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MARINE OIL TERMINALS

2. Release the lateral load between the batter pile estimating the post-failure displacement
and the deck when the lateral failure displace- demand. The new period may be estimated from
ment is reached. the initial stiffness of the post-failure system as
3. Push on the structure until subsequent failure(s) shown in Figure 31F-7-14. A new displacement
have been identified. demand can then be calculated in accordance
with Section 3104F.2.
As an example, following these steps will
result in a force-displacement (pushover) curve 3107F.2.8.2 Nonordinary batter piles. For the case of
similar to the one shown in Figure 31F-7-14 for a a plugged batter pile system, an appropriate displace-
wharf supported by one row of batter piles. ment force relationship considering plug friction may
be used in modeling the structural system.
For fused and seismic release mechanism batter
pile systems, a nonlinear modeling procedure shall be
used and peer reviewed (Section 3108F.8.2).
3107F.2.9 Concrete pile caps with concrete deck. Pile
caps and decks are capacity protected components. Use
the procedure of Section 3107F.2.5.7 to establish the over
strength demand of the plastic hinges. Component capac-
ity shall be based on nominal material strengths, and
reduction factors according to ACI 318 [7.7].
3107F.2.9.1 Component acceptance/damage criteria.
For new pile caps and deck, Level 1 seismic perfor-
mance shall utilize the design methods in ACI 318 [7.7];
Level 2 seismic performance shall be limited to the fol-
FIGURE 31F-7-14 lowing strains:
PUSHOVER CURVE FOR ORDINARY BATTER PILES
Deck/pile cap: εc ≤ 0.005
When the row of batter piles fail in tension or Reinforcing steel tension strain: εS ≤ 0.01
shear, stored energy will be released. The struc- For existing pile caps and deck, the limiting strain
ture will therefore experience a lateral displace- values are defined in Table 31F-7-5.
ment demand following the nonductile pile Concrete components for all nonseismic loading
failures. If the structure can respond to this dis- combinations shall be designed in accordance with ACI
placement demand without exceeding other 318 [7.7].
structural limitations, it may be assumed that the
structure is stable and will start to respond to fur- 3107F.2.9.2 Shear capacity (strength). Shear capacity
ther shaking with a much longer period and cor- shall be based on nominal material strengths; reduc-
responding lower seismic demands. The wharf tion factors shall be in accordance with ACI 318 [7.7].
structure may therefore be able to sustain larger 3107F.2.10 Concrete detailing. For new MOTs, the
seismic demands following the loss of the batter required development splice length, cover and detailing
piles than before the loss of pile capacity, shall conform to ACI 318 [7.7], with the following
because of a much softer seismic response. exceptions:
The area under the pushover curve before the 1. For pile/deck dowels, the development
batter pile failures is compared to the equivalent length may be calculated in accordance with
area under the post failure pushover curve (refer Section 3107F.2.7.2.
to Figure 31F-7-14). If no other structural limita-
2. The minimum concrete cover for prestressed con-
tions are reached with the new displacement
crete piles shall be three inches, unless corrosion
demand, it is assumed that the structure is capa-
inhibitors are used, in which case a cover of two-
ble of absorbing the energy. It should be noted
and-one-half inches is acceptable.
that even though the shear failure is nonductile, it
is expected that energy will be absorbed and the 3. The minimum concrete cover for wharf beams
damping will increase during the damage of the and slabs, and all concrete placed against soil
piles. The above method is, therefore, considered shall be three inches, except for headed reinforc-
conservative. ing bars (pile dowels or shear stirrups) the cover
may be reduced to two-and-one-half inch cover
Following the shear failure of a batter pile
at the top surface only. If corrosion inhibitors are
row, the period of the structure increases such
used, a cover of two-and-one-half inches is
that equal displacement can be assumed when
acceptable.

490 2016 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE


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