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Anatomy and Physiology 1.

Chemical level – atoms and

Anatomy – is the study of the structure of 2. Cellular level – cells (smallest,
normal body parts and its relationship with structural and functional unit)
the body. 3. Tissue level – group of cells as one
 Greek word anatome : ana means  Ex. Muscle and nerve neuron
apart; Tomy means to cut 4. Organ level – two or more group of
 Aka “Human Structural Biology” different tissues that functions as
4 divisions of Anatomy  Ex. Heart, kidney, liver
5. Organ system – composed of
1. Gross Anatomy/Gross HSB different body organs that
 Normal structure of the human functions as one
body that is large enough to be  Ex. Nervous system, digestive
identified by different senses. system
2. Microscopic Anatomy/HSB 6. Organismal level – highest level
 Normal minute or small ; cannot be (Marieb does not include to the
seen by the naked eye levels of organization)
 Histology – study of tissue
 Cytology – study of cells 11 major systems of the body
3. Embryology/ developmental HSB
1. Integumentary – body’s external
 Origin of sequence or pattern of
human body.
 Protection of deeper tissues in the
 From fertilization to adulthood
4. Neuroanatomy/ Neural HSB
 Ex. Skin, hair, nails
 The gross and microscopic featuring
2. Skeletal – functions as the support or
the development of the nervous
framework of the body
 Ex. Bones, tendons, ligaments,
Physiology – study of functions of the joints
body and how it works. 3. Muscular – composed of muscles ;
responsible for movement
5 divisions of physiology 4. Nervous – is composed of sensory
1. Cell physiology – studies the
 Responsible for body control
functions of a cell.
2. Neuro physiology – studies the
 Reaction to stimuli
functions of the nervous system.
 Ex. Brain, spinal cord, nerves
3. Sports physiology – studies of the
5. Endocrine – composed of glands
functions of the body in relation to
sports.  together with the nervous system,
4. Pathophysiology – studies the controls body activities together
functions of the body as it reacts to with Nervous system but slower
certain diseases. because it uses hormones
6. Cardiovascular – responsible for the
 Patho– diseases
distribution of gas and nutrients
5. Cardiovascular physiology – studies
the functions of the body with  Responsible for blood circulation
heart and blood vessels.  Ex. Heart, blood vessel
7. Lymphatic – returns leaked fluid to the
Level of structural organization blood vessels
 Cleanses the body and important Terms for position and direction
for body’s immunity
1. Cranial/ superior/ rostral – near the head,
 Ex. Lymph nodes, spleens, tonsils
upper part, above
8. Respiratory – responsible for flow of  Ex. The head is superior to the abdomen head
gases and exchanging of gases in the is above the abdomen)
body (O2 and CO2) 2. Caudal/ inferior – near the feet, lower part,
 ex. Lungs, nasal cavity, throat below
9. Digestive –responsible for ingestion  Ex. The mouth is inferior to the nose (mouth is
and breakdown of food and nutrients below the nose)
 Ex. Stomach, intestine & oral cavity 3. Anterior/ventral – front
10. Urinary/ excretory – for excretion and  Ex. The breastbone is anterior to the spine
filtering of the body fluids (breastbone is in front of the spine)
4. Posterior/ dorsal – back
 Ex. Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder
 Ex. The heart is posterior to the breastbone
11. Reproductive – for reproduction and
(heart is behind the breastbone)
formation of offspring 5. Medial – near the midline/ middle
 Accessory organs  Ex. The heart is medial to the arm (heart is
 Ex. Ovary, testes more middle of the body than the arm)
6. Lateral – away from the midline (more
Normal anatomical position external)
 Ex. Arms are lateral to the chest (arms are
 Basic standing position
more on the outer side of the body)
 Shoulder width apart of the feet 7. Proximal – close to the origin of the body
 Palms facing forward (near the trunk)
 For extremities or segments only (upper and
3 cardinal planes of the body lower limbs)
1. Sagittal / YZ plane– divides into left and  Ex. Elbow is proximal to the wrist (elbow is
near the wrist)
right (lengthwise)
 Point of origin : TRUNK
2. Coronal/ frontal / XY plane – divides the
8. Distal – far from the origin (only the upper and
body anterior (front) and posterior (back) lower)
3. Transverse/ horizontal / XZ plane –  Ex. The knee is distal to the thigh (thigh is in
divides the body upper and lower half upper of the knee)
4. Midsagittal/ median – under sagittal  For extremities or segments only (upper and
 Midline or equally divided into right and lower limbs)
left  Point of origin : TRUNK
9. Superficial (external) – near the surface (skin
or covering) or towards
 Ex. Skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
(the skin is in external of the skeletal muscles)
10. Deep (internal) – away from the body
 Ex. The lungs is deep to the chest (lungs is
inside the chest)
11. Ipsilateral – (ipsi ) same side of the body ; right
or left
 for laterality
 Ex. Right arm is ipsilateral to the right hand
(both on the right side)
12. Contralateral – opposite side
 Ex. Right arm is contralateral to the left hand
(one is in the right, another on is in the left)
 For laterality
Terms associated with movement

