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# Introduction

 From chapter electricity we know a little bit about electric field ⃗EE→ and how

## it is produced at all points around it.

 Likewise magnets produces magnetic field at all points round it.
 We already learned about heating effects of electric current in previous
chapter about electricity. Now in this chapter we shall study about another
phenomenon related to current that is magnetic effects of current.
An electric current carrying wire behaves like a magnet:-
So, we already know that an electric current-carrying wire behaves like a magnet.
Let us now describe an experiment that shows the presence of magnetic field near a
current carrying wire.
ACTIVITY showing presence of magnetic field near current carrying wire:-

##  This experiment is also called Oersted Experiment.

 First take a straight thick copper wire and place it between the points X and Y
in an electric circuit, as shown in Fig. 1.

## Figure 1: compass needle is deflected when it is placed near a current

carrying wire
 Now we place a small compass near to this copper wire.
 After placing the needle note the position of its needle.
 Now insert the key into the plug to close the circuit and pass the current
through the circuit.
 Since the current is flowing in the circuit now observe the change in the
position of the compass needle.
In the above activity we observed that the needle of the compass gets deflected
when it is placed near the current carrying conductor. The result of this activity
implies that current flowing through copper wire is producing a magnetic effect.
Thus we can say that electricity and magnetism are linked to each other.
Who was Hans Christian Oersted?
Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) through his experiments showed that electricity
and magnetism are related to each other. His research later used in radio, television
etc. The unit of magnetic field strength is name Oersted in his honour.

## Magnets and magnetism

 Magnets have been source of curiosity for ages. You can find magnets in
places like laboratories, in toys, magnetic stickers that stick in refrigerator
etc.
 So, what is a magnet? The substances which have the property of attracting
small pieces of iron, nickel and cobalt etc. are called magnets and this
property of attraction is called magnetism.
 Most of the metals like copper, gold, silver aluminium etc. are not attracted to
magnets.
 Magnets are found naturally in certain natural rocks and can also be made
artificially by certain methods.
 Artificially made permanent magnets are made in various shapes like bar, rod,
disk, ring etc.
 In a bar, rod and horse shoe magnets north and south poles are dictated by
letters N and S or North Pole is indicated by a dot.
 In disk and ring magnets one face is North Pole and another face is South
Pole.
 Permanent magnets are commonly used as a direction finding compass.
What are magnetic poles?
agnetic poles refer to the two areas of a magnet where the magnetic effects are the
strongest. The poles are generally termed as the north and south poles.

Properties of magnet:
 Attracts objects of iron, cobalt and nickel.
 Force of attraction of a magnet is greater at its poles then in the middle.
 Like poles of magnets repel each other while unlike poles of magnets attract
each other.
 A free suspended magnet always point towards north and south direction.
 The pole of a magnet which points toward north direction is called North Pole
or north seeking.
 The pole of a magnet which points toward south direction is called South Pole
or south seeking.

Magnetic Field
 When we bring two magnets near each either they attract each other or they
repel each other.
 We can explain this force of attraction and repulsion between two magnets
using the concept of Magnetic Field.
 Magnets produces magnetic field in the space around it, which exerts force on
any other magnet placed in this region. So it is the region around magnet
within which its influence can be experienced.
What is magnetic Field?
The space around a magnet in which the force of attraction and repulsion due to the
magnet can be detected is called the magnetic field.

IMPORTANT NOTE:- Each point in the field of any magnet has a particular strength
and magnetic field at each point has definite direction.
How do you find the direction of the magnetic field due to magnet at a point near it?
The direction of the magnetic field due to a magnet at a point near it can be found by
placing a magnetic compass at that point. The compass needle gets deflected when
it is placed near the magnet.

 The simplest compass is a magnetized metal needle mounted in such a way that it
can spin freely.
 Needle of a compass is a small bar magnet. This is the reason it gets deflected when
we place it in the field of other magnet.
 Compass needles are lightweight because earth has very week magnetic field. To
show up the effect of that tiny magnetic field it should have even less effect due to
gravity (note:- that gravitational force is much stronger then the force produced by
earth’s magnetic field).
 Compass needles are mounted on frictionless bearings because in this case there
would be less frictional resistance for the magnetic force to overcome.
 The ends of a compass needle points approximately in North and south directions.

 The earth has a magnetic field which we call as the earth’s magnetic field.
 The magnetic field is tilted slightly from the Earth’s axis.
 The core of earth is filled with molten iron (Fe) which give Earth its very own
magnetic field.
 This large magnetic field protects the Earth from space radiation and particles
such as the solar wind.
 The region surrounding Earth where its magnetic field is located is termed as
the Magnetosphere.
 Earth has a magnetic field that has a shape similar to that of a large bar
magnet.
 To the north is the magnetic north pole, which is really the south pole of
Earth’s bar magnet. (It is because this pole attracts the north pole of the
compass magnet)

## Magnetic Field Lines

 Magnetic field surrounding the magnet and the force it exerts are depicted
using imaginary curved lines with arrow called magnetic field lines.

## Ways of obtaining magnetic field lines around a bar magnet

(A) Iron filings demonstration

Procedure:-
1. Fix a sheet of white paper on a drawing board using some adhesive material.
2. Place a bar magnet in the centre of it.
3. Sprinkle some iron filings uniformly around the bar magnet (Fig. 2). A salt-
sprinkler may be used for this purpose.
4. Now tap the board gently.
5. Iron filings near the bar magnet align themselves along the field lines.

Fig. 2 Iron filings near the bar magnet align themselves along
the field lines.This happens because the magnet exerts its influence in the region
surrounding it. Therefore the iron filings experience a force. The force thus exerted
makes iron filings to arrange in a pattern. The lines along which the iron filings align
themselves represent magnetic field lines.
(B) Demonstration using magnetic compass
With this demonstration you can draw the field lines of a bar magnet yourself

## Procedure of this activity:-

1. Take a small compass and a bar magnet.
2. Place the magnet on a sheet of white paper fixed on a drawing board, using
3. Mark the boundary of the magnet.
4. Place the compass near the north pole of the magnet.
5. Here you will notice that the south pole of the needle points towards the north
pole of the magnet. The north pole of the compass is directed away from the
north pole of the magnet.
6. Mark the position of two ends of the needle.
7. Now move the needle to a new position such that its south pole occupies the
position previously occupied by its north pole.
8. In this way, proceed step by step till you reach the south pole of the magnet as
shown in Fig. 3.

