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Taishō Volumes 18–21

Rolf W. GIEBEL

Among the many editions of the Chinese Buddhist canon, that which is most readily accessi-

ble today and is most widely used by scholars is the Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經

(New Edition of the Buddhist Canon Compiled during the Taishō Era), hereafter referred to

as the “Taishō edition.” Published in Japan from 1924 to 1934, it comprises one hundred vol-

umes, made up of eighty-five volumes of texts containing 2,920 works, twelve volumes of

iconography, and three of catalogues. The eighty-five volumes of texts (except for vol. 85)

have been arranged by and large in the order of works traditionally considered to be of Indian

provenance, works composed in China, and works composed in Japan. These have been fur-

ther classified into thirty-one categories, of which the tantric texts with which we are here

concerned constitute the tenth (Mikkyōbu 密 教 部 : “Section of Esoteric Teachings”), corre-

sponding to vols. 18–21 among the first thirty-two volumes traditionally considered to be of

Indian provenance (although a number of works in vols. 18–21 were in fact composed in Chi-

na and some quite probably in Japan). In addition to vols. 18–21, works pertaining to East

Asian Esoteric Buddhism include non-canonical commentaries, treatises, ritual manuals, and

so on composed in China and Japan, and these are dealt with in the following section.

The Taishō edition was compiled with the aim of providing a reliable and comprehensive

edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon, but while the “Section of Esoteric Teachings,” con-

sisting of 573 works (or 618 works if one includes multiple redactions, etc., of some works),

is numerically speaking the largest of the thirty-one categories into which the Taishō edition

is divided, its coverage is not exhaustive and there are a number of tantric texts found in ear-

lier editions of the Chinese Buddhist canon that have been omitted. Although perhaps not im-

mediately evident to the reader, the 573 texts contained in vols. 18–21 have been organized
into fourteen categories.1

Volume 18
1. Mahāvairocana-sūtra and related texts (Dainichikyōrui 大 日 經 類 ): nos. 848–864 (pp.

1. Cf. Miyasaka 1983.


1
1a–206b; 17 texts).
2. Vajraśekhara-sūtra and related texts (Kongōchōkyōrui 金剛頂經類 ): nos. 865–892 (pp.

207a–601c; 28 texts).
3. Susuddhikara-sūtra and related texts (Soshitsujikyōrui 蘇悉地經類 ): nos. 893–907 (pp.

603a–915c; 15 texts).
4. Homa manuals (Goma gikirui 護摩儀軌類): nos. 908–914 (pp. 916a–940b; 7 texts).

5. Texts dealing with initiation rites (Jukaihōrui 受戒法類): nos. 915–917 (pp. 940b–946a;

3 texts).

Volume 19
6. Ritual texts for buddhas (Shobutsu gikirui 諸佛儀軌類 ): nos. 918–943 (pp. 1a–99b; 26

texts).
7. Ritual texts for buddha-crowns (Shobutchō gikirui 諸 佛 頂 儀 軌 類 ): nos. 944–981 (pp.

100a–414a; 38 texts).
8. Ritual texts for sūtras (Shokyō gikirui 諸經儀軌類 ): nos. 982–1029 (pp. 415a–744b; 48

texts).

Volume 20
9. Ritual texts for Avalokiteśvara (Shokannon gikirui 諸觀音儀軌類 ): nos. 1030–1118 (pp.

1a–507b; 89 texts).
10. Ritual texts for bodhisattvas (Shobosatsu gikirui 諸菩薩儀軌類 ): nos. 1119–1170 (pp.

509a–704a; 52 texts).
11. Ritual texts for Mañjuśrī (Monju gikirui 文殊儀軌類): nos. 1171–1198 (pp. 705a–940a;

28 texts).

