and effective competence assessment methodology created.

4.2. Degree programme design principles

The design of a degree programme meeting the above-mentioned quality criteria must
begin from the professional field surveys and elaboration of competences necessary for each
professional activity. Once the most optimal list of competences is compiled, its is recommended
to tie them to the relevant disciplines or modules. On the basis of performance art professional
activity research already carried out, for the purpose of visualization, the ECTS project music
working group drew up a degree programme design scheme based on the top-down principle.

Table 4. Degree programme design scheme

Professional field study

Competences

Teaching / learning
Course units/modules methods
Intended learning ourcomes

Learning outcomes of
course unit/module Degree programme Assessment criteria

Learning outcomes

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Usually, all performance art degree programmes in Europe are comprised of complementary
parts necessary for training of a music specialist. These are:
1. disciplines improving the skills of performance art (main instrument/conducting/
singing, chamber ensemble, orchestra/choir/opera, professional practical training);
2. disciplines forming theoretical competences (music history, music theory, training of
hearing);
3. deeper or supplementary specialisation disciplines (e.g. pedagogy).
In Lithuania, university education disciplines are also compulsory at institutions for higher
education in music. The grouping, logical sequence and proportions of said disciplines related to
the objectives and intended period of study are the basis of each degree programme.
Certain competences are developed and intended learning outcomes are defined in each
of these groups of disciplines. The best way to determine them is to use a certain matrix. An
example of the matrix of competences developed during the Bachelor degree programme in art
of performance is provided in Table 5.

Table 5. Competence development matrix

orchestra/choir/opera
professional practice

university education
conducting/singing

training of hearing
chamber ensemble
main instrument/

music history
music theory

pedagogy
Subject specific comptences in music
Skills and artistic abilities
Ability to perform professionally music of different styles,
* * * *
genres and forms
Ability to select and apply the most effective practicing and
* * * *
music performing techniques
Capacity to understand interrelationships between theoretical
* * * * * * *
and practical studies
Ability to perform solo repertoire and in various ensembles
* * *
professionally and artistically
Ability to analyse and critically assess and independently
* * * *
master distinct artistic skills
Ability to control the body and emotions on stage * * * *
Repertoire skills
Capacity to build up and realise concert programmes * * * *
Possession of a large repertoire of major instrument (voice)
* * * *
and ensemble music ranging from early to contemporary music
Concert skills
Capacity to perform the repertoire publicly in various cultural and
* * * *
social contexts and ability to develop public performance experience
Theoretical competences
Knowledge of the conventions of music interpretation
* *
traditions in different styles, genres and forms
Ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge (aural
capacities and knowledge of musical repertoire) in music * *
performance practice

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Complimentary subject specific comptences in pedagogy


(those who pursue teacher’s professional qualification)
Ability to teach children the art of performance using
pedagogical knowledge of psychology, teaching methodology *
and pedagogical repertoire
Ability to organise the teaching process in the class *
Ability to recognise the advantages and shortcomings of one‘s
*
pedagogical activity
Generetic competences
Independence
Perseverance, determination and independence in carrying out
* * * * * * * * *
assignments and undertaken obligations
Ability to organise and plan own work and make decisions * * * * * * * * *
Ability to learn, search for, process and analyse information
* * * * * * * * *
from a variety of sources
Psychological understanding
Ability create different concepts that shape how music is
* * * * * *
created and perceived
Ability to work in a team and ability to motivate people to
* * * * *
move toward common goals
Ability to adapt to new situations * * * *
Critical awareness
Ability to analyse, critically assess and independently master
* * * * * * * * *
distinct artistic skills
Ability to create, articulate and communicate musical ideas in
* * * *
various public and social contexts
Information Technology and Communication skills
Ability to cooperate with other artists * * * * * * * *
Ability to communicate artistic ideas and artistic practice in
writing, verbally and visually (where applicable) in the native * * * * * * * * *
and foreign language
Ability to use the new technologies in music learning and
* * * * * * * * *
research processes

It is recommended to periodically monitor and assess the development of intended


competences and implementation of intended learning outcomes. The most convenient way to
do this is to establish certain stages of assessment of the level of achievements (Table 6).