## Fig. 3 Drawing a magnetic field line

with the help of a compass needle.
9. Join the points marked on the paper by a smooth curve. This curve represents
a field line.
10. Repeat the above procedure and draw as many lines as you can. You will get a
pattern shown in Fig. 4. These lines represent the magnetic field around the
magnet. These are known as magnetic field lines.

## Fig. 4 Field lines around a

bar magnet
11. Observe the deflection in the compass needle as you move it along a field line.
The deflection increases as the needle is moved towards the poles.

Observations
1. Direction in which compass needle points is the direction of the magnetic
field.
2. The strength of the magnetic field is inversely proportional to the distance
between the field lines.
3. Magnetic field lines never cross each other. It is unique at every point in
space.
4. Magnetic field lines begin at the north pole of a magnet and terminate on the
South Pole.

## Properties of magnetic field lines

1. All field lines are closed curves.
2. Outside the magnet field lines emerge from North Pole and merge at South
Pole.
3. Inside a magnet, the direction of field lines is from South Pole to its north pole.
4. Field lines never intersect each other.
5. Field lines are closed together near the poles and spread out away from them.
6. The field is stronger where the field lines are more closely spaced. So, the
field is stronger near the poles then at other points.
Why do field lines never intersect each other?
If two lines were to intersect each other, then a compass needle placed at the point
of interaction would point in two different directions which is not possible.

## Magnetic Effect of Current

what is a magnetic effect of Current?
Electricity and Magnetism are related phenomenon. When an electric current is
passed through metallic conductor, it generates a magnetic field around it.

## Magnetic Field due to current through straight Conductor

Electric current through a straight Conductor generates magnetic field around it.
a)Magnetic Field intensity increases on the increasing the current in the conductor
b) Magnetic field decrease as the distance increase from the conductor
c) Magnetic Field direction can be find using Right Hand Thumb Rule

## What is Right Hand Thumb rule?

When you are holding a current-carrying straight conductor in your right hand such
that the thumb points towards the direction of current. Then your fingers will wrap
around the conductor in the direction of the field lines of the magnetic field

## Magnetic Field due to a Current through a Circular Loop

a) As with straight conductor, the magnetic field lines would be in the form of
concentric circles around every part of the periphery of the conductor.
b) The magnetic field would be stronger near the periphery of the loop as magnetic
field lines tend to remain closer when near the conductor.
c) The magnetic field lines would be distant from each other when we move towards
the centre of the current carrying loop. At the centre, the arcs of big circles would
appear as straight lines

## Magnetic Field due to current through a coil having number of turns

We know that the magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire at a given point
depends directly on the current passing through it and the current in each circular
turn has the same direction
Therefore, Magnitude of magnetic field gets summed up with increase in the number
of turns of coil. If there are ‘n’ turns of coil, magnitude of magnetic field will be ‘n’
times of magnetic field in case of a single turn of coil.

Solenoid
A coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of a cylinder is called
a solenoid
Magnetic Effect of Current carrying Solenoid
A current carrying solenoid produces similar pattern of magnetic field as a bar magnet. One end of
solenoid behaves as the north pole and another end behaves as the south pole. Magnetic field lines are
parallel inside the solenoid; like a bar magnet; which shows that magnetic field is same at all points
inside the solenoid
Electromagnet
When a piece of magnetic material, like soft iron is placed inside a solenoid,the
strong magnetic field produced inside a solenoid magnetise the soft iron and it
behaves like strong magnet. The magnetism in the soft iron is temporary and it
becomes null when the current is switched off. This type of magnet is called
Electromagnets. So electromagnets are temporary magnets

## Force on a current carrying conductor in a Magnetic Field

When a current carrying, conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experienced a
force. The direction of force depends on the direction of the current and direction of
the Magnetic Field. The direction of the force can be found using Fleming Left hand
rule

## Fleming Left hand rule

Stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of your left hand such that they are
mutually perpendicular. If the first finger points in the direction of magnetic field and
the second finger in the direction of current, then the thumb will point in the
direction of motion or the force acting on the conductor

Electric Motor
An electric motor is a device which works on the above principle. Here the electrical
energy is converted to mechanical energy. Here a current carrying conductor is
placed in the magnetic field and force acts on the conductor and it rotates and do
the mechanical work.
This is used in electric fans
Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil placed in a
region where the magnetic field changes with time.
The magnetic field may change due
a) relative motion between the coil and a magnet placed near to the coil.
b) If the coil is placed near to a current-carrying conductor, the magnetic field may
change either due to a change in the current through the conductor or due to the
relative motion between the coil and conductor.
The direction of the induced current is given by the Fleming’s right-hand rule.

## Fleming’s Right Hand rule

Stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of right hand so that they are
perpendicular to each other. If the forefinger indicates the direction of the magnetic
field and the thumb shows the direction of motion of conductor, then the middle
finger will show the direction of induced current

Electric Generator
It is a device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It is based on
electromagnetic induction principle as explained above.

AC Current
which current direction changes after equal intervals of time, then the current is
called an alternating current (abbreviated as AC).

Direct Current
When the current flows in the same direction and does not change direction, it is
called Direct current (DC)

AC generator
Electric Generator can be used to generate both the AC and DC current. When it is
designed to produce AC current, it is called AC generator
DC generator
Electric Generator can be used to generate both the AC and DC current. When it is
designed to produce DC current, it is called DC generator

## Facts about AC and DC currents

a) Most power stations constructed these days produce AC.
b) In India, the AC changes direction after every 1/100 second, that is, the frequency
of AC is 50 Hz.
c) An important advantage of AC over DC is that electric power can be transmitted
over long distances without much loss of energy
Galvanometer
A galvanometer is an instrument that can detect the presence of a current in a
circuit. The pointer remains at zero (the centre of the scale) for zero current flowing
through it. It can deflect either to the left or to the right of the zero mark depending
on the direction of current

## Domestic Electric Circuits

S.no Terms Descriptions

Type of
current/Potential AC electric power of 220 V with a
1
Difference and frequency of 50 Hz.
Frequency

## The wire, usually with red insulation cover,

2 Live Wire
is called live wire (or positive)

## The wire, with black insulation, is called

neutral wire (or negative). In our country,
3 Neutral Wire
the potential difference between the Live
wire and Neutral Wire is 220 V.