Volume 21
12. Ritual texts for vidyārājas (Shomyōō gikirui 諸明王儀軌類 ): nos. 1199–1243 (pp. 1a–

213c; 45 texts).
13. Ritual texts for gods, etc. (Shotentō gikirui 諸天等儀軌類): nos. 1244–1330 (pp. 215a–

494b; 87 texts).
14. Dhāraṇī-sūtras (Shodaranikyōrui 諸陀羅尼經類): nos. 1331–1420 (pp. 495a–968c; 90

texts).

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The sheer number and diversity of tantric texts make any attempt at classification diffi-

cult, and while the above classification could be said to have been an improvement on earlier

schemes proposed by Japanese scholar-monks such as Annen 安 然 (841–889?), Jōgon 淨 嚴

(1639–1702), and Shinjō 眞常 (1719–1802), it is still not entirely consistent in that it mixes

content-based categories with categories based on formal characteristics. This means that

works dealing with the same subject matter are sometimes found scattered among several cat-

egories. To give just one example, no. 1170 (§10), no. 1241 (§13), and no. 1401 (§14) are all

concerned with Vajragāndhārī and should, properly speaking, be grouped together. This ex-

ample also illustrates the fact that the classification of texts is not only inconsistent, but some-

times also mistaken, for no. 1241 has been included in §13 on the basis of the erroneous as-

sumption that it is associated with Āṭavaka. There are also instances in which different

versions of the same work have been placed in different categories (e.g., no. 1147 in §10 and

nos. 1333 & 1334 in §14).

Be that as it may, vols. 18–21 of the Taishō edition constitute the most comprehensive

collection of tantric scriptures preserved in Chinese and provide the basis for any study of

Tantric or Esoteric Buddhism in East Asia. While a good number of the 573 works contained

in these volumes have also been preserved in Tibetan translation and, in some cases, in the

original Sanskrit, many of them are unique to the Chinese Buddhist canon, and so they pro-

vide valuable material for elucidating Tantric Buddhism as a whole. That greater use of them

for this purpose has not been made is perhaps partly due to the fact that their content is not

widely known. This makes a detailed descriptive catalogue of these volumes all the more de-

sirable, and as a first step towards that end a brief overview of the works included in each of

the fourteen categories listed above has been given below together with references to transla-

tions and studies in Western languages when appropriate.2 References are given at the end of

each section in abbreviated form (and in chronological order when there are two or more ref-

erences dealing with the same text), preceded by the number of the corresponding text in

brackets; for full details, the reader is referred to the main bibliography at the end of this vol-

2. A brief overview by Paul Demiéville can be found in Renou and Filliozat 1996: 439–440.
3
ume. When appropriate, Sanskrit titles have also been given, with a double dagger (‡) indi-

cating that the Sanskrit title has been taken from the Tibetan translation and an asterisk indi-

cating that the Sanskrit title has been reconstructed on the basis of the Tibetan or Chinese

translation (although the word nāma has generally been omitted). The references are by no

means exhaustive, and for reasons of space not all partial correspondences with Sanskrit or

Tibetan texts have been noted.

Volume 18

§1. Mahāvairocana-sūtra and related texts

This section consists of the Mahāvairocana-sūtra (or Vairocanābhisaṃbodhi-sūtra) [848], a

separate version of fasc. 7 (which, strictly speaking, is not part of the Mahāvairocana-sūtra

proper) [849], four lengthy ritual manuals [850–853], a text giving all the mantras appearing

in the Mahāvairocana-sūtra in Siddham script [854], and several further ritual texts [855–

864].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [848] Tajima 1936, Kiyota 1982, Yamamoto 1990, Wayman & Tajima 1992,

Giebel 2005, Giebel 2017.

§2. Vajraśekhara-sūtra and related texts

The Vajraśekhara-sūtra here refers to the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha (STTS), and this

section begins with a translation of the first chapter of part 1 of the STTS [865]. This is fol-

lowed by the Lüechu niansong jing 略出念誦經 [866], corresponding in content largely to the

first part of the STTS, the Yuqi jing 瑜祇經 [867], generally thought to have been composed in

China, the Zhufo jingjie she zhenshi jing 諸佛境界攝眞實經 [868], also related to part 1 of the

STTS, and several texts dealing with ritual and doctrinal aspects of the STTS cycle [869–881].