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Table 6. Stages of assessment of the level of achievements23


Skills and artistic abilities
Development and improvement of planned competences by implementing personal artistic
concept. E.g. A student will be able to freely and creatively use the skills of performance art
Year IV
technique implementing personal artistic ideas, creatively and rationally using available
knowledge and abilities.
Development and improvement of planned competences by searching for personal
artistic concept. E.g. A student will be able to rationally choose and use the available skills of
Year III
performance art technique and implement creative ideas choosing the relevant knowledge and
capacity resources.
Development and application of planned competences in broader areas of activity. E.g. A
student will be able to use the skills of performance art technique by playing solo and ensembles
Year II
of various composition, will be able to apply the most efficient learning techniques and analyse
his/her activities.
Fundamentals and application of planned competences in certain areas of activity. E.g. A
Year I student will have developed the necessary skills of performance art technique by playing solo,
will be able to autonomously improve them, notice his/her shortcomings.

4.3. Programme proportions and priorities

One of the features of an efficient degree programme is proper proportions and priorities,
i.e. the programme components should be compatible with each other in terms of priorities and
scope. This principle is best illustrated in a graphic form (Table 7).

Table 7. Proportions of compulsory and optional course units in a degree programme24

Year IV Compulsory course units / modules Optional course units / modules


Optional course units /
Year III Compulsory course units / modules
modules
Optional course
Year II Compulsory course units / modules
units / modules
Year I Complsory course units / modules

The table 7 shows the recommended principles of proportions between compulsory and
optional disciplines in the Art of Performance Studies where account is taken of the needs and
abilities of students. This principle also highlights another quality of a good degree programme,
which is its flexibility.
Below are examples of proportions in which credits could be given for course units in the
Bachelor (Table 8) and Master (Table 9) degree programme in Art of Performance.

23
The table was drawn up on the basis of Cox J., op. cit., 21.
24
The table was drawn up on the basis of Cox J., op. cit., 23.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Table 8. Example of allocation of credits for groups of course units in Bachelor degree studies

Modules of university
Professional practice

training and health


theory and hearing

education, physical

Optional modules,

management, etc.)
Modules of music

Modules of music

parallel studies

composition,
(pedagogy.
Modules of artistic expression

training

sciences
history

Total
Main Specialisation
instrument alternatives
Year IV 20 10 0 0 15 15 60
Year III 20 10 5 5 5 15 60
Year II 20 10 5 5 5 15 60
Year I 20 0 5 5 15 15 60
Total 80 30 15 15 15 25 60 240

Table 9. Example of allocation of credits for groups of course units in Master degree studies

Professional practice

Optional modules
Final art project
Research paper
Modules of artistic expression

Total
Main Specialisation
instrument alternatives
Year II 20 10 10 10 5 5 60
Year I 20 10 10 0 10 10 60
Total 40 20 20 10 15 15 120

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

5. TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT


The individual nature of music studies is diverse as it covers a number of forms of activities
necessary to achieve the artistic result. During practical classroom sessions with teachers, and
working independently, students improve their performance technique skills and study new
repertoires, examine music from historical and theoretical perspectives, listen to records, analyse
the interpretation traditions of music they play and their context, discuss with more experienced
musicians, etc.
Like in other higher education schools, learning outcomes are usually assessed during an
examination. As a rule, music examination takes the form of a concert, recital or performance
(e.g. opera). These are the most appropriate ways to test the acquired competences taking into
account the nature of music and future activities of an artist. The assessment of learning outcomes
must be based on clear assessment criteria which should be directly related to the objectives of
studies, subject-specific and generic competences. Below is one of the possible forms for testing
and assessing competences.

