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SADRŽAJ

PREDGOVOR ________________________________________________ 9 EINE SCHILDAMAZONOMACHIE


BY MIRJANA SANADER AUS NASSENFELS ________________________________________ 101
VON GERHARD BAUCHHENSS
FOREWORD ________________________________________________ 11
BY MIRJANA SANADER BAUPLASTIK AUS DEM BEREICH
DES PODIUMTEMPELS VON
FUNERARY MONUMENTS FROM DALMATIA, BADENWEILER (D) ______________________________________ 107
ISTRIA AND THE CROATIAN PART VON GABRIELE SEITZ
OF PANONNIA. A COMPARATIVE STUDY _________ 13
BY NENAD CAMBI AUGUSTA RAURICA,
EINE STATUETTENGRUPPE
LES STELES FUNERAIRES A PERSONNAGES AUS WEISSEM PFEIFENTON _________________________ 115
ORIGINE DES THÈMES, MODÈLES ET DATES
VON TEODORA TOMASEVIC BUCK
À TRAVERS L’EMPIRE ROMAIN ________________________________ 31
DE FRANÇOIS BRAEMER ATTIS, PARTHER UND ANDERE BARBAREN.
EIN BEITRAG ZUM VERSTÄNDNIS
FLEXIBLE INTENT: SHIFTING VALUES VON ORIENTALENDARSTELLUNGEN
& DISCREPANT MEANINGS IN
AUF GRABSTEINEN DER NÖRDLICHEN
ROMANO-BRITISH RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE _____ 53
PROVINZEN ______________________________________________ 121
BY MIRANDA ALDHOUSE-GREEN
VON ALICE LANDSKRON

CIVILIAN SCULPTORS AND THE CREATION


BEMERKUNGEN ZU DEN FREISTEHENDEN
OF ROMANO-BRITISH CIVILISATION IN
GRABMEDAILLONS IN NORICUM _________________ 131
SOUTHERN BRITAIN ____________________________________ 59
VON ELISABETH WALDE
BY MARTIN HENIG
DIE DIONYSISCHEN DREIFIGURENRELIEFS
TYPOLOGIE ET DÉCOR DES MONUMENTS
VON HARTBERG UND BAD WALTERSDORF
FUNÉRAIRES DE L’ARMORIQUE ROMAINE ______ 65
(STEIERMARK) ____________________________________________ 141
DES JEAN-YVES ÉVEILLARD/YVAN MALIGORNE
VON ERWIN POCHMARSKI
LA TOMBE MONUMENTALE DE NASIUM UND MARGARETHA POCHMARSKI-NAGELE
(GAULE BELGIQUE): RÉFLEXIONS SUR LE
SPUNTI DI RIFLESSIONE SU ALCUNI
SYMBOLISME DES GRANDS MONUMENTS
ASPETTI DEL CULTO DI BELENO
SÉPULCRAUX DU NORD-EST DE LA GAULE_______ 75
DE JEAN-NOËL CASTORIO
E DI ANTINOO___________________________________________ 157
ANNALISA GIOVANNINI
IUPPITERGIGANTENSÄULEN
IM MUSEUM VON METZ – LA COUR D’OR________ 85 MANI ALZATE, MAINS LEVÉES,
VON HANNELORE ROSE UND ISABELLE BARDIÈS
ERHOBENE HÄNDE. A PROPOSITO
DI UN SARCOFAGO DELLA COLLEZIONE
DER SARKOPHAG DER CORNELIA IACAENA. DI FRANCESCO DI TOPPO ___________________________ 175
EIN FRÜHER GIRLANDENSARKOPHAG BY FULVIA CILIBERTO/FULVIA MAINARDIS
IN ARLES ____________________________________________________ 91
VON STEPHANIE BÖHM CULT AND MYTHOLOGICAL
REPRESENTATIONS AS DECORATIVE
ÜBERLEGUNGEN ZUR FORTUNA ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS
VON BERMEL _____________________________________________ 95 IN ROMAN POLA ________________________________________ 185
VON PATRICIA SCHWARZ BY KRISTINA DŽIN
RELIEFS AND SCULPTURES OF DEITIES EIN JUPITERTORSO AUS DEM
AND MYTHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AUXILIARKASTELL IN IŽA (SLOWAKEI) ____________ 293
AS DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE VON KLÁRA KUZMOVÁ
SPIRITUAL LIFE IN ANTIQUE ISTRIA _____________ 191
BY VESNA GIRARDI-JURKIĆ RÖMISCHE GÖTTER UND MYTHISCHE
GESTALTEN AUS POETOVIO
STATUE OF A ROMAN GODDESS AUF STEINDENKMÄLERN
FROM THE FORUM OF PULA ________________________ 197 IM LANDESMUSEUM PTUJ____________________________ 299
BY ALKA STARAC VON MOJCA VOMER GOJKOVIČ

