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steel base plate is used to distribute this column load without crushing the

concrete.

Steel column

See AISC p. 14-9

Base Plate

thickness

• AISC Part 14

Lecture 10 - Page 1 of 6

The design of a base plate involves the following steps:

= 0.85f’cA1

Pp

where Ωc = 2.50 ASD

Ωc

where: f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete, KSI

A1 = area of steel base plate concentrically loaded on conc, in2

= BN (where B and N use whole inches if possible)

B

bf See AISC p. 14-5

d 0.95d N

0.80bf

n n

N − 0.95d

m=

2

B − 0.80b f

n=

2

Lecture 10 - Page 2 of 6

tmin = minimum base plate thickness per AISC p. 14-6:

2 f pu 3.33 f pa

t min = L t min = L

0 .9 F y Fy

Pu Pa

where: f pu = where: f pa =

BN BN

Fy = base plate steel yield stress Fy = base plate steel yield stress

m m

L = larger of L = larger of

n n

= LRFD ASD

Lecture 10 - Page 3 of 6

Example (LRFD)

GIVEN: A W14x82 A992 column has a factored axial load Pu = 700 KIPS. It

bears on a steel base plate using A36 steel. The footing has concrete f’c = 3000

PSI.

REQUIRED: Design the column base plate.

= 0.6Pp

= 0.6(0.85f’cA1)

Pu

A1 =

0.6(0.85 f ' c )

700 KIPS

=

0.6(0.85(3KSI ))

A1 = 457.5 in2

∆=

2

0.95(14.3" ) − 0.8(10.1" )

=

2

= 2.75”

N≈ A1 + ∆

≈ 457.5in 2 + 2.75"

≈ 24.14”

TRY N = 24” and B = 20” (Area = 480 in2 > 457.5 in2)

Lecture 10 - Page 4 of 6

Step 3 – Determine “m” and “n”:

N − 0.95d

m=

2

24"−0.95(14.3" )

=

2

= 5.2”

B − 0.80b f

n=

2

20"−0.80(10.1" )

=

2

= 5.96”

2 f pu

t min = L

0 .9 F y

= 700 Kips

Pu

f pu =

BN

700 Kips

= = 1.46 KSI

(20" )(24" )

m = 5.2”

L = larger of

n = 5.96” use

2(1.46 KSI )

t min = 5.96"

0.9(36 KSI ) Base plate yield stress

Lecture 10 - Page 5 of 6

Step 5 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

20”

W14x82 A992

col. centered 24”

on plate

7

1 " thick A36 steel base plate

8

Lecture 10 - Page 6 of 6

Lecture 12 – Bolted Connections

Below is a typical bolt and the terms given to the parts of a bolt:

Bolts used in structural steel fasteners fall within 2 categories – see AISC Table

2-5 p. 2-41:

1) Carbon steel bolts – These bolts achieve their total strength from shear

(or tension) strength across the diameter of the bolt. They are

relatively low-strength and are used primarily for low-load applications

such as for anchor rods. The typical carbon steel bolt used in

structural steel buildings is ASTM A307 and F1554 for use in anchor

rods.

and obtain their total strength from the shear strength across the

diameter of the bolt PLUS the friction developed between the nut and

joined steel surfaces. In order to achieve the friction capacity, these

bolts are tensioned to 70% of the ultimate tensile strength of the

material according to the table below. ASTM A325 and A490 bolts are

typically used.

• AISC Part 7

• AISC Part 9

• AISC Part 10

Lecture 12 - Page 1 of 9

Possible Bolted Shear Failure Mechanisms:

There are 4 basic types of failure mechanisms for bolted connections under

shear:

1) Bolt Shear:

This is probably the most obvious failure mode. It occurs when the

applied load exceeds the shear capacity through the bolt. The

design shear strength is dictated in AISC Table J3.2 p. 16.1-104 and

AISC Table 7-1 p. 7-22. Possible remedies include using a larger

diameter bolt, higher grade of bolt or more bolts.

Result

Lecture 12 - Page 2 of 9

2) Edge Tear-Out:

This occurs when the bolt is located too close to the edge of the

plate in the direction of load. A minimum required edge distance, Le, is

dictated in AISC Table J3.4 p. 16.1-107. Possible remedies include

increasing the edge distance or reducing the bolt diameter.

Le

Lecture 12 - Page 3 of 9

3) Bearing Failure:

This type of failure occurs when one of the plates is too thin or not

strong enough for the applied loads. The design bearing strength at

bolt holes is dictated in AISC p. 16.1-111 and AISC Table 7-5 p. 7-28

and AISC Table 7-6 p. 7-30. Possible remedies increasing the plate

thickness, use a higher grade of steel or using larger diameter bolts.

Thin plate

Bearing failure

Lecture 12 - Page 4 of 9

4) Net Section Failure:

A net section failure occurs when there are too many bolt holes

perpendicular to the line of action – resulting in too little material to

carry the load. Think of Swiss cheese. The minimum spacing of

bolts is dictated in AISC J3.2 p. 16.1-106 as not less than 2⅔ times

the nominal bolt diameter, preferably 3 times the bolt diameter.

Usually 3” is used as the nominal bolt spacing for bolts < 1” in

diameter.

Lecture 12 - Page 5 of 9

Types of Bolted Connections

1) Bearing-Type Connections:

connection. It is used in most simple-shear connections and in

situations when loosening or fatigue due to vibration or load

fluctuations are NOT design considerations. In these connections,

bolts are tightened to the “snug-tight” condition, as defined as the

tightness attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench or the full

effort of an iron worker using an ordinary spud wrench. The design

strength of bearing-type fasteners is per AISC Eq. J3-1 p. 16.1-108.

2) Slip-Critical Connections:

load reversals are to be considered. Also, holes that are oversize or

slotted shall be designed as slip-critical connections. Bolts that are

used in slip-critical connections must be pre-tensioned per AISC Table

J3.1 p. 16.1-103. In addition, the design strength of the connection

must be checked in accordance with AISC J3.8, J3.9 and J3.10 p.

16.1-109 thru 111. As an alternative, AISC Table 7-3 and 7-4 p. 7-24

thru 27 can be used.

Lecture 12 - Page 6 of 9

Design Strength of Bearing-Type Fasteners

high-strength bolt or threaded part is:

Rn

Allowable strength of bolt = ASD

Ω

where: Rn = FnAb

φ = 0.75 LRFD

Ω = 2.00 ASD

= from Table J3.2 p. 16.1-104

Shear Plane:

The shear plane is the plane in which the various connected parts

are in contact.

from shear plane “N”

Threads eXcluded from

shear plane “X”

Single-shear Double-shear

Load Load

Lecture 12 - Page 7 of 9

Example 1 (LRFD)

GIVEN: A ¾” diameter ASTM A325-N bolt in single-shear is subjected to a

factored load of 14 KIPS.

REQUIRED: Determine the design shear strength of the bolt considering bolt

shear ONLY, and comment if the bolt is acceptable.

Pu = 14 KIPS

where: φ = 0.75

= FnAb

= 48 KSI (threads Not excluded)

π

= D2

4

π

= (0.75" ) 2

4

= 0.44 in2

Lecture 12 - Page 8 of 9

Example 2 (LRFD)

GIVEN: Same as Example 1

REQUIRED: Determine bolt design shear using AISC Table 7-1 p. 7-22.

ASTM A325

Design shear strength = 15.9 KIPS

Loading = “S” (Single shear)

Bolt Diameter, db = ¾”

Lecture 12 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 13 – Bolted Connections (cont.)

connections. In this lecture we will look at a typical all-bolted beam-to-girder

shear connection to see practical bolted connection considerations.

K Beam

Cope

Lev

S

S

Girder

Connection angles

= Leh

flange and “K” distance, usually 1½”, 2” or 3”

= from beam properties AISC Part 1

= from AISC Table J3.4 p. 16.1-107

= 2⅔ times nominal bolt diameter (minimum)

= 3 times bolt diameter (preferred)

= 3” (typical for bolts up to 1” diameter)

Lecture 13 - Page 1 of 5

Example (LRFD)

GIVEN: A W16x40 A992 steel beam “A” frames into a W18x55 A992 steel girder

“B”. The applied floor Service DL = 80 PSF and the applied floor Service LL =

100 PSF. Use ¾” diameter A325-X bolts with standard bolt holes and double-

angle A36 L3x3x¼ connection angles. The beam is coped at top flange only.

REQUIRED: Design the all-bolted beam-to-girder connection and provide a

summary sketch.