Art of Performance, master’s studies

The qualification degree of a master of music is granted to students who:


• have acquired music art knowledge and creative capacities necessary for the unique and
independent development of artistic ideas, learned about the latest theories, methods
and technologies of research of music art;
• are proficient in using the acquired artistic experience, knowledge and understanding in
artistic activities requiring creativity and integration of knowledge and in art research,
understand music analysis methods and creative techniques and their applications, are
able to evaluate the quality of performance art and know its evaluation criteria;
• are able to apply the acquired artistic experience, knowledge and understanding in
addressing artistic issues, work in a constantly changing environment in cross-field,
cross-area and international contexts related to the area of music studies;
• are able to constantly learn independently, know and critically assess theoretical
and artistic innovation in music knowledge and creation field, efficiently act under
circumstances which require independent searching for information, justification of
conclusions being made and their adequate presentation to stakeholders of various
education, understanding of ethical and social consequences of own knowledge and
judgements based on this knowledge as well as responsibility for them.

Final (qualification) examination(s):


• recital
• ensemble/concertmaster/chamber ensemble
• orchestra/choir/opera
• research paper
Competences assessed during final examinations are listed in Table 10.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Table 10. Competences assessed during final examinations

orchestra/choir/opera
chamber ensemble

research paper
concertmaster/
ensemble/
recital
Skills and artistic abilities
Ability to perform professionally music of different styles, genres and
* * *
forms
Ability to select and apply the most effective practicing and musicv
* * *
performing techniques
Ability to understand the interrelationship between theoretical and
practical studies, and effectively apply them in musical performance * * *
practice
Ability to take perform in various ensemblesprofessionally and
* *
artistically
Ability to analyse, critically assess and independently master distinct
* * *
artistic skills
Ability to control the body and emotions on stage * * *
Repertoire skills
Posession of a large repertoire of major instrument (voice) and ensemble
music ranging from early to contemporary music, and knowlede the * * * *
conventions of musical interpretation in different styles, genres and forms
Concert skills
Capacity to perform the repertoire publicly in various cultural and
* * *
social contexts and ability to develop public performance experience
Theoretical competences
Knowledge of the conventions of music interpretation traditions in
*
different styles, genres and forms
Ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge (aural capacities and
*
knowledge of musical repertoire) in music performance practice
Independence
Perseverance, determination and independence in carrying out
* * * *
assignments and undertaken obligations
Ability to organise and plan own work and make decisions * * * *
Ability to learn, search for, process and analyse information from a
* * * *
variety of sources
Psychological understanding
Ability to create different concepts that shape how music is created and
* * * *
perceived ’
Ability to work in a team and ability to motivate people to move toward
* *
common goals
Ability to adapt to new situations * * *
Critical awareness
Ability to analyse, critically assess and independently master distinct
* * * *
artistic skills
Ability to create, articulate and communicate musical ideas in various
public and social contexts

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Information Technology and Communication skills


Ability to cooperate with other artists * *
Ability to communicate artistic ideas and artistic practice in writing,
verbally and visually (where applicable) in the native and foreign * * * *
language
Ability to use the new technologies in music learning and research
* * * *
processes

Assessment criteria:
1. Recital
• Complexity, compilation logic and mature preparation level of the artistic programme
• possibilities of the artistic programme to reveal interpretation capacity and level of
performance technique
• the feel of the style, genre and form of works of music being played
• accurate performance of the selected repertoire in terms of music text
• artistic quality of the sound of music
• virtuoso abilities
• originality and artistic suggestion on stage of the interpretation
2. Ensemble/Concertmaster/Chamber ensemble
• Complexity, compilation logic and mature preparation level of the artistic programme
• possibilities of the artistic programme to reveal interpretation capacity and level of
performance technique
• the feel of the style, genre and form of works of music being played
• accurate performance of the selected repertoire in terms of music text
• artistic quality of the sound of music
• mature performance in the ensemble matching the role of the part/ensemble member
• artistic suggestion on stage
3. Orchestra/Choir/Opera
• Mature preparation level of the role/part
• the feel of the style, genre and form of the role/part being played
• accurate performance of the role/part in terms of music text
• artistic quality of the sound of music
• mature performance matching the role of the part/ensemble member
• artistic suggestion on stage
4. Research paper
• The wording of the topic and structure of paper meeting the attributes of a research
paper
• appropriateness of sources of information used for the presentation of the problem
• ability to analyse the problem in the most rational context
• ability to analyse, argue and assess critically
• correctness of language