THE ICONOGRAPHY OF INDIGENOUS JÜNGLINGSGESTALTEN MIT WAFFE


CULTS IN NORTHERN LIBURNIA _________________ 201 AUF PANNONISCHEN GEMMEN ___________________ 305
BY ROBERT MATIJAŠIĆ VON TAMÁS GESZTELYI

AFTERLIFE IDEAS ON MILITARY MACHTSPLITTER – ARCHITEKTURTEILE


MONUMENTS IN NARONA HINTERLAND _____ 205 AUS DER KAISERRESIDENZ SIRMIUM
BY RADOSLAV DODIG (SREMSKA MITROVICA) _______________________________ 311
VON CHRISTINE ERTEL
RELIGION AND MYTH ON MONUMENTS
FROM ZADAR AND SURROUNDINGS EINE NEUE BILDHAUERWERKSTATT
IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM IM OBERLAND DES BALATON
IN ZADAR _________________________________________________ 213 (PLATTENSEE)? ___________________________________________ 319
BY KORNELIJA A. GIUNIO VON SYLVIA PALÁGYI

KULTSKULPTUREN DIE GIGANTEN VOM PFAFFENBERG


AUS DER ANTIKEN STADT SENIA __________________ 223 BEI CARNUNTUM _______________________________________ 329
VON MIROSLAV GLAVIČIĆ VON GABRIELLE KREMER

RELIEFS OF THE LABOURS OF HERACLES DURCHBROCHEN GEARBEITETE


ON A ROMAN “SARCOPHAGUS” WEIHRELIEFS AUS DAKIEN __________________________ 337
IN THE CHURCH OF ST CAIUS IN SOLIN _______ 229 VON ALFRED SCHÄFER
BY JASNA JELIČIĆ-RADONIĆ
CULT SYMBOLS AND IMAGES
RELIGIOUS TESTIMONIES FOUND ON FUNERARY MONUMENTS
ON ROMAN GEMS FROM DALMATIA OF THE ROMAN PERIOD
KEPT IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL IN THE CENTRAL SECTION
MUSEUM IN VENICE ___________________________237 OF DARDANIA ___________________________________________ 343
BY BRUNA NARDELLI BY EXHLALE DOBRUNA-SALIHU

HVCVSOVE – “THIS IS WHERE SACRIFICES DIE PLASTISCHE AUSSTATTUNG


WERE OFFERED” – ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS VON HEILIGTÜMERN DES THRAKISCHEN
IN THE SUBSTRUCTIONS REITERS IM TERRITORIUM
OF DIOCLETIAN’S PALACE IN SPLIT ______________ 243 VON PHILIPPOPOLIS (PLOVDIV) __________________ 351
BY TAJMA RISMONDO VON MANFRED OPPERMANN

SOME EXAMPLES OF LOCAL PRODUCTION NOVAE – STELES


OF MITHRAIC RELIEFS FROM ROMAN WITH REPRESENTATIONS OF BIRDS ______________ 363
DALMATIA _________________________________________________ 249 BY PIOTR DYCZEK
BY GORANKA LIPOVAC VRKLJAN
PAST AND PRESENT:
DIANA AND THE FAWN ______________________________ 259
NOTES ON THE IDENTITY
BY MARINA MILIĆEVIĆ BRADAČ
OF ROMAN IMPERIAL SMYRNA ____________________ 373

