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Use of Renewable Energy Sources in University Campus Microgrid – A Review

Kayode T. Akindeji, Remy Tiako, and Innocent E. Davidson

AbstractThe sun as the primary source of energy can be tapped into to light our universities. With the prevailing economic recession and global warming, universities can reduce cost of electricity through a self-sustaining microgrid. The university is like a separate entity and can operate as an island with sufficient resources to meet her energy demands. Microgrid has evolved as a major technology to harness and aggregate available renewable energy sources (RES) with a view to increasing network reliability, reducing carbon footprint and reducing cost of energy. This paper reviews existing university campus microgrids (UCM) around the world, highlighting their objectives, methods, challenges and results. One of these objectives is to serve as a test-bed or laboratory in which students and faculty staff conduct research to advance modern power system. Solar Photovoltaic (Rooftop PV) remains the major RES in the implementation of UCM, however, a hybrid system is also common. The review shows that UCM if well designed among other benefits results in a significant reduction in the operation cost of the university.

Index Termscampus, microgrid, renewable energy, university

1

The drive for alternative energy due to global warming and environmental pollution as a result of burning fossil fuels to generate electricity continues to grow in many areas day by day [1]. Government, utilities, institutions, industries and businesses are all sourcing for alternatives to cover for future energy demands to reduce energy cost and reduce the cost of building high voltage (HV) transmission facilities. Renewable energy sources (RESs) such as wind, solar, hydro and biomass have become the major alternatives to conventional energy sources such as fossil fuel, coal, gas and oil in meeting the growing energy demand all over the world [2], [3]. RESs offer in abundance free, readily available, sustainable and clean energy resources for mankind [4], [5]. Figure 1 shows the annual solar irradiation for South Africa indicating available potential for solar energy. For efficient integration of RES to the grid, the microgrid concept has attracted significant interest. For instance, ABB has been selected by the university of Chester, northwest England to install a microgrid control system to better integrate conventional and renewable energy [6]- [8]. According to [9], microgrid is “a load cluster with a clear geographical boundary within a distribution system, which can coordinate the operation of DERs, and energy storage to supply the local load demand in an economic and reliable manner”. In other words, as the name implies, microgrids are very small

INTRODUCTION

K. T. Akindeji, Durban University of Technology, P O Box 1334,

Durban 400, South Africa (e-mail: kayodea@dut.ac.za). He is a PhD student at University of Kwa-Zulu Natal and a lecturer at Durban University of Technology.

R. Tiako, Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal. (e-mail: tiako@ukzn.ac.za)

versions of power grids as they are implemented typically in local areas having the capacity to disconnect from the main grid and operate in island mode [10]. The aim of the present study is to model a UCM at steady state and analyse the performance and cost benefits. The rest of this paper is arranged as follows: section 2 discuss the concept of microgrid, section 3 focuses on Islanded microgrid as a type of microgrid that could be implemented in university campus. A review of university campus microgrid around the world is presented in section 4 highlighting their objectives, configurations and results while the final conclusion is drawn in section 5.

results while the final conclusion is drawn in section 5. Fig 1: Annual Solar irradiation for

Fig 1: Annual Solar irradiation for South Africa [11]

2 THE MICROGRID CONCEPT

The concept of Microgrid emerged about two decades ago to ease and increase the penetration of renewable energy sources into the distribution network with higher degree of reliability and minimal complex algorithm to coordinate all the renewables [12]. The main drivers of Microgrid concept include high level integration of distributed energy resources, increased energy demand, high cost of expanding transmission facilities to remote areas and instability of the

I. E. Davidson, Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Durban University of Technology, P O Box 1334, Durban 400, South Africa (e- mail: innocentd@dut.ac.za).