## 4 Earth Wire It has green insulation and this is

connected to a metallic body deep inside
earth. It is used as a safety measure to
ensure that any leakage of current to a
metallic body does not give any severe
shock to a user.

## Two separate circuits are used

Different Circuit 1) 15 A current rating for appliances with
5 used in the Home higher power ratings such as geysers, air
Supply coolers, etc.
2) 5 A current rating for bulbs, fans, etc

## a) Each appliance has a separate switch

to ‘ON’/‘OFF’ the flow of current through it.
6 Appliance circuit b) Each appliance has equal potential
difference; they are connected parallel to
each other

## a) A fuse in a circuit prevents damage to

the appliances and the circuit due to
b) electric fuse prevents the electric
circuit and the appliance from a possible
damage by stopping the flow of unduly
7 Electric Fuse
high electric current.
c) Fuse is based on The Joule heating that
takes place in the fuse melts it to break
the electric circuit
d) Tin-lead alloy is general used to make
fuse wire
Question 1 Why does a compass needle get deflected when brought near a bar
magnet?
Compass needle is a small permanent magnet. That is why when compass needle is
brought near a bar magnet, its magnetic field lines interact with that of the bar
magnet. This is the reason why a compass needle gets deflected when it is bought
near a bar magnet.
Extra thought on what exactly is happening here:-
We use compass to trace the magnetic field lines of a bar. The needle of a compass is
itself a permanent magnet and the north indicator (generally red in color) of the
compass is a magnetic north pole. The north pole of a magnet will tend to line up with
the magnetic field, so a compass needle bought under the influence of a bar magnet
will rotate until it lines up with the magnetic field.
Page No: 228
Question 1 Draw magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
The magnetic field lines of a bar magnet form closed lines. The direction of magnetic
field lines is taken to be emerging from the North Pole and terminating at the South
Pole.
As can be seen from the figure, the strongest external magnetic fields are near the
poles.

Please note that the magnetic field is strongest inside the magnetic material.
Question 2 List the properties of magnetic lines of force.
the properties of magnetic lines of force are as follows.
1. All field lines are closed curves.
2. Outside the magnet field lines emerge from North Pole and merge at South Pole.
3. Inside a magnet, the direction of field lines is from South Pole to its north pole.
4. Field lines never intersect each other.
5. Field lines are closed together near the poles and spread out away from them.
6. The field is stronger where the field lines are more closely spaced. So, the field is
stronger near the poles then at other points.
Extra point- Magnetic field lines give the direction of the magnetic field at any given
point
Question 3 Why don't two magnetic lines of force intersect each other?
The two magnetic field lines do not intersect each other because If two lines were to
intersect each other, then a compass needle placed at the point of interaction would
point in two different directions which is not possible.

## Page No: 229

Question 1 Consider a circular loop of wire lying in the plane of the table. Let the
current pass through the loop clockwise. Apply the right-hand rule to find out the
direction of the magnetic field inside and outside the loop.
It is given in the question that circular loop is lying on the table and we have
connected this loop to some battery or power supply so that current is flowing in the
loop in clockwise direction.
Inside the loop in = Magnetic field lines would pierce inside the table
Outside the loop =Magnetic field lines would appear to emerge out from the table
For downward direction of current flowing in the circular loop, the direction of
magnetic field lines will be as if they are emerging from the table outside the loop
and merging in the table inside the loop. Similarly, for upward direction of current
flowing in the circular loop, the direction of magnetic field lines will be as if they are
emerging from the table outside the loop and merging in the table inside the loop, as
shown in the given figure.
Note: - right hand thumb rule can be applied to find the direction of magnetic field
lines in respective directions of current flow. Here note that in one half of circular
loop current is flowing in upwards direction and in another half it is flowing in
downwards direction. So I insist try to find the field accordingly.
Question 2 The magnetic field in a given region is uniform. Draw a diagram to
represent it.
The magnetic field lines are uniform inside a current carrying long straight solenoid

## Page No: 230

Question 3 Choose the correct option.
The magnetic field inside a long straight solenoid-carrying current
(a) is zero
(b) decreases as we move towards its end
(c) increases as we move towards its end
(d) is the same at all points
Answer (d) is the same at all points
The magnetic field inside a long, straight, current carrying solenoid is uniform. It is
same at all points inside the current carrying solenoid.

## Page No: 231

Question 1 Which of the following property of a proton can change while it moves
freely in a magnetic field? (There may be more than one correct answer.)
(a) Mass
(b) speed
(c) velocity
(d) momentum
Answer (c) velocity and (d) momentum
When a proton enters in a region of magnetic field, it experiences a magnetic force.
The magnetic force, acting perpendicular to the velocity of the particle, will
cause circular motion. Hence, velocity and momentum of proton changes when it
moves in a magnetic field.
Extra point- Velocity is a vector quantity thus it changes with the change in direction.
This is a case of uniform circular motion and speed of the charged particle in the
magnetic field remains constant.

