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Combined Cycle Problem

A coal-fired steam power plant in Haparanda (north Sweden on the border to Finland)

has a steam turbine that gives 18 MWe, at 40 bars and 450°C inlet data. The condenser pressure is 0.05 bar and the mechanical + generator efficiency are together 98%. The isentropic efficiency for the turbine is 93%.

This plant has now shown that it is not profitable (increased taxes), therefore it will be rebuilt to a natural gas combined cycle, as Vladimir Putin and Göran Persson have decided to build a natural gas pipeline between north Russia and Sweden through Finland. Cheap Russian natural gas can therefore be distributed in the Haparanda- region.

It is decided to invest in a GTX100 from Alstom Power; for data see below. The old

boiler will be exchanged to a heat recovery steam generator, to which the gas turbine

is connected. It can be assumed that an average specific heat from the gas turbine

gases is 1.09 kJ/kg °C through the HRSG and there is only one pressure level on the steam side.

Assume that there are no extractions from the steam turbine and calculate:

a) the pinch-point temperature difference

b) the stack temperature

c) the efficiency for the new power plant (the combined cycle)

Simple Cycle

Frequency

[Hz]

50

Fuel type

-

Natural Gas

Gross electrical output

[MW]

43

Gross electrical efficiency [%]

37

Shaft speed

[rpm]

3000

Compressor

pressure ratio -

20

Exhaust gas temperature

[deg C]

546

Exhaust mass flow

[kg/s]

122

HINTS

Hint 1 (-2p) The pinch point temperature difference, t pp is:

t pp = t g3 – t S

where the temperatures are indicated in the T-Q diagram

Temperature Gas turbine tg1 exhaust tg2 hsh tg3 Stack ts tg4 hs2 hs1 Evaporator hFW
Temperature
Gas turbine
tg1
exhaust
tg2
hsh
tg3
Stack
ts
tg4
hs2
hs1
Evaporator
hFW
Economizer
Superheater

Hint 2 (-3p)

Heat transferred

In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 we can make a heat balance over the evaporator and the superheater, as we know evaporation data and superheat data on the steam side:

m&

gas

c

P

(

t

g1

t

g 3

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

S1

)

In the equation with do not know t g3 or the steam mass flow, m ST. In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 , we first have to calculate the steam mass flow.

Hint 3 (-3p)

The steam mass flow can be found via a heat balance over the steam turbine:

P

ST

= 18

MW

=

m &

ST

(

h

SH

h

out

)

η

m

+ g

where the outlet enthalpy of the steam turbine is found in an h-s diagram

40 bar hSH 450 deg C 0,05 bar hout
40 bar
hSH
450 deg C
0,05 bar
hout

hout,is

SOLUTION

We start drawing a sketch of the plant. It is a single pressure steam cycle with one gas turbine connected through a HRSG.

Gas Turbine Cycle Fuel Air Heat Recovery Steam Generator Steam Cycle
Gas Turbine Cycle
Fuel
Air
Heat Recovery Steam Generator
Steam Cycle

The HRSG in a heat transfer diagram:

Temperature Gas turbine tg1 exhaust tg2 hsh tg3 Stack ts tg4 hs2 hs1 Evaporator hFW
Temperature
Gas turbine
tg1
exhaust
tg2
hsh
tg3
Stack
ts
tg4
hs2
hs1
Evaporator
hFW
Economizer
Superheater

Heat transferred

a) The pinch point temperature difference, t pp is:

t pp = t g3 – t S

t S is found in saturation tables for water/steam. For the pressure of 40 bars, t S =250.4°C. Here we also read that h S1 =1087.3 kJ/kg.

In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 we can make a heat balance over the evaporator and the superheater, as we know evaporation data and superheat data on the steam side:

m&

gas

c

P

(

t

g1

t

g 3

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

S1

)

[1]

In the equation with do not know t g3 or the steam mass flow, m ST. In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 , we first have to calculate the steam mass flow.

The steam mass flow can be found via a heat balance over the turbine:

P

ST

= 18

MW

=

m &

ST

(

h

SH

h

out

)

η

m

+ g

[2]

The superheated steam enthalpy (40bars, 450°C) is found in h-s diagram or in steam tables:

h SH = 3330 kJ/kg.

The enthalpy out from the turbine is found in a h-s diagram, by first finding the isentropic outlet enthalpy. Thereafter the real outlet enthalpy can be calculated:

h

out

=

h

SH

η

is

(

h

SH

h

out is

,

)

[3]

First mark the point for superheat conditions, 40bars and 450°C.

Thereafter draw a straight vertical line down to the 0.05 bar pressure line.

The isentropic outlet temperature is read in the intersection: h out,is = 2115 kJ/kg.

40 bar hSH 450 deg C 0,05 bar hout
40 bar
hSH
450 deg C
0,05 bar
hout

hout,is

Equation 3 gives:

h out = 3330 0,93 3330 2115 = 2200

(

)

kJ

/

kg

Now the real expansion line can be drawn in the diagram as the intersection between 2200 kJ/kg and the pressure line of 0,05 bar.

The steam mass flow is calculated from [2]:

&

m

ST

=

18000

(

3330

2200

)

η

m

+ g

= 16,25

kg

/

s

The gas temperature t g3 can now be calculated from [1]:

t

g

3

=

 

&

(

h

SH

 

h

 

)

 

16.25 (3330

 

1087)

m

   

t

 

ST

 

S

1

 

546

g

1

 

&

=

 

m

gas

c

p

 

122

1.09

 

=

274

° C

Finally, the pinch point temperature difference is:

t pp = t g3 – t S =274-250.4 = 23,4°C

b) The stack temperature can be calculated with a similar heat balance as in the

previous task, this time with a span over the whole steam cycle, i.e.:

m&

gas

(

c t

P

g

1

t

g

4

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

FW

)

It can be assumed that the specific heat is the same from t g1 to t g3 as from t g1 to t g4 .

The feed water enthalpy can be found with the temperature after condenser, i.e. saturated water at 0.05 bars. This temperature is found in a steam table 33°C.

h FW = 4.18*33 = 137.5 kJ/kg

The same enthalpy is found for saturated water at 0.05 bars. The enthalpy of liquid water does not change over a pump; therefore the feed water enthalpy at 40 bars pressure is the saturated water enthalpy after the condenser.

The stack temperature is:

t

g 4

=

546

16.25 (3330

137.5)

122 1.09

=

155.9

°

C

which is a quite high temperature. This can, however, be utilized to district heating.

c) The combined cycle efficiency is

η

CC

=

P

GT

+ P

ST

P fuel

P fuel is found from the gas turbine power output and efficiency, i.e. P fuel = P GT /η GT.

η

CC

=

(

P

GT

+ P

ST

)

η

GT

(

43

+

18

)

0,37 =

=

P GT

43

52,5%