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

6. DEGREE PROGRAMME UPDATING AND IMPROVEMENT


Each degree programme that has undergone assessment procedures and is being
successfully implemented should be periodically reviewed and improved over time. Updates
are usually related to changes in the public, artistic and creative life as well as new professional
requirements. An optimal degree programme review period could be 2–5 years.
The basic spirit of improvement of each programme should be associated with openness
to new ideas rather than with a revolution. If the scope of parts of a programme in credits is
optimal, an update on one or several course units or modules should not destroy the programme
as a whole.
When updating degree programmes, learning outcomes and competences should be
reviewed first to ascertain:
1. whether they correspond to the modern situation of changing society and art,
2. whether they meet the needs of students, employers and social partners,
3. whether they correspond to the higher education institution’s vision of the level of
qualification awarded and its requirements,
4. what learning outcomes and competences could be removed as irrelevant and what
learning outcomes and competences should be added to degree programmes to reflect
the changes required.
The revision of learning outcomes should be followed by the review of the list of course
units (modules), their content, skills developed, teaching methods and assessment. It usually
takes several years to implement changes, as all innovations are often viewed with distrust.
However, experience shows that, given cooperation among teachers, students, employers and
social partners, continuous improvement of degree programmes proves effective and is not
regarded with scepticism over time.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Final provisions
By its nature, the art of music is international in its content and forms of existence and
distribution. Therefore, professional interaction among music professionals in training music
artists at higher education institutions is a valuable opportunity to improve professional
excellence, promote cultural cooperation and share experiences and creative discoveries.
Regulation of training of music professionals based on universally accepted competences is
in fact a certain form of agreement to cooperate. If we examine its shortcomings and advantages,
we will see that the latter outweigh the former considerably. One of most unsettling shortcomings
for artists is the duty to carry out some bureaucratic actions and undertake relevant obligations
which are foreign to the fee nature of an artist by their origin. However, such actions are inevitable
and meaningful in contemporary society in order to achieve closer cooperation and looking for a
common language between different cultural traditions and practice habits.
On the other hand, competence-based learning outcomes vocabulary is useful to artists
themselves. It is the lexis of competences that shows and supports the specific nature of the art
of music as a language equivalent because of the level of professionalism and content within the
European higher education framework. Clearly identified competences show that music, just like
other arts, does not constitute studies at a lower level. It is higher education of a different nature.
Its specificity follows from the object of studies (acoustic phenomena) and form of practice
(training excellence skills) as well as the ways to verify education (recitals, concerts, parts in
performances and ensembles, choirs, orchestras, etc.).
The material provided in this publication is in a sense presentation of artist training
traditions that have proven effective and have been recognised long ago in a language required
by modern society. The recommendations, examples and assessment criteria are of a hypothetical
nature. They should be interpreted as a guidance of how things could be rather than a duty
and a compulsory form. The list of subject-specific and generic competences approved during
sociological studies should be the starting point of each degree programme and the backbone
of formation of the content of studies, as it identifies the characteristics of a qualified music
professional prepared for a job. The forms and methods of development of these characteristics,
which turn into course units or modules, study plans and degree programmes, are identified and
approved by each higher education institution.
As discussed above, tying competences to credits in music studies is the main tool for
setting the proportions of the curriculum. The allocation of credits for course units or modules
encourages thinking of a degree programme as a whole in which each component has relevant
priorities in respect of other components. Tying the relative unit of study time with a credit also
forces to take account of the time limits of a day which should match physical and intellectual
abilities of students.
The proposal to consider a modular structure for the programme of music studies is in fact
an encouragement for teachers to cooperate more closely in the pursuit of common objectives.
The benefits of peer cooperation are expected to be clearly perceived. Competences are an
integral formation of human consciousness. Therefore, only a complex approach of teachers
and combination of various activities in pursuit of a single objective is the most effective way to
develop competences.
It is likely that this publication will be useful for each higher education institution and will
give a creative impetus to create and upgrade music degree programmes so that they are student-
centred, take account of his needs to integrate into the professional musical life and possibilities
to acquire the competences necessary for this activity in the most acceptable ways. The latter