grid due to ageing [13]. Microgrid usually comprised different types of DER such as wind turbine, solar PV, fuel cells and various distributed energy storage systems in addition to inverters, smart switches, communication system and controllers [14]. Hence, microgrid has become the bedrock of smartgrid incorporating information communication technology (ICT) into the power distribution grid. In summary, distribution networks are changing from being passive to active networks with bidirectional power flows [1]. The main advantage of microgrid from grid point of view is the ability for it to be controlled as a single entity with respect to the grid [15], [16]. In other words, the microgrid is treated as a net load or a generator with definite properties [2]. Microgrids operate in two modes, these are grid-connected and islanding modes [3]. Types of microgrids include; campus, community, islanded, nanogrid and hybrid (AC and DC) [17]. However, microgrids cannot be fully autonomous without optimal location and sizing of energy storage devices [18]. Factors or criteria considered in selecting battery technologies for microgrid are cycle life, cost, safety, round trip efficiency, maintenance requirements, maximum temperature rating, and environmental impact as well as type of project [19], [20]. The microgrid acts like a plug-and-play power unit as such it disconnects itself from the main grid in case of any grid disturbances (e.g. frequency or voltage violations, short circuit faults), operates in island mode and reconnects when the main grid is healed [21]. The transition from grid connected mode to island mode can be triggered by poor power quality at the main grid such as voltage or frequency deviations and unscheduled event i.e. major faults at the main grid [22]. Two IEEE standards, IEEE 2030.7(IEEE standard for the specification of microgrid controllers) and IEEE 2030.8 (IEEE standard for the testing of microgrid) address the control functions of microgrid in connecting to and disconnecting from the main grid. The following technical requirements must be met for resynchronization to the main grid. As stated in [13] and [23], the requirements are;

i. Frequency deviation at the PCC < 0,1 Hz

ii. Voltage angle difference at the PCC < 1º

iii. Voltage magnitude difference at the PCC < 5%

Having highlighted the above requirements as well as the reliability requirement of the concerned consumer, the institute of electrical and electronic engineer (IEEE) standard 1547 must be met for islanding and reconnection of all microgrids [16],[21]. Microgrids are not without challenges especially with RESs that are intermittent and climate dependent in nature. Principal challenge is protection as a result of bidirectional flow in the distribution network, the traditional protection system needs to be redesigned to

accommodate bidirectional flow considering the dynamics of the microgrid before, during and after islanding operation

[24].

2.1

Distributed energy sources

Non-conventional or RESs used in generating electricity in microgrid are called distributed energy resources or micro sources [25]. Prominent among these are solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, small scale hydro, wind energy conversion system (WECS), combined heat and power (CHP) system, micro turbines, fuel cells. A brief description of two major DER technologies used in microgrid follows.

2.1.1 Solar PV

The major source of solar power is by direct or indirect conversion of sunlight to electricity. The direct method is using photovoltaic (PV) solar cells whereas the indirect method uses concentrated solar panel (CSP) [4]. Solar PV technology is established around the world to generate electrical power for many stand-alone applications such a microgrid. Radiation on a horizontal surface is the only radiation available from most meteorological stations especially in developing world. Other data are estimated using different models developed for this purpose [20]. The solar irradiance for a typical day, 16 th January 2019 as extracted from South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) [26] showing six provinces; Eastern Cape (EC), Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN), Gauteng (GP), Limpopo (LP), Northern Cape (NC) and Western Cape (WC) in South Africa is shown in Figure 2.

Diffuse horizontal irradiance in [W/m2 ]

4000

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 EC KZN GP LP NC WC
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
EC
KZN
GP
LP
NC
WC

Fig 2: Daily Solar irradiance for Six Provinces South Africa

Equations (1) and (2) give the amount of electrical energy that can be generated from solar PV using different parameters

[27].

= 365

(1)

E is the annual electricity generation (kWh); P k is peak power of solar PV panel (kW); r p is the system performance ratio and H i is the annual daily global radiation (Wh).

=

(2)

E out is annual electricity production (kWh); A e is the total surface area of solar cells (m 2 ), E e is the annual mean power conversion efficiency and G is the annual total global irradiation (Wh/m 2 ).

