Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Effect of Different Conditioning Methods on the Properties

of Hosiery Yarn and Knitted Fabric

Uzair Hussain, SameeIrshad, WardahAnam, HammadAbbasi, Faheem Ahmed, Abdul Jabbar

National Textile University, Yarn Manufacturing, Faisalabad, Punjab PAKISTAN

Correspondence to:
Uzair Hussain email:

The research reports the results and investigations in South America. Even though cotton fiber had been
made on 20/1 cotton hosiery yarn and knitted fabric known already in South America, the large scale
to evaluate the effect of different conditioning cotton cultivation in Northern America began in the
methods on the mechanical and comfort properties of 16th century with the arrival of colonists to southern
yarn and fabric, namely, bursting strength, moisture parts of the United States. The largest rise in cotton
management, thermal conductivity, air permeability, production is connected with the invention of the
skewness, stiffness, and pilling. The fibers spun on a saw-tooth cotton gin by Eli Whitneyin 1793[4].With
ring spinning system were investigated as yarn this new technology, it was possible to produce more
according to ASTM standards. From the results it is cotton fiber, which resulted in big changes in the
concluded that the knitted fabric made from machine spinning and weaving industry, especially in
conditioning has better mechanical and comfort England.Cotton and viscose fibers are hygroscopic,
properties than fabric made through unconditioned that is, they have the ability to absorb moisture from
and room conditioned yarns. the environment where they are kept [5]. Therefore,
as the relative humidity of the environment increases,
Keywords: yarn conditioning, knitted fabric, hosiery the amount of moisture absorbed by these fibers rises,
yarn conditioning, knitted fabric properties which results in some changes in the physical
properties of the yarns made of these fibers. On the
INTRODUCTION other hand, moisture levels of yarns decrease due to
The project focused on the effect of room modern machinery with high production speed. For
conditioning and vacuum conditioning of cotton example, cotton yarns contain 4-6 % moisture when
hosiery yarn and compared the mechanical and they have been produced on a spinning machine [6].
comfort properties of yarn and knitted fabric. Cotton The decreases in moisture levels of the yarns are
is a soft, staple fiber that grows around the seeds of likely to bring about some difficulties in the
the cotton plant. Today it is the most used textile processing steps; also yarns with lower moisture
fiber in the world. Its current market share is 56 content than the standard value result in monetary
percent for all fibers used for apparel and home loss in sale. Therefore the moisture content of yarns
furnishings and sold in the U.S [1]. Another must be increased to the standard levels so that their
contribution is attributed to nonwoven textiles and physical properties can be improved [7,8].
personal care items. It is generally recognized that
most consumers prefer cotton personal care items to In the textile industry, applications such as
those containing synthetic fibers. World textile fiber conditioning, heat setting, relaxing, and shrinking are
consumption in 1998 was approximately 45 million carried out in order to overcome these problems. The
tons. Of this total, cotton represented approximately process carried out with the aim of increasing
20 million tons [2]. The global cotton production and moisture content of the yarns is called conditioning.
consumption figures will continue to rise to a further The conditioning process has been performed via
2.0 million tonnes by the end of the 2013-14 season various methods, such as conditioning in
in major cultivation countries. World cotton conditioning rooms, the circulation method of
production in 2013-14 season is projected at 25.5 conditioning, and radio frequency conditioning.
million tonnes and world cotton mill use is expected However, today, it is generally carried out on
to remain around 23.5 million tonnes [3].The earliest steaming machines which provide saturated moisture
evidence of using cotton is from India, and the date in a vacuum environment at a low temperature. In
assigned to this fabric is 3000 B.C. There were also addition, some other processes such as heat setting
excavations of cotton fabrics of comparable age and relaxation are performed on these steaming