A complete translation of the STTS [882] is followed by several works all translated during

the Song dynasty, including the Guhyasamāja-tantra [885], ‡Śrīvajramaṇḍalālaṃkāra-tantra

[886], Advayasamatāvijaya-tantra [887], ‡Sarvarahasya-tantra [888], ‡Māyājāla-tantra

[890], and Hevajra-tantra [892].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [865] Giebel 2001; [867] Broucke 1990, Goepper 1993, Broucke 1994 & 2006;

[869] Giebel 1995; [883] Giebel 1995: 186–191; [890, 891] Sinclair 2000; [892] Abbott

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1978, Willemen 1983 & 2009.
§3. Susuddhikara-sūtra and related texts

The majority of works in this section describe basic practices of the so-called Kriyā Tantras,

starting with the ‡Susuddhikara-sūtra [893] and an associated ritual manual [894]. They also

include the ‡Subāhuparipṛcchā [895–896], ‡Guhya-tantra [897], *Vinaya-sūtra [898], and

*Dhāraṇī-saṃgraha [901], the last of which is a voluminous collection of rituals for the wor-

ship of various deities.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [893] Giebel 2001; [895] Bonneux 1990–91, Strickmann 1996: 221–229 &

316–320, Strickmann 2002: 211–218; [897] Shinohara 2014: 148–154; [898] Strickmann

1996: 311–316; [901] van Gulik 1935: 56–75, Smet 1989, Strickmann 1996: 133–136 &

146–163, Shinohara 2010, Davidson 2012, Shinohara 2014: 28–88, 205–225, Capitanio

2017; [902] McBride 2005: 107–113; [905] Rambelli 2000; [905–907] Chen 1998: 47–73.

§4. Homa manuals

The works in this section describe either the homa rite per se [908, 909, 912–914] or deal

specifically with the preparation of the site [910, 911].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [912] Strickmann 1996: 349–354.

§5. Texts dealing with initiation rites

The three works in this section [915–917] deal in particular with the precepts to be observed

by an initiand.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [917] Bagchi 1945, Pinte 2004, Lin 2017.

Volume 19

§6. Ritual texts for buddhas

This section begins with two versions of the ‡Buddhahṛdaya-dhāraṇī [918, 919], followed

by another work also concerned with the “Buddha’s heart” (buddhahṛdaya) [920]. The re-

maining texts in this section describe rites, etc., for various buddhas: Akṣobhya [921],

Bhaiṣajyaguru [922–929], Amitāyus [930], Lokeśvararāja [931, 932], Amitābha [933, 934

(‡Aparimitaguṇānuśaṃsā-dhāraṇī)], Amitāyus [935], Aparimitāyus [936–937 (Aparimi-

tāyur-mahāyānasūtra)], Śākyamuni [938, 939 (‡Sarvadurgatipariśodhanamaṇḍalavidhi)],

5
Maitreya [940], Śākyamuni [941 (Māravijayastotra), 942], and *Aparājitadhvaja [943

(Dhvajāgrakeyūrā-dhāraṇī)].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [922] Birnbaum 1979: 88; [924A] Birnbaum 1979: 88–89, Salguero 2017:

299–301; [930] Dreitlein 2019; [937] Walleser 1916, Rulu 2011: 66–70; [941] Chou 1954.

