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Radiation Safety Refresher Course

29-31 August 2018

EEI Corporation
#12 Manggahan St., Bagumbayan, Quezon City

Nuclear Training Center

Technology Diffusion Division
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute

• To be able to clearly explain the entire leak testing
service of the RPSS-PNRI

• To be able to improve the swipe sampling/leak

testing technique

• To be able to gather comments (if any) from the

RSOs in order to improve the leak testing procedures
of the PNRI and of the licensees
• Safety reminder when handling sealed sources
• Frequency of leak testing
• Materials needed for wipe and leak tests
• Examples of sealed sources
• Example of typical procedure for wipe/leak test
• Equation for removable activity
• Processing of smear samples
• Recordkeeping requirement
• Fees for leak test and swipe sample analysis
• Leak testing of sealed sources is one of the
Regulatory requirements as indicated in the
Code of PNRI Regulations (CPR)
• It can be performed by the licensee as long as
the procedure (under the requirements of
Radiation Safety Program) is approved by the
• Radiation Protection Services Section (RPSS)
of the PNRI upon request can also perform
the leak testing
• Check sources are not required to be leaked tested if
the activity is within the activities as indicated in
Appendix A, Exempt Quantities of Radioactive Materials
of CPR Part 3: Licensing of Radioactive Material

• 10 µCi for Cs-137 and 0.1 µCi for Sr-90

• Encapsulated sources can develop leak during
continued use or storage thereby subjecting to
contamination plant equipment and personnel.
• Leaking sources must be detected as early as
possible so that these can be withdrawn from use
as soon as possible to prevent or minimize
• After decontamination, leaking sources must be
sealed in a hermetic container and disposed of
according to the Institute regulations.
• There are several methods of testing sealed
sources for leakage, but the swipe method is most
commonly used. In the swipe method, the
surfaces at or near the opening of the shielded
container are swiped with such material as filter
paper or cotton which is counted in a calibrated
• Detection of greater than 185 Bq (0.005 µCi) of
removable contamination, for gamma & beta
emitters, indicate that the sealed source is leaking
Leak Test and Wipe Test
Leak Test and Wipe Test
Safety Reminder When Handling
Sealed Sources
Sealed Sources In Industrial
Sealed Sources
Frequency of Leak testing
Materials Needed
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing

• Before performing, make sure

the device is in the storage or
SAFE position (if applicable and
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing

• A plan showing the sampling

points on a nuclear
device/radioactive material
can be prepared for faster
swipe sampling
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
• Wipe sampling should be
performed using gloves
and/or tongs/tweezers
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing

• For devices with 2 or more

radioactive materials, separate
wipe sampling shall be
• Separate plastic holders shall
also be prepared
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
• After performing the wipe sampling,
seal the plastic holder/container
with tape or sealer
• Write in a piece of paper the
personnel who performed the wipe
sampling, the model and serial
number of the gauge, the date
wipe sampling was performed
Typical Procedure for Leak Testing
• Check each smear sample
for gross contamination
using doserate or
contamination meter

• The meter should be set

into the most sensitive
Removable Activity
Equation for Removable Activity
Processing of Swipe Samples
• Swipe samples are being processed in these alpha and beta-
gamma counters of the PNRI Radiation Protection Services
Section (RPSS)
Processing of Swipe Samples
• Swipe samples are being read in this slot below the detector;
about an inch in diameter
Leak test Result Example
Calibration of Alpha and Beta-
Gamma Counters
Recordkeeping Requirement
a) The licensee shall retain a record of the results of leak tests on sealed
sources as required by CPR for two (2) years or until the sealed sources
are transferred or disposed.

b) The records must contain:

1. The model number, and serial number if assigned, of each source
2. The identity of each source radionuclide and its estimated activity;
3. The measured activity of each test sample expressed in becquerels;
4. A description of the method used to measure each test sample;
5. A diagram to show the leak tested areas;
6. The date of the test;
7. The name and signature of the individual who conducted the test;
8. The signature of the RSO.
Fees for Leak Test and Swipe
Samples Analysis
1. Code of PNRI Regulations
2. Radiation Protection Services Section actual
equipment and downloadable forms
3. RPSS Work Instruction Manual – Leak
Testing of sealed Sources
Common Problems
Encountered When Performing
Swipe Sampling

Questions or
Comments with the PNRI
Leak Testing System
Thank you.