TYPOLOGY OF MITHRAIC CULT RELIEFS BY CARLO FRANCO


FROM SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE __________________ 269
OMNIPOTENS ET OMNIPARENS DEA SYRIA.
BY ŽELJKO MILETIĆ
ASPECTS OF HER ICONOGRAPHY __________________ 381
THE ANCIENT CULTUAL UNITY BETWEEN BY ILONA SKUPINSKA-LOVSET
THE CENTRAL ADRIATIC LITTORAL
AND THE DELMATIAN HINTERLAND ____________ 275 ANTAIOS, AN EGYPTIAN GOD
BY MARIN ZANINOVIĆ
IN ROMAN EGYPT:
EXTRACTING AN ICONOGRAPHY _________________ 389
EINE UNVERÖFFENTLICHTE GRABSTELE BY DONALD BAILEY
AUS TILURIUM _________________________________281
VON DOMAGOJ TONČINIĆ THE PAMPHILI OBELISK:
TWO NOTES ON PHARAONIC ELEMENTS
FORTUNA-NEMESIS STATUES IN AQUINCUM __ 287 IN DOMITIAN IDEOLOGY ____________________________ 399
BY KRISZTINA SZIRMAI BY EMANUELE M. CIAMPINI
ROMANIZING BAAL: RÖMISCHE STEINDENKMÄLER
THE ART OF SATURN WORSHIP IN DER WEB-PLATTFORM
IN NORTH AFRICA _____________________________________ 403 WWW.UBI-ERAT-LUPA.ORG ___________________________ 441
BY ANDREW WILSON VON FRIEDERIKE HARL UND KURT SCHALLER

THE SYNCRETISM OF BELIFES ‘STEIN – RELIEF- INSCHRIFT'. KONTUREN


AS EXPRESSED IN ROMAN EINES FORSCHUNGSPROJEKTES ___________________ 449
PROVINCIAL SCULPTURE ____________________________ 409
VON CH. HEMMERS, ST. TRAXLER, CH. UHLIR
BY CLAIRE K. LINDGREN
UND W. WOHLMAYR
ÜBERALL (GÖTTER)GLEICH? –
THEOMORPHE BILDNISSE EIN NEUFUND AUS DER STEIERMARK ___________ 455

DER FRAUEN VON BERNHARD HEBERT

DES RÖMISCHEN KAISERHAUSES __________________ 415


VON ANNETTA ALEXANDRIDIS

‘DIE TREFFLICHE GRUPPE DER FLUCHT


DES ÄNEAS’. EIN TROIANISCHES THEMA
IN DER PROVINZ: DIE AENEAS-GRUPPE
IN STUTTGART UND VERWANDTE
DARSTELLUNGEN. ZU IKONOGRAPHIE
UND BEDEUTUNG. _____________________________________ 423
VON JUTTA RONKE

DIE BEFRACHTUNG GÄNGIGER


GRIECHISCH-RÖMISCHER SYMBOLE PROGRAM KOLOKVIJA
MIT NEUEN RELIGIÖSEN INHALTEN (PROGRAMM, PROGRAM, PROGRAMME) ________ 457
AUF DEN RELIEFS
DER MITHRASMYSTERIEN ___________________________ 433 SUDIONICI (TEILNEHMER,
VON MARIA WEISS PARTICIPANTS, PARTICIPANTS) _____________________ 459
THE ANCIENT CULTUAL UNITY
BETWEEN THE CENTRAL ADRIATIC LITTORAL
AND THE DELMATIAN HINTERLAND