## Page No: 232

Question 2 In Activity 13.7 (page: 230), how do we think the displacement of rod AB
will be affected if (i) current in rod AB is increased: (ii) a stronger horse-shoe magnet
is used: and (iii) length of the rod AB is increased?
Concept: - A force is experienced by a current carrying conductor placed in a
magnetic field. The magnitude of force increases with the amount of current,
strength of the magnetic field and with the change in the length of the conductor.
Hence the magnetic force exerted on rod increases.
Deflection of rod in a magnetic field increases if,
(i) If the current in the rod is increased then rod will be deflected with greater force.
(ii) If a stronger horse-shoe magnet is used then also rod will be deflected with
greater force due to the increase in magnetic field.
(iii) If the length of the rod AB is increased.
Question 3 A positively-charged particles (alpha-particle) projected towards west is
deflected towards north by a magnetic field. The direction of magnetic field is
(a) towards south (b) towards east
(c) downward (d) upward
Answer (d) upward. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by the
Fleming’s left hand rule.2
Extra point:- According to Fleming’s left hand rule, if we arrange the thumb , the
middle finger and the forefinger of the left hand at right angles to each other, then
thumb points towards the direction of magnetic force, middle finger gives the
direction of current and the forefinger points in the direction of magnetic field.
Since the direction of positively charged alpha particle is towards west, the direction
of current will be the same that is towards the west. Again the direction of magnetic
force would be towards the North. Hence, according to Fleming’s left hand rule, the
direction of magnetic field will be along upwards direction.
Page No: 233
Question 1 State Fleming's left-hand rule.
According to Fleming’s left hand rule, if we arrange the thumb, the middle finger and
the forefinger of the left hand at right angles to each other, then thumb points
towards the direction of magnetic force, middle finger gives the direction of current
and the forefinger points in the direction of magnetic field.

## Question 2 What is the principle of an electric motor?

The principle of an electric motor is based on the magnetic effect of electric current.
A current-carrying loop when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force and
begins to rotate. The direction of rotation of the loop is according to the Fleming’s
left-hand rule.

## Question 3 What is the role of the split ring in an electric motor?

The split ring in the electric motor acts as a commutator that reverses the direction
of current flowing through the coil after every half rotation of the coil. Due to this
reversal of the current the coil continues to rotate in the same direction.

## Page No: 236

Question 1 Explain different ways to induce current in a coil.
The different ways to induce current in a coil are as follows:
1. If a magnet is moved relative to a coil, then an electric current is induced in the
coil.
2. If a coil is being moved towards or away from a magnet then an electric current is
induced in the coil.

## Page No: 237

Question 1. State the principle of an electric generator.
Electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction When a coil is
rotated in magnetic field electricity can be generated.
Question 2 Name some sources of direct current.
some sources of direct current are cell or battery, DC generator, etc.

## Question 3 Which sources produce alternating current?

AC generators, power plants, etc., produce alternating current.
Question 4 Choose the correct option.
A rectangular coil of copper wires is rotated in a magnetic field. The direction of the
induced current changes once in each
(a) two revolutions (b) one revolution
(c) half revolution (d) one-fourth revolution
Explanation – When a rectangular coil of copper wire is rotated in a magnetic field,
the direction of the current induced in the coil changes once in each half revolution.
As a result, the direction of current in the coil remains the same. This happens
because the commutator reverses the direction of current flowing through the coil
after each half rotation of the coil.

## Page No: 238

Question 1. Name two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and
appliances.
Two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and appliances are
1. Each circuit must be connected with an electric fuse. This prevents flow of excess
flow of current in the circuit. When the current passing through the circuit exceeds a
maximum limit of the fuse used then the fuse melts and flow of current in the circuit
is stopped. This is how fuse protects appliances in the circuit.
2. Earthing is a must if you want to prevent electric shocks when you use electric
appliances. Any leakage of current in electric appliance is transferred to ground and
this way we do not get shock.
Question 2 An electric oven of 2KW is operated in domestic current (220V) that has
current rating of 5A. What result do you expect? Explain.
Current drawn by the electric oven can be obtained by the expression,
P = VI

## Voltage supplied, V = 220 V

I = 2000/220 V = 9.09 A
Hence, the current drawn by the electric oven is 9.09 A, which exceeds the safe limit
of the circuit. Fuse element of the electric fuse will melt and break the circuit.

## Question 3 What precaution should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic

electric circuits?

The precautions that should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic circuits
are as follows:
1. Too many appliances should not be connected to a single socket.
2. Too many appliances should not be used at the same time.
3. Faulty appliances should not be connected in the circuit.
4. Fuse should be connected in the circuit.

Question 1.Why does a compass needle get deflected when brought near a bar
magnet?
Solution
A compass needle is a small magnet itself. It has a north pole and a south pole. When
North Pole and south pole of the bar magnets are closer to those of compass needle,
they attract or repel as per the properties of poles.
Question 2. List the properties of magnetic lines of force.
Solution
Following are the properties of magnetic lines of force
i)These are close continuous curves originating at north pole and moving to south
pole.
ii)The strength of magnetic field is stronger when magnetic field is strong.
iii)No two magnetic lines of force intersect each other.
iv) Magnetic lines of force give the direction in which North Pole of the compass
needle would point at that place.
Question 3. Why don’t two magnetic lines of force intersect each other?
Solution
The direction of magnetic field is taken as the direction in which the north pole of a
compass needle moves inside it. If two field lines cross each other, it would mean
that a compass needle points towards two directions at the point of intersection,
which is not possible.
Question 4.Choose the correct option.
(a) zero
(b) decreases as we move towards its end
(c) increases as we move towards its end
(d) the same at all points
Solution (d) Magnetic field inside a solenoid is same at all the points.