30’-0”

W18x55 Girder “B”

4 @ 6’-0” = 24’-0”

W16x40 Beam “A”

= 1584 PLF

= 1.6 KLF

Beam weight

wu L

Beam end reaction =

2

=

2

= 24 KIPS

Lecture 13 - Page 2 of 5

Step 2 – Use AISC Table 10-1 “All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections”, p. 10-22:

bolted double-angle connections.

¾” Bolts

See Step 3

See Step 9

W16x40

Beam

See Step 5

See Step 7

See Step 5

See Step 8

Lecture 13 - Page 3 of 5

Step 3 – Check Bolt and Angle Design Strength:

ASTM A325

Bolt and angle design strength =

Thread Cond. = X 76.4 KIPS > 24 KIPS

Angle thickness = ¼”

the “K” distance for either the girder or the beam.

5

W18x55 girder “Kdet” = 1 " from AISC p. 1-18

16

Use cope = 1½”

3

W16x40 beam “Kdet” = 1 " from AISC p. 1-20

16

Beam web design strength = 200 KIPS

Leh = 1¾”

per inch thickness

Lev = 1¼”

= 61 KIPS > 24 KIPS → OK

Lecture 13 - Page 4 of 5

Step 8 – Check girder Support Design Strength:

= 205 KIPS > 24 KIPS → OK

= 3(¾”)

= 2¼”

W16x40 Beam

Cope = 1½”

Lev = 1¼”

S = 3”

S = 3”

W18x55 1¼”

Girder

connection angles with 9 - ¾”

A325-X bolts in STD holes

Lecture 13 - Page 5 of 5

Lecture 15 – Welded Connections (cont.)

investigated. Similar to an all-bolted connection, the AISC manual makes use of

a one-stop-shopping design aid Table 10-3 p. 10-48 for all design considerations.

is as follows:

Example 1 (LRFD)

GIVEN: A W21x44 A992 girder with a factored end reaction = 87 KIPS has 2 –

L3x3x3/8 connection angles shop-welded to the girder web and field-welded to

the W12x58 A992 column flange as shown.

REQUIRED: Design the connection and provide a summary sketch.

W21x44 Girder

Minimum Web

L=? thickness

W12x58

Column

Weld A

3/16

2X weld

size L2x2x¼ erection

angle shop-welded to

col. flange

L=? 2 – L3x3x3/8

connection angles

Weld B

¼

Lecture 15 - Page 1 of 7

Step 1 – Refer to AISC Table 10-3 p. 10-48 for design info:

See Step 2

See Step 3

Lecture 15 - Page 2 of 7

Step 2 – Determine minimum length “L” by checking Weld B strength:

From Table above, using a ¼” weld, choose a length “L” such that

φRn > 87 KIPS

From Table above, using a 3/16” weld, choose a length “L” such

that φRn > 87 KIPS

thickness = 0.190” < 0.640” OK

From Table above, using a 3/16” weld, the required minimum web

thickness = 0.286” < 0.350” OK

Since the minimum length of Weld B = 12” which is greater than the

minimum length of Weld A → use 12” long angles.

Lecture 15 - Page 3 of 7

Step 7 – Draw summary sketch:

W21x44 Girder

1¼”

12”

W12x58

Column

Weld A

3/16

angle shop-welded to

col. flange

12” 2 – L3x3x3/8

connection angles

Weld B

¼

Lecture 15 - Page 4 of 7

Eccentric Loading on Weld:

Table 10-3 assumes that the loading is approximately concentric. In other words,

there is no moment acting on the weld.

which creates moment on the column as well as the connection. AISC Tables 8-

4 thru 8-11 can be used for design of eccentrically-loaded welded connections.

Pu

Pu

Example 2 (LRFD)

GIVEN: A ½” plate is welded to the flange of a column as shown below. This

plate carries a cantilevered factored load of 25 KIPS.

REQUIRED: Determine if the weld is adequate to carry the eccentric loading.

Pu = 25 KIPS

16”

¼

¼

4”

Column L = 8”

flange

½” Plate

Lecture 15 - Page 5 of 7

Step 1 – Refer to AISC Table 8-5 p. 8-72:

See Step 3

See Step 2

See Step 4

See Step 3

Lecture 15 - Page 6 of 7

Step 2 – Determine coefficient “k”:

Since “L” = 8”

kL = 4”

k(8”) = 4”

k = 0.5

Since “L” = 8”

aL = 16”

k(8”) = 16”

a = 2.0

k = 0.5

Use “C” = 0.821

a = 2.0

Pu

Lmin = ERROR in AISC Manual!!!

φCC1 D

where: φ = 0.75

C = 0.821

Pu = LφCC1D C1 = 1.0 (AISC p. 8-65)

D = 4 - 1/16ths

= (8”)(0.75)(0.821)(1.0)(4)

Lecture 15 - Page 7 of 7

Lecture 16 – AISC Code of Standard Practice

provisions of the AISC “Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and

Bridges” and is found in AISC Spec. Section 16.3 and also online at

www.AISC.org. It was first published in 1924 and is now in its 6th edition, dated

March 7, 2005.

for the construction of structural steel structures. It is useful for owners,

architects, engineers, contractors, fabricators, construction managers and

anyone else involved with construction using structural steel.

The Code also serves as a basis for technical project specifications, typically CSI

Specification Section 05100 – Structural Steel (see Lecture 17).

GLOSSARY

Some important, (but often vague) definitions include:

• Contract Documents

• Design Drawings

• EOR – Engineer-of-Record

• Erection Drawings

• Erector

• Fabricator

• Inspector

• Owner

• Owner’s Designated Representative for Construction

• Owner’s Designated Representative for Design

• RCSC – Research Council on Structural Connections

• RFI – written Request for Information

• SER – Structural Engineer-of-Record

• Shop Drawings

• Specifications

• SSPC – Society for Protective Coatings (formerly Steel Structures

Painting Council)

• Steel Detailer

• Structural Steel

Lecture 16 - Page 1 of 13

Section 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 – Scope

The Code shall govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel

(unless otherwise noted in Contract Documents).

• AISC Seismic Provisions

• AISC Specification

• ASTM (lots of referenced standards)

• AWS D1.1 – Structural Welding Code

• RCSC Specification – Specification for Structural Joints using

ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts

• SSPC – Steel Structures Painting Council

1.3 – Units

Either U.S. customary or metric units will be used. Each system shall

be independent of the other.

criteria.

the design, the Fabricator and Erector are NOT responsible for

building code conformance of the design.

design/build, then the Fabricator IS responsible for building

code conformance of the design.

Lecture 16 - Page 2 of 13

1.7 – Existing Structures

of hazardous are NOT the responsibility of the Fabricator or Erector.

• SER is responsible for structural adequacy of completed

project.

• Base Plates & bearing plates

• Beams

• Bracing (permanent)

• Columns

• Connections

• Fasteners for connecting structural steel

• Girders

• Hangers

• Lintels

• Shear stud connectors

• Trusses

in the completed project.

• Geometry and working points necessary for layout

• Floor elevations

• Column centers and offsets

• Camber requirements for beams (if required)

• Permanent bracing, stiffeners, reinforcement

• Connection details or data that can be used by fabricator for

design including ASD or LRFD methodology

• Data relating to non-Structural steel elements that interact

with frame

• Painting requirements of Structural steel

Lecture 16 - Page 3 of 13

3.2 – Architectural, Electrical and Mechanical Design Drawings

elements for purposes of defining detail configurations and other

construction information, however, ALL STRUCTURAL INFO.

MUST BE SHOWN ON STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS.

3.3 – Discrepancies

be resolved by the EOR in a timely manner so as not to

delay the Fabricator’s work.

Design Drawings Specifications Design Drawings

Scaled graphic drawings Written info in drawing Written info in drawings

Arch., Elect., Mech. Structural Drawings Structural Drawings

Drawings

smaller than 1/8” = 1’-0” (unless clarity of the drawing is carefully

considered), larger as necessary to convey detailed information.

Drawings and Specifications or by re-issuing existing Design

Drawings and Specifications. Revisions must be clearly and

individually indicated, dated and identified by a revision number.

These revised sketches become “amendments” to the Contract

Drawings.

constitute a release for construction, regardless of the status of

the architectural, electrical, mechanical, or any other trades’

documents.

Lecture 16 - Page 4 of 13

Section 4 – SHOP AND ERECTION DRAWINGS

and Specifications to the Fabricator in a TIMELY MANNER.

Fabricators are permitted to use the services of independent

detailers.

as part of the Shop or Erection Drawings without the express

written permission of Owner’s Designated Representative for

Design.

4.4 – Approval

Representative for Design for review and approval and returned to

Fabricator within 14 calendar days.

Lecture 16 - Page 5 of 13

Section 5 – MATERIALS

Documents that have been issued for construction.

permitted to make corrective procedures.

