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Report consist Heat exchanger types and

designing of shell and tube heat exchanger.

Heat
Exchanger

Submitted by:

Khaqan Majeed
Heat Exchanger

Heat exchanger is equipment, is used for efficient heat transfer from one media to another
separated by solid wall. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or
they may be in direct contact. The temperature gradient or the differences in temperature
facilitate this transfer of heat. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, petroleum
refineries, fertilizer plants and many other industries where heat transfer is required.

Three basic heat transfer operations are involved that need to be


described:

 Convective heat transfer from fluid to the inner wall of the tube.
 Conductive heat transfer through the tube wall.
 Convective heat transfer from the outer tube wall to the outside
fluid.

Heat exchangers are typically classified according:

 Flow Arrangement
 Type of Construction

Flow Arrangement:

Two types of flow arrangements are used in heat exchanger:

 Co-current Flow
 Counter Current Flow
1- Co-Current:

Fluid inside and outside tubes flow in parallel flow. In this type flow temperature
difference decreases and with it heat transfer also decreases. The long mean temperature
difference is:

( 𝑇1 −𝑡1 )− ( 𝑇2 −𝑡2 )
LMTD = 𝑇 −𝑡
ln 1 1
𝑇2 −𝑡2

Figure 1 Co-current flow pattern


Th in

Th out

∆t in ∆t ∆t out
Tc out

Tc in

Length or area

Figure 2 Temperature difference in co-current flow

Counter Current:

Fluid inside and outside tubes flow in opposite direction. In this flow
type heat transfer is more efficient because of almost constant temperature
difference. Long mean temperature difference is;

( 𝑇1 −𝑡2 )− ( 𝑇2 −𝑡1 )
LMTD = 𝑇 −𝑡
ln 1 2
𝑇2 −𝑡1

Th in

∆t a
∆t
Tc out Th out

∆t b

Tc in

Length or area

Figure 3 Temperature difference in counter current flow

Figure 4 Flow pattern of counter current


Construction Types:

According heat exchanger construction, there are many types.

Double Tube:

In this double-pipe heat exchanger a hot process fluid flowing through the inner pipe
transfers its heat to cooling fluid flowing in the outer pipe.

 Also known as concentric heat exchanger


 System is in steady state until conditions changed, such as temperature or flow rate
 Either counter flow or co-current flow

Figure 5 Double pipe heat exchanger

Advantages of Double pipe heat exchanger are;

 Operates in true counter current flow permitting extreme temperature cross.


 Economically adaptable

Double pipe heat exchanger applications are;

 Used when closed temperature approaches are needed


 Used in high pressure
Shell and Tube:

In Shell and tube heat, one fluid flow in series of tubes surrounded by
shell in which other fluid flow. It consists;

 Series of tubes surrounded by shell


 Baffles
 Most common construction material is stainless steel

Figure 6 Shell and tube heat exchanger

Advantages are:

 Condensation or boiling heat transfer can be accommodated either in tube side or


shell side
 Pressure and pressure drop can be varied in wide ranges
 Cleaning and repairing are relatively straightforward

Shell and tube heat exchanger is used for:

 Where fluid is more likely foul the wall or more corrosive


 Fluid with high pressure
Plate Type:

Plate heat exchanger composed of number of thin metal plates compressed together into a
plate pack by two pressure plates. Within a plate heat exchanged the fluid paths alternate
between plates allowing two fluids to interact but not mix, several times in a small area.

Figure 7 Plate heat exchanger

Plate heat exchanger consists:

 Compact plates
 Gasket
 Nozzles

Advantages of plate type heat exchanger are:

 Simple and compact in size


 Heat transfer efficiency is more
 Turbulent help to reduce deposit which would interfere to heat transfer
 Better temperature control
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design

Design over all heat transfer coefficient (UD) of 1E-04 shell and tube exchanger. All references

are from Process Heat Transfer by DQ Kern.