BY MARIN ZANINOVIĆ

T
here is a strong geographic difference between periods this is proved by the burnt layers on the Neo-
the Adriatic Littoral and its hinterland (Strab., lithic as on the later sites.
VII, 5, 17). The coast and especially the islands, The duality of today’s Croatian land was known to
were always more open to the various influences of the the ancient authors who wrote about our region. One
newcomers, who mostly arrived via sea routes. The of these is the geographer and historian Strabo from
ethnic and cultural unity of the Illyrians on the coast, Amasia on the Pontus (63 BC – 19 AD). He himself
along with those on the mainland and in the interior, is noted that he travelled in the lands of the Mediterra-
convincingly represented by the cult of Silvanus, espe- nean from Armenia to Sardinia and from Pontus (Black
cially present in the area of the mighty tribe of the Del- sea) to Ethiopia. He stayed for a long time in Rome and
matae. We find their reliefs on such “classic” territory as Egypt. While his “Geography” is completely preserved,
the island of Hvar, ancient Pharos, well known in the his historical work, in which he continued Polybius’
antiquity with its wine production. In some aspects, the history, is regrettably lost except for some fragments.
cults of Dionysus and Liber also belong to the ancient Thank to Strabo we have some precious information
Illyrian beliefs. about our area, especially about the tribe of the Delma-
On its long coast, with a thousand islands and cliffs, tae, their settlements and their customs. He is the first
the territory of Croatia was always exposed to newcom- who expressly stated the duality of their territory. He
ers who arrived with different intentions. Some were writes about the Liburnian coast, and then continues
welcomed as merchants and seafarers, while others were (Stra., VII, 5, 5), “The Delmatian Littoral with their
undesired conquerors who threatened proper living and harbour Salon, then lists some of their more impor-
existence. These facts make the complete historical past tant settlements of which some are the cities (poleis) as
of our land and its littoral in all periods. The Adriatic Salona, Promona, Ninia and Sinotion, Old and New
Sea is only a large bay of the Mediterranean Sea, and which were burnt by Augustus, then there is Andetrium
through it passed the shortest sea route to the Alpine a fortified place and Delmion the big town from which
passes and to Central Europe. The very ancient so called is the name of this people. There is the mountain Adri-
“Amber route” is one of the well known manifestations on which divides the Delmatian land (Delmatiken) in
of the importance of this sea route. The archaeologi- the middle on its littoral part and this one on the other
cal finds from the Palaeolithic onwards give evidence side”.
about the relations of our coast with the distant regions The Delmatae originally lived in the mountainous
of the Mediterranean, both from the east the west. A areas and in the karsst valleys in the hinterland of the
similar situation, in a continental manner, can be seen sea coast, between the rivers Krka (Titius) and Cetina
in northern Croatia, especially between the Sava and (Hippus). In the middle of this area rises the magnifi-
Drava rivers. Numerous invasions and migrations cent mountain of Dinara (Adrion), 1931 m high, as a
passed through here heading south and west, to Greece bulwark dividing the north from south of their land.
and Italy. For this reason Croatia was many times de- But this, and other mountains along the coast, such
stroyed and plundered. The archaeological finds show as Kozjak, Mosor and Biokovo, did not prevent com-
that many invasions occurred, and in the prehistoric munication between the interior and the sea coast and
276 M ARIN ZANINOVIĆ

