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Internship Report

Submitted by: Abdullah Ibraheem


(F16-ME-103)

Submitted to: Mechanical Team Leader/


Mechanical Engineer

Field: Sawan Gas Field (OMV Pakistan)

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Acknowledgement
The time I spent in OMV Pakistan Exploration and Production as
an intern from 21 June 2018 to 16 July 2018 was a memorable one
for me as it was rich in experience sharing and helped me discover
my potential. I have had so many rich experiences and opportunities
that I personally believe will forever shape and influence my
professional life while fostering personal growth and development.
• My internship would not have been possible without the
contribution and collaboration of others. My sincere gratitude:

• To Almighty Allah who granted me health and long life,


without which I could not have finished this internship; • Mr.
Ghulam Jilani, who is the Team leader of Mechanical Department
(OMV Pakistan). I want to thank him, guide me through my
internship with advice and feedback despite his busy schedule;

• senior technician, Muhammad Iqbal javed for his technical


support and constant supervision which contributed immensely to
my personal development. I also thank him for his guidance which
was a remarkable force that enabled me to successfully complete the
internship program. he helped and coached me during my
internship by giving me feedback and tips on how to handle and
approach situations;
• To the rest of the OMV staff for their support and guidance
which helped me to overcome the challenges I faced during the past
4 weeks in Sawan Gas field (omv);
• Last but not least, special thanks to all Mechanical staff for
sharing their experiences, time and commitment especially during

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finishing this internship program. I am grateful because I have a lot
of friends who were always there for me to help and support me
throughout the course of completing the internship program.

History of OMV:
OMV (formerly abbreviation for Österreichische
Mineralölverwaltung (English: Austrian Mineral Oil
Administration)) is an Austrian integrated oil and gas company
which is headquartered in Vienna, Austria. It is active in the
upstream and downstream businesses. The history of OMV began
on July 3, 1956, when the company then known as “Österreichische
Mineralölverwaltungs Aktiengesellschaft” was officially entered into
the commercial register.
Information:
OMV (Pakistan) started exploration activities in the desert of Sindh
in 1991 and its first major breakthrough in 1993 was the discovery
of a natural gas reservoir called “Miano” in the Thar Desert,
District Sukkur. In continuation of its efforts the Sawan gas field, in
district Khairpur was discovered in 1998 which is presently the
fourth largest gas producer. OMV (Pakistan) currently holds
interests in five exploration blocks, of which three (South West
Miano II, Gambat and Latif) are operated by OMV and two
(Zamurdan and Sari South) as non‐operating interest. The
company’s recent discoveries in early 2007 in its exploration licenses
Latif and Gambat blocks in the northern Sindh Province have
opened the potential for further discoveries in the vicinity. New
acreage in Baluchistan has also been acquired. OMV has also
promoted local companies to become partners in its international
ventures. OMV is the biggest international natural gas producer in

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terms of operated volumes in Pakistan. As the operator of the
Sawan, as well as the Kadanwari processing facilities, The Company
has made significant contributions towards the Government
exchequer with to date investments of USD 957 Million. Presence of
OMV and its sustained growth in Pakistan since 1990 is a source of
confidence for attracting new foreign investors. OMV (Pakistan) is
very conscious of its adherence to its outlined policies, HSEQ
standards and most importantly, the local laws and works hard to
address economic, environmental and social issues related to its
worldwide operations. Our Health, Safety and Environmental
standards are parallel to the highest international level and second
to none in the local perspective. The company ranks internationally
as the eighth world’s most sustainable and ethical oil company in
2008. OMV (Pakistan) Community Development Program (CDP)
aims for sustainable developments in its concession areas ensuring
the maximum involvement and ownership of the local community.
In recognition of its community development project on Hepatitis
OMV holds also the honor of receiving the TRIGOS 2007 Award.

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There are four departments at OMV Pakistan

Maintenance
HSSE (Health, Safety, Security, Environment)
Production
Logistic

HSSE (Health, Safety, Security, and


Environment)
OMV HSSE Policy:

 HSSE is a line management responsibility with equal importance


as all other business processes.