ASTM specifications. Certified mill test reports are used as

evidence of record of quality of material.

supplier as specified by ASTM A6 prior to delivery to Fabricator’s

shop or point of use.

“finished” shall have a roughness in accordance with ANSI/ASME

B46.1 that is less than or equal to 500.

straightened in the connecting plane. Backing bars and runoff tabs

shall be used to produce as required to produce sound welds, and

do not need be removed unless specifically designated in the

Contract Documents.

Lecture 16 - Page 6 of 13

6.4 – Fabrication Tolerances

Both ends finished for contact bearing Length = ± 1/32”

Members < 30’-0” Length = ± 1/16”

Members > 30’-0” Length = ± 1/8”

All members Straightness < 1/1000 axial length

Beam length < 50’-0” Camber variation = 0 → ½”

Beam length > 50’-0” Camber variation = 0 → ½” + 1/8” per

10’-0” additional length beyond 50’-0”

Structural steel that does not require shop paint shall be cleaned of

oil, grease, dirt and any foreign material.

dirt and any foreign material; as well as meeting the requirements

of SSPC-SP2.

Connection members shall be shipped in separate closed

containers according to grade, length and diameter.

economical fabrication and erection.

Section 7 – ERECTION

that will permit efficiency and economy.

Lecture 16 - Page 7 of 13

7.2 – Job-Site Conditions

following:

• Adequate obstruction-free space for operation of Erector’s

equipment

• Adequate storage space

accurate location, suitability and access to all foundations, piers

and abutments.

accurate location of building lines and benchmarks and shall furnish

the Fabricator with a plan containing such information.

setting in accordance with Embedment Drawings. The variation in

location shall be as follows:

Centers of any 2 anchor rods within an < 1/8”

anchor rod group

Centers of adjacent anchor rod groups < ¼”

Elevation of tops of anchor rods ± ½”

Accumulated variation between centers < ¼” per 100’-0”

of anchor rod groups not to exceed a total of 1”

All leveling plates, nuts, washers and bearing plates that can be

handled without crane are set to line and grade by the Owner’s

Representative for Construction (otherwise set by Erector).

7.7 – Grouting

for Construction. The usual method for supporting columns during

erection is by use of leveling nuts and washers or shims.

Lecture 16 - Page 8 of 13

7.8 – Field Connection Material

Contract Documents.

Unless otherwise noted, loose structural steel items that are not

connected to the steel frame by the Owner’s Representative for

Construction without assistance from Fabricator.

the following:

elements providing stability in the completed structure

• Any special erection conditions that are required by the

design concept, such as use of jacks, shores, etc.

other protection for the Erector’s personnel in accordance with all

applicable safety regulations. Unless otherwise specified, the

Erector is permitted to remove such safety protection form areas

where the erection operations are completed.

Safety protection for other trades that are not under the direct

employment of the Erector shall be the responsibility of the Owner’s

Representative for Construction.

fabrication tolerances shall not cause the erection tolerances

(Section 7-13) to be exceeded.

Lecture 16 - Page 9 of 13

7.13 – Erection Tolerances

Lines defined as:

point is the actual center of the member at each end of the

shipping piece.

• Horizontal members work point shall be the actual centerline

of the top flange or top surface at each end.

• Work line is defined a s a straight line that connects the

member work points.

Column tolerance deviation from plumb ± 1/500 distance between work points

not to exceed 1” total for first 20 stories

Individual straight piece (other than + 3/16”

column) connecting to column - 5/16”

Adjustable members ± 3/8”

of elements into line by drift pins, welding or cutting shall be

considered normal erection operations. Errors that cannot be

corrected by these means must be promptly reported to the

Owner’s Designated Representative for Design and Construction.

The Fabricator or the Erector may NOT cut, drill or otherwise alter

their work to accommodate other trades unless work is specified in

the Contract Documents.

and storage of structural steel during erection to avoid excess dirt

and foreign matter. However, it is not the Erector’s responsibility to

remove dirt or other foreign material that may accumulate during

normal erection procedures.

Lecture 16 - Page 10 of 13

7.17 – Field Painting

bolts, or to touch-up abrasions of the shop coat, or to perform any

field painting.

the Erector’s falsework, scaffolding, rubbish and temporary

structures.

8.1 – General

assure that the work is performed in accordance with this Code.

Certified mill test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence that the

mill product satisfies material order requirements.

access to all places where work is being performed, and a

minimum of 24 hours notice must be given prior to

commencement of work.

• Inspector shall inspect work at shop as much as possible.

• Field inspections should be performed as promptly as

possible.

• Deficiencies discovered by Inspector shall be reported to

Fabricator and Erector as soon as possible.

• The Inspector shall NOT approve of any deviations from the

Contract Documents without written approval from the

Owner’s Designated Representative for Design and

Construction.

Lecture 16 - Page 11 of 13

Section 9 – CONTRACTS

• Price per pound

• Price per item

• Unit price

shown on the Shop Drawings. This does NOT include shop and

field weld metal or protective coatings.

removals for connections.

or extra work order, and shall constitute authorization by the Owner

that the revision is released for construction.

the Erector are changed, an appropriate modification to the contract

price shall be made.

Owner and approved/disapproved in a timely manner.

9.5 – Scheduling

The contract schedule shall state when the Design Drawings will be

released for construction so that erection can start at the

designated time and continue without interference or delay.

Lecture 16 - Page 12 of 13

Section 10 – ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL

design medium has prompted the use of additional requirements that

apply to these members. Typically they call for closer dimensional

tolerances and smoother finished surfaces than for ordinary structural

steel.

as “Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel”, the requirements in

Sections 1 through 9 shall apply as modified in Section 10.

10.2 – Fabrication

be made with uniform gaps of 1/8”.

• All welds exposed to view shall not project more than 1/16”

above the surface.

away from view.

twisting or otherwise damaging the structural steel.

10.4 – Erection

during handling and erection procedures.

and aligned to a tolerance that is ½ that of non-AESS members.

Lecture 16 - Page 13 of 13

Lecture 17 – Structural Steel Specifications

• Design Drawings

• Specifications

The Design Drawings graphically present the specific design of the structure.

However, they do not indicate the specific requirements relating to:

• Materials

• Submittals

• Job conditions

• Testing & inspection

• Execution of work

specifications into a uniform, industry accepted format. It developed the

“MasterFormat”, a breakdown of all construction-related activities into 16

divisions as follows:

05050 – Basic Metal Materials

Division 1 – General Requirements 05100 – Structural Steel

Division 2 – Site Construction 05200 – Metal Joists

Division 3 – Concrete 05300 – Metal Deck

Division 4 – Masonry 05400 – Cold-Formed Metal Framing

Division 5 – Metals 05500 – Metal Fabrications

Division 6 – Wood and Plastics 05600 – Hydraulic Fabrications

05650 – Railroad Track & Accessories

Division 7 – Thermal and Moisture Protection

05700 – Ornamental Metal

Division 8 – Doors and Windows 05800 – Expansion Control

Division 9 – Finishes 05900 – Metal Restoration & Cleaning

Division 10 – Specialties

Division 11 – Equipment

Division 12 – Furnishings

Division 13 – Special Construction

Division 14 – Conveying Systems

Division 15 – Mechanical

Division 16 – Electrical

Each division has been further refined into multiple sub-divisions (as

shown for Division 5 above). To obtain samples of specifications, go to

http://www.ogs.state.ny.us/dnc/generalInfo/masterspecdefault.htm

most of the construction industry for purposes of cost estimating,

contractor qualifications, product research and supply ordering.

Lecture 17 - Page 1 of 8

Section 05100 – Structural Steel

PART 1 - GENERAL

complete structural steel work on the Drawings, as specified herein or

both. Structural steel work is that work defined in AISC “Code of

Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges”, dated March 7,

2005, plus work listed below and shown on structural drawings.

structural components and systems.

2. Furnishing and installation of bracing (temporary and permanent),

struts, brackets, stiffeners, anchors, support angles for metal deck,

hangers, shear studs, and all other miscellaneous steel support

members necessary to complete this Section.

3. Design, fabrication and installation of bolted and welded

connections and splices.

4. Furnishing and installation of column base plates and bearing

plates.

5. Furnishing and installation of anchor rods and loose leveling plates.

6. Furnishing and installation of openings (unreinforced and

reinforced) in structural steel required to accommodate mechanical,

plumbing, and electrical work.

7. Furnishing and application of shop primer, paint, including finish

coat(s) when required, and field touch-up paint for designated

structural steel items.

1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Publications:

a. Manual of Steel Construction: Includes "Specification for

Structural Steel Buildings – Load and Resistance Factor Design

(LRFD)", "Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and

Bridges", "Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325

or A490 Bolts".

b. “Building Code of New York State” by New York State

Department of State Division of Code Enforcement and

Administration.