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

should be first of all strongly motivated and committed to seeking the highest excellence level
in planning their studies and choosing their depth, width and intensity. In the most optimistic,
probably utopian, vision, studies could be imagined as a collective journey of like-minded people
(students, teachers, professional artists) with a clear final station whose route, pace and tools to
achieve the objective for the student are transformed into a creative laboratory with personal
responsibility for a successful journey.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

References
Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Higher Education and Research, Official Gazette
Valstybės Žinios, 2009, No. 54-2140.
Government Resolution No 1749 of 23 December 2009 approving the List of Areas and
Fields of Study at Higher Education Institutions and the List of Qualification Degrees, Official
Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2009, No. 158-7135.
Government Resolution No 535 of 4 May 2010 approving the Lithuanian Qualifications
Framework, Official Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2010, No. 56-2761.
Order No V-501 of 9 April 2010 of the Minister of Education and science of the Republic
of Lithuania approving the specification of general requirements for degree-awarding first-cycle
and integrated degree programmes, Official Gazette Valstybės Žinios, 2010, No. 44-2139.
A Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles Including Programme Com-
petencies and Programme Learning Outcomes. 2010. Bilbao, Groningen and the Hague: Publi-
caciones de la Universidad de Deusto, ISBN 978-84-9830-375-9. http://www2.archimedes.ee/
enic/File/Tuning_Guide_Publicada_CoRe.pdf
Bisschop Boele E. 2007. Handbook for the Implementation and Use of Credit Points in
Higher Music Education. AEC, Utrecht.
Bulajeva T., Jakubė A., Lepaitė D., Teresevičienė M., Zuzevičiūtė V. 2011. Studijų progra-
mų atnaujinimas: kompetencijų plėtotės ir studijų siekinių vertinimo metodika. Vilnius. http://
www4066.vu.lt/Projekto_rezultatai
Competence-based learning. A proposal for the assessment of generic competences. 2008.
Tuning, Univesity of Deusto.
Cox J. 2010. Admission and Assessment in Higher Music Education. AEC publications
handbook. www.polifonia-tn-org
Cox J. 2007. Handbook on Curriculum Design and Development in Higher Music Edu-
cation. AEC, Utrecht.
ECTS naudotojo vadovas. http://www.ects.cr.vu.lt/Files/File/ECTS%20gidas_LT_templa-
te.doc
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no/Docs/00-Main_doc/050218_QF_EHEA.pdf
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Reference Points for the Design and Delivery of Degree Programmes in Music. 2009.
Bilbao: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto. http://aecsite.cramgo.nl/DownloadView.
aspx?ses=22925
Studijų programos kūrimo ir tobulinimo (atnaujinimo) rekomendacijos. http://tuning.
unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/template/General_Brochure_final_version.pdf
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QF_Music.pdf
Universities‘ contribution to the Bologna Process. 2008. An Introduction, 2nd Edition.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Annexes
A n n e x 1. List of generic competences

1. Ability for abstract thinking, analysis and organisation of information


2. Ability to apply knowledge in practice
3. Ability to organise and plan
4. Knowledge of the subject area and understanding of one’s own profession
5. Ability to communicate orally and in writing in the native language
6. Ability to communicate in a foreign language
7. Information and communication technology skills
8. Ability to carry out research
9. Ability to learn
10. Ability to search for, process and analyse information from a variety of sources
11. Critical and self-critical thinking
12. Ability to adapt to new situations
13. Ability to generate new ideas (creativity)
14. Ability to address problems
15. Ability to make decisions
16. Ability to participate in group work
17. Interpersonal and communication skills
18. Ability to motivate people to move toward common goals
19. Ability to communicate with people who are not experts in the professional area of an employee
20. Ability to take account of diversity and multiculturalism
21. Ability to work in an international context
22. Ability to work autonomously
23. Ability to design and manage projects
24. Attention to safety
25. Ability to take the initiative and entrepreneurship
26. Ability to act ethically (ethical obligations)
27. Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work (attention to quality)
28. Perseverance and determination in carrying out assignments and undertaken obligations
29. Commitment to protect the environment
30. Social responsibility and civic awareness
31. Ability to respect the principle of equal opportunities and tolerance
32. Knowledge of legislation related to professional activities