2.1.2 Wind energy

The application of wind energy or power started thousands of years ago, whereby the energy derived from wind was used to pump water and to grind corn. Also, ancient

mariners used wind to sail to distant lands. Wind like solar is free and available in an inexhaustible quantity. [20] defines wind as “the movement of air from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas caused by uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun”. South Africa has fair wind potential, specifically along the coastal area of western and Eastern cape. This makes South Africa the highest producers of wind power in Africa. The average wind speed of selected provinces in South Africa is shown in table 1. Through the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer’s Procurement programme (REIPPPP), about 19 wind farms have been established producing 1471 MW. Wind energy is converted to electrical energy through a technology called wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). A WECS mainly consists of a turbine, generator, power electronic converters, gear box and a transformer. The amount of energy that can be extracted from the wind depends on its speed. From equation 3, the wind speed is directly proportional to the energy that can be harvested to generate electricity. The power output of a wind turbine is given by “(3)”;

= 0.5 3

(3)

Where Pw is the power output, C p is the power coefficient of turbine, A is the surface area of the turbine, ρ is density and V is the wind velocity hitting the surface area [20], [28] [31].

Table I. Average wind speed of selected provinces in South Africa

[32].

Month

Wind Speed (m/s)

 

Province

NC

KZN

GP

WC

Jan

3.74

1.48

2.41

4.95

Feb

4.12

1.87

2.36

4.80

Mar

3.87

2.09

1.81

4.13

Apr

4.08

2.06

1.71

4.07

May

2.89

1.75

1.69

3.44

Jun

3.37

1.91

1.46

3.84

Jul

3.46

2.06

1.69

3.85

Aug

3.38

1.89

1.93

3.64

Sept

3.67

2.33

2.80

4.26

Oct

3.70

2.47

2.63

4.43

Nov

3.86

2.43

2.69

5.46

Dec

4.24

2.66

2.66

4.93

Ave

3.70

2.08

2.15

4.32

2.2 Significance of energy storage system

The power generated by RES such as solar PV and wind turbines is intermittent in nature and due to sensitivity of microgrid to change in load or generation, microgrid must have a storage system both with high power and energy densities [33]. The utilization of DER in microgrid can be increased by integrating energy storage system (ESS) [34]. The purpose or objective of ESS in a microgrid among others is to achieve balance between energy demand and RE produced or generated especially in islanding mode [3]. In essence, any short fall in meeting the load demand would be solved either by discharging the batteries and / or capacitor and /or activating the fuel cell and / or by importing from the main grid [14]. ESS has several benefits to different

stakeholders (distribution system operator, transmission system operator, independent system operator) in deregulated power system. However, the benefits for the end-users are improved power quality and reliability, reduction of demand charges and time of use [24]. Apart from providing system reliability, ESS can be used to optimize distributed generator (DG) or on-site generation to reduce the total cost of energy purchased from the main grid. The ESS stores energy during the off-peak period (less expensive tariff) and use it during peak period (high tariff) [19]. In a microgrid with RES, ESS provides load capacity and reduces the need for VAR generation from the RESs. In addition, ESSs provide energy levelling to source variations, energy buffering to load changes and ride-through advantage for microgrid application [18]. ESSs are either chemical or mechanical, common examples include; super-capacitors, batteries of different types, flywheels and superconducting magnetic energy storage, pumped hydro storage and hydrogen fuel cells [20].

2.3 Economic benefits of microgrid

With good operation strategy, microgrid can provide varieties of benefits ranging from technical, environmental, social to economical for every stakeholder. One major challenge of implementing microgrid is its financial feasibility as a result of high capital costs. This problem is addressed by utilities by providing renewable energy incentive programs such as feed- in tariff [35]. This section considers specific economic benefits of microgrid. From a macro-economic point of view; microgrid can act as an initiator of local retail and service market, acts also as a hedging tool against potential risks of

price volatility, load growth, outage etc. It is assumed that the

overall economic benefits of a microgrid is enjoyed by the end consumers I situation where the consumers own and