the world of the Mediterranean. In their interior we trees and vineyards (Strab., VII, 5, 10). He also under-
find the coins of the Greek cities and other items such lines that all the territory beyond the Adriatic coast is
as Greco-Illyrian helms, found mainly on the territory mountainous and cold, and with a lot of a snow, thus
of the Delmatae. Knowing their warlike qualities, this making it unfavourable for the cultivation of grapevines
is not surprising. The main lines of penetration of the and wine. Of course, we shall not conclude that the Il-
Greek, as well as other influences, passed through the lyrians did not know about grapevines and wine. What
pass of Klis, north of Salona, and by other passes, arriv- is known about them from ancient authors is that they
ing in their valleys beyond the Dinara. Another impor- consumed the wine in great quantities; at least in the
tant route went from the valley toward the present day upper layers of their society, as is stated by Polybius (II,
town of Čapljina and along the rivulet of Trebižat, then 4, 6, XXIX, 5, 7, cf. Liv., XIV, 30)3. The wine amphoras
the valleys of Ljubuški and Imotski, as the natural way from Pharos and Issa, found at the site of Ošanići (the
to their central valley of Duvno (Delminium).1 center of the Illyrian tribe of Daorsi), confirms this fact,
Another Greek from Asia Minor, and valued writer as commerce regarding the import of wine from Chios
of “The Roman History”, Cassius Dio Cocceianus (cca. and Thassos, on the estuary of the Naron river, is noted
150-235 AD), who like Strabo was from the northern by Strabo (according to Theopompus) (VII, 5, 9).
province of Bithynia (from the town of Nicaea, about The Greek presence on our coast is very old, begin-
350 km to the west from Amasia), wrote his work nearly ning with the Myceneans whose pottery was found on
two centuries after Strabo. Unfortunately, it is in most the island of Brač (Škrip) and on the Monkodonja hill-
part lost and only partly preserved in the later Byzan- fort near Rovinj in Istria. The sources also register a pos-
tine copies (Zonaras and others). Dio was the governor sible sporadic presence of the Rhodians, the Phocaeans,
of the Roman province of Dalmatia from 223 – c. 226, the Corinthyans, the Corcyreans and the Athenians.
and Pannonia Superior from 226 – c. 228. He knew There were possibly others whose names were not not-
his provinces well and when he described Octavianus ed in the books of a history. The permanent presence
campaign in Illyricum in 35-33 BC, he accentuated the of the Greeks on our coast was a consequence of the
difference between Dalmatia and Pannonia. The Pan- imperial might and will of Dionysius, the Elder from
nonians are living in the background of Dalmatia along Syracuse (404-367 BC) and the most powerful ruler
the coast of Ister (Danube), from Noricum to the Eu- in his time on the Mediterranean4. To secure his politi-
ropean Moesia, and compared with other people they cal and strategic supremacy on the Adriatic, he helped
lived very poorly. Neither the land nor the climate was colonists from Sicily and southern Italy to settle on the
favourable to them, so they did not produce oil or wine, island of Vis (Issa) in the beginning of the fourth cen-
except in small quantities and of bad quality. Because tury BC. This was followed by the founding of Pharos
lived in the cold for the greater part of the year, they (Stari Grad) on the island of Hvar in 385/4, where the
ate millet and barley, with which they also prepared Parians from the Aegean Sea settled. With these foun-
drinks2. As a true man of the Mediterranean, wine and dations, Dionysius set in motion the historical proc-
oil were a measure of good cooking for Dio. This is a esses with a lasting influence on the destiny of native
confirmation of the ancient opinion that the Mediter- populations and their political and social development.
ranean lands end where there are no olive trees. We have These processes, at different periods, lead to initial con-
to remind ourselves that Strabo stated that the Adriatic flicts in which the native settlements were destroyed
islands are very favourable for the cultivation of olive and their land taken; forcing them with military might

1
M. Zaninović, The Illyrian Tribe of the Delmatae. Godišnjak Centra za balkanološka ispitivanja (Godišnjak CBI) 4, 1966, 27–92. – Idem, The Illyrian Tribe
of the Delmatae II. Godišnjak CBI 5, 1967, 5–101. – Idem, Le relazioni greco–delmate sull‘Adriatico. Jadranska obala u protohistoriji – Kulturni i etnički
problemi. Simpozij Dubrovnik 1972 (Zagreb 1976) 301–307. = M. Zaninović, Od Helena do Hrvata (Zagreb 1996) 193–200. – Idem, The Territory of
the Neretva Valley as a Foothold of Roman Penetration. Izdanja Hrvatskog Arh. Društva 5 (Split 1980) 173–180. = Idem, Od Helena do Hrvata (Zagreb
1996) 221–229. – I. Marović, L‘elmo greco-illirico. Jadranska obala u protohistoriji (Zagreb 1976) 287–300. – S. Čače, Dalmatica Straboniana. Diadora
16–17, 1994–1995, 101–128.
2
Dio, XXI, 49, 36–38. – M. Šašel Kos, A Historical Outline of the Region Between Aquileia, the Adriatic and Sirmium in Cassius Dio and Herodian (Ljubljana
1986) 5–49; 130–131.
3
M. Zaninović, The Illyrians and the Grapevine. Godišnjak CBI 13, 1976, 261–272 = Idem, Od Helena do Hrvata (Zagreb 1996) 385–393.
4
G. Novak, Kolonizatorsko djelovanje Dionizija Starijega na Jadranu. Vjesnik Hrvatskog Arh. Društva 18–21. Serta Hoffilleriana, 1937–1940, 111–128.
– Idem, I Greci antichi nell‘Adriatico. Rad Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti 322, 1961, 145–222. – L. Braccesi, Grecità Adriatica (Bologna
1979). – J. Jeličić et alii, Pharos – Antički Stari Grad. Cataloque of the Exposition. Zagreb – Muzejski prostor, December 1995 – January 1996, 160 pp.
T H E ANCIENT CULTUAL UNIT Y BET WEEN THE CENTR AL ADRIATIC LIT TOR AL... 277