 Everyone who works with OMV Group should return home in


good mental and physical health.

 All workplaces and processes must be safe for us, our stakeholders
and the environment.

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Permit to Work:
Different forms included in the work permit system
that include the following:

Permits:
Cold Work Permit
Hot Work Permit
Vehicle Entry Permit
Spark Potential Permit

Certificates:
Heavy Lift Certificate
De-Isolation for Test Certificate
Electrical/Instrument Isolation Certificate
Process/Mechanical Isolation Certificate
Safety System Defeat Certificate
Confined Space Entry Certificate
Excavation Certificate
Radiography Certificate

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MAINTAINANCE:
there are three sub – department of
maintenance such as

Maintainance

Mechanical instrument Electrical

Mechanical divided into two section

rotary
Mechanical
static

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Rotary:
Rotary is divided following section.
Gas Turbines
Pumps
Gas Engines
Compressors
Fans and PSV

Pumps

Following of the type of the Pumps

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Pumps:
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases),
or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be
classified into three major groups according to the method they
use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity
pumps.

Centrifugal pumps:
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the
conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic
energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes
from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump
impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by
the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser
or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits.

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How it works
Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts rotational energy,
often from a motor, to energy in a moving fluid. A portion of the
energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially
through eye of the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades,
and is whirled tangentially and radially outward until it leaves
through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser
part of the casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure
while passing through the impeller. The doughnut-shaped
diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing decelerates the flow and
further increases the pressure. It is important to note that the
water is not pushed radially outward by centrifugal force (non-
existent force), but rather by inertia, the natural tendency of an
object to continue in a straight line (tangent to the radius) when
traveling around circle. This can be
compared to the way a spin-cycle
works in a washing machine.

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Efficiency factor:
is the mechanics input power required (W)
is the fluid density (kg/m3)
is the standard acceleration of gravity (9.80665 m/s2)
is the energy Head added to the flow (m)
is the flow rate (m3/s)
is the efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal
The head added by the pump ( ) is a sum of the static lift, the
head loss due to friction and any losses due to valves or pipe
bends all expressed in meters of fluid. Power is more commonly
expressed as kilowatts (103 W, kW) or horsepower (hp*0.746 =
kW). The value for the pump efficiency, , may be stated for
the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and
motor system.

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Components of Centrifugal Pump:

Packing or Casing Impeller


Mechanical Seal

Coupling Shaft Bearings

Mechanical Seal:
A mechanical seal is a device that helps join systems
or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g. in
a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding
contamination. The effectiveness of a seal is dependent on
adhesion in the case of sealants and compression in the case
of gaskets.
A stationary seal may also be referred to as 'packing'.
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Casing:
The volute of a centrifugal pump is the casing that receives
the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing down the fluid's
rate of flow. A volute is a curved funnel that increases in area as
it approaches the discharge port. The volute converts kinetic
energy into pressure by reducing speed while increasing
pressure, helping to balance the hydraulic pressure on
the shaft of the pump.

Impeller:
An impeller is a rotor used to increase (or decrease in case
of turbines) the pressure and flow of a fluid. The velocity
achieved by the
impeller transfers into pressure when the outward movement of
the fluid is confined by
the pump casing.

Bearing:
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion
to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving
parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for
free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation
around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling
the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Most
bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction.
Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of
operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads
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(forces) applied to the parts.
Coupling:
A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts
together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power.
Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during
operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which
can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded.
The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of
rotating equipment while permitting some degree of
misalignment or end movement or both. By careful selection,
installation and maintenance of couplings, substantial savings
can be made in reduced maintenance costs and downtime

there are three types of pumps used at Sawan gas Field .