Question 5. Which of the following properties of a proton can change while it moves
freely in a magnetic field?
(a) Mass
(b) Speed
(c) Velocity
(d) Momentum
Solution
When a proton i. e. charged particle moves in a magnetic field then magnetic force is
applied due to which its velocity and hence, the momentum changes.
Question 6. A positively charged particle projected towards west is deflected
towards north by a magnetic field. The direction of magnetic field is:
(a) towards south
(b) towards east
(c) downward
(d) upward
Solution (d) The positive charge particle is moving toward west i. e., the direction of
current is towards west (current flows in the direction of the motion of positive
charge). The particle is deflected towards north so, the direction of force is toward
north. So, from Fleming’s left hand the direction of force obtained will be upward.
Question 7. State Fleming’s left hand rule.
Solution
Fleming’s left hand rule states that, “if thumb, forefinger and middle finger of left
hand are stretched perpendicular to each other and first finger points in direction of
magnetic field, second finger points in the direction of current, then the thumb will
point in the direction of motion or force acting on the conductor.”
Question 8. What is the principal of electric motor?
Solution
An electric motor works on the principle that when a current carrying coil is placed
in a magnetic field, a force acts on it and tends to rotate the coil.
Question 9.What is the role of split ring in an electric motor?
Solution
The split ring in an electric motor act as commutator it reverses the direction of
current flowing through the armature coil.
Quetsion 10.Explain different ways to induce current in a coil.
Solution
Current is induced in a coil in following ways
a) When a magnet is moved towards or away from coil or there is a relative motion
between coil and magnet, a current is induced in the coil circuit.
b) When a current passing through a oil changes, then a current is induced in a coil
placed near it.
Quetsion 11.State the principle of an electric generator.
Solution
An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The
production of electric current by due to relative motion between a conductor and a
magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction. Electric current produced due to
these phenomena is called ‘induced current’.
Question 12.Name some sources of direct current.
Solution
Cell or a battery direct current.
Question 13.Which sources produce alternating current?
Solution
ost of the power stations produce alternating current.
Question 14.Choose the correct option.
A rectangular coil of copper wire is rotated in a magnetic field. The direction of
induced current changes once in each
(a) two revolutions
(b) one revolution
(c) half revolution
(d) 1/4 revolution
Solution (c) Half revolution. After half revolution, the direction of motion of
rectangular coil changes, thus the direction of induced current changes.
Question 15. Name two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and
appliances.
Solution
(i) Earth wire (earthing)
(ii) fuse wire are two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and
appliances.
Question 16.An electric oven of 2 kW power rating is operated in a domestic electric
circuit (220 V) that has a current rating of 5 A. what result do you expect? Explain.
Solution
When a high power rating appliance is operated in a 5A current rating circuit, a large
amount of heat is produced in the circuit. This leads to possible melting of insulation
cover of wires and hence a short – circuit. If a fuse is used in the circuit, the fuse
wire melts and the circuit is broken.
Question 17.What precautions should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic
electric circuits?
Solution
a) Never connect too many appliances in a single socket.
b) Fuse should be used in the circuits.
Question 18.Which of the following correctly describes the magnetic force near a
long straight wire?
(a) The field consists of straight lines perpendicular to the wire.
(b) The field consists of straight lines parallel to the wire.
(c) The field consists of radial lines originating from the wire.
(d) The field consists of concentric circles centered o the wire.
Solution (d) The magnetic field lines due to a straight current carrying wire are
concentric circles, i. e., the field consists of concentric circles centered on the wire.
Question 19.The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is
(a) the process of charging a body.
(b) the process of generating magnetic field due to current passing through coil.
(c) the process of producing induced current in coil due to relative motion between a
magnet and the coil.
(d) the process of rotating a coil of an electric motor.
Solution (c) The process of producing induced current in coil due to relative motion
between a magnet and the coil.

## Question 20.The device used for producing electric current is called

(a) generator
(b) galvanometer
(c) ammeter
(d) motor
Solution(a) Generator
Question 21.The essential difference between AC generator and DC generator is that:
(a) AC generator has electromagnet while DC generator has permanent magnet.
(b) DC generator higher voltage.
(c) AC generates higher voltage
(d) Ac generator has slip rings while DC generator has commutator.
Solution (d) AC generator has slip rings while DC generator has commutator. Due to
slip ring rings, the current produced by AC generator flows in both directions while
current produced by DC generator flows sin single direction.
Question 22.State whether the following statements are true of false.
a) An electric motor converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
b) An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
c) Field at the centre of a long circular coil carrying current will be parallel.
d) Wire with a green insulation is usually the live wire of an electric supply.
Solution
a. False, electric motor converts electric energy into mechanical energy.
b. True
c. True
d. False, the wire with green insulation is the earth wire not the live wire.
Question 23. List three methods of producing magnetic fields.
Solution
Following are the methods of producing magnetic field:
a) Passing electric current through a straight conductor/circuit.
b) Passing electric current through a circular loop.
c) Passing electric current through a solenoid.
Question 24.How does a solenoid behave like a magnet? Can you determine the north
and south poles of a current carrying solenoid using a bar magnet? Explain.
Solution
A solenoid behaves like a magnet when electric current passes through it. Such a
solenoid is called electromagnet. One end of a solenoid behaves as a north pole and
the other end behaves as a south pole. We can use a bar magnet to determine the
north and south poles of a current carrying solenoid by using property of like poles to
repel and unlike poles to attract each other. The end of solenoid which attracts North
Pole of a bar magnet is magnetic South Pole in a solenoid. The end which repels the
north pole of bar magnet is the magnetic north pole of solenoid.
Question 25.
When the force experienced by a current carrying conductor placed in magnetic is
fielded largest?
Solution
The force experienced by a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field is
the largest when conductor is kept perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic
field.
Force acting on current carrying conductor F = Bli sin θ, F will be maximum whey sin θ

is maximum. Sin θ max = 1 = sin 900 i. e., conductor is perpendicular to the field.