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

A n n e x 2. Distribution of generic competences according to their importance


to the professional activities of a musician

The professional activity research was aimed at compiling a list of subject-specific and
generic competences needed in the professional activities of graduates, which are required for
updating degree programmes in music of higher education institutions.
One of the stages of research using the prepared list of subject-specific and generic
competences was an employer survey carried out in order to find out the attitudes of Lithuanian
employers on the generic and subject-specific competences of 2005–2009 graduates of music
degree programmes of higher education institutions working for their companies.
The survey involved 75 immediate superiors of persons who have acquired the music
speciality or persons having information on the generic and subject-specific competences of
employees, 10 freelance artists and 15 graduates of degree programmes in music who completed
studies in 2005–2009 and work in their speciality but do not have a senior colleague or manager.
Summarised assessments of subject-specific and generic competences by the respondents are
provided below.

No Bachelor Master
1. Ability to generate new ideas (creativity) Ability to participate in group work
Perseverance and determination in carrying out
2. Ability to work autonomously
assignments and undertaken obligations
Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work
3. Ability to participate in group work
(attention to quality)
Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work
4. Interpersonal and communication skills
(attention to quality)
Knowledge and understanding of the subject area Knowledge and understanding of the subject area
5.
and understanding of the profession and understanding of the profession
Ability to motivate people and move toward Perseverance and determination in carrying out
6.
common goals assignments and undertaken obligations
Ability to motivate people and move toward
7. Interpersonal and communication skills
common goals
8. Ability to adapt to new situations Ability to generate new ideas (creativity)
9. Ability to address problems Ability to make decisions
Ability to communicate orally and in writing in the
10. Ability to organise and plan
native language
11. Ability to apply knowledge in practical situations Ability to be critical and self-critical
Ability to communicate orally and in writing in the
12. Ability to apply knowledge in practical situations
native language
13. Ability to make decisions Ability to communicate in a foreign language
14. Ability to be critical and self-critical Ability to adapt to new situations
15. Ability to work autonomously Ability to organise and plan
16. Social responsibility and civic awareness Ability to address problems
17. Ability to communicate in a foreign language Ability to act ethically (ethical obligations)
18. Ability to act ethically (ethical obligations) Information and communication technology skills
Ability to respect the principle of equal opportunities Ability to communicate with people who are not
19.
and tolerance experts in the professional area of the worker
Ability to communicate with people who are not
20. Social responsibility and civic awareness
experts in the professional area of the worker

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Ability for abstract and analytical thinking and


21. Information and communication technology skills
synthesis of ideas
22. Ability to design and manage projects Ability to work in an international context
Ability to take account of diversity and
23. Ability to learn
multiculturalism
Ability for abstract and analytical thinking and
24. Ability to learn
synthesis of ideas
25. Attention to safety Ability to take the initiative and entrepreneurship
26. Ability to take the initiative and entrepreneurship Ability to design and manage projects
Ability to respect the principle of equal opportunities
27. Commitment to protect the environment
and tolerance
28. Ability to work in an international context Attention to safety
Ability to take account of diversity and
29. Commitment to protect the environment
multiculturalism
Ability to search for, process and analyse
30. Ability to undertake research
information from a variety of sources
Ability to search for, process and analyse
31. Ability to undertake research
information from a variety if sources