Shell Side Tube Side

ID=37 Number of tubes = 907 , Length = 16

Baffle space = 7 ½ OD = ¾

Passes = 1 BWG = 14

Pitch = 1

Passes = 2

Process Conditions Required:

Hot Fluid (Heavy Gas Oil ) Cold Fluid ( Crude Oil )

T1 = 615 oF t1 = 293 oF

T2 = 338 oF t2 = 320 oF

W = 97,573 LB/HR W = 1,117,106 LB/HR

( 𝑇1 −𝑡2 )− ( 𝑇2 −𝑡1 )
LMTD = 𝑇 −𝑡
ln 1 2
𝑇2 −𝑡1

= 132.97 oF

1- Heat Exchanged = Q = 17.76 BTU/HR


𝑇 −𝑇
R = 𝑡1 −𝑡 2 = 12.04
2 1

𝑡2 − 𝑡1
S= 𝑇1 −𝑡1
= 0.072
(1−𝑆)
√(𝑅2 +1) ln ⁄(1−𝑅𝑆)
FT =
2−𝑆 (𝑅+1−√𝑅2 +1)
(𝑅−1) 𝑙𝑛
2−𝑆 (𝑅+1+√𝑅2 +1)
= 0.91
2- True Temperature Difference
∆t = LMTD * FT
= 132.97 * 0.91 = 121 oF

Shell Side Tube Side


3- Caloric Temperature 3- Caloric Temperature
Tc = T2 + Fr * (T1-T2) tc = t1 + Fr *( t2-t1)
Kc = 0.20 (Crude Oil Controlling) =293 + 0.27 * 27
Fr = 0.27 Fig.17 = 300.29 oF
=338 + 0.27 * 277
= 412.79 oF
4- As = ID * CIB/144PT
4- As = NtatI/144n, atI from table 10
= 37 * (7 ½ * 0.25)/144
= 0.844ft2
= 0.481
5- Gs = W/as=
5- Gs = W/as= 97,573/0.481=202,854
1,123,206/0.844=1,330,812.796LB/HR.ft2
2
LB/HR.ft
6- Re = DGs/μ
6- Re = DeGs/μ
D from table 10.
Equivalent diameter De from Fig. 28
D = 0.584in = 0.049 ft
De = 0.73 in
At tc = 300.29
= 0.0608 ft
μ = 0.8 * 2.42 = 1.94 LB/ft.hr
At Tc = 412.79 F
Re = 33,600
μ = 0.8 * 2.42 = 1.94 LB/ft.hr
Re = 6353
7- JH from Fig.28
7- L/D = 16/0.049 = 326.53
JH = 35
JH from Fig.24
8- At Tc = 412 F
JH = 65
Cp = 0.61 BTU/LB.ft
8- At tc = 300.29 F
K = 0.067 BTU/hr.ft2(F/ft)
Cp = 0.58 BTU/LB.ft from Fig .4
9- ho/φs = JHk/De (c μ/k)1/2 = 124
ℎ𝑜/𝜑𝑠 K = 0.074 BTU/hr.ft2(F/ft) from Fig. 1
10- tw = tc + hio/φt +ho/φs
(Tc-tc)
9- ho/φt = JH(k/De) (c μ/k)1/2 = 382
= 333 F 10- hio/φt = ho/φt * ID/OD
11- at tw = 333 F, µw = 0.9 * 2.42 = 382 * 0.584/0.75 = 298
= 2.18 lb/ft.hr 11- at tw = 333F,
Φs = (µ/µw)0.14 = 0.889 µw = 0.73 * 2.42 = 1.84 lb/ft.hr
12- Corrected coefficient , ho = (ho/hs)φs Φt = (µ/µw)0.14 = 1.001
= 110 BTU/hr.ft2.F 12- Corrected coefficient , hio = (hio/ht)φt
= 300 BTU/hr.ft2.F

13- Clean Overall Coefficient Uc:


Uc = hioho/(hio + ho) = 300*110/(110+300)
= 80 Btu/hr.ft2.F
14- a//= 0.268 Table. 10

Total Surface, A= 907 * 16 * .1963 = 2848.7 ft2


UD = Q/A.∆t = 17.76*106/3889*121 = 51.5 Btu/hr.ft2.F