operate multiple micro source units as an aggregated

prosumer entity [16]. Other economic benefits come from the

postponement or deferral of investments in the expansion of

generation and transmission systems [25]. Cost is saved also in transmission and distribution (T&D) through integration of several micro sources (e.g. electric vehicles) as they are operated in plug-and-play mode. Economic benefits also come in terms of unit commitment and economical dispatch of microgrid resources resulting in cost saving. A good illustration of this cost saving benefit of microgrid is reported in [23], whereby the master controller dispatches the microgrid generation once the electricity price is above 6 cents/kWh, charges the battery when the electricity price is as

low as 2.8 cents/kWh and discharges the battery storage as

the price of electricity increases to 22.4 cents/kWh. The economic benefits of microgrid is not limited to saving the cost of electricity but also in earnings from feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariff is a premium rate that is more than the electricity rate and is usually guaranteed for a fixed term. Utilities buy back power at premium rate from local generation to encourage investment into RE generation [36].

3 ISLANDED MICROGRID

Islands and remote areas have complex energy supply challenges due to geographical and environmental factors [16]. As a result, they are supplied by diesel generators having adverse effect on the environment and on the reliability of supply. The expansion of the grid to these areas faces many difficulties such as high operational costs and

huge construction investments. The implementation of microgrid in these areas using RES taking the advantages of the nature to provide among others electricity to local residents. In the present study, the principle behind islanded microgrid will be implemented in the UCM model especially during high demand season since the university is billed on time of use (TOU) tariff to reduce the energy intake from the main grid. In addition, the UCM will comprise nanogrids inform of building microgrids that can stand alone during the period of high demand. Some practical applications of islanded microgrid are discussed below.

3.1 Remote or rural areas electrification

Millions of people still live in darkness especially in remote areas of sub-Sahara Africa while the region has sunshine all year round. This number is not expected to change soon. There is a growing trend in informal settlements and it is the constitutional right of all citizens to have basic services which include electricity. Most of these informal settlements are not connected or far from the main grid, as a result, they rely on charcoal, firewood for heating and cooking and use paraffin and kerosene for lighting [37],[38]. Government at all levels

is therefore looking for solutions to this challenge. Islanded

microgrid comes as a solution to the challenge of providing

electricity to rural areas, small island and remote areas that are far from the main grid. An example is a microgrid consisting of a 800 kW wind turbine, 160 kW solar PV and two battery containers each rated at 1.44 MWh/400 kW being developed in a Greek island through the European commission [12]. [39] compared the cost of microgrid to cost

of grid extension in providing electricity to a rural area in

Ntabankulu Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

The result showed that the costs of electricity using an off- grid microgrid and the main grid were $0.320/kWh and $0.544/kWh respectively. Also, islanded microgrid provides

a good platform to study RES integration. The power

generated can be consumed locally meaning that the resilience and flexibility of microgrid can be enhanced [40]. Another area where islanded microgrid is deployed is in the military which can be mobile or base station. In [41], a remote military microgrid made up of two diesel generators, solar PV panels and hybrid energy storage is used to analyze the performance of energy storage system. The microgrid is designed such that the critical loads (computers, radars) which are essential for the success of military operation are connected such that they received constant power while the non-critical loads can be shed. Due to the increasing penetration of RESs that are unpredictable and uncertain, the energy management system in microgrid is complicated. The battery energy storage system (BESS) is recognized as the most favourable approach to smooth out load variations for increased efficiency of the power supply. In islanded

microgrid due to labor and transport costs, it is not economical to frequently replace the BESS, therefore, there

is need to coordinate and control the BESS in an economical

and efficient manner [42]. However, one of the short comings

of BESS is that their lifetime is considerably shorter than that

of other components in a microgrid. The lifetime characteristics of BESS have not been fully studied in many RE-based microgrid [20].