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

A n n e x 3. Distribution of subject-specific competences according to their


importance to the professional activities of a musician

No. Bachelor Master


Ability to perform professionally music of
1. Capacity to master artistic and techniqal skills
different styles, genres and forms
Knowledge of the conventions of musical
2. Capacity to master artistic and techniqal skills
interpretation in different styles, genres and forms
Ability to perform professionally music of different Knowledge of the conventions of musical
3.
styles, genres and forms interpretation in different styles, genres and forms
Capacity to perform the repertoire publicly in Knowledge of the music language (music theory,
4. various cultural and social contexts and ability to analysis, harmony, polyphony), composition
develop public performance experience techniques
Ability to analyse, critically assess and independently
5. Ability to control the body and emotions on stage
master distinct artistic skills
6. Ability to control the body and emotions on stage Ability to buil up and realise concert programmes
Awareness of standards of excellence and ability
Ability to actively participate in the development of
7. to convey the distinctive artistic concept through
musical culture
music performance
Ability to select and apply the most effective Ability to choose and apply professionally various
8.
practicing and music performance techniques artistic concepts of music performance
Ability to analyse, critically assess and
9. Ability to build up and realise concert programmes
independently master distinct artistic skills
Ability to create, articulate and communicate Ability to select and apply the most effective
10.
musical ideas in various public and social contexts practicing and music performance techniques
Knowledge of the musical language (music theory,
Ability to perform solo repertoire and in various
11. analysis, harmony, polyphony), and understanding
ensembles professionally and artistically
of composition techniques
Ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge Ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge
12. (aural capacities and knowledge of musical (aural capacities and knowledge of musical
repertoire) in music performance practice repertoire) in music performance practice
Ability to publicly perform the repertoire in
13. Ability to develop a distinct artistic voice various cultural and social contexts, and to develop
the public performance experience
Awareness of standards of excellence and ability to
14. convey the distinctive artistic concept through music Ability to develop a distinct artistic voice
performance
Ability to create opportunities for work and artistic Ability to actively participate in the development
15.
activities of musical culture
Ability to create self-employment opportunities
16. Ability to cooperate with other artists
and art-related job opportunities
Ability to understand the interrelationships between
17. Ability to cooperate with other artists
theoretical and practical studies
Possession of a large repertoire of major instrument
Ability to choose and apply professionally various
18. (voice) and ensemble music ranging from early to
artistic concepts of music performance
contemporary music
Possession of a large repertoire of major instrument
Ability to create, articulate and communicate
19. (voice) and ensemble music ranging from early to
musical ideas in various public and social contexts
contemporary music
Ability to perform solo repertoire and in various Ability to use new technologies in music learning
20.
ensembles professionally and artistically and research processes

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

Ability to analyse and critically assess creative


processes and their role in contemporary cultural Ability to assess a different demand of various
21. context, and music as culture in the changing audiences in music consumption and select the
context (production, distribution, consumption and most effective communication forms and ways
reception)
Awareness of music practicing and health
Knowledge of national and international contexts implications, safety and well-being of those
22.
for music performance activities involved in music practicing, performance and
production activities
Ability to analyse and critically assess creative
processes and their role in contemporary cultural
Knowledge of music historywithin specific cultural
23. context, and music as culture in the changing
contexts
context (production, distribution, consumption
and reception)
Ability to use new technologies in music learning Knowledge of music history within specific
24.
and research processes cultural contexts
Ability to communicateartistic ideas and artistic
Ability to use new technologies for development of
25. practice in writing, verbally and visually (where
new forms of artistic expression (where applicable)
applicable)
Ability to communicate artistic ideas and artistic
Knowledge of national and international contexts
26. practice in writing, verbally and visually (where
for music performance activities
applicable)
Awareness of music practicing and health
Knowledge of the principles and understanding
implications, safety and well-being of those involved
27. the system of art management and the legal side
in music practicing, performance and production
of artistic practice (copyright laws, patents, etc.)
activities
Knowledge of the principles and understanding
Ability to understand the interrelationships
28. the system of art management and the legal side of
between theoretical and practical studies
artistic practice (copyright laws, patents, etc.)
Ability to assess a different demand of various
Ability to use new technologies for development
29. audiences in music consumption and select the most
new forms of artistic expression (where applicable)
effective communication forms and ways
Ability to create different concepts that shape how Ability to create different concepts that shape how
30.
music is created and perceived music is created and perceived