2. American Welding Society, Inc. (AWS): AWS D1.1 "Structural

Welding Code - Steel".

3. American Hot Dip Galvanizers Association, Inc.; Zinc Institute Inc.:

"Inspection Manual for Hot Dip Galvanized Products".

4. Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC): "Surface Preparation

Specifications".

Lecture 17 - Page 2 of 8

5. Exposed Structural Steel: All exposed structural steel is classified

as Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) as defined by

AISC. Comply with AESS quality requirements for all exposed

structural steel.

1. Qualify welding processes and welding operators in accordance

with AWS Standards.

2. Provide certification that welders to be employed in the Work have

satisfactorily passed AWS qualification tests to perform the type of

welding within previous 12 months.

1. Fabricator and erector of structural steel shall have not less than 3

years experience in fabrication and erection of structural steel.

2. Submit written description of ability.

to perform the following tests:

1. Visual inspection of all welds according to AWS.

2. Magnetic particle inspection according to ASTM E709 for 10

percent of all shop and field welds.

3. Ultrasonic inspection according to ASTM E587 for all shop or field

full penetration welds.

4. Inspection of field-assembled high-strength bolted connections.

5. Inspection of erected columns for plumbness within tolerances

specified.

6. Inspection of headed studs.

7. Visual inspection of all erected steel for damage.

1. Submit resumes of technicians who will perform work showing

evidence of one year minimum experience on similar work.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

Compliance with requirements for materials, fabrication, erection and

dimensioning of structural steel shall be Contractor's responsibility.

preparing detailed shop drawings.

drawings shall NOT be used as shop drawings)

1. Column layout plans.

2. Floor and roof framing plans.

Lecture 17 - Page 3 of 8

3. Shop erection details including cuts, copes, connections, holes,

bolts and other pertinent information.

4. Welds with size, length and type.

5. Anchor bolt locations.

6. Location of shop welded masonry anchors. Coordinate with

Division 4.

7. Shop finishing information.

required to show compliance with Specifications. Submit producer's or

manufacturer's specifications and installation instructions for the

following products.

1. Structural steel, including certified copies of mill reports covering

chemical and physical properties.

2. High-strength bolts including nuts and washers.

3. Unfinished bolts and nuts.

4. Structural steel primer paint.

5. Welding electrodes.

B. Protect from elements and keep free of dirt and debris.

C. Handle material carefully so as not to bend or mar.

D. Repair or replace damaged materials.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS

ASTM A36.

B. W Shapes: ASTM A992.

C. HSS Steel Rectangular, Square and Round: ASTM A500, Grade B.

D. Steel Pipe: ASTM A53 Grade B.

E. Unfinished Bolts, Nuts and Washers: ASTM A307, Grade A.

F. High-strength Bolts, Nuts and Washers: ASTM A325 or A490.

G. Direct Tension Indicating Washers: ASTM F959-85.

H. Headed Studs: ASTM A108, Grades 1015 – 1020, minimum field = 50

KSI.

I. Anchor Rods, Nuts and Washers: ASTM F1554.

J. Non-Shrink Bedding Mortar for Bearing and Base Plates: CRD-C 621,

Type D “Masterflow 713” from Master Builders (or equivalent).

K. Neoprene Bearing Pads: ASTM D412; 70 Durometer Hardness, 2500

PSI Tensile.

L. Weld Electrodes: E70XX and in accordance with AWS.

M. Expansion Bolts: ¾” Diameter stainless steel with ultimate capacities in

4000 PSI concrete of 16,000 lbs. in shear and 16,000 lbs. in tension;

minimum embedment of 6” “Kwik Bolt II” from Hilti Corp. (or equivalent).

Lecture 17 - Page 4 of 8

N. Steel Primer Paint: Fabricator's standard rust-inhibitive primer.

or

None. Bare steel only except where exposed items to be primed are

identified on Drawings.

or

Series 10-1009 grey primer by Tnemec or accepted equal.

accordance with ASTM A123. Restraighten members after galvanizing,

if necessary, to be square and true.

P. Weld-on Masonry Anchors: No. 317 continuous weld-on anchor rod by

Heckmann Building Products for columns and No. 315 anchor rod for

beams, plain steel or accepted equal.

Q. Below Grade Coating: #46H-413 coal tar epoxy by Tnemec or

accepted equal.

R. Cold Galvanizing: Galvilite Cold Galvanizing Compound by Z.R.C.

Products Company or accepted equal.

2.2 FABRICATION

drawings and referenced standards.

possible.

indicated, fabricate steel with mill camber up.

D. Provide holes for securing other work to structural steel framing. Cut,

drill or punch holes perpendicular to metal surfaces. Do not flame cut

holes or enlarge holes by burning. Drill holes in base and bearing

plates.

F. Anchor Rods: Furnish anchor rods, leveling plate and/or other devices

necessary for setting anchoring rods required for securing structural

steel to foundation, concrete or masonry.

drawings.

A. Shop paint only structural steel work which will be exposed to view and

finish painted. Do not paint steel embedded in concrete or mortar or

receive a spray on fireproofing. Do not paint surfaces which are to be

Lecture 17 - Page 5 of 8

welded, including metal deck. Do not paint contact surfaces of high-

strength bolted connections or finished bearing surfaces such as

bearing plates and column base plates.

B. For steel to be shop primed and not exposed to view, remove loose rust

and mill scale by mechanical means in accordance with SSPC-SP3

"Power Tool Cleaning". For steel to be galvanized or primed and finish

painted, remove all dirt, grease, rust and loose mill scale in accordance

with SSPC-SP6 “Commercial Blast Cleaning”, unless recommended

otherwise by paint manufacturer.

paint in accordance with manufacturer's instructions but not less than a

uniform dry-film thickness of 2 mils. Use painting methods which will

result in full coverage of joints, corners, edges and exposed surfaces.

below top of finished floor.

dry-film thickness of 3 mils. in accordance with manufacturer’s

recommendations.

2.4 CONNECTIONS

shown on Drawings.

provide connection capacity of the nominal full section shear capacity

Vn for the given steel member as dictated in AISC Steel Construction

Manual. A minimum factored shear capacity of 10 kips shall be

provided for all secondary beams. For beam and girders with shear

studs, provide a connection capacity of at least 125 percent of uniform

load values unless indicated otherwise on drawings.

connections of secondary framing members to primary members;

including, but not limited to, girts, door framing systems, roof opening

and other framing systems taking only nominal stresses and in no way

reacting in stress on primary members.

unless otherwise indicated.

Lecture 17 - Page 6 of 8

G. Provide bearing bolt (X) fastener for all structural connections.

published connection details unless accepted by Engineer.

face of tubes and column flanges which have a width of 6 inches or

less.

tubes and column flanges which have a width greater than 6 inches,

and for beam-to-beam connections.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSPECTION

until all unsatisfactory conditions are corrected.

3.2 ERECTION

and adjust various members forming part of a complete frame or

structure before permanently fastening.

B. Clean bearing surfaces and other surfaces before assembly that will be

in permanent contact after assembly.

elevations and alignment. Level and plumb individual members of

structure within specified tolerances.

prohibited.

3.3 TOLERANCES

Mill Practice.

Lecture 17 - Page 7 of 8

3.4 TOUCH-UP PAINTING

A. After erection is complete, touch-up paint damaged shop priming coats

and welded areas. Remove weld slag before applying touch-up paint.

embedded within concrete slabs on grades.

connections of sufficient strength, to bear imposed loads.

members are in place and final connections are made.

as erection proceeds.

3.6 PROTECTION

A. Do not use members for storage or working platforms until permanently

secured.

END OF SECTION

Lecture 17 - Page 8 of 8

Lecture 18 – Open Web Steel Joists

Open web steel joists, or “Bar Joists” are very efficient structural members

commonly used to support roofs, and to a lesser degree, floors.

Steel joists are NOT considered structural steel. As such, they are manufactured

as proprietary structural members by various manufacturers. The Steel Joist

Institute, SJI, is an organization founded in 1928 that was established to set

standards for manufacture, design and construction of joists. It recognizes

manufacturers who comply with their standards. Some of the larger SJI

recognized manufacturers include Vulcraft, Canam Steel Corp. and SMI Joist

Company.

Lecture 18 - Page 1 of 10

K-Series Joists

The most commonly-used joist style is the so-called “K” series. It has a

depth ranging from 8” up to 30” and is used economically to span up to

60’-0”. A typical K series joist is as shown below:

Section Number = Relative

Actual depth

size of members

in inches

K series

Lecture 18 - Page 2 of 10

Steel joists are fastened to its supporting members usually by field-

welding as shown below:

Unlike structural steel beams, steel joists must use bridging placed

perpendicular to the span to obtain its stability. This bridging can be one

of 2 types:

• Horizontal Bridging

• Diagonal Bridging

and is a function of the Section Number and span.