to become slaves or subjects without rights. Naturally, This complex picture of the native Illyrian beliefs
we do not have many facts needed to get a complete was systematically studied and explained prof. Duje
and clear picture of these complicated relations, but Rendić Miočević, especially the cult of Silvanus and
what we can get from the authors and archaeological other divinities connected with him. He has systema-
remains is the presence of permanent tension between tized their iconography and the variants in the archaeo-
the natives and the newly arrived, depending on the logical monuments5. He was fascinated by the number
situations in different periods. of these monuments, especially in the interior of the
The relations between the Illyrians on the mainland territory of the tribe of the Delmatae, and rightly con-
and those on the islands proceeded in the accepting of cluded that it represents the original native divinity
the influences of one civilization which had might and considering the sites where were found their monu-
methods to impose themselves on these peoples, depend- ments and their anonymous local stone-cutters (a sort
ing on their position in different geographical areas. The of a “naive” artists of these bygone centuries). So it is
inscriptions, archaeological finds (local and imported), not surprising that the known unique Illyrian sculptor
coins and their mints and hoards lend support to these Maximinus is a local master who undersigned himself
processes. The ascent of the Illyrian Ardiaean state, af- on the reliefs of Diana and the girl named Lupa with
ter the fall of the Dionysian Empire, turned over these Maximinus sculpet. The first reliefs were found near Im-
processes and made the Adriatic Greeks more or less a otski in the end of the 19 century, and the monument
second grade factor. A demanding of Roman protection to Lupa was found in the same region near the village of
from the Illyrian threats by the Issaeans and Pharians, Sovići, near Gruda in Hercegovina, in 1956. In his later
together with the southern Greek settlements of Cor- studies, Rendić Miočević included the territory of the
cyra (Korfou), Apollonia and Dyrrhachium, brought province of Pannonia. He proved that the abundance
the Romans, who were the new masters of the Mediter- of these monuments in the Illyro-Dalmatian regions is
ranean, on the eastern Adriatic coast and on its islands. the unique repertory of our archaeological heritage. It
For our theme the religious picture and situation is interesting that the Silvanus monuments are also rela-
in our region, according to the preserved monuments tively numerous at Salona, the capital of the province of
and inscriptions, is important. The Greeks, as always, Dalmatia. However, taking into account its geographic
brought with them their official divinities (Zeus, Di- position, it was a natural “capital city” for its immediate
onysus, Hermes, Heracles, Athena, Artemis, Aphro- and strong Delmatian hinterland who persistently kept
dite, Persephone and others) whose names we find in their traditions6.
the inscriptions and their images on the coins. The re- What I have stated up to now is connected firstly
ligious base of the Illyrians was, as far as we can judge with the “Delmatian” coast and its hinterland. Induced
by preserved monuments and the surviving elements by our Conference about Roman provincial artistry, I
found in beliefs of the later inhabitants on their land, would like to underline the spiritual and ethnic unity
was that of worship of the forces of nature. These are of our coast and islands during these ancient times,
divinities of nature, the forests and the protectors of and also in other periods of the past. Namely, our
livestock. Firstly, this is a divinity similar to the Greek “classical” islands, it seems, were outside of the venera-
Pan, whom they accepted during the time in his Greek, tion of the native cults. This appears to be the case as
or later Roman variant of Silvanus, usually designed as they were marked more with the official divinities of
the interpretatio graeca or romana of a said native di- the Greek poleis; in our case Issa and Pharos. Several
vinity. In some relief monuments he is associated with years ago, I published some newly found reliefs of the
Diana, with the nymphs or with some other divinities Silvanus cult from the island of Hvar, better known by
like Liber (the Italian equivalent of Dionysus). its Greek traditions and archaeological monuments7