Question 26.Imagine that you are sitting in a chamber with your back to one wall. An
electron beam, moving horizontally from back wall towards the front wall, is
deflected by a strong magnetic field to your right side. What is the direction of
magnetic field?
Solution
According to Fleming’s left hand rule, direction of magnetic field is upwards.
Question 27.Name some devices in which electric motors are used.
Solution
Electric motors are used in electric fans, refrigerator, mixtures, washing machines,
computers, MP3 players etc.
Question 28.A coil of insulated copper wire is connected to a galvanometer. What will
happen if a bar magnet is (i) pushed into the coil, (ii) withdrawn from inside the coil
and (iii) held stationary inside the coil?
Solution
(i) The galvanometer shows a deflection, which means current is induced in the coil.
Current is induced in the coil due to the relative motion between coil and magnet.
(ii)The galvanometer shows a deflection in opposite direction, which means current
is induced in opposite direction. In this case, the direction of motion is in the
opposite direction w r.t. coil.
(iii) There is no deflection in galvanometer as no current is induced in the coil. There
is no relative motion between coil and current, so on current will be induced in the
coil.
Question 29. Two circular coils A and B are placed close to each other. If the current
in coil A to changed, will some current be induced in the coil? Give reason.
Solution
Yes, current will be induced in coil B. wjhen the current in coil A is changed, the
magnetic field around it changes. So, the changing, magnetic filed lines around coil B
induce a current in coil B.
Question 30.State the rule to determine the direction of a
(i) magnetic field produced around a straight conductor carrying current.
(ii) force experienced by a current carrying straight conductor placed in a magnetic
field.
(iii) current induced in a coil due to its rotation in magnetic field.
Solution
(i) Ampere’s right hand thumb rule: If current is passing through a conductor in the
direction of thumb of the right hand, then the direction of magnetic field is given by
that of curvature of fingers.
(ii)Fleming’s left hand rule: If the forefinger, centre finger and thumb of left hand are
starched mutually perpendicular and forefinger points in the direction of magnetic
field, centre finger points in the direction of flow of electric current, then thumb
points in the direction of force acting on the conductor.
(iii)Fleming’s right hand rule: If the forefinger, centre finger and thumb of right hand
are stretched mutually perpendicular and forefinger points in direction of magnetic
field, thumb points in the direction of motion of conductor, then centre finger points
in the direction of induced current.
Question 31.When does an electric short circuit occur?
Solution
When the insulation of wires is damaged or there is a fault in the appliance, due to
which the live wire and neutral wire come in direct contact, the current in the circuit
increases abruptly. This is called short – circuiting.
Question 32.What is the function of an earth wire? Why is it necessary to earth
metallic appliances?
Solution
The earth wire is connected to a metallic plate deep inside the earth. In this way, the
metallic body of the appliance is connected to the earth, which provides a low
resistance conducting path for electric current. Hence, any leakage of current to the
metallic body of appliance keeps the potential to that of earth. The user might not
get a severe electric shiock on touching such an appliance.

## 1. Why do we connect earth wire in house give two reason?

2. A neutron moving in magnetic fields experience a force. True or false?
3. Two magnetic field lines intersect each other True of false?
4. What is role of fuse in domestic circuit??
5. When a current carrying conductor is placed parallel to the magnetic field.
Maximum force acts on the conductor true or false?
6. What is the difference between bar magnet and electromagnet?
7. State Fleming’s right hand rule?
8. Write two properties of Magnetic lines of forces? Match the column

Column A Column B
It works on the magnetic effect
Electric Motor
of current
It works on the principle that a
current carrying conductor is
Electric generator
acted upon by the force in
magnetic field
Converts electric energy into
Electromagnet
mechanical energy
Converts mechanical energy into
Solenoid
electric energy
It works on the principle of
electromagnetic induction
A long coil containing a large
number of close turns of
insulated copper wire
Table type question
A current carrying conductor is placed in Magnetic Field.
Current is I
Length is L
agnetic Field in B
Force on the conductor is given by below formula
F=ILBsinθ
Angle
between
current
carrying 0 90 30 60
conductor
and Magnetic
Field
Force on the
? ? ? ?
conductor
Some more questions to be answered based on above data

## 1. At what angle, the force is maximum

2. At what angle, the force is minimum Fill in the blanks
3. 1 Tesla is equivalent to 1 Newton / Ampere X ………
4. The force on moving charge of velocity v and change Q in a magnetic Field B
is given by ………….
5. The magnitude of magnetic field produced by a straight current carrying wire
at a given points is directly proportional to the …….. , and inversely
proportional to the ……….
6. …… is used as core in electromagnets
7. Extremely Large current can flow in domestic wiring under two conditions
………………… and ………………………..
8. MCB stands for ……… …………………. ……….. Crossword Puzzle

Across
3. All the electric appliances are connected in this combination in the
electric circuit
4. The material use to make fuse wire
5. This material should not be used to make fuse
6. The color of Live wire
Down
1. The color of earth wire
2. The color of neutral wire
3. The place in India where angle of declination is zero
4. The Unit of magnetic field
Solution
Fill in the blanks Solutions
1) Meter
2) BvQ
3) Current in the wire, distance of the point from wire
4) Soft iron
6) Miniature Circuit Breakers
Crossword Solutions
Across
Parallel
Tin
Copper
Red
Down
Green
Black
Pondicherry
Tesla

Question 1)
Arun while studying the force experienced by a current carrying conductor in a magnetic Field
records the following observation
The force experienced by the conductor is increases as the
1
current in the conductor is decreased
The force experienced by the conductor is decreases as the
2
strength of magnetic field is decreased
Direction of the force on the current carrying conductor is
3
determined suing Fleming Left hand rule
Which of these observations is correct? Explain
Solution) F=iLB
a) So as current is decreased, Force also decreases. Observation is Incorrect
b) Again, Force experience is decreased as strength of magnetic field is decreased. Observation is
correct
c) Observation is correct
Question 2)
Write down the difference between permanent magnet and Electromagnet?
Solution)
S.no Permanent Magnet Electromagnet
When a soft core is placed inside
Those magnets which have
a solenoid and current is passed
permanent magnetic field
1 through it, the soft iron gets
around it are called permanent
magnetized. The magnet so
Magnet
formed are called electromagnet
Permanent magnets are
important for their industrial
uses especially when it comes
to power generation and electric
motors. The induction process
for turbines and generators
needs permanent magnets to
As soon as the current is
turn mechanical motion into
stopped, the soft iron becomes
energy. They are also important
2 demagnetized.
for electric motors in many
They are used in cranes, electric
electronics using the reverse of
bell etc.
the induction of electric current
to make mechanical energy. As
you can see without the
permanent magnet we would not
be able to take full advantage of
the capabilities of electricity in
modern devices.

