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Combined Cycle Problem

A coal-fired steam power plant in Haparanda (north Sweden on the border to Finland)

has a steam turbine that gives 18 MWe, at 40 bars and 450°C inlet data. The condenser pressure is 0.05 bar and the mechanical + generator efficiency are together 98%. The isentropic efficiency for the turbine is 93%.

This plant has now shown that it is not profitable (increased taxes), therefore it will be rebuilt to a natural gas combined cycle, as Vladimir Putin and Göran Persson have decided to build a natural gas pipeline between north Russia and Sweden through Finland. Cheap Russian natural gas can therefore be distributed in the Haparanda- region.

It is decided to invest in a GTX100 from Alstom Power; for data see below. The old

boiler will be exchanged to a heat recovery steam generator, to which the gas turbine

is connected. It can be assumed that an average specific heat from the gas turbine

gases is 1.09 kJ/kg °C through the HRSG and there is only one pressure level on the steam side.

Assume that there are no extractions from the steam turbine and calculate:

a) the pinch-point temperature difference

b) the stack temperature

c) the efficiency for the new power plant (the combined cycle)

Simple Cycle

 Frequency [Hz] 50 Fuel type - Natural Gas Gross electrical output [MW] 43 Gross electrical efficiency [%] 37 Shaft speed [rpm] 3000 Compressor pressure ratio - 20 Exhaust gas temperature [deg C] 546 Exhaust mass flow [kg/s] 122

HINTS

Hint 1 (-2p) The pinch point temperature difference, t pp is:

t pp = t g3 – t S

where the temperatures are indicated in the T-Q diagram

Temperature
Gas turbine
tg1
exhaust
tg2
hsh
tg3
Stack
ts
tg4
hs2
hs1
Evaporator
hFW
Economizer
Superheater

Hint 2 (-3p)

Heat transferred

In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 we can make a heat balance over the evaporator and the superheater, as we know evaporation data and superheat data on the steam side:

m&

gas

c

P

(

t

g1

t

g 3

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

S1

)

In the equation with do not know t g3 or the steam mass flow, m ST. In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 , we first have to calculate the steam mass flow.

Hint 3 (-3p)

The steam mass flow can be found via a heat balance over the steam turbine:

P

ST

= 18

MW

=

m &

ST

(

h

SH

h

out

)

η

m

+ g

where the outlet enthalpy of the steam turbine is found in an h-s diagram

40 bar
hSH
450 deg C
0,05 bar
hout

hout,is

SOLUTION

We start drawing a sketch of the plant. It is a single pressure steam cycle with one gas turbine connected through a HRSG.

Gas Turbine Cycle
Fuel
Air
Heat Recovery Steam Generator
Steam Cycle

The HRSG in a heat transfer diagram:

Temperature
Gas turbine
tg1
exhaust
tg2
hsh
tg3
Stack
ts
tg4
hs2
hs1
Evaporator
hFW
Economizer
Superheater

Heat transferred

a) The pinch point temperature difference, t pp is:

t pp = t g3 – t S

t S is found in saturation tables for water/steam. For the pressure of 40 bars, t S =250.4°C. Here we also read that h S1 =1087.3 kJ/kg.

In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 we can make a heat balance over the evaporator and the superheater, as we know evaporation data and superheat data on the steam side:

m&

gas

c

P

(

t

g1

t

g 3

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

S1

)

[1]

In the equation with do not know t g3 or the steam mass flow, m ST. In order to calculate the gas temperature t g3 , we first have to calculate the steam mass flow.

The steam mass flow can be found via a heat balance over the turbine:

P

ST

= 18

MW

=

m &

ST

(

h

SH

h

out

)

η

m

+ g

[2]

The superheated steam enthalpy (40bars, 450°C) is found in h-s diagram or in steam tables:

h SH = 3330 kJ/kg.

The enthalpy out from the turbine is found in a h-s diagram, by first finding the isentropic outlet enthalpy. Thereafter the real outlet enthalpy can be calculated:

h

out

=

h

SH

η

is

(

h

SH

h

out is

,

)

[3]

First mark the point for superheat conditions, 40bars and 450°C.

Thereafter draw a straight vertical line down to the 0.05 bar pressure line.

The isentropic outlet temperature is read in the intersection: h out,is = 2115 kJ/kg.

40 bar
hSH
450 deg C
0,05 bar
hout

hout,is

Equation 3 gives:

h out = 3330 0,93 3330 2115 = 2200

(

)

kJ

/

kg

Now the real expansion line can be drawn in the diagram as the intersection between 2200 kJ/kg and the pressure line of 0,05 bar.

The steam mass flow is calculated from [2]:

&

m

ST

=

18000

(

3330

2200

)

η

m

+ g

= 16,25

kg

/

s

The gas temperature t g3 can now be calculated from [1]:

t

g

3

=

 & ( h SH h ) 16.25 ⋅ (3330 1087) m − − t ST S 1 546 g 1 − & = − m gas ⋅ c p 122 ⋅ 1.09

=

274

° C

Finally, the pinch point temperature difference is:

t pp = t g3 – t S =274-250.4 = 23,4°C

b) The stack temperature can be calculated with a similar heat balance as in the

previous task, this time with a span over the whole steam cycle, i.e.:

m&

gas

(

c t

P

g

1

t

g

4

)

= m&

ST

(

h

SH

h

FW

)

It can be assumed that the specific heat is the same from t g1 to t g3 as from t g1 to t g4 .

The feed water enthalpy can be found with the temperature after condenser, i.e. saturated water at 0.05 bars. This temperature is found in a steam table 33°C.

h FW = 4.18*33 = 137.5 kJ/kg

The same enthalpy is found for saturated water at 0.05 bars. The enthalpy of liquid water does not change over a pump; therefore the feed water enthalpy at 40 bars pressure is the saturated water enthalpy after the condenser.

The stack temperature is:

t

g 4

=

546

16.25 (3330

137.5)

122 1.09

=

155.9

°

C

which is a quite high temperature. This can, however, be utilized to district heating.

c) The combined cycle efficiency is

η

CC

=

P

GT

+ P

ST

P fuel

P fuel is found from the gas turbine power output and efficiency, i.e. P fuel = P GT /η GT.

η

CC

=

(

P

GT

+ P

ST

)

η

GT

(

43

+

18

)

0,37 =

=

P GT

43

52,5%