§7. Ritual texts for buddha-crowns

This section consists chiefly of texts pertaining to buddha-crowns (uṣṇīṣa), or personifica-

tions of the protuberance on the top of a buddha’s head, of which there are several: Sitātapa-

tra [944 (Sitātapatrā-dhāraṇī), 945 (*Śūraṅgama-sūtra), 947, 975, 976–977 (Sitātapatra-

dhāraṇī)], Padmoṣṇīṣa [946], Cakravartin [948, 959, 960], Ekākṣaracakravartin/

Ekākṣaroṣṇīṣacakravartin [949, 950, 951, 953–958], Five Buddha-Crowns [952], (Vajra-)

jvālānalārka [963–966], Vijaya [967–971 (Uṣṇīṣavijayā-dhāraṇī), 972, 973, 974 (Uṣṇīṣa-

vijayā-dhāraṇī), 978–979 (Uṣṇīṣavijayā-dhāraṇī)], and *Mahājaya [980]. In addition, there

are also texts dealing with the cintāmaṇi, or wish-fulfilling gem [961], the śarīra, or Bud-

dha’s relics [962], and Buddhalocanā [981].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [945] Beal 1871: 284–369, Luk 1966, Buddhist Text Translation Society 1977–

81, Benn 2008, Rulu 2011: 106; [951] Shinohara 2014: 116–125; [959] Sinclair 2016; [961]

Ruppert 2000: 283–286; [970] Rulu 2012: 44–55; [980] Broucke 2006.

§8. Ritual texts for sūtras

This section consists of a variety of works that do not deal with specific deities, as well as rit-

ual commentaries on particular scriptures: Mahāmāyūrī [982–988], including a related ritual

text [983A]; Mahāmegha-sūtra [989–993]; ritual commentaries on the Renwang jing 仁王經

[994–996]; Shouhu guojiezhu tuoluoni jing 守護國界主陀羅尼經 [997], dealing, like the Ren-

wang jing, with protection of the state; ‡Pariṇāmacakra-sūtra [998]; Mahāsāhasrapramar-

dinī [999]; ritual commentaries on the Lotus Sūtra [1000, 1001], Amoghapāśa-kalparāja

[1002], Liqu jing 理 趣 經 [1003, 1004], and Avataṃsaka-sūtra [1019, 1020, 1021 (*Gaṇḍa-

vyūha-hṛdaya)]; Mahāmaṇivipulavimānaviśvasupratiṣṭhitaguhyaparamarahasyakalparāja-

dhāraṇī [1005–1007]; *Bodhimaṇḍavyūha-dhāraṇī [1008]; Anantamukhanirhāra-dhāraṇī

[1009–1118], including a related ritual text [1010]; works on stūpa worship and longevity

rites [1022–1023 (‡Sarvatathāgatādhiṣṭhānahṛdayaguhyadhātukaraṇḍamudrā-dhāraṇī),

6
1024 (‡Raśmivimalaviśuddhaprabhā-dhāraṇī), 1025 (‡Samantamukhapraveśaraśmivima-

loṣṇīṣaprabhāsasarvatathāgatahṛdayasamayavilokitā-dhāraṇī), 1026]; and works describing

protective rites [1027–1029].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [982] DesJardins 2002: 363–461, DesJardins 2011: 201–265; [982–988] Des-

Jardins 2002, Sørensen 2006, DesJardins 2011, Overbey 2016; [991] Beal 1871: 416–423;

[994] de Visser 1935: 160–175, Orzech 1998: 176–191; [1002] Unno 2004: 21–22; [1003]

Fujita 1991, Astley 1994; [1005–1007] Shinohara 2014: 93–106; [1009] Inagaki 1987; [1020]

Heng et al.: 86–87; [1022B] Rulu 2012: 59–65; [1024] McBride II 2011.

Volume 20

§9. Ritual texts for Avalokiteśvara

The first group of texts in this section consists of texts that do not deal with a specific mani-

festation of Avalokiteśvara: rites for Avalokiteśvara and the Lotus Family [1030–1033]; a col-

lection of five spells [1034], not all of which are related to Avalokiteśvara; Sahasrāvartā-

dhāraṇī [1035; though the title of no. 1036 would suggest that it too is a version of the Sa-

hasrāvartā-dhāraṇī, it is of quite different content]; ‡Samantabhadra-dhāraṇī [1037, 1038],

expounded by Avalokiteśvara; further ritual texts [1039–1042], including parts of the