3.2 Base transceiver station/GSM base station

The roles of telecommunication and information communication technology (ICT) in the fourth industrial

revolution cannot be overemphasized, specifically, global system for mobile (GSM). The most energy demanding device in the GSM network is the base transceiver station (BTS). Close to 90% of the total energy consumed in the mobile network is used by equipment in the BTS. The BTS provides the frequency interface between the communication network and user [43], hence it is a critical load that needs uninterrupted power supply for quality of service. As at 2012, about 40% of BTs in the world are off-grid not connected to the main electricity grid. As a result, most of the BTS are powered by diesel generators, the operational expenditure (OPEX) of which could be ten times more on a yearly basis and in addition produces approximately 33.3 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. In recent years, BTS powered by RES have gained the attention of GSM service providers [44]. For economic and environmental reasons, the power systems for GSM and 4G base stations located in remote areas are now designed with RES. In [45], a hybrid RE plant is proposed comprising of solar PV, a wind turbine and a fuel cell (with hydrogen production and storage facility). As reported in [46], carbon emission can be reduced by over 87.47% while the total fuel (diesel) consumption reduced by over 10 400 litres per annum using a hybrid of wind turbine and solar PV as main power supply and a diesel generator as back up for the BTS. The use of RES to power BTS is further justified in [47]. Besides the high cost of diesel fuel and cost of its transport to the BTS, the BTS are sources of pollution due to huge green-house gas emissions. Therefore, use of RES reduces energy costs significantly and also improves the energy efficiency of the BTS in remote areas.

3.3 University campus microgrid

The university campus is an idea environment to encourage the development of energy sustainability and utilization of RE [48]. Institutional or university campuses can be easily transformed to microgrid having many buildings that are closely located. These buildings are connected electrically within the same network that is connected usually to the main grid through a single point of common coupling (PCC), allowing seamless transition between islanding mode and grid connected mode [12], [17]. In other words, due to small distance between DERs, and loads in university campuses, the development of a microgrid comes handy [13]. A typical campus microgrid could consist of (i) the energy generation (both controllable and RES), (ii) the energy storage system (iii) the load (critical and non- critical) and (iv) controllers for interconnection with the main grid. Figure 3 below shows 24-hour (31 st October 2018) load profile of the Howard College campus of the university of kwa-zulu natal (UKZN) as well as the solar irradiance for same day. The load data is obtained with permission from the UKZN energy management office and the solar irradiance is as measured by the SAURAN weather station equipment (pyranometer) located on the campus. As it can be seen the peak load occurred over the period of high irradiance and with adequate investment and good technical design of solar PV, energy cost of the campus can be reduced. The city of eThekwini electricity office has designed a solar map that calculates and estimate possible costs and potential savings for residents in the city of Durban, South Africa who want to install Photovoltaic panels on their roofs [49].

4 UNIVERSITY CAMPUS MICROGRID AROUND THE WORLD

There is no doubt that university campuses around the world can become sustainable universities by developing microgrid systems, particularly PV systems. An example is found in University of Southampton (Highfield campus), where 5 016 PV panels are installed to meet about 3.76 % of the annual energy demands in the campus with a payback period of 5.6 years [48]. A typical UCM single line diagram is shown in Figure 4.

16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 3 5 7 9 11
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Campus Load Profile [kW]
Solar irradiance Profile [W/m2 ]

Fig 3: Typical 24-hour solar irradiance and campus load profiles

Main Grid PCC Substation 2 M PV Diesel PV Load Load Battery Generator Building A
Main
Grid
PCC
Substation 2
M
PV
Diesel
PV
Load
Load
Battery
Generator
Building A
Building B
Substation 1

Fig 4: A single line diagram for a typical UCM

4.1 Objectives

It is important to understand the fundamental reasons

where UCM is to be implemented. Among the several

objectives of the microgrid to be implemented at the MCAST campus is to serve as pilot projects for demonstrating and implementing novel ideas relating to microgrids and smartgrids. Also, students and staff are engaged in research that will improve energy efficiency on campus [12]. The primary objective of the microgrid at the Jiangan campus of Sichuan university (SCU) is to investigate the potential of solar power in building sustainable university [48]. Three objectives for a UCM according to [14] are;