Centrifugal Pumps
Plunger Pumps
Screw Pumps

Screw Pumps:
A screw pump is a positive-displacement (PD) pump that
use one or several screws to move fluids or solids along the
screw(s) axis. In its simplest form (the Archimedes' screw
pump), a single screw rotates in a cylindrical cavity,
thereby moving the material along the screw's spindle. This
ancient construction is still used in many low-tech

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applications, such as irrigation systems and in agricultural
machinery for transporting grain and other solids.
Development of the screw pump has led to a variety of
multiple-axis technologies where carefully crafted screws
rotate in opposite directions or remains stationary within a
cavity. The cavity can be profiled, thereby creating cavities
where the pumped material is "trapped".

Working Principle:
Working principle of a screw pump is simple. A screw pump has
generally stator and
rotor. When the rotor rotates with the help of a motor then it
generates suction pressure so the
fluid gets in and by the movement of the screw a pressure is
exerted on the fluid present
between stator and rotor. A centrifugal force also acts which will
increase the force on fluid.
Hence pressure is developed when the fluid moves out of the
stator.

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Components of screw pumps:
Main components such as

Connecting
Crank shaft Piston
rod

Suction and
Plunger Cylinders discharge
valve

Pumps are work in Sawan gas Field


I have observed following pumps used in this Field:

Amine Booster Pump :


It is a horizontal, single stage centrifugal pump with closed
impeller. Axial and radial
forces are taken by antifriction bearing. These bearings are
lubricated by oil. The shaft is

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sealed with a mechanical seal. They boost lean amine from
lean/rich amine exchanger to lean
amine cooler.

Produced Water Transfer Pump:


It is single stage centrifugal pump. It has single suction and semi
open impeller for
increased flow, which also helps in removing any particles
through discharge so that no particles
can damage the pump.

Lean Amine Pump :


It is a horizontal, multi stage centrifugal heavy duty pump with
closed impellers arranged
in opposite position groups for low axial forces. They too have
anti friction bearings to absorb
axial and radial forces. The pump shaft is sealed by single acting
balanced mechanical seal.
They pump lean amine into CO2/H2S absorber.

Hot Oil Pump :


These special types of seal less centrifugal magnetic drive
pumps, they use no shaft seal.
They are leak proof and trouble free, they are suitable for all
boiler circulation, hot fuels and
any application where leakages or escape of fumes are not
desired. They are end suction, top
discharge and single stage with closed impellers.

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Produced Water Injection Pump:
It is the only reciprocating pump (PD pump) installed at the
plant, it has three plungers
(triplex) that operate at alternating strokes and drive the liquid at
around 10 bars. Pulsation
dampers are also installed at the inlet and discharge because of
variations in flow/pressure in
reciprocating pumps. It is pulley driven and has no coupling.

Fire Pump :
It is a centrifugal single stage. It has double suction for increased
flow at discharge and this
feature also balances the axial forces during suction. It is
supported by fire water jockey
pumps (maintain a constant pressure in the fire hoses).

Cooling Tower Pump :


It is a centrifugal single stage pump. It has single suction and
semi open impeller for increased
flow, which also helps in removing any particles through
discharge so that no particles can
damage the pump.

Condensate fuel pump :


It is a single screw pump. It is used because different
contaminants may be present in the
condensate. It is used because high pressure is required to
transfer fuel from condensate tank to hot
oil incinerator.

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Amine Booster Pump :
It is a horizontal, single stage centrifugal pump with closed
impeller. Axial and radial
forces are taken by antifriction bearing. These bearings are
lubricated by oil. The shaft is
sealed with a mechanical seal. They boost lean amine from
lean/rich amine exchanger to lean
amine cooler.

Produced Water Transfer Pump:


It is single stage centrifugal pump. It has single suction and semi
open impeller for
increased flow, which also helps in removing any particles
through discharge so that no particles can damage the pump.

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Wärtsilä W220 Gas Engines:

the warsila 220 SG is supercharged


gas engine (4 stroke pre-chamber
ignition) available in 18 cylinder
V versions. It is designed for 140
bars maximum combustion
pressure. it has been designed with
a view to maximizing component
integration and keeping the number
of components down.
Top view:

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It is a four-stroke and spark ignited gas engine that works
according to the lean
burn process. The engine runs at 1500 RPM and 50 Hz
frequency for the power generation and
produces 3.3Mw mechanical power. In this field there are total 5
such engines i.e. three at running and
two standby.