‡Trailokyavijaya-mahākalparāja [1040]; several texts grouped together on account of their

reference to a “six-syllable spell” (ṣaḍakṣarī-vidyā) [1043–1047, 1049]; Mahāmantrānu-

sāriṇī [1048]; Kāraṇḍavyūha [1050]; a ritual text based on the Samāyoga-tantra [1051]; and

several works eulogizing Avalokiteśvara [1052–1055], including the Avalokiteśvarasya

nāmāṣṭaśataka [1054]. These are followed by works pertaining to specific forms of Avaloki-

teśvara: Thousand-Armed and Thousand-Eyed Avalokiteśvara [1056–1068], Eleven-Faced

Avalokiteśvara [1069–1071 (Ekādaśamukha-dhāraṇī)], Hayagrīva [1072–1074], Cundā

[1075–1079], Cakravarticintāmaṇi [1080–1091], Amoghapāśa [1092 (Amoghapāśa-kalpa-

rāja), 1093–1095 (Amoghapāśahṛdaya), 1096–1098, 1099 (Amoghapāśahṛdaya)], Parṇa-

śabarī [1100 (Parṇaśabarī-dhāraṇī], Tārā [1101–1104, 1105 (‡Tārādevīnāmāṣṭaśataka),

1106 (Tārābhaṭṭārikāyā nāmāṣṭottaraśataka), 1107 (Tārāyā daṇḍakastotra), 1108 (Tārā-

namaskāraikaviṃśatistotra), 1109], Ekajaṭā [1110], Nīlakaṇṭha [1111–1113 (Nīlakaṇṭha-

7
dhāraṇī)], Bhṛkuṭī [1114], and Amaḍā (?) [1115]. This section ends with three miscellaneous

works [1116, 1117 (‡Avalokiteśvaramātā-dhāraṇī), 1118].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1043] Reis-Habito 1993: 48–60, Yü 2001: 49–50; [1050] Reis-Habito 1993:

60–64, Yü 2001: 72–75; [1051] Tanaka 1993; [1056] Lokesh Chandra 1988: 265; Reis-

Habito 1993: 118–119; [1057] Lokesh Chandra 1988: 238–264; Reis-Habito 1993: 97–117,

Yü 2001: 65–67; [1059] Sen 1945, Unschuld 1985: 314–321; [1060] Buddhist Text Transla-

tion Society 1976, Lokesh Chandra 1988: 92–104, Reis-Habito 1993: 153–244, Reis-Habito

1994, Yü 2001: 59–65, Giddings 2017; [1061] Lokesh Chandra 1988: 186–220; [1062B]

Lokesh Chandra 1988: 265–266; [1064] Reis-Habito 1993: 118; [1065] Yü 2001: 68–69;

[1068] Reis-Habito 1993: 120, Yü 2001: 83; [1069] Grinstead 1994; [1069–1071] Shinohara

2014: 15–27; [1072] van Gulik 1935: 84–94; [1077] Rulu 2012: 56–58; [1080] Shinohara

2014: 110–115; [1081–1083] Shinohara 2014: 106–109; [1092] Shinohara 2014: 132–144;

[1093] Yü 2001: 56–58; [1093, 1094] Shinohara 2014: 127–130; [1096, 1097] Shinohara

2014: 130–132; [1097] Mair 1994: 116–120, Strickmann 1996: 217–220, Reis-Habito 1999,

Strickmann 2002: 204–206; [1105] Giebel 2010; [1107] Chou 1954; [1111] Lokesh Chandra

1988: 119–133; [1113B] Lokesh Chandra 1988: 105–118.