1. Flexion – shortening of muscle ; bending the Ventral cavity

body part ; acute angle
 Extension – lengthening of muscle ; Three subdivisions:
straightening the body part ; obtuse angle
 Thoracic
2. Abduction – away from the body/ trunk - pleural cavity (lungs)
 Adduction – toward the body trunk - Mediastinum and pericardial cavity
3. Circumduction – combination of flexion-  Abdominal
extension and abduction-adduction - oval shaped
 Happens only in hip and shoulder joints - largest cavity
4. Rotation – moving segment in a circular
- Contains the stomach, intestine, liver
motion. (parang twist)
o Rotation of the neck – only look right
and left  Pelvic
o Trunk – side to side - funnel shaped that serves as an
extension of the abdominal cavity
5. Protraction – moving segment to anterior/ - contains the urinary bladder, anus,
front uterus
 Retraction – moving segment to
posterior/back Dorsal cavity
 Only in scapula, shoulder and jaw
2 sub divisions
6. Elevation – moving segment superior/ up
 Depression – moving segment inferior/down  Cranial Cavity – contains the brain ;
 Only in shoulder and jaw bounded by the skull/cranial bones
 Vertebral Cavity – spinal cord ; bounded
7. Pronation – palms facing the front (in normal by the vertebrae
anatomic position)
 Supination – palms facing the back (in normal
anatomic position)
 Only used in forearms and foot
 Yung humihingi ng pera example

8. Inversion – moving sole of the foot inward (for

foot only)
 Eversion – moving sole of the foot outward
(for foot only)

Body cavities – spaces inside the body that

contains the different organs

2 Division:
 Dorsal (posterior) (back)
 Ventral (anterior) (front)
Regional terms/ Body Landmarks


1. Abdominal – anterior body trunk inferior 1. Calcaneal – heel of foot

to ribs 2. Cephalic – head
2. Acromial – point of shoulder 3. Femoral – thigh
3. Antebrachial – forearm 4. Gluteal – buttock
4. Antecubital – anterior surface of the 5. Lumbar – area of back between ribs and
elbow hips, the loin; Lower back
Cubital – posterior surface of the elbow 6. Occipital – posterior surface of head or
5. Axillary – armpit base of skull
6. Brachial – arm 7. Olecranal – posterior surface of elbow
7. Buccal – cheek area 8. Popliteal – posterior knee area
8. Carpal – wrist 9. Sacral – area between hips
9. Coxal – hip 10. Scapular – shoulder blade region
10. Crucal – leg 11. Sural – the posterior surface of the leg; the
11. Deltoid – curve shoulder formed by large calf
deltoid muscle 12. Vertebral – area of spinal column
12. Digital – fingers, toes
Plantar – sole of the foot
13. Femoral – thigh
14. Fibular – lateral part of leg
15. Frontal – forehead
16. Inguinal –thigh meets body trunk; groin
17. Mental – chin
18. Nasal – nose area
19. Oral – mouth
20. Orbital – eye area
21. Patellar – anterior knee
22. Pelvic – area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
23. Pubic – genital region
24. Sternal – breastbone area
25. Tarsal – ankle region
26. Thoracic – chest
27. Umbilical – navel