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 12

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
machines. Heat setting and relaxation are also Hosiery yarn was produced on the ring spinning
vacuum steaming processes which are carried out at system. The machinery details along with model and
high temperatures, and they increase the resistance of manufacturing company name of the spinning system
high twist yarns, multiply yarns, and synthetic from blow room to winding department are given in
filament yarns to untwisting and snarling problems Table II. The chemicals and auxiliaries used for the
which occur at their unwinding from packages. scouring and bleaching of samples are given in Table
Therefore, all these processes are called vacuum III. Fabric processing equipment used is given in
steaming, and in this study the effects of vacuum Table IV. Testing of samples was carried out using
steaming on the properties of 100 % cotton yarns the equipment given in Table V. After producing the
were been examined [9]. There are two different yarn, different conditioning methods were applied.
types of vacuum steaming carried out with saturated Properties of those yarns are given in Table VI.
steam in a vacuum environment: direct and indirect. Knitted fabric was produced on single jersey weft
In the direct system, the steam obtained in a separate knitting machine. Courses per inch and wales per
tank is directly placed into the steaming chamber. In inch were also measured. The stitch length was also
the indirect system, there is only one steaming measured of each sample. Machine specifications
chamber and the steam is obtained by heating the used are shown in Table VII. Specifications of fabric
water bath with heaters at the bottom of the chamber. produced are given in Table VIII. Fabric was scoured
The temperature of the environment can be adjusted and bleached in a single bath. Processing recipe and
to the desired level by means of electrical heaters. conditions are given in the Table IX.
Only a few studies were performed about the effects
of vacuum steaming on the mechanical properties of TABLE II. Yarn and Fabric Production Equipment.
yarns. Since the wet tenacity value of cotton yarn is
Sr. Machine Make
higher than its dry tenacity value, these limited No.
numbers of studies are concerned with cotton yarn,
except for one study performed with 67 % PES - 33 1. Blow room Truetzschler, Rieter (B-
% viscose yarns [10]. We chose 100 % cotton yarns 11, B-60)
for this study.
2. CARD Crossroll (MK4-
Tendom), Truetzschler
The properties of cotton used for the production of
yarn are given in Table I.
3. Draw Frame Breaker: Toyoda (DX-8)
TABLE I. Properties of Cotton Used.
Finisher: Rieter (RSB
Sr. Parameters Units Values D30)

1 Micronaire μg/inch 4.3 4. Simplex Toyoda (FL 200)

2 Strength g/tex 29.6 5. Ring Frame Toyoda (RY 5)

3 Length mm 27.7
6. Winding 21-C with Uster
4 Uniformity % 82.5 Quantum

5 Short Fiber % 21.4 7 Yarn Conditioning Xorella

8. AC Plant LUWA
6 Elongation % 5.1
9. Knitting Machine Fukuhara Japan
7 Rd value - 70.1

8 +b value - 9.5
After processing, the samples were tested for bursting
9 Trash content - 9.14 strength according to standard test method for
10 Neps per gram /gram 210 bursting strength ASTM D 3787-07 using a bursting

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 13

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
strength tester. The liquid moisture management TABLE V. Testing Equipment.
properties were evaluated by AATCC TM 195-2009
using moisture management tester M-290 SDL Atlas, Sr. No. Equipment Purpose
UK. Pilling of the fabric was measured by using an Determination of
ICI Pilling Tester BS-5811.Air permeability of the 1 Moisture Meter Moisture of
fabric was measured according to ASTM D737 – 04 Determination of
(2008). The stiffness of the fabric was measured Shirley Stiffness
2 Stiffness of
according to ASTM D1388 – 08. The Skewness of Fabric
the fabric was measured according to ASTM D 3882 Determination of
Air Permeability
– 99 (2006).Thermal conductivity of the samples was 3 Air Permeability
of Fabric
found using sweating guarded hotplate using standard
test method for testing ISO 11092- 1993, ASTM Determination of
Bursting Strength Bursting
F1868, and GB 11048. Moisture content of the yarn 4
Tester Strength of
was measured by moisture meter DELMHORST. fabric
Determination of
TABLE III. List of Chemicals/Auxiliaries. Moisture
5 Management
Management of
the Fabric
Sr. No. Trade Name Description To Determine
1. NaOH Scouring Agent Thermal
6 Guarded Hot
2. H2O2 Bleaching Agent Conductivity of
3. CiFA Wetting Agent
4. TANA WET Q Stabilizer ICI Pilling Tester Determination of
BS-5811 Pilling of Fabric
5. Agar Nutrient For Anti-bacterial Growth
As per (ASTM
6. Buffer Solution To adjust pH of Solution D3882 – 99)
Determination of
8 Measuring Stick, Skewness of
7. Staphylococcus aureus Gram Positive Bacteria Flat Surface, Fabric
Fabric Inspection
8. Escherichia coli Gram Negative Bacteria Table (Optional)

TABLE IV. Processing Equipment. TABLE VI. Yarn Properties.