§10. Ritual texts for bodhisattvas

This section consists of texts pertaining to various bodhisattvas other than the two preeminent

bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara (§9) and Mañjuśrī (§11): Vajrasattva/Samantabhadra [1119–

1126], Samantabhadra [1127 (‡Samantabhadrāṣṭottaraśatakanāma-dhāraṇī)], Vajrapāṇi

[1128, 1129 (Bhūtaḍāmara-tantra), 1130, 1131], Vajrarāja [1132], Vajrāyus [1133–1136], Va-

jrapāṇi [1137–1140 (Sumukha-dhāraṇī)], Maitreya [1141, 1142, 1143 (Maitreyapratijñā-

dhāraṇī), 1144 (*Maitreyapraṇidhāna)], Ākāśagarbha [1145, 1146, 1147 (‡Saptabuddhaka-

sūtra), 1148, 1149], Dharmacakrapravartin [1150], Prajñāpāramitā [1151, 1152], Mahāprati-

sarā [1153–1154 (Mahāpratisarā-mahāvidyārājñī), 1155, 1156], Gandhārarāja [1157], Kṣiti-

garbha [1158, 1159], Sūryaprabha and Candraprabha [1160], Bhaiṣajyarāja and Bhaiṣa-

jyasamudgata [1161], Vasudhārā [1162–1164 (Vasudhārā-dhāraṇī), 1165], Aśvaghoṣa [1166],

Eight Great Bodhisattvas [1167, 1168 (Aṣṭamaṇḍalaka-sūtra)], Cundā [1169], and Vajragānd-

hārī [1170].

8
BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1119] Astley-Kristensen 1988; [1133] Iyanaga 1985: 664–667; [1136] Birn-

baum 1985–86; [1145] Hare 1990: 254–256; [1154] Tsiang 2010; [1158] Zhiru: 97–101 &

253–257; [1159A] Zhiru 2006: 89–97 & 241–252; [1159B] Zhiru 2006: 65–67; [1161] Birn-

baum 1979: 115–148; [1166] Young 2015.


§11. Ritual texts for Mañjuśrī

This section consists of texts relating to Mañjuśrī, starting chiefly with forms of Mañjuśrī dif-

ferentiated by the length of his basic mantra: five syllables (Arapacana) [1171–1173

(‡Trailokyavijaya-mahākalparāja), 1174–1176], six syllables [1179, 1180], one syllable

[1181, 1182], and eight syllables [1184, 1185], and also including the ‡Mañjuśrīkumāra-

bhūtāṣṭottaraśatakanāma [1177B]. These are followed by the Mañjuśrīnāmasaṃgīti [1187–

1190], Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa [1191] (of which individual chapters were also translated sepa-

rately into Chinese: nos. 1181, 1182, 1215, 1216, 1276, 1396), and several ritual and laudato-

ry texts, including the *Mañjuśrībodhisattvamaṅgalagāthā [1196] and ‡Mañjuśrīnāmāṣṭa-

śataka [1197].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1177] Giebel 2011; [1184] Birnbaum 1983: 68–91; [1185] Birnbaum 1983:

11–13; Giebel 2002: 759–753; [1191] Matsunaga 1985; [1196] Chou 1954; [1197] Staël-Hol-

stein 1913: 85–104, Kambayashi 1930.

Volume 21

§12. Ritual texts for vidyārājas

This section consists of texts relating to various vidyārājas and associated deities: Acalanātha

[1199, 1200 (Trisamayarāja-tantra), 1201–1205], Kulika [1206–1208], Trailokyavijaya

[1209, 1210], Amṛtakuṇḍalin [1211–1213], Yamāntaka [1214–1216, 1217 (‡Krodhavijaya-

kalpaguhyatantra), 1218, 1219], Vajrayakṣa [1220, 1221], Vajrakumāra [1222–1224], Uc-

chuṣma [1225–1229], Mahācakravajra [1230, 1231], Padanikṣepa [1232], Aparājita [1233–

1236], Āṭavaka [1237–1240], Vajragāndhārī [1241], Vajrabhairava [1242], and Mahābala

[1243 (‡Mahābala nāma mahāyānasūtra)].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1199] Strickmann 2002: 233–234; [1200] Strickmann 2002: 234–235; [1202]

Strickmann 1996: 220–221, Strickmann 2002: 206–207; [1225–1229] Iyanaga 1985: 695–

9
697; [1227] Strickmann 2002: 157–158; [1229] Strickmann 2002: 158–161; [1238] Strick-

mann 2002: 143–151; [1243] Bischoff 1956.