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General Process of Gas Engine:
It is 18 cylinder engine used for power generation. One crank
shaft and two cam shafts
are used in it. It is used to drive a generator. Nine cylinders are
at one side and other nine are
on the other side.

Pneumatic motor:
Initially a motor is used to drive the shaft. When speed of engine
reaches to 150 RPM,
teeth are disengaged so that motor gear cannot be damaged.
Compressed air is used to initially
start the motor.

PCC and MCC:


Primary Combustion Chamber (PCC) is used to for initial
burning. Then gas in rich
amount is added in the Main combustion Chamber (MCC).
Compressed air from the
compressors, run by a turbocharger which is at the exhaust
gases, comes in the MCC. A larger
flame produced in PCC is also added in MCC at the same time
so combustion is done to
produce power.

Filters:
Primary and secondary filter is used to clean the air. Three filters
are used for lube oil.
One centrifuge filter is used to check moisture in the oil.

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Cooling System
The cooling system comprises of two cooling circuits: the low
temperature circuit
(LT) and the high temperature circuit (HT).The water in the low
temperature circuit cools the
charge air cooler and the lube oil exchanger in parallel. The
water in the high temperature
circuit cools the cylinders, cylinder heads, engine block, charge
air and non-insulated part of
the exhaust system. A dual centrifugal pump circulates coolant
in both circuits. It is fitted with
two impellers, one for LT and the other for HT circuit. The
temperatures of the coolant are
controlled by a sensitive thermostatic valve.
After taking heat from the engine, the water is also cooled which
is recycled. Cooling
of LT and HT is done by using trim air cooler. But to reduce
temperature of LT further
Plate type heat exchanger is used. Ventilation is done by the
atmospheric air. Before
entering in the engine room air is filtered and blowers are used
to throw air.

Lubricating Oil System


It consists of oil sump, oil pump, by pass centrifuge filter and
lubricating oil
module. Lubricating oil module provides oil to camshafts and its
bearings, gear drive, main
channel, valve tappets and cylinder head valve mechanism. The
main channel provides oil

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to crankshaft bearings, connecting rod and its bearings, piston
pin bushes and cylinder
liners.
Main oil filters are full flow filters, they consist of three filters
of paper size 15
micrometer. Centrifuge filter also known as centrifuge by pass
filter since only 10% of the
lubricating oil passes through this. It is driven by oil jetting out
from nozzles. Gear pump is
used for pre- lubrication.

Turbocharger
Turbocharger is used to increase pressure and density of the air
being supplied to
the engine, this increases the power output of the engine. The
exhaust gases at a
temperature of 430˚C run the turbine, which is connected to a
compressor with a shaft.
Compressor is installed in the intake of air.

Charge Air Cooler:


Charge air cooler is used to cool engine intake air after passing
through the
compressor prior to engine intake manifold for increased power
and improve fuel efficiency.

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Process:
Fins are used so that air can stay sometime and exchanging of
heat can occur. Fins are
made throughout and tubes of LT and HT are inserted by
drilling holes in these fins.
The process is done so that passes through fins and cooled water
for tubes. To avoid
condensation, first air comes in contact with HT water tubes and
then LT water tubes.

Purpose of charge air cooler:


When air passes through turbo charger then its pressure and
pressure increases so air
becomes less done, more volume of air is fed in the combustion
chamber and more power is
produced. Temperature is reduced up to the atmospheric
pressure. If temperature is reduced
further, it is metallurgical unsafe because it produces thrust

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SGT 200 Gas turbine
general information:
The gas turbine is the most versatile item of turbomachinery
today. It can be used in several different modes in critical
industries such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants,
aviation, as well domestic and smaller related industries. A gas
turbine essentially brings together air that it compresses in its
compressor module, and fuel, that are then ignited. Resulting
gases are expanded through a turbine. That turbine’s shaft
continues to rotate and drive the compressor which is on the
same shaft, and operation continues.