Sr. No. Machine Make Yarn Properties

1. Mini jet machine Japan 1992 U% CVm IPI CLSP

Un Conditioned 11.8 3.39 180 2322

Conditioned 12.55 3.17 278 2359
Conditioned 12.47 4.14 273 2367

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 14

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
TABLE VII. Machine Specifications for Fabric Production. Uniformity percentage of fresh cone yarn is less than
the room and machine conditioned yarn due to less
moisture absorption in the fresh cone yarn. The more
Sr. No. Description Value Unit
the moisture more will be the weight of the yarn;
Gauge 20the mm hence the more will be the U% of the yarn. In case of
room conditioned yarn uneven moisture absorption
occurs; hence more will be IPI values. In
2 Cylinder Diameter 3 Feet
unconditioned yarn, the IPI values are comparatively
less. The yarn test results are shown in Table VI.
3 Needles 1860 -
Moisture content of room conditioned yarn is greater
4 Loop Length 5.98 mm than the machine conditioned and the unconditioned
yarn, because of uniform moisture absorption during
5 Machine Speed 20 rpm machine conditioning at the outer surface of the cone
absorbs more moisture and the inner surface absorb
6 Yarn Speed 124.2 m/min. less moisture. The more the moisture absorption, the
more will be the moisture content that is why the
moisture content of room conditioned yarn is greater
TABLE VIII. Specifications of Fabric Produced. than the unconditioned yarn. The results are shown in
Figure 1.
Courses Wales per Stitch
Sr. No.
per Inch Inch Length

48 34 3.1
Un Conditioned

50 32 3.02

50 36 3.2

TABLE IX. Processing Recipe and Conditions. FIGURE 1.Cone Moisture Content Test.

Air permeability of machine conditioned fabric is

Sr. No. Description Value Unit
greater than the room conditioned and the
1 NaOH 5 g/l unconditioned fabric, because porosity of machine
2 Stabilizer 2 g/l conditioned fabric increases due to the even shape of
yarn and loop of the fabric. Whereas air permeability
3 H2O2 8 g/l of room conditioned fabric is lower than the un
4 Wetting Agent 1 g/l conditioned fabric due to variable porosity in the
o room conditioned fabric, as the outer surface has
5 Temperature 90-95 C
more moisture and hence increases porosity whereas
6 Duration 1 Hr. the inner surface has less moisture penetration due to
lack of pressure; hence decreases porosity resulting
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION in less air permeability in room conditioned fabric.
CLSP of machine conditioned yarn is greater than the The results are shown in Table X.
room conditioned and the unconditioned yarn,
because of uniform moisture absorption during
machine conditioning. The more the moisture mores,
the greater will be the strength, hence more will be
the CLSP value of the yarn. That is why the CLSP of
room conditioned yarn is greater than the un
conditioned yarn.

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 15

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
TABLE X. Air Permeability Test Results.

Un Room Machine
Serial #
Conditioned Conditioned Conditioned

1 197 157.6 197

2 177.3 177.3 197

3 187.15 187.15 177.3

Permeability 187.15 174.016 190.433

FIGURE 3. Pilling Test Results.