5
D. Rendić Miočević, Représentations illyriennes de Sylvanus sur les monuments du culte dans le domaine Dalmate. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja 10, 1955,
5–40 = Idem, Iliri i antički svijet (Split 1989) 461–506.
6
D. Rendić Miočević, Neki ikonografski i onomastički aspekti Silvanove kultne zajednice u Panoniji i Iliriku, Vjesnik Arheološkoga muzeja u Zagrebu 3. ser.
12–13 [Posvećen Z. Vinskome] 1979–1980, 105–120 = Idem, Iliri i antički svijet (Split 1989) 507–522. – Idem, Dva antička signirana reljefa iz radionice
majstora Maksimina. Arheološki radovi i rasprave JAZU 4–5, 1967, 339–341 = Idem, Iliri i antički svijet (Split 1989) 559–570. – For the inscriptions
and monuments at Salona: M. Zaniniović, The Illyrian Tribe of the Delmatae. Godišnjak CBI 4, 1966, 47–54. – Silvanus in the hinterland of Salona:
A. Rendić Miočević, A propos des deux sanctuaires de Silvain dans les environs de Salone. Arheološki radovi i rasprave 8–9, 1982, 121–140. More finds of
Silvanus monuments in the area of the Delmatae has published I. Bojanovski in several papers.
278 M ARIN ZANINOVIĆ

Fig. 1 Relief of Silvanus from Svirče, the Island of Hvar.

(Fig. 1 and 2). These reliefs show that our “classi- collection of the Dominican monastery at Strai Grad
cal” islands, with these native traditions, belong to (Pharos), from which it was regrettably stolen about
the same spiritual sphere as their compatriots on the ten years ago.
neighbouring mainland. We have to accentuate that The second damaged Silvanus relief was found in
the reliefs were found in a village area, the chora of the 1962 near the village of Svirče about 2 km to the east of
polis of Pharos, more precisely in their time in the ager Dol. The fact that these reliefs were found outside the
of the Roman Pharia. The relief of Silvanus with the urban area of Pharos or Pharia means that they were
nymphs was found in the surroundings of the village dedicated by the native inhabitants of this fertile plain.
of Dol, about 2 km from Pharos, somewhere in the Parallelly along side the Greek element on the island,
middle of the 20th century. In this village there are the original native Illyrian population was continuously
remains of Roman villas, from where this relief most present. This we can conclude from rare preserved in-
probably came from. It was kept in the Archaeological scriptions. From the plain of Pharos come well known
T H E ANCIENT CULTUAL UNIT Y BET WEEN THE CENTR AL ADRIATIC LIT TOR AL... 279

Fig. 2 Silvanus and the Nymphs from Dol, the island of Hvar.