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“Obey the Brayton cycle principle”
Brayton cycle:
 adiabatic process – compression
 isobaric process – heat addition
 adiabatic process – expansion
 4.isobaric process – heat rejection

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1-2 Air drawn from atmosphere and compressed
2-3 Fuel added and combustion takes place at constant
pressure
3-4 Hot gases expanded through turbine and work extracted

Bladed Turbine Disc

Combustion
■ 8 reverse flow tubular combustion chambers
■ Conventional combustion system option - 2 retractable high
energy ignitors - Cross lighting between chambers
■ Dry Low Emissions (DLE) combustion system option - Single
high energy ignitor in each chamber
■ Steam injection option for power augmentation

Principal Features
■ Dual fuel Dry Low Emissions (DLE) combustion system,
meeting the latest legislation

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■ Site maintainability
■ Alternate rapid core engine exchange option
■ Compressor cleaning both on and off-line
■ Compact size with low weight-to-power ratio
■ Highly competitive cost-to-power ratio with very low
installation costs

Fuel System
■ Natural gas - Liquid fuel - Dual fuel
■ Other fuels capability available on request
■ Automatic changeover from primary to secondary fuel at any
load

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Technical Data Sheet:

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STATIC:
Following of the works for the static side.

Fin Fan Cooler:


A Fin Fan Cooler, also known as an Air Cooled Heat
Exchanger, is a type of heat exchanger used to cool different
processes in the refining, petrochemical, and chemical
processing industries. Using a series of fans, fin fan coolers
move low temperature atmospheric ambient air over multiple
rows of finned tubes in order to cool internal process fluids. Like
all heat exchangers, they are Often used in situations where a
process generates excess
heat that can’t be used in other
ways.

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valve:
Valves are mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a
system or process. They are essential components of a piping system that conveys liquids, gases,
vapors, slurries etc..
Different types of valves are available: gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly, check, diaphragm, pinch,
pressure relief, control valves etc. Each of these types has a number of models, each with
different features and functional capabilities. Some valves are self-operated while others
manually or with an actuator or pneumatic or hydraulic is operated.
FUNCTIONS FROM VALVES ARE:

 Stopping and starting flow


 Reduce or increase a flow
 Controlling the direction of flow
 Regulating a flow or process pressure
 Relieve a pipe system of a certain pressure

Valve Body
The valve body, sometimes called the shell, is the primary boundary
of a pressure valve. He serves as the main element of a valve
assembly because it is the framework that holds all the parts together.
The body, the first pressure boundary of a valve, resists fluid pressure loads from connecting
piping. It receives inlet and outlet piping through threaded, bolted, or welded joints.
The valve-body ends are designed to connect the valve to the piping or equipment nozzle by
different types of end connections, such as butt or socket welded, threaded or flanged.
Valve bodies are cast or forged in a variety of forms and each component have a specific
function and constructed in a material suitable for that function.

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Valve Bonnet
The cover for the opening in the body is the bonnet, and it is the second most important
boundary of a pressure valve. Like valve bodies, bonnets are in many designs and models
available.
A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body, is cast or forged of the same material as the body. It
is commonly connected to the body by a threaded, bolted, or welded joint. During manufacture
of the valve, the internal components, such as stem, disk etc., are put into the body and then the
bonnet is attached to hold all parts together inside.
In all cases, the attachment of the bonnet to the body is considered a pressure boundary. This
means that the weld joint or bolts that connect the bonnet to the body are pressure-retaining
parts. Valve bonnets, although a necessity for most valves, represent a cause for concern.
Bonnets can complicate the manufacture of valves, increase valve size, represent a significant
cost portion of valve cost, and are a source for potential leakage

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Types of the valve:

Gate:
Gate valves open and close pipes by lowering metal gates across them.
Most valves of this kind are designed to be either fully open or fully
closed and may not function properly when they are only part-way open.
Water supply pipes use valves like this.