Question 3
Why two magnetic field lines cannot intersect with each other?
Solution)
if two magnetic field lines intersect with each other, then there will be two tangents drawn
which gives direction of magnetic field at the point of intersection. This is not possible
Question 4)
A coil of insulated copper wire is connected to a galvanometer. What happens if a bar magnet is
1 Pushed into the coil
2 Withdrawn from inside the coil
3 Held stationary inside the coil
What is the name of the phenomenon?
Solution)
An induced current is produced
due to electromagnetic
1 Pushed into the coil
induction. Galvanometer will
show deflection
An induced current is produced
due to electromagnetic
2 Withdrawn from inside the coil induction. Galvanometer will
show deflection in opposite
direction
3 Held stationary inside the coil No deflection
Phenomenon is electromagnetic Induction
Question 5)
Answer these short questions regarding Magnetic field?
a) What does crowding of magnetic lines indicate?
b) SI unit of Magnetic field?
c) What is the direction of magnetic field lines outside a bar magnet?
Solution)

What does crowding of magnetic
1 Strength of Magnetic field
lines indicate?
2 SI unit of Magnetic field? Oersted
What is the direction of
3 magnetic field lines outside a North Pole to South Pole
bar magnet?
Question 6
What is difference between Direct Current DC and Alternating Current?
Which one is used to transmit long power over long distances?
What is the frequency of the Power transmission in India?
Solution)
a) The difference are noted down below

## S.no Direct Current Alternating current

Magnitude of current remains
It changes continuously
constant.
1 It reverses its direction while
It flows in one direction in the
flowing in a circuit
circuit.

AC generator provides AC
3 Battery provides direct current
current
The frequency of alternating
The frequency of direct current is
4 current is 50Hz or 60Hz
zero.
depending upon the country.
b) AC is used to transmit long power as loss of energy in transmission is
comparatively small
c) 50Hz is the frequency of transmission of current in India
Question 7)
Why do we use fuse in series with any electrical appliance? Why should a fuse with
defined rating not be replaced by one with larger rating?
Solution)
Fuse is used for protecting appliances due to short circuit or overloading. The fuse
is rated for a certain maximum current and blows off when a current more than rated
value flows through it
If a fuse is replaced by one with large ratings, the appliances may get damaged while
the protecting fuse does not burn off.
Question 8)
True and False Statements
A) North poles repel North poles
B) South poles repel south poles
C) North poles attract south poles
D) South poles attract north poles
E) The force of attraction or repulsion varies directly proportional with the distance
squared
F) The strength of a magnet varies at different locations on the magnet
G) Magnets are Weakest at their poles
H) The horse-shoe shape is very commonly used in magnetic separators because its
lines of force are mostly at the open end of the horse-shoe, and this helps in the
separation of ferrous materials. I) Magnetic field lines are closed loops. They enter a
magnet at its South Pole, and exit a magnet at its North Pole.

Solutions
A) True
B) True
C) True
D) True
E) False, it is inversely proportional
F) True
G) False, Magnets are strongest at the Poles
H) True
I) True
Question 9)
Write Difference between Electric and Magnetic Field
Solutions
Electric Field Magnetic Field
It is created around moving electric charge
It is created around electric charge
and magnets
The unit of electric Field is Newton per The unit of magnetic Field is Gauss or
coulomb, ,volts per meter Tesla
Force in Electric field is proportional to the Force in magnetic Field is proportional to
Electric Field Magnetic Field
electric charge charge and speed of electric charge

## Question 1) What is a solenoid?

Solution
The solenoid is a long cylindrical coil of wire consisting of a large no.
of turns bound together very tightly.When current is flown through
solenoid,One end of the Solenoid behaves like North Pole and the other
end behaves like the South Pole. Magnetic field lines inside the
solenoid are in the form of parallel straight lines. This means that the
field is same at all the points inside the solenoid.

## Question 2) What kind of magnetic field is produced by a current carrying solenoid?

Solution
The magnetic field due to a solenoid is very much similar to that of a
bar magnet. The pattern of the magnetic field lines around a current-
carrying solenoid is similar to that of bar magnet.Just like a bar
magnet, one end of the solenoid behaves as a magnetic north pole,
while the other behaves as the South Pole.

Question 3) Why does a compass needle show deflection when brought near a bar
magnet?

Solution
The needle of a compass is a small magnet. That�s why when a
compass needle is brought near a bar magnet, its magnetic field lines
interact with that of the bar magnet. Hence, a compass needle gets
deflected.
Question 4) Why are magnetic field lines more crowded towards the pole of a
magnet?

Solution
Strong force near the poles

## Question 5) What are magnetic field lines?

Question 6) Draw a diagram to represent a uniform magnetic field in a given region.
Question 7) For same current flowing through a solenoid and a straight conductor,
the magnetic field produced by a solenoid is much stronger than the magnetic field
produced by a straight current carrying conductor. State one reason to justify this
statement.
Question 8) Why does a current carrying conductor experience a force when it is
placed in a magnetic field?

Solution
The current carrying conductor generates it own magnetic field around
it. This interracts with the external magnetic field. When two magnetic
fields interact there will be attraction and repulsion between them
based on the direction of the external magnetic field and the direction
of the current in the conductor. That is reason the current caryying
conductor experiences a force.

## Question 9) Whenever there is a relative motion between magnet and a coil, a

current is induced in the coil. Name this phenomenon.

Solution
ElectroMagnetic Induction

Question 10) How is the type of current that we receive in domestic circuit different
from the one that runs in a clock?

Solution
We receive Alternating current in Domestic circuit while direct
currents runs in a clock

## Question 11) What type of current is given direct current?

Question 12) What type of current is used in household supply?

Solution
Alternating current

Question 13) Why do we connect earth wire in a house? Give two reasons.
Question 14) What is the difference between a direct current and an alternating
current. How many times does AC used in India change direction in one second?
Question 15) What is the role of fuse used in series with any electrical appliance?
Why should a fuse with defined rating not be replaced by one with a larger rating?
Question 16) A magnetic compass shows a deflection when placed near a current –
carrying wire. How will the deflection of the compass get affected if the current in
Question 17) What is the full form of MRI?

Solution
agnetic Resonance Imaging

Question 18) Why can’t two magnetic field lines cross (intersect) each other?

Solution
agnetic Field lines cannot cross each other. If it happens that at point
of intersection, the compass needle will point in two direction which is
not possible

Question 19) Compare the pattern of the magnetic field around a solenoid with the
magnetic field around a bar magnet.