a) To help the campus avoid peak load in period of high demand

b) To satisfy part of the residential campus load

c) To charge employees’ electric vehicles

Whereas, the microgrid implemented at the university of California, San Diego (UCSD) aims to create a self- sustaining campus and reduce the university’s carbon footprint [34]. The campus was able to buy gas at an attractive rate thereby reducing the payback period [16]. According to the report in [8], the main objective of ABB microgrid solution is to demonstrate how DERs would work together to reduce costs and emissions on a typical grid. A proposed energy resource management (ERM) in [50] was applied to distribution network of a university campus in Portugal to test and validate the hour-ahead and the day-ahead resources scheduling. The common objective of the microgrids developed at university of Genoa and Technical University of Eindhoven is to reduce the usage of fossil-based energy generation and to improve economic performance as well as the reliability [51]. The smart polygeneration microgrid (SPM) at the Savona campus of Genoa university has two main objectives: to serve as a test bed for testing, research and development and to generate clean energy for the university loads [52], [53]. One of the nine campuses of the Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH), the Kimneria campus located in the city of Xanthi in Greece is used as attest case to (i) minimize electricity costs (ii) design the campus energy management (iii) develop campus model in studies of active distribution networks and (iv) raise awareness on energy saving [54]. The paper investigated the real and reactive power consumption of nine campuses of DUTH for the purpose of energy benchmarking of the campuses. The focus of [21] is to study the performance of the Washington State University (WSU) microgrid system when DG is added. As at May 2014, the microgrid at WSU is made up of 1.75 MW diesel generator and two natural gas generators with total capacity of 2.2 MW. The campus microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago has a master controller

with the following objectives; (i) to reduce daily peak load (ii) to eliminate costly outages and power disturbances (iii) to supply the hourly campus load profile and (iv) to mitigate greenhouse gas production [23].

4.2 UCM Configuration/ Structure

A proposed UCM in [14] consist of a 300 kW rated

rooftop PV array, a super capacitor storage system of 130 F, a Li-Ion battery storage system and a fuel cell of 15 kW. The connected loads are 34 student apartment and electric vehicles. Included in this UCM are power electronic inverters

and smart switches for connection or disconnection of various devices. For example, the microgrid developed at IIT is made

up of a small turbine, 2 x 4 MW combined cycle gas units and

a 500 kWh energy storage unit. The microgrid at the

Hangzhou Dianzi University in China has a 120 kW diesel generator, 120 kW solar system, some fuel cells with the energy storage system consisting of a 50 kWh battery and a 100kW capacitor [12]. In developing the microgrid at MCAST, three buildings having a total of 63 kW (21 kW each) PV installed on their rooftops, a 15-20 kWh battery storage system (BSS) and a diesel generator are configured for the UCM. The diesel generator is sized with the BSS such that the base and intermediate loads during islanded operation are meet. Solar PV panels were installed on roofs of four buildings at SCU located in Shuanghu, Chengdu, South West China rated at 6, 25, 50 and 75 kWp respectively producing a total of 137 241.3 kWh in 2017, while the total energy demand of the Jiangan campus in 2016 was approximately 22 million kWh [48]. The UCSD microgrid is made up of the

followings [34];

i. 3 MW of rooftop PV installed on all structurally available rooftops

ii. 2.8 MW fuel cells (using bio-gas from the local city of San Diego)

iii. 3.8 million-gal thermal energy storage system (used to reduced peak)

iv. Lithium-Ion batteries with approximate capacity

of 138 kW/210 kWh

v. 125-kW/300kWh flow battery energy storage system. The main components of the microgrid in DUTH campus are; a 20 kWp PV unit, a 10 kW/50 kWh ESS, a smart microgrid energy management system (SMEMS) and electrical loads. The SMESS controls and coordinates other components of the microgrid by sending appropriate system signals based on network data recorded [54]. There is an on-going project at Durban University of Technology (DUT), Durban South Africa to install more solar PV panels on the S block of the Steve Biko campus for teaching and research purposes.