The test result comparisons are shown in Figure 2.
Bursting strength of machine conditioned fabric is
greater than the room conditioned and the
unconditioned fabric, because of high strength due to
uniform moisture absorption during machine
conditioning. The more the moisture, the more will
be the strength; hence the more will be the bursting
strength of the fabric. That is why bursting strength
of room conditioned fabric is greater than the
unconditioned fabric. The results are shown in Table
TABLE XII. Bursting Strength Results.
FIGURE 2. Air permeability test result comparisons.
Un Room Machine
Sr. No.
Pilling of unconditioned fabric is greater than the Conditioned Conditioned Conditioned
room conditioned and the machine conditioned 1 467 361 284
fabric, because of less moisture absorption in 2 413 340 283
unconditioned fabric, which results in more hairiness.
3 438 349 281
The more the moisture, the less will be the hairiness.
Hence the pilling of the fabric will be greater. In the Strength 439.33 350 282.667
ICI pilling scale, higher values indicate less pilling (kPa)
and lower values mean high pilling. The ICI Pilling
Tester results are shown in Table XI. The graphical representations of the results are shown
in Figure 4.
TABLE XI. Pilling Test Results.

Sample Pilling Intensity

Un Conditioned 3 Moderate

Room 4 Slight
Machine 4 Slight

The graphical representation of the pilling test is

shown in Figure 3. FIGURE 4.Comparison of Bursting Strength of Samples.

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 16

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
Thermal conductivity of room conditioned fabric is through unconditioned yarn also has uniform
greater than the machine conditioned and the structure, but as hairiness is more, so moisture can
unconditioned fabric, because air permeability of easily move through the fabric. That is why it has
room conditioned fabric decreases due to less good moisture management content, but lower than
porosity in the fabric. Whereas thermal conductivity fabric made through machine conditioned yarn.
of machine conditioned fabric is greater than the un Fabric made through room conditioned yarn has low
conditioned fabric due to less porosity as compare to moisture management content value, because of
un conditioned fabric. The more the Rct(Thermal uneven distribution of moisture during conditioning.
resistance) value, the more will be the insulation and The outer layer received more moisture; hence fibers
the less will be the air permeability; hence the more swelled; but inside the cone the moisture cannot
will be thermal conductivity. Rct values of the evenly penetrate, so the yarn swelling is not uniform.
samples are shown in Table XIII. That is why the fabric structure is not uniform and
moisture cannot move through it. Hence it has low
TABLE XIII. Rct Values of the Samples. moisture management content values as compared to
unconditioned and machine conditioned fabric. The
Sample Rct results are shown in Figure 6.
Un Conditioned 0.01486

Room Conditioned 0.02031

Machine Conditioned 0.01733

Graphical representations of the Rct values of the

samples are shown in Figure 5.

FIGURE 6. Moisture Management Test.

Machine conditioned fabric has low stiffness because

of low snarling and twist setting due to even moisture
distribution. In unconditioned fabric, the stiffness is
more because of low moisture distribution. The
results are shown in Table XIV.

TABLE XIV. Stiffness Test Results.

Un Room Machine
FIGURE 5. Thermal Conductivity Test Results. Sr. #
Conditioned Conditioned Conditioned

Moisture Management Content of machine 1 4.5 3.95 3.1

conditioned fabric is greater than the room
conditioned and the unconditioned fabric due to the 2 5.35 4.75 3.3
uniform structure of the knitted fabric and even
moisture distribution. In machine conditioning due to 3 5.15 5.2 4.1
high pressure and temperature the moisture is evenly
4 6.05 6.05 4.7
penetrated in the cone and hence the swelling of the
fibers is uniform. That is why the fabric made from Stiffness 5.2625 4.9875 3.8
machine conditioning yarns has uniform structure
and moisture can easily move through it. Fabric made The graphical representation of the results is shown
in Figure 7.