 Ball: In a ball valve, a hollowed-out sphere (the ball) sits tightly


inside a pipe, completely blocking the fluid flow. When you turn
the handle, it makes the ball swivel through ninety degrees,
allowing the fluid to flow through the middle of it.

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 Butterfly:
A butterfly valve is a disk that sits in the middle of a pipe and
swivels sideways (to admit fluid) or upright (to block the flow
completely).

Globe:
Water faucets (taps) are examples of globe valves. When you turn
the handle, you screw a valve upward and this allows pressurized
water to flow up through a pipe and out through the spout below.
Unlike a gate or sluice, a valve like this can be set to allow more or
less fluid through it.
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check valve
A check valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas)
to flow through it in only one direction.

Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in
the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. There are
various types of check valves used in a wide variety of applications.
Check valves are often part of common household items. Although they
are available in a wide range of sizes and costs, check valves generally
are very small, simple, or inexpensive. Check valves work automatically
and most are not controlled by a person or any external control;
accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies
(external shells) of most check valves are made of plastic or metal.

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pressure relief valve (PRV) is a type of safety valve used to
control or limit the pressure in a
system; pressure might otherwise build
up and create a process upset,
instrument or equipment failure, or fire.
The pressure is relieved by allowing
the pressurized fluid to flow from an
auxiliary passage out of the system.
The relief valve is designed or set to
open at a predetermined set pressure to
protect pressure vessels and other
equipment from being subjected to
pressures that exceed their design
limits. When the set pressure is
exceeded, the relief valve becomes the
"path of least resistance" as the valve
is forced open and a portion of the
fluid is diverted through the auxiliary
route.

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Cooling tower:
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to
the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower
temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to
remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air
temperature . Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling
water or other working medium to the near ambient temperature.
Evaporative cooling of re-circulated water is achieved by spreading it
over a large surface area through spraying, splashing or film formation.
As air flows through the tower it comes in direct contact with water.

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There are two types of cooling tower:
 Mechanical draft tower
 Natural draft tower

Natural draft cooling towers


As their name implies, natural draft cooling towers rely on natural
convection to circulate air throughout the tower, which then cools the
water. Air movement occurs due to differences in density between the
entering air and the internal air within the tower. Warm, moist air, which
is more dense than cool air, will naturally rise through the tower, while
the dry, cool air from outside will fall, creating a constant cycle of air
flow.

Mechanical draft cooling towers


Unlike natural draft cooling towers, mechanical draft cooling towers
employ fans or other mechanics to circulate air through the tower.
Common fans used in these towers include propeller fans and centrifugal
fans. Mechanical draft towers are more effective than natural draft
towers, and can even be located inside a building when exhausted
properly. However, they consume more power than natural draft cooling
towers and cost more to operate as a result.

Mechanical draft is further divided into:


 Forced draft
 Induced draft
` At Sawan, two induced draft cooling towers are used in the utility to
supply water where it is required in the plant area. Two forced draft
cooling tower is used in the condenser of HVAC system.

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Heat Exchanger:
A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer
thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between
a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a
fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact.

SHELL AND TUBE TYPE HEAT


EXCHANGE:
A Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger. It
is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and
other large chemical processes. As its name implies, this type of
heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large vessel) with a bundle
of tubes inside it.
application
Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the
heat exchanger. One flows through the tubes (the tube side) and
the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell (the shell
side). Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other through the
tube walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa. The
fluids can be either liquids or gases on either the shell or the
tube side. In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat
transfer area should be used, so there are many tubes. In this
way, waste heat can be put to use. This is a great way to
conserve energy. Heat exchangers with only one phase (liquid or
gas) on each side can be called one-phase or single-phase heat
exchangers. Two-phase heat exchangers can be used to heat a
liquid to boil it into a gas (vapor), sometimes called boilers, or
cool a vapor to condense it into a liquid
(called condensers), with the phase change usually occurring on
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the shell side. Boilers in steam engine locomotives
are typically large, usually cylindrically-shaped shell-and-tube
heat exchangers. In large power plants with steam-driven
turbines, shell-and-tube (see Condenser (steam turbine) )
condensers are used to condense the exhaust steam exiting the
turbine into condensate water which can be recycled back to be
turned into steam, possibly into a shell-and-tube type boiler.