§13. Ritual texts for gods, etc.

This section consists chiefly of texts relating to miscellaneous deities: Vaiśravaṇa [1244, 1245

(Āṭānāṭika-sūtra), 1246–1251], Mahāśrī [1252 (‡Mahāśrīya-sūtra), 1253 (Śrīmahā-

devīvyākaraṇa)], Mārīcī [1254–1256 (Mārīcī-dhāraṇī), 1257 (Mārīcī-dhāraṇī, ‡Mārīcījāta-

tantra), 1258, 1259], Hārītī [1260–1262], Piṅgala (= Priyaṅkara?) [1263], Jāṅgulī [1264–

1265 (Jāṅgulī-mahāvidyā], Gaṇeśa [1266–1275], Garuḍa [1276, 1278], Maheśvara [1277,

1279], Goddess of the Arts [1280], Nārāyaṇa [1281], Jambhalā (?) [1282], Jambhala [1283

(‡Jambhalajalendra-kalpa), 1284], Māṇibhadra [1285 (Māṇibhadra-dhāraṇī)], Dṛdhā

[1286], Mahākāla [1287], Naḍakūbara [1288], Kumbhīra [1289], Yama [1290], General

Deep-Sand [1291], Ten Rākṣasīs of the Lotus Sūtra [1292], Sixteen Protectors of the Pra-

jñāpāramitā-sūtra [1293], and Eight, Ten, and Twelve Tutelary Gods [1294–1298]. These are

followed by a group of astronomical and/or astrological texts, including texts pertaining to

celestial deities [1299, 1300–1301 (Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna), 1302–1303 (Grahamātṛkā-

dhāraṇī), 1304–1312], a group of texts describing rites for the dead [1313 (‡Pretamukhāgni-

jvālaśaraṇakāra-dhāraṇī), 1314 (*Pretamukhajvālāśvāsanabalividhi), 1315, 1316, 1317

(‡Aparimitaguṇānuśaṃsā-dhāraṇī), 1318–1321], a text describing a rite for bathing images

[1322], and a group of texts describing rites for curing various ailments [1323 (‡Sarvaroga-

praśamanī-dhāraṇī), 1324 (‡Cakṣurviśodhanī-vidyāmantra), 1325 (‡Arśapraśamani-sūtra),

1326–1329, 1330 (Kumāra-tantra)].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1245] Hoffmann 1939; [1248] Strickmann 2002: 236–237; [1256] Hall 1989;

[1260–1263] Peri 1917: 15–22 & 82–101; [1265] Strickmann 1995, Strickmann 2002: 151–

156, Hanson 2017: 481–483; [1266–1275] Duquenne 1988, Sanford 1991, Kabanoff 1994:

101–104, Strickmann 1996: 252–266; [1277] Strickmann 2002: 229–232, Giebel 2016;

[1299–1311] Eberhard 1940, Kotyk 2017; [1300] Giebel 2015; [1305–1307] Orzech and San-

ford 2000, Mollier 2008: 136–140 & 143–146; [1307] Franke 1990; [1310–1311] Mollier

2008: 141–145; [1313] de Visser 1935: 77–81, Orzech 1996; [1315] Orzech 1994: 54–55;

[1316] de Visser 1935: 108–109; [1318] de Visser 1935: 81–83; [1320] de Visser 1935: 83–

10
84, Orzech 1994: 56–61 & 70–72, Orzech 2002: 221–225; [1323] Salguero 2017: 297; [1324]

Salguero 2017: 297–299; [1325] Veith & Minami 1966, Salguero 2017: 296–297; [1326]

Salguero 2017: 294; [1327] Salguero 2017: 295; [1328] Salguero 2017: 295; [1329] Salguero

2017: 295; [1330] Bagchi 1941, Strickmann 2002: 221–223.