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

A n n e x 4. Assessment of the importance of generic competences and skills


to the professional activities of a musician

Assessment of the importance of generic competences and


skills to professional activities (%)
Ability to respect the principle of equal opportunities and tolerance

Social responsibility and civic awareness

Commitment to protect the environment

Perseverance and determination in carrying out assignments and undertaken obligations

Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work (attention to quality)

Ability to act ethically (ethical obligations)

Ability to take the initiative and entrepreneurship

Attention to safety

Ability to design and manage projects

Ability to work autonomously

Ability to work in an international context

Ability to take account of diversity and multiculturalism

Ability to communicate with people who are not experts in the professional area of an employee

Ability to motivate people to move toward common goals

Interpersonal and communication skills

Ability to participate in group work

Ability to make decisions

Ability to address problems

Ability to generate new ideas (creativity)

Ability to adapt to new situations

Ability to be critical and self-critical Very important


Important
Ability to search for, process and analyse information from a variety of sources Unimportant
Not at all important
Ability to learn

Ability to carry out research

Information and communication technology skills

Ability to communicate in a foreign language

Ability to communicate orally and in writing in the native language

Knowledge of the subject area and understanding of one’s own profession

Ability to organise and plan

Ability to apply knowledge in practice

Ability for abstract thinking, analysis and organisation of information

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of music

A n n e x 5. Comparison of assessments of the importance of subject-specific


competences and skills of employees who have completed Bachelor and
Master degree programmes to professional activities25

Comparison of assessments of the importance of subject-specific competences and skills of


employees who have completed Bachelor and Master degree programmes to
professional activities
Ability to control the body and emotions on stage
Awarness of music practicing and health implications, safety and well-being of those involved
in music practicing, performance and production activities

Ability to use new technologies for development of new forms of artistic expression (where applicable)

Ability to use new technologies in music learning and research processes

Ability to create different concepts that shape how music is created and perceived

Knowledge of the principles and understanding the system of art management and
the legal side of artistic practice (copyright laws, patents, etc.)
Ability to create self-employment opportunities and art-related jobs

Ability to cooperate with other artists

Ability to actively participate in the development of music culture

Ability to assess the different demand of various audiences in music consumption and
select the most effective communication forms and ways Master
Ability to communicate artistic ideas and artistic practice in writing, verbally and visually (where applicable) Bachelor

Ability to create, articulate and communicate musical ideas in various public and social contexts

Ability to develop a distinct artistic voice

Ability to analyse, critically evaluate and independently master distinct artistic skills

Capacity to perform the repertoire publicly in various cultural and social contexts and
ability to develop public performance experience
Possession of a large repertoire of the major instrument (voice) and ensemble music
ranging from early to contemporary music
Awaresess of standards of excellence and ability to convey the distinctive
artistic concept through music performance

Ability to choose and apply professionally various artistic concepts of music performance

Ability to build up and realise concert programmes

Ability to perform professionally music of different styles, genres and forms

Knowledge of the conventions of music interpretation in different styles, genres and forms

Ability to select and apply the most effective practicing and music performing techniques
Ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge (aural capacities and
knowledge of musical repertoire) in music performance practice

Capacity to understand the interrelationship between theoretical and practical studies

Understanding of national and international contexts for music performance activity


Ability to analyse and critically assess creative processes and their role in
contemporary cultural context, and music in changing context

Knowledge of music history within specific cultural contexts


Knowledge of the musical language (music theory, analysis, harmony, polyphony),
and understanding of composition techniques
Capacity to master artistic and techniqal skills

Ability to perform solo repertoire and in various ensembles professionally and artistically

25
ECTS project. Average values of the assessment scale of 1 to 4 (1 means not at all important, 2 means unimportant, 3 means important and 4
means very important).

44 Back to table of contents



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