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Plate Type Heat Exchanger:
A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses
metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids. This has a
major advantage over a conventional heat exchanger in that the
fluids are exposed to a much larger surface area because the
fluids spread out over the plates.
 Easily opened for cleaning
 High Efficiency-smaller size
 Horizontal or Chevron pattern corrugation plates with
Nitrile rubber joint
 Plates are held together against an end plates with clamping
bolts
Four branch pipes, align with ports in plates for two fluids
Seals around ports allow fluid in alternate passages between
plates Fluids Flow in opposite direction
Plate corrugations promote
turbulent flow for efficient
heat transfer.

Corrugations makes plates stiff –


permitting thin plates, also increase plate area for heat
efficiency. Excess turbulence is avoided using moderate flow to
reduce erosion.
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HVAC systems:
General information:
HVAC is an acronym that stands for “heating, ventilation and
air-conditioning.” HVAC is the technology of indoor and vehicular
environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and
acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline
of mechanical engineering, based on the principles
of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.
HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family
homes, apartment buildings, hotels and senior living facilities, medium
to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals,
on ships and submarines, and in marine environments,
where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to
temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors.
Ventilating or ventilation (the V in HVAC) is the process of exchanging
or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality which
involves temperature control, oxygen replenishment, and removal
of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon dioxide,
and other gases.

Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture,


introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, and
prevents stagnation of the interior air.
Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside
as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most
important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in
buildings.

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York UDHF 44DD model chiller

In sawan gas field , there is used two


York UDHF 44DD model chillers; one is
running while the other is for backup and it
is a centrifugal chiller with one impeller
and single stage.
there are two 2 pass evaporator and 181
tubes in which contain chill water circulates
, there is refrigerant R-134a in the shell.
two working while one is backup suck in
hot water from the LQ ,
Three primary pumps (centrifugal),
Warehouse, Workshop, Lab & site
office area and pass it to the evaporator
where the refrigerant absorbs heat and
turns to vapor form. Then these vapors
pass through the centrifugal compressor
where they are compressed to high
pressure and are passed through into the

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condenser. While the hot water gets cooled to chilled water and is passed
onto the areas mentioned above by the three secondary pumps
(centrifugal), two are working while one is for backup.
In the condenser (2 passes) there is
cooling water (provided by the two
centrifugal pumps, one running and one
for backup) running in the 261 tubes
while the shell contains refrigerant in
liquid as well as vapor form. As the
vapors of refrigerant fall in the
condenser they get cooled by
the cooling water and hence condense
into liquid form. In the respective rooms there are fan coil units, the
chilled water from the evaporator passes through the coils and a blower
blows air on these coils which cools the air passing it into the rooms.
And A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-
compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then be
circulated through a heat exchanger to cool equipment, or another
process stream (such as air or process water). As a necessary by product,
refrigeration creates waste heat that must be exhausted to ambience, or
for greater efficiency, recovered for heating purposes.

Jobs done
The mechanical seal of the centrifugal pump which brought chilled
water from the cooling tower to the chiller was leaking. We
changed the seal as the previous one had damaged face.

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CONCLUSION

During 4 weeks training period, I gained a lot of experience,


knowledge and exposure. All disclosures were awakening me in
a boost of self-confidence to face life more challenging now.
Practical is a complement to the science or theory learned. This
is clearly the concept of science and charity, where they have
learned without practice will be lost and will not give anything -
what effect. So if we do without the knowledge of course there
will be problems in terms of grip and stance ever - changing.

During my field training, there are many changes from the point
of learning environments and discussion among colleagues. It
can directly increase the dedication and rational attitude toward
myself.

However, there are still some weaknesses that can be improved


in the future. Therefore I conclude that the industrial training
program has provided many benefits to students even if there are
minor flaws that are somewhat disfiguring condition , so that
this weakness can be rectified in the future.

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