Presently at DUT, a 8 kW solar PV is installed on the rooftop

of the library building complex, Fig 5 shows a daily energy

generation profile for 22 January 2018.

shows a daily energy generation profile for 22 January 2018. Fig 5: Daily generation profile 4.3

Fig 5: Daily generation profile

4.3 Result and benefit

Two case studies were presented in [12] to demonstrate operation of the microgrid in both islanded and grid connected modes. The microgrid was able to exchange a constant power of 50 kW with the main grid and operate successfully in peak shaving mode consuming a max of 90 kW. It is reported in [48] that if the total installed capacity at the Jiangan campus is between 8.3 and 11.6 MW, 33% to 46% of energy demand of the campus will be covered using solar PV and also mitigate carbon pollution on campus. Through system optimization, the UCSD microgrid generates 92% (of its own annual electricity load) and 95% of heating and cooling load saving more than US $800 000 per month. In all, the microgrid solution at UCSD contributes to economic and reliable integration of DERs [34]. The application of micro-optimal power flow (µ-OPF) to the microgrid of Chalmers university campus results into reduced total operation cost. With the cost of battery storage expected to go down in future, the investment in battery storage will be cost effective. Lastly, increasing the number of solar PV means improved economic performance of the ESS [51]. The proposed SMEMS for the DUTH microgrid results in an average monthly saving of € 688 and a yearly saving of € 8258 [54]. It also shows that for every 20 Kw increase in PV capacity, there would be a 2.8% reduction in average energy consumed.

5

This paper successfully considers the prospects of implementing microgrids on university campuses with integration of RES. Apart from the technical and environmental benefits of microgrid, the rising electricity tariff and load shedding (interrupting the operations of the universities as experienced recently in South Africa) should be major drives for universities to consider the design and implementation of UCM. The ivory tower needs to take the driver seat in developing sustainable energy and intensify in research that will increase the percentage of RESs in the generation mix. Conclusively, UCM would enable

CONCLUSION

universities to meet their energy demands, especially critical loads during outages or power disturbances in the main grid.

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Energy Conversion (MedPower 2016), Belgrade, 2016, pp. 1-8. Kayode T. Akindeji has a B.Sc (Electronic and

Kayode T. Akindeji has a B.Sc (Electronic and Electrical Engineering) and M.Sc (Electronic and Electrical Engineering) both obtained at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. He is presently doing his PhD (Electrical Engineering) at University of Kwa-Zulu Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa. He also lectures at the Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Durban University of Technology (DUT), his research interest includes Smartgrids, Renewable Energy, Distributed Generation, and Micro-grid.

R. Tiako received a B.Eng. (Honours) Degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from the Federal University of Technology Akure (Nigeria) in December 1997. He then worked for several years in industries and academic institutions in Cameroun and South Africa from 1998 to 2006. He joined the University of Cape Town (South Africa) in 2007 and Curtin University (Australia) in 2009 where he obtained his M.Sc.Eng. and Ph.D. Degrees in Electrical Engineering respectively. He is currently a lecturer in the School of Engineering at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. His research interests are in power system stability, control, and optimization. He is a member of IEEE.

Innocent E. Davidson received the Bachelor of Engineering, BSc (Eng.) with Honours, Masters of Engineering, MSc (Eng.) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Ilorin, Nigeria in 1984 and 1987 respectively; and Doctor of Philosophy, PhD in Electrical Engineering, from the University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa, in 1998; and the Post-Graduate Diploma in Business Management, from University of KwaZulu- Natal (UKZN), in 2004. He was Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and a Research Coordinator with the University of Namibia, Namibia, from 2012 to 2014. He was Director of the Eskom Centre of Excellence in HVDC Engineering, UKZN, from 2014 to 2016. He is currently a Full Professor and the Chair, Department of Electrical Power Engineering, at Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa. His current research interests include the grid integration of renewable energy using smart technologies and innovation for smart cities.

using smart technologies and innovation for smart cities. Presenting author : The paper will be presented
using smart technologies and innovation for smart cities. Presenting author : The paper will be presented

Presenting author:

The paper will be presented by Kayode T.

Akindeji