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 17

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
FIGURE 7. Stiffness Test Results.
FIGURE 8. Skewness Test Comparison.
Skew is a fabric condition resulting when filling
yarns or knitted courses are angularly displaced from CONCLUSION
a line perpendicular to the edge or side of the fabric. • Room conditioned yarn will have higher
Skewness of the machine conditioned fabric is less as moisture content value due to more absorption
compared to unconditioned and room conditioned of moisture on the cone surface.
fabric, because of twist setting in the machine • More uniform moisture absorption will have
conditioned fabric. In machine conditioning the more uniformity in yarn shape; more will be the
moisture is evenly distributed, so the swelling of the porosity of the fabric and hence more will be
fibers occurs uniformly and hence snarling decreases the value of Air Permeability. Uneven
which results in less skewness. In room conditioning distribution of moisture lowers the value of AP
the outer layer of the cone received more moisture, (Air permeability).
but the inner part cannot get the same moisture, so • The more uniform the moisture is absorbed, the
uneven moisture distribution occurs which results in more will be the CLSP of the yarn. That is the
uneven yarn strength and hence uneven fabric reason unconditioned fabric has low bursting
structure, which causes the yarn more swelled at one strength.
place and less at another. When knitted fabric is • Less moisture absorption results in more
made, the loop formation is not uniform because of hairiness; hence the more will be the pilling of
non uniformity in the yarn. So due to the non the fabric. Machine and Room conditioned
uniform structure of the fabric the skewness is greater fabric have almost the same effect for pilling.
as twist setting occurs at some places but at most of • The rise in the value of Rct (Thermal
the places snarling occurs. The Results are shown in resistance) results in increased insulation, which
Table XV. decreases the value of AP (air permeability)
hence thermal conductivity increases. Machine
TABLE XV. Skewness Results. conditioning increases the thermal resistance.
• Machine conditioning ensures the uniform
Sr. # Un Room M/C shape of yarn and uniformity of the structure of
1 4° 5° 4° knitted fabric; hence moisture management
2 5° 6° 3° content of machine conditioned fabric is greater
than the room conditioned and the
3 4° 5.5° 4°
unconditioned fabric.
Skewness • Even moisture distribution results in twist
4.33° 5.44° 3.6°
(degree) setting of the yarn, which reduces snarling
effect. So machine conditioned fabric has low
stiffness because of low snarling and twist
The graphical representation of the results is shown setting.
in Figure 8. • Twist setting of yarn reduces the skewness of
the fabric made from it. Room conditioned
fabric has high skewness, because of non
uniform absorption of moisture. Machine
conditioned fabric has low skewness.

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 18

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015
[1] Cotton for Nonwovens”: A Technical
Guide, Cotton Incorporated (Online)
Available[Accessed 5
June 2013]
[2] Lawrence H. Shaw; “Cotton’s Importance in
the Textile Industry", Symposium, Lima,
Peru, May 12, 1998
[3] Razi Syed “Global cotton output, consumption
figures continue to rise” October 2013,
(Online) Available:
2013_pg5_16 [Accessed 2 Nov 2013]
[4] Kadolph, S.J., Langfold, A.J.: Textiles, 8th
edition, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
[5] Adanur S., 1995, “Wellington Sears Handbook
of Industrial Textiles”, Technomic Publishing
Co. Inc. Lancaster.-Basel., pp: 589.
[6] Özdemir O. and Dayık M., 2011, “Conditioning
of Cotton Yarns and Studies Performed in
This Field”, Textile Marathon, Vol: 4 (July-
August), pp: 41-57.
[7] Özdemir Ö. and Şardağ, S., 2004, “Yarn
Conditioning and New Methods”,
Tekstil&Teknik, June, pp: 248- 260.
[8] Özdemir Ö. and Şardağ S., 2005, “Vacuum
Steaming Processes Applied to Yarns, Its
Application Fields and Improvements”,
Journal of Engineering Sciences, Pamukkale
University Engineering College, Vol.11, No.
2, pp: 239-248.
[9] Şardağ S., 2008, “A Study About Vacuum
Steaming Processes of Yarns and Their
Effects on Yarn Properties”, Doctorate
Thesis, Uludağ University, Bursa,pp: 1, 95,
105-109, 158-160, 192-194.
[10] Şardağ S., Özdemir Ö. and Kara I., 2003, “The
Effects of Heat Setting on The Properties of
Polyester/ Viscose Blended Yarns”, Fibres&
Textiles in EasternEurope, Vol. 15, No. 4
(63), pp: 50-53.

Uzair Hussain
Faheem Ahmed
Abdul Jabbar
National Textile University
Yarn Manufacturing
Shiekhupura Road
Faisalabad, Punjab 35200

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 19

Volume 10, Issue 3 – 2015