Lecture 18 - Page 3 of 10

LH and DLH Series Joists

The LH series joists have depths ranging between 18” and 48” and are

suitable for spans up to 96’-0”. The DLH series joists have depths ranging

between 52” and 72” and are suitable for spans up to 144’-0”.

inexpensive alternative to spanning longer distances than the K series

joists. One difference between K series joists is the required end bearing

width and height are 6” and 5” respectively for the LH and DLH (vs. 4” and

2½” for the K series).

Section Number = Relative

Actual depth

size of members

in inches

LH series

Lecture 18 - Page 4 of 10

Joist Girders

Joist girders are designed to carry the end reactions from equally-spaced

joists applied to the panel points. Typical depths of joist girders range

from 20” up to 96” with spans of 100’-0” or more.

Lecture 18 - Page 5 of 10

Example 1

GIVEN: A roof framing bay is as shown below. The service loads are as follows:

• Service Roof Live Load = 25 PSF

• Service Snow Load = 35 PSF

• Service Wind Uplift = -12 PSF

REQUIRED: Design the K series joists assuming the maximum joist spacing =

6’-0” (based on metal roof deck). Assume the joist + accessories weighs 10 PLF.

36’-0”

60’-0”

Lecture 18 - Page 6 of 10

Step 2 – Determine maximum uniformly distributed total service load:

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D

2) D+L

3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)

4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)

5) 0.6D + W

6) 0.6D + 0.7E

= 6’(16 PSF) + 10 PLF

= 106 PLF

= 6’(25 PSF)

= 150 PLF

S = Snow Load

= 6’(35 PSF)

= 210 PLF

W = Wind Load

= 6’(-12 PSF)

= -72 PLF

Check all 6 load combinations and select “worst” case total load:

1) D = 106 PLF

2) D + L = 106 PLF

3) D + L + (Lr or S or R) = 106 + 150 = 256 PLF

4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R) = 106 + 210 = 316 PLF

5) 0.6D + W = 0.6(106) + (-72) = -8.4 PLF

6) 0.6D + 0.7E = 0.6(106) = 64 PLF

Use

Lecture 18 - Page 7 of 10

Step 3 – Select lightest joist from Vulcraft K series Load Table p. 12:

= 316 PLF – 106 PLF

= 210 PLF

Span = 36’-0”

Possibilities:

24K8 346 222 11.5

26K7 340 240 10.9

28K6 330 252 11.4

30K7 395 323 12.3

For length = 36’, start at the top of the list and read down until Total

load > 316 PLF and Live load > 210 PLF

Step 5 – Determine Bridging requirements, assume horizontal bridging:

leg angle bridging,

Joist spacing = 6’-0” good for up to joist

spacing = 6’-3”

Use 3 Rows of

Span = Over 29’ thru 39’ Bridging

Lecture 18 - Page 8 of 10

Step 6 – Draw Summary Sketch of Roof Framing Plan:

bridging equally spaced

28K6 @ 6’-0”

36’-0”

Lecture 18 - Page 9 of 10

Example 2

GIVEN: The roof framing bay from Example 1.

REQUIRED: Design the lightest weight 60’-0” span joist girder.

Joist Girder

28K6 @ 6’-0”

36’-0”

wL

Joist end reaction =

2

=

2

= 5688 LBS.

Joist Spaces = 10N @ 6.00’ Select 72” girder

Load on Each Panel Point = 6 KIPS depth → wt. = 35 PLF

Lecture 18 - Page 10 of 10

Lecture 19 – Steel Deck

Steel deck, or sometimes called “metal deck” is used in steel framed construction

as an intermediate structural system to distribute floor and roof loads to

supporting beams. Decking is typically fastened to the steel supporting

members by either puddle welds or powder-actuated fasteners. Although made

of steel, it is NOT considered to be structural steel. Decking is corrugated having

a typical cross-section resembling:

Top flute

Deck height

Bottom flute

The Steel Deck Institute, SDI, was established in 1939 in an effort to regulate the

design, manufacture and installation of steel deck. Manufacturers complying with

SDI specifications include Vulcraft, Canam Steel Corp. and United Steel Deck,

Inc.

There are 3 general types of steel deck → roof deck, non-composite floor

deck and composite deck.

1. Roof Deck

is characterized by having relatively narrow bottom flutes so that

there is a wider top flute to maximize the surface contact with rigid

insulation. It comes in heights ranging from 1” up to 3” and in

thicknesses ranging from 24 gage (thinnest) up to 16 gage

(thickest). Depending on the section, roof decking can span as

much as 15’-0”. Acoustical deck is available to control sound

transmission through the decking. It is used for auditoriums,

schools, etc., and is obtained by adding fiber sound-absorbing batts

between the vertical webs of the decking. In addition, roof deck is

available as “cellular” deck for use in placing electrical services or

exposed underside. Data relating to roof deck may be found in the

Vulcraft catalog p. 3 – 18.

Lecture 19 - Page 1 of 8

Built-up roof membrane

Rigid Insulation

puddle-welded to top

chord of steel joist

Lecture 19 - Page 2 of 8

2. Non-Composite Floor Deck

slab. It offers no additional strength to the structural steel beam

as composite construction would. It ranges in height from 5/8” up

to 3” and thicknesses of 26 gage up to 16 gage with spans up to

15’-0”. It is also available as acoustical deck or as “cellular” deck.

Data relating to roof deck may be found in the Vulcraft catalog p. 19

- 40.

Welded wire

mesh in

concrete slab

Lecture 19 - Page 3 of 8

3. Composite Floor Deck

composite steel construction. Typically, the decking has built-in

perforations that aids in the bonding to concrete.

Lecture 19 - Page 4 of 8

Roof Deck Example

GIVEN: A 1½” Type “F” (intermediate rib) roof deck is to be used in a 3-span

condition with a 7’-0” span. The SERVIVE roof loads are as follows:

• SERVICE roof Live Load = 20 PSF

• SERVICE roof Snow Load = 40 PSF

• SERVICE roof Wind Load = -8 PSF (uplift)

REQUIRED: Design the lightest-weight 1½” Type “F” roof deck using the

Vulcraft catalog.

3 spans (min.)

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D

2) D+L

3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)

4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)

5) 0.6D + W

6) 0.6D + 0.7E

= 15 PSF

= 20 PSF

S = Snow Load

= 40 PSF

W = Wind Load

= -8 PSF

Lecture 19 - Page 5 of 8

Check all 6 load combinations and select “worst” case total load:

1) D = 15 PSF

2) D + L = 15 PSF

3) D + L + (Lr or S or R) = 15 + 20 = 35 PSF

4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R) = 15 + 40 = 55 PSF

5) 0.6D + W = 0.6(15) + (-8) = 1 PSF

6) 0.6D + 0.7E = 0.6(15) = 9 PSF

Use

Step 2 – Refer to the Vulcraft Catalog page 4 for 1½” Type F deck:

7’-0” span

3 span

From Table above, use Vulcraft 1½” Type F 19 Gage Roof Deck

→ Allow. Load = 59 PSF > 55 PSF

Lecture 19 - Page 6 of 8

Non-Composite Floor Deck Example

GIVEN: A floor framing plan for an office building is as shown below. The slab is

5” normal-weight concrete over “2.0 C Conform” non-composite 2” deck as

manufactured by Vulcraft. The superimposed SERVICE live load = 50 PSF and a

total superimposed SERVICE dead load (excluding slab weight) = 38 PSF.

REQUIRED: Design the lightest weight 2.0 C Conform non-composite deck

assuming 3-span condition.

4 @ 6’-0” = 24’-0”

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D

2) D+L

3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)

4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)

5) 0.6D + W

6) 0.6D + 0.7E

= Slab wt. + Superimposed Dead Load

See Vulcraft = 51 PSF + 38 PSF

catalog p. 28 for = 89 PSF

slab wt.

L= FloorLive Load

= 50 PSF

= 89 PSF + 50 PSF

= 139 PSF

Lecture 19 - Page 7 of 8

Step 2 – Refer to “Allowable Uniform Load” table from Vulcraft p. 29:

No. of Spans = 3

unif. load = 173 PSF > 139

Total Uniform Load = 139 PSF PSF

Step 3 – Refer to “Reinf. Conc. Slab Allow. Loads” table Vulcraft p. 28:

W.W.F. → Allow. load =

Superimposed Unif. Load = Total Load – Slab Wt. 107 PSF > 88 PSF

= 139 PSF – 51 PSF

= 88 PSF

non-composite metal deck reinf.

with 6x6-W2.1xW2.1 W.W.F.