inscriptions of Mathios (the son of Pitheos), who on a to object that there is a small number of only two re-
plain stone slab marked a boundary stone (horos) of his liefs on the island of Pharos, but neither are the Greek
lot of land. Certainly the most famous is the decree (pse- monuments more numerous. As to the Silvanus reliefs,
phisma) from Lumbarda on the island of Korčula (an- we can associate a rustic relief of Libera in the act of
cient Corcyra Niger) in which the Greeks from Issa made libation found on the southern side of the island, on
a contract with the local Illyrians and their chieftains the site of a villa rustica in the village of Zavala, which
(Pullus and his son Daza) who permitted the Greeks to is well known today by it fine vineyards. This lack of
settle in their plain. In the names of the three Dorian monuments is probably a result of early Christiani-
tribes Dymanes, Hylleis, and Pamphyloi, listed at the end zation of our islands and the region of Salona, when
of the inscription, there are also some Illyrian names. many pagan monuments were destroyed, especially
Similarly as with the names on the Issaean Tragourian those of Pan or Silvanus, according to whose image was
inscriptions at the Issaean subcolony Tragourion (Tro- made and a figure of the devil in the Christian iconog-
gir) like Oltionos Salla, Zopyros Oltionos, Oltios Enkt …; raphy. An interesting episode occurred at the parish of
this last one from Issa, about which more can be found Makarska in the 18th century when the villagers found
in the fine paper of prof. Duje Rendić Miočević8. It is the relief of Silvanus, and thinking that it was the im-
possible to observe that there are a small number of age of the devil, had it destroyed. Maybe from the same
these names. But this group of people, already by their reason Slvanus from Svirče was destroyed, with only the
social position, left fewer documents on their private head remaining similar to that from Salona, possibly
and official life of their communities. It is also possible from the same workshop. (Fig. 3) The iconographical

7
M. Zaninović, Three Ancient Reliefs from Hvar. Opuscula archaeologica 6, 1966, 15–24. = Idem, Od Helena do Hrvata (Zagreb 1996) 137–147.
8
D. Rendić Miočević, The Illyrians in the Inscriptions of the Greek Colonies in Dalmatia. Vjesnik Arh. i Hist. Dalmatinsku 53, 1952, 25–48. = Idem, Iliri
i antički svijet (Split 1989) 155–180. For the relations of the Delmatian Mainland and the Islands: M. Zaninović, The Illyrian Tribe of the Delmatae.
Godišnjak CBI 4, 1966, 46–70.
280 M ARIN ZANINOVIĆ

Fig. 4 Relief of Silvanus and the Nymphs from


Gardun.

Fig. 3 Silvanus from Salona.

Hispania, the classical world of the Greeks remained on


the coasts, and in the interior of these territories we find
their products from Scythia to Illyricum and Gallia.
Italian archaeology, for example, began to explore and
discover the native hill-fort settlements in the interior
of Calabria by the Romanian prof. Dinu Adamesteanu
representation of Silvanus and nymphs from Dol can as recently as in the 60s of the 20th century. Vincenzo
be connected with the relief from Gardun (Tilurium) Tusa did so in western Sicily in the 70s, as did Adri-
(Fig. 4) and some others. ano La Regina in the central region of Adriatic Italy10.
We must say that the island of Hvar, in its narrower As a rule, the Greeks guarded the coast. Due to the
and elongated eastern part, is without significant agri- already expounded facts, these monuments are espe-
cultural areas. Therefore, this part was left to the native cially important for us in permeating the Illyrian beliefs
inhabitants. We can conclude this on the basis of the and cults with classical Greek and Roman iconography.
archaeological finds where the antiquity is scarcely rep- That is, they are not only archaeological documents
resented, differently from the central island plain 9 and about the existence of the domestic Illyrian cults on the
the western parts of the island as well. The islands popu- classical territory of our islands, but also social and so-
lation always renovated with the settlers from the main- ciological monuments about the spiritual conditions of
land. One important reservoir for these people was the the native population; a population which kept their
estuary of the Naron river, to which area Hvar is nearing traditions during the prevalent and dominant world of
with its eastern end as to the opposite Makarska littoral. the Graeco-Roman antiquity. This I what I wanted to
The Greeks were interested mainly in its trade possibili- accentuate given the context of our scientific confer-
ties, fertile fields and the ports. From the Black sea to ence, which is most needed and very useful.

Prof. Marin Zaninović, Filozofski fakultet, P.O. Box 171 – I. Lučića 3, 10000 Zagreb, Hrvatska