§14. Dhāraṇī-sūtras

This section consists chiefly of sundry dhāraṇī-sūtras, starting with some anthologies of

dhāraṇīs [1331, 1332, 1333–1334 (‡Saptabuddhaka-sūtra), 1335–1338]. Among the remain-

ing works in this section, the following have Sanskrit and/or Tibetan parallels: ‡Vajramaṇḍa-

dhāraṇī-sūtra [1344, 1345], ‡Sarvabuddhāṅgavatī-dhāraṇī [1346, 1347], ‡Dvādaśabuddha-

ka-sūtra [1348, 1349], ‡Agrapradīpa-dhāraṇīvidyārājā [1351-1355], ‡Puṣpakūṭa-dhāraṇī

[1356–1359], Ṣaṇmukhī-dhāraṇī [1360], *Ṣaṇmukhī-dhāraṇī-vyākhyāna and *Ṣaṇmukhī-

dhāraṇī-vyākhyāna-ṭīkā [1361], ‡Bhadrakarātrī-sūtra [1362], ‡Bodhigarbhālaṃkāralakṣa-

dhāraṇī [1369, 1390], ‡Mahādhāraṇī [1371], ‡Prajñāvardhanī-dhāraṇī [1372], ‡Sarvā-

bhayapradā-dhāraṇī [1373], ‡Sarvadharmaguṇavyūharāja-sūtra [1374], Sarvatathāgatādhi-

ṣṭhānasattvāvalokanabuddhakṣetrasandarśanavyūha [1375], ‡Mekhalā-dhāraṇī [1376,

1377], ‡Cakṣurviśodhanī-vidyāmantra [1380], *Śrīdevīnāmadvādaśaka [1381], Parṇa-

śabarī-dhāraṇī [1384], Surūpa-dhāraṇī [1386], Abhayaṃkarī-dhāraṇī [1388], Aparimitāyur-

dhāraṇī [1389], Mahāśītavatī-vidyārājñī [1392], ‡Jñānolka-dhāraṇī [1397, 1398], ‡Cūḍā-

maṇi-dhāraṇī [1400], Suvarṇaprabhāsottama-sūtra [1402, 1403] ‡Hiraṇyavatī-dhāraṇī

[1404], ‡Cauravidhvaṃsana-dhāraṇī [1405], ‡Viśeṣavati-dhāraṇī [1408, 1409], *Padmane-

tra-dhāraṇī [1411], ‡Vijayavatī-pratyaṅgirā [1413], ‡Mahāvajrameruśikharakūṭāgāra-

dhāraṇī [1415], Vajravidāraṇa-dhāraṇī [1416, 1417], and Daśatalanyagrodha-

parimaṇḍalabuddhapratimālakṣaṇa [1419].

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1331] Soper 1959: 170–178, Strickmann 1990, Strickmann 1996: 78–87 &

114–123 & 330–336, Strickmann 2002: 113–119 & 132–140, Strickmann 2005: 58–75;

[1332] Strickmann 1996: 73–76; [1336] Strickmann 1996: 76–78 & 141–142, Yü 2001: 51–

53, Strickmann 2002: 106–107, Silk 2008; [1339] Swanson 2000; [1360, 1361] Mimaki

1977a, Mimaki 1977b; [1363, 1364] Giebel 2002: 753–752; [1378] Strickmann 2002: 104;

[1387] Giebel 2002: 751–750; [1393] Strickmann 2002: 109–113; [1397, 1398] Giebel 2002:

11
750–748; [1402, 1403] Giebel 2002: 760–759; [1408, 1409] Giebel 2002: 759–753; [1410]

Giebel 2002: 753–752; [1412] Giebel 2002: 752–751; [1418] Strickmann 1996: 197–202;

[1419] Cai 2000, Willemen 2006, Willemen 2007: 159–161; [1420] Davis 2001: 134–136,

Strickmann 2002: 170–178, Steavu 2017.

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