5”

Lecture 19 - Page 8 of 8

Lecture 21 – Reinforced Concrete Properties

Reinforced concrete structures are typified by their strength, beauty, bulk and

longevity. It is the material of choice for many structures where these

characteristics are required. Concrete-framed structures have many desirable

advantages over other construction materials including:

• The entire building can be made of concrete – walls, floors, structure

• Concrete frames are inherently stable (vs. steel & wood)

• Concrete structures are heavy – excellent for wind-prone areas

• Concrete is a readily-available material

• Concrete is very fire-resistant

• Weather-resistant (if built properly)

• Relatively inexpensive material

preclude it as a building material, including:

• Very labor-intensive

• Quality control

• Formwork

• Longer construction schedule due to curing time

• Much larger, heavier member sizes (vs. steel-framed)

• Poor insulation values

Lecture 21 - Page 1 of 8

Concrete Materials:

materials together, conforming to ASTM C 150-99a. The raw

materials used in portland cement consist mainly of limestone, and

clays & shales. Different types of Portland cement include:

b) Type II – Moderate sulfate protection and lower heat of

hydration

c) Type III – High-early strength

d) Type IV – Low heat of hydration used for massive concrete

structures such as dams

e) Type V – High sulfate resistance

hardening the cement called “hydration.” It should be clean and free

from any impurities (i.e., potable).

ASTM C 33.

concrete subject to freeze-thaw cycles. Conforming to

ASTM C 260 with an air content of 4% - 8% by volume.

b) Superplasticizers – Also called “High Range Water

Reducers”, used to increase concrete’s flow (workability)

instead of adding water. Conforming to ASTM C 494 Type F.

c) Retarders – Used to slow the hydration process.

Conforming to ASTM C494 Type D.

d) Accelerators – Used to speed-up the curing process,

conforming to ASTM C494 Type C or E.

e) Insulating beads – Increases the “R” value, but diminishes

strength.

f) Fly Ash – The byproduct of coal-burning electric generating

plants. Used to decrease the amount of portland cement

required. Conforming to ASTM C 618 Class F.

g) Colors – Can be mixed to produce any desirable color.

Lecture 21 - Page 2 of 8

Reinforced Concrete Properties:

1) Compressive Strength

is the most important structural property of concrete and is VERY

DEPENDENT upon the water-to-cement ratio. This is the ratio of the

weight of water divided by the weight of cement. A low w/c ratio = high

f’c and high w/c ratio = low f’c. A low w/c ratio is very stiff and difficult to

work with, therefore necessitating the need for superplasticizers.

Normal concrete has w/c ratios ranging from about 0.23 (very strong)

up to a maximum of about 0.50 but preferably should not exceed 0.45.

Values of f’c are based on 28 days of curing. Typical ranges of f’c are:

= 3500 – 5000 PSI (beams, framed slabs)

= 4000 – 14000 PSI (columns)

the hardened concrete’s f’c. Allowing the freshly-placed concrete to

have continuous moisture applied will significantly increase the

strength, f’c. Conversely, subjecting the freshly-placed concrete to

constant air will decrease the f’c. See the graph below:

Lecture 21 - Page 3 of 8

2) Tensile Strength

Concrete is a brittle material and has very small tensile strength (about

10% of f’c). It is usually assumed that concrete has zero tensile

strength.

Example:

GIVEN: Concrete with f’c = 4000 PSI.

REQUIRED: Determine Econc

= 3,605,000 PSI

Lecture 21 - Page 4 of 8

4) Reinforcing Bars – Used to carry ALL of the tension in a concrete

member, as well as helping to carry shear and compression. The steel

uses for bars is typically new “billet” steel having the usual modulus of

elasticity “E” = 29,000 KSI. The size of a bar refers to its diameter in

1/8ths. For example a #5 bar is ⅝” in diameter (see table below). Rebar

should conform to ASTM A615 for deformed (ribbed) bars. Typical

grades include:

b) Grade 40 – Has a yield stress Fy = 40 KSI, used for low-strength

applications only

#3 ⅜” 0.11

#4 ½” 0.20

#5 ⅝” 0.31

#6 ¾” 0.44

#7 ⅞” 0.60

#8 1” 0.79

#9 1⅛” 1.00

#10 1¼” 1.27

#11 1⅜” 1.56

reinforcing bar:

Lecture 21 - Page 5 of 8

Epoxy-coated reinforcing bars are regular bars with a shop-

applied coating of epoxy. These bars have exceptional resistance

to corrosion and are used in situations where there is high

water/salt exposure (such as road bridge decks, marine structures,

etc.). They are smooth to the touch and usually green in color.

Codes allow the placement of epoxy-coated bars to be closer to the

surface than regular bars because of the increased resistance to

corrosion. This usually results in a thinner, lighter concrete beam

or slab. Unfortunately, the epoxy coating is often scratched or

damaged during construction, leaving exposed bare steel. This

exposed bare steel is ripe for allowing moisture and salt deposits to

enter and actually INCREASING the propagation of corrosion.

For this reason, many state Departments of Transportation do not

allow epoxy-coated reinforcing bars for use in bridge decks.

Lecture 21 - Page 6 of 8

Reinforcing bars are placed a certain minimum distance away from

the edge of the member to ensure that it will not be susceptible to

water/salt infusion. This is referred to as cover distance. The

cover distance requirements shown below are obtained from ACI

318-02 “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.”

Required minimum

cover distance Concrete member

Reinforcing bars

Required minimum

cover distance

Condition: Minimum cover:

Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 3”

Concrete exposed to earth or No. 6 through No. 18 bars 2”

weather No. 5 and smaller bars 1½”

Concrete NOT exposed to Slabs, walls No. 14 & 1½”

earth or weather & joists No. 18

No. 11 and ¾”

smaller

Beams, Main reinf., 1½”

columns stirrups,

ties, spirals

Shells, No. 6 and ¾”

folded larger

plates No. 5 and ½”

smaller

Lecture 21 - Page 7 of 8

5) Slump – Fresh concrete uses a slump test to determine the workability

of the concrete as per ASTM C 143. It is, however, not a very useful

measure of the concrete’s strength. It is possible to get very workable

concrete with high slump (i.e., very fluid) with the use of

superplasticizers.

concrete into it. Next, the cone is removed upward and the vertical

displacement of the concrete is measured.

Type of Concrete Member: Slump:

Maximum Minimum

Foundation walls & footings 3” 1”

Beams and walls 4” 1”

Columns 4” 1”

Pavements and slabs 3” 1”

Mass concrete 2” 1”

Lecture 21 - Page 8 of 8

Lecture 22 – Introduction to ACI 318-02

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is the governing agency for all concrete

construction in the U.S. It was established in 1904 to serve and represent user

interests in the field of concrete. The ACI publishes many different standards,

but the most commonly referenced standard used by architects and engineers is

the ACI 318 “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.” It is updated

every 7 years and the latest version is ACI 318-02 updated in 2002.

Almost all Building Codes, including the IBC, refer to ACI 318 as the basis for

structural design of concrete members.

Contents:

PART 1—GENERAL

CHAPTER 2—DEFINITIONS........................................................................ 318-19

Lecture 22 - Page 1 of 8

PART 3—CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 5—CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING, AND PLACING .................318-47

CHAPTER 6—FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES, AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS .............. 318-63

CHAPTER 7—DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT........................................ 318-69

CHAPTER 9—STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS ...................................318-95

CHAPTER 10—FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS............................................318-109

CHAPTER 11—SHEAR AND TORSION....................................................... 318-139

CHAPTER 12—DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT ..............................318-187

CHAPTER 14—WALLS.............................................................................. 318-233

CHAPTER 15—FOOTINGS........................................................................ 318-241

CHAPTER 16—PRECAST CONCRETE .................................................... 318-249

CHAPTER 17—COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS ........ 318-257

CHAPTER 18—PRESTRESSED CONCRETE........................................... 318-261

CHAPTER 19—SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMBERS...................... 318-289

CHAPTER 21—SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN................318-303

COMMENTARY REFERENCES......................................................318-353

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ..............................................318-385

APPENDIX C—ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS................318-393

APPENDIX D—ANCHORING TO CONCRETE.................................................318-399

APPENDIX E—NOTATION................................................................................318-427

APPENDIX F—STEEL REINFORCEMENT INFORMATION ............................318-437

INDEX.................................................................................................................318-439

Lecture 22 - Page 2 of 8

Analysis and Design – General Considerations

Design Basis:

of “Ultimate” loading. This is often referred to as “Strength” design.

Factors are applied to service loads in accordance with ACI 318

Section 9.2. These factored loads are used to determine maximum

factored moments, shears and other effects which are then compared

to the strength of the member. Strength of member is reduced by a

strength reduction factor.

Load Factors:

1) 1.4(D + F)

2) 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

3) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W)

4) 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

5) 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S

6) 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H

7) 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

L = service live load

Lr = service roof live load

S = snow loads

W = wind loads

R = rainwater loads

E = earthquake loads

F = fluid loads

H = soil loads

T = Temperature, creep, settlement, shrinkage loads

Member Type: φ

Tension member 0.90

Compression member Spiral reinforced 0.70

Tied reinforced 0.65

Flexural members (beams) 0.85

Shear and torsion 0.75

Bearing 0.65

Lecture 22 - Page 3 of 8

Example 1

GIVEN: The interior column of a 2-story concrete-framed building has the

following applied service loads to the 1200 ft2 tributary area as shown:

Snow load = 45 PSF

Roof superimposed dead load (not including 8” thick slab) = 16 PSF

Roof wind uplift = -8 PSF

Floor live load = 100 PSF

Floor superimposed dead load (not including 10” thick slab) = 42 PSF

REQUIRED: Determine the maximum factored load, Pu, at the bottom of the 20”

x 20” square column.

Lecture 22 - Page 4 of 8

Step 1 – Determine the total service loads on the roof:

= 1200 ft2(20 PSF)

= 24,000 lbs.

= 24.0 KIPS

= 1200 ft2(45 PSF)

= 54,000 lbs.

= 54.0 KIPS

= -9,600 lbs.

= -9.6 KIPS

= 1200 ft2(16 PSF) + 1200 ft2 ⎛⎜ 8" (150 PCF ) ⎞⎟

⎝ 12 ⎠

= 139,200 lbs.

= 139.2 KIPS

= 120,000 lbs.

= 120.0 KIPS

= 1200 ft2(42 PSF) + 1200 ft2 ⎛⎜ 10" (150 PCF ) ⎞⎟

⎝ 12 ⎠

= 200,400 lbs.

= 200.4 KIPS

Step 3 – Determine the total service dead load of the concrete column:

⎛ 20" ⎞⎛ 20" ⎞

Column dead load, Dcolumn = ⎜ ⎟⎜ (

⎟(28 ft ) 150lb / ft

3

)

⎝ 12 ⎠⎝ 12 ⎠

= 11,667 lbs.

= 11.7 KIPS

Lecture 22 - Page 5 of 8

Step 4 – Sum all service dead loads together:

= 139.2 KIPS + 200.4 KIPS + 11.7 KIPS

= 351.3 KIPS

1) 1.4(D + F)

1.4(351.3) = 491.8 KIPS

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(120.0) + 0.5(54.0) = 640.6 KIPS ← USE

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(54.0) + (1.0(120.0)) = 628.0 KIPS

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(-9.6) + 1.0(120.0) + 0.5(54) = 553.2 KIPS

1.2(351.3) + 1.0(120) + 0.2(54.0) = 552.4 KIPS

0.9(351.3) + 1.6(-9.6) = 300.8 KIPS

0.9(351.3) = 316.2 KIPS

Lecture 22 - Page 6 of 8

Example 2

GIVEN: The cantilevered floor balcony beam/slab as shown below. The service

superimposed dead load (not including concrete) = 14 PSF and the

superimposed service live load = 75 PSF.

REQUIRED: Determine the maximum factored moment, Mu on the cantilevered

beam.

14’-0”

18”

5” slab

10” Beam

16’-0”

wu

14’-0”

Lecture 22 - Page 7 of 8

Step 1 – Determine service dead load, D acting on beam:

5” slab

18”

10”

8’-0” 18” – 5” slab

16’-0”

Weight of concrete (shaded area) = 3 ⎜

(8' )( ) + ( )( ) ⎟

ft ⎝ 12 12 12 ⎠

= 635.4 PLF

= 112 PLF

= 747.4 PLF

= 600 PLF

= 1857 PLF

= 1.9 KLF

wu L2

For a cantilevered beam, Mmax = Mu =

2

=

2

Mu = 186.2 KIP-FT

Lecture 22 - Page 8 of 8

Lecture 23 – Flexural Members

Flexural members are those that experience primarily bending stresses, such as

beams. A typical reinforced concrete beam is shown below:

Width “b”

Hanger bars

Depth to steel “d”

(#4 or #5 bars)

Height “h”

to prevent diag.

tension cracks)

spaced at d/2

apart

= ¾” → 2” as

Section A-A

per ACI reqmts.

Lecture 23 - Page 1 of 9

Sometimes, 2 (or more) rows of main tension bars are necessary. It is

important to provide minimum adequate cover around all reinforcing bars

so that these bars can properly bond with the concrete. ACI 318 dictates

that the minimum spacing between bars is 1.5 times the maximum

concrete aggregate size. Typical concrete batches use a maximum

aggregate size of ¾” diameter, so then the minimum bar spacing = 1.5(¾”)

= 1⅛”.

Height “h”

Min. bar

spacing

Min. bar

spacing

Lecture 23 - Page 2 of 9

As = Total cross-sectional area of all tension bars, in2

= h – (concrete cover) – (stirrup bar dia.) – ½(tension bar dia.)

= 60 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 60 bars

= 40 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 40 bars

A

= s

bd

200

= where fy = PSI

fy

Lecture 23 - Page 3 of 9

Example 1

GIVEN: A rectangular concrete beam is similar to the one shown above.

Use the following:

• Height h = 20”

• Width b = 12”

• Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• Concrete cover = ¾”

• All bars are A615 – Grade 60 (fy = 60 KSI)

• Stirrup bar = #3

• 4 - #7 Tension bars

REQUIRED:

1) Determine total area of tension bars, As.

2) Determine depth to center of tension bars, d.

A 200

3) Determine ρactual = s where ρmin = and state if it is acceptable.

bd fy

As = 2.40 in2

= 20” – ¾” – ⅜” – ½(⅞”)

d = 18.44”

As 200

ρactual = ρmin =

bd fy

2.40in 2 200

= =

(12" )(18.44" ) 60000 PSI

Lecture 23 - Page 4 of 9

A basic understanding of beam mechanics is necessary to study concrete beam

behavior. Consider a simply-supported homogeneous rectangular beam loaded

by a uniformly-distributed load as shown below:

Applied loads

Span L

Taking a section through the beam at any place along the length reveals the

following stress distribution about the cross-section of the beam:

Compression

Neutral

Axis The stress distribution

varies linearly from zero

stresses at the neutral

axis, to a maximum tensile

or compressive stress at

the extreme edges.

Homogeneous Beam

Tension

Lecture 23 - Page 5 of 9

In a reinforced concrete beam, the stress distribution is different. Above the

neutral axis, the concrete carries all the compression, similar to the

homogeneous beam. Below the neutral axis however, the concrete is incapable

of resisting tension and must rely on the reinforcing bars to carry all the tension

loads.

Compression

Neutral

Axis The actual stress distribution

in the compression side

varies non-linearly from zero

stresses at the neutral axis,

to a maximum compressive

stress at the extreme edge.

Tension = T

Reinforcing bars

Looking at a side view of the stress distribution of the reinforced concrete beam:

0.85f’cb

“Whitney” stress block

½ (a)

a = β 1C

Neutral d

Axis Moment arm = Z

T = Asfy T = Asfy

Lecture 23 - Page 6 of 9

Assuming an idealized beam, tension equals compression:

Tension = Compression

Asfy = Area of Whitney stress block

Asfy = 0.85f’cab

Solve for a:

As f y

a= = β 1C

0.85 f ' c b

= 0.80 for f’c = 5000 PSI

= 0.75 for f’c > 6000 PSI

= Asfy(Moment arm)

= AsfyZ

a

= Asfy(d - )

2

= φMn

= 0.9Mn

a

Mu = 0.9(Asfy(d - ) )

2

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤

Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )

⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ where fy = PSI

⎜ fy ⎟⎜ 87,000 + f ⎟

⎝ ⎠⎝ y ⎠

ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318

= 0.75ρbal

Lecture 23 - Page 7 of 9

Example 2

GIVEN: The concrete beam from Example 1 is used to support the loading as

shown below.

REQUIRED:

1. Determine the maximum factored applied moment, Mmax.

2. Determine the usable moment capacity of the beam, Mu, and determine if

it is acceptable based on Mmax.

3. Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax.

20’-0”

wu L2

Mmax =

8

(3KLF )(20'−0" ) 2

=

8

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤

Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ) where ρact = 0.0108 (see Ex. 1)

⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ (0.0108)(60 KSI ) ⎞⎤

= 0.9(2.40 in2)(60 KSI)(18.44”)(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎟⎥ )

⎣ ⎝ 4 KSI ⎠⎦

= 2161.4 KIP-IN

Mu = 180.1 KIP-FT

Lecture 23 - Page 8 of 9

Step 3 – Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax:

ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318

= 0.75ρbal

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ where fy = PSI

⎜ fy ⎟⎜ 87,000 + f ⎟

⎝ ⎠⎝ y ⎠

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟

⎝ 60 KSI ⎠⎝ 87,000 + 60000 PSI ⎠

= 0.0285

ρmax = 0.75(0.0285)

Lecture 23 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 24 – Flexural Members (cont.)

beam is accomplished by using the formula below: (see Lect. 23)

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤

Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )

⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

Designing a beam using the equation above is much more difficult. Assuming the

material properties and dimensions are known, the equation above still has 2

unknown variables – As and ρact. Therefore, design of steel reinforcement for a given

beam is largely one of trial-and-error.

Beam Design

Design of concrete beam members is often one of trial-and-error. It’s difficult

to directly solve for all the variables in a reinforced concrete beam. Usually,

material properties are known as well as maximum applied factored moment,

Mmax.

Member: End Conditions

Simply One end Both ends Cantilever

supported continuous continuous

Solid one-way slab L/20 L/24 L/28 L/10

Beam L/16 L/18.5 L/21 L/8

Span length L = inches

Beams are usually rectangular having the width typically narrower than the

height. The diagram below shows typical beam aspect ratios:

h ≈ 1.5b → 2.5b

Lecture 24 - Page 1 of 9

Beam Design Aid

It is still difficult to directly design a reinforced concrete beam even if

dimensions and material properties are known. The use of design aids are

commonly used to streamline the design process instead of laboriously using

a trial-and-error approach.

Mu

The design aid shown below is used for design or analysis. Values of

φbd 2

are in units of PSI. It can be used to directly solve for ρact knowing factored

actual moment Mu, f’c, fy, b and d.

Lecture 24 - Page 2 of 9

Table 2 – Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI, Grade 60 Bars

Lecture 24 - Page 3 of 9

Example 1

GIVEN: A rectangular concrete beam with dimensions is shown below (stirrup bars

not shown). Use concrete f’c = 4000 PSI and grade 60 bars.

REQUIRED:

1) Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using formula.

2) Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using Table 2.

b =12”

d = 18”

3 - # 7 bars

As

ρact =

bd

=

(12" )(18" )

ρact = 0.0083

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤

Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )

⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ (0.0083)(60 KSI ) ⎞⎤

= 0.9(1.80 in2)(60 KSI)(18”)(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎟⎥ )

⎣ ⎝ 4 KSI ⎠⎦

= 1621 KIP-IN

Mu = 135 KIP-FT

Lecture 24 - Page 4 of 9

Step 2 - Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using Table 2:

From Table 2:

Mu

At ρ = 0.0083 → = 461.4 PSI

φbd 2

Mu = 461.4 PSI(φbd2)

= 461.4 PSI[(0.9)(12”)(18”)2]

= 1,614,531 LB-IN

= 1615 KIP-IN

Mu = 134.6 KIP-FT

Lecture 24 - Page 5 of 9

Example 2

GIVEN: The concrete beam below. Use the following:

• Steel grade 60

• Concrete cover = ¾”

• #8 bars are to be used for main tension bars

• #3 stirrups

REQUIRED: Design the rectangular beam such that h ≈1.5b and ρact ≈ ½ (ρmax).

wu = 2 KLF

28’-0”

wu L2

Mmax =

8

(2 KLF )(28'−0" ) 2

=

8

= 2352 KIP-IN

= 2,352,000 LB-IN

Lecture 24 - Page 6 of 9

Step 2 – Select values from Table 2:

= ½(0.0214)

Mu

b) At ρ = 0.0107 → = 581.2 PSI

φbd 2

Step 3 – Solve for “b” and “d” by substituting Mmax for Mu in above equation:

Mu

= 581.2 PSI

φbd 2

φ = 0.9

d = 1.5b

2352000

= 581.2 PSI

(0.9)(b)(1.5b) 2

2352000

= 581.2 PSI

(0.9)(2.25b 3 )

2352000

b=3

(0.9)(2.25)(581.2)

d = 1.5b

= 1.5(12”)

d ≈ 18”

Lecture 24 - Page 7 of 9

Step 4 – Select beam dimensions:

= 18.375”

As

From above, ρact = 0.0107 =

bd

As = 0.0107(b)(d)

= 0.0107(12”)(18.375”)

As = 2.36 in2

As

No. of bars =

Area _ of _ one _ bar

2.36in 2

=

0.79in 2 _ per _#8 _ bar

Lecture 24 - Page 8 of 9

Step 7 – Check beam height with “Minimum Thickness of Beams” Table:

From Table:

h≈

End Condition = Simply-supported 16

L

h≈

16

(28'−0" )(12" / ft )

≈

16

Step 8 – Draw “Summary Sketch” labeling all information necessary to build it:

12”

2 - #4 hanger

bars

#3 stirrup bars

20”

@ 9” o.c.

Section A-A

Notes:

1) Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI normal-weight

2) All bars ASTM A615 Grade 60

Lecture 24 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 25 – T- Beams

Concrete beams are often poured integrally with the slab, forming a much stronger

“T” – shaped beam. These beams are very efficient because the slab portion

carries the compressive loads and the reinforcing bars placed at the bottom of the

stem carry the tension. A T-beam typically has a narrower stem than an ordinary

rectangular beam. These stems are typically spaced from 4’-0” apart to more than

12’-0”. The slab portion above the stem is designed as a one-way slab spanning

between stems (see Lecture 26).

Slab

at bottom of stem

hf = Slab

thickness

Overhang

width d

bw Clear distance bw

NOTE: Stirrups in T-beam

are required (not shown in

this sketch)

Lecture 25 - Page 1 of 9

Assuming T-beams are symmetrical, the following design dimensions are used:

8hf

½(Clear distance)

¼(Beam span)

b = smaller or

(2 x overhang width) + bw

T-Beam Analysis

T-beams are analyzed similarly to rectangular beams, except the

compression area is a narrow “strip” usually located in the slab.

a = Effective conc.

compressive b = Effective flange width

thickness

hf

a

Z = (d - ) d

2

Ac = Shaded area

= Effective concrete

compression area As = Total area of

= (a)(b) bw

main tension bars

Lecture 25 - Page 2 of 9

Mu = Usable moment capacity of T-beam

= φTZ

where: φ = 0.9

= Asfy

T

=

0.85 f ' c

A

= c

b

compression to center of tension

a

=d-

2

Lecture 25 - Page 3 of 9

Example 1

GIVEN: A commercial building has T-beams spaced 6’-6” (center-to-center) with a 4”

concrete slab as shown in the framing plan and cross-section views below. Use the

following information:

• Superimposed service floor dead load (NOT including conc. wt.) = 40 PSF

• Superimposed service floor live load = 100 PSF

• Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI

• ASTM A615 Grade 60 bars

REQUIRED:

1) Determine the maximum factored moment, Mmax, on the T-beam.

2) Determine the usable moment capacity, Mu, for the T-beam.

T-beam

A A

6’-6”

Perimeter girder Column

Typ.

Framing Plan

Lecture 25 - Page 4 of 9

6’-6”

4”

16”

2 - #9 bars

8”

= (6.5’)(0.333’) + (1’)(0.666’)

= 2.83 ft2

= 2.83 ft2(150 lb/ft3)

= 425 PLF

= 822 PLF + 1040 PLF

= 1862 PLF → Use wu = 1.9 KLF

wu L2

Det. Maximum factored moment, Mmax =

8

=

8

Mmax = 95 KIP-FT

Lecture 25 - Page 5 of 9

Step 2 – Determine effective concrete slab width “b”:

b = smaller or

= Asfy

= 2 bars(1.00 in2 per #9 bar)(60 KSI)

= 120 KIPS

T

=

0.85 f ' c

120 KIPS

=

0.85(3KSI )

= 47.1 in2

Lecture 25 - Page 6 of 9

Step 4 – Determine usable moment capacity, Mu for the T-beam:

A

= c

b

47.1in 2

=

60"

a = 0.79”

compression to center of tension

a

=d-

2

0.79"

= 16” -

2

Z = 15.6”

Mu = φTZ

= 0.9(120 KIPS)(15.6”)

= 1685 KIP-IN

Mu = 140.4 KIP-FT

beam is ACCEPTABLE.

Lecture 25 - Page 7 of 9

Heavily-Reinforced T-Beams

T-beams with a lot of tension reinforcement may have a portion of the effective

concrete area located within the stem as shown below:

hf

d

Z

Ac = Shaded area

= Effective concrete

compression area

bw

As

found by methods discussed in AECT 210 – Structural Theory