Question 20) A compass needle is placed near a current – carrying wire. State your
observation for the following cases and give reason for the same in each case:
(i) Magnitude of electric current in the wires increased.
(ii) The compass needle is displaced away from the wire.
Question 21) State the rule for finding the direction of the magnetic field produced
around a current carrying conductor.

Solution
Flemings Left Hand rule

Question 22) Mention the shape of the magnetic field lines around a current carrying
straight conductor.

Solution
Co-centric Circles

## Question 23) A current carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force.

Write the condition for this force to be maximum.

Solution
Force is maximum when current direction is perpendicular to Magnetic
field direction

Question 24) Name and state the rule that helps to find the induced current in
electromagnetic Induction.

Solution
Flemings Right hand rule

Question 25) An alternating electric current has a frequency of 50 Hz. How many
times does it changes its direction in one second? Give reason for your answer.

Solution
50Hz means 50 cycle/sec. Now in one cycle, current changes direction
twice, So 100 times per sec

## Question 26) Explain why electrical appliances are connected in parallel in

household circuits.
Question 27) Draw the pattern of magnetic field lines of a solenoid through which a
Question 28) A coil of insulated wire is connected to a galvanometer. What would
beseen if a bar magnet with its south pole towards one face of the coil is:
(a) Moved quickly towards it?
(b) Moved quickly away from it?
(c) Placed near its once face?
(d) Name the phenomena involved.

Solution
a) Deflection in galvanometer
b) Deflection in galvanometer
c) No deflection in galvanometer
d) Electromagnetic Induction

Question 29) What is the role of fuse, used in series with any electrical appliance?
Why should a fuse with defined rating not be replaced by one with a larger rating?
Question 30) Two circular coils A and B are placed close to each other. If the current
in the coil A is changed, will some current be induced in coil B? Give reason.

1) What is an electromagnet?
i) Draw a circuit diagram to show how a soft iron piece an be
transformed into an electromagnet.
ii) How can we determine north and south pole of an electromagnet
with the help of magnetized iron bar?
2) How will the magnetic field produced in a current carrying a circular
coil change, if we increase the:
(i) Value of current flowing through it?
(ii) Distance of point P from the coil?
(iii) Number of turns of the coil?
3) With the help of a diagram for experimental set up, describe an
activity to demonstrate that the strength of a magnetic field at a point
increases with increase in current in the straight conductor.
4) (a) Name two electrical appliances of daily use in which electric
motor is used.
(b) Name and state the principle on which an electric motor works.
5) In Faraday’s experiment if instead of moving the magnet towards the
coil we move the coil towards the magnet, will there be any induced
6) Define electromagnetic induction.
i) On what factors does the value of induced current produced in a
circuit depend?
ii) Name and state the rule used for determination of direction of
induced current.
7) State Fleming’s right hand rule.
8) List two characteristics of the material to be used in fuse wire. Name
the material it is made up of. A fuse is always connected in series in an
electric circuit. Justify this statement giving reason.
9) Series arrangements are not used for domestic circuits. List any
three reasons.
10) (a) What is the role of fuse used in series with any electrical
appliance?
(b) Why should a fuse with defined rating not be replaced by one with a
larger rating?
(c) Name the three types of wires used in household circuits. Out of
these three which wire is used as a safety measure especially for those
appliances that have metallic body? State the colour of insulation used
for this wire. How it ensures the safety of the user?(
11) List four characteristics features of circuit used in residential
building.
12) State the significance of the following devices in domestic circuits:
(i) Main switch (ii) Mains fuse (iii) Electricity meter
13)
i) What are magnetic field lines? How is the direction of a magnetic field
at a point determined? Mention two important properties of magnetic
field lines.
ii) Draw the magnetic field lines (incliuding field directions) of the
magnetic field due to a circular coil of current. Name any two factors on
which the magnitude of the magnetic field due to this coil depends.
14) How will the magnetic field produced in a current carrying circular
coil change if we
(i) Increase the value of current.
(ii) Increase the distance from the coil.
(iii) Increase the number of turns of the coil?
15) Draw the magnetic field lines (Including field directions) of the
magnetic field due to a long straight solenoid. Name any two factors on
which the magnitude of the magnetic field due to this solenoid depends.
16) State the rule to determine the direction of force experienced by a
current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. How will this force get
affected on:
(i) double the magnitude of current?
(ii) Reserving the direction of current flow?
2) 17) Draw an appropriate schematic diagram showing common domestic
circuits and discuss the importance of fuse. Why is it that burnt out fuse
should be replaced by another fuse of identical rating?
18) (a)Write four properties (characteristics) of magnetic lines of forces.
(b) Give two uses of magnetic compass.
19) (a) What is a solenoid? Draw the pattern of magnetic field lines
around a current carrying solenoid.
(b) What is the pattern of field lines inside a solenoid? What do they
indicate?
(c) How is the magnetic field produced in a solenoid used?
d) How can this field be utilized to magnetise a piece of soft iron?
20) You are given three identical looking bars one of which is a magnet,
the other made of a magnetic material and the third made of the third
made of a non – magnetic material. Using just three bars how will you
find out which is which?
21) How can we demonstrate the formation of magnetic field
surrounding a magnet?
22) Why do two magnetic field lines never intersect each other? Explain.
23) Briefly explain an activity to plot the magnetic field lines produced
round a straight current carrying conductor.
24) How is the fuse connected in an electric circuit?
25) A current through a horizontal power line flows in east to west
direction. What is the direction of magnetic field at a point directly
below it and at a point directly above it? Name the rule you have applied
in this case.
26) Compare the pattern of the field produced in case of a current
carrying solenoid with the magnetic field of a bar magnet.
27) With the help of diagram describe an experiment to show that a
change in current flowing through a coil induces an electric current in a
neighboring coil.
28) An electric fuse of rating 3 A is connected in a circuit in which an
electric iron of power 1.5 kilo watt is connected which operates at20 V.
What would happen? Explain.
29) An electric oven is 1.5 kW is operated in a domestic circuit (220 V)
that has a current rating of 5 A. What result do you expect in this case?
Explain.
30) Name the three factors on which the force on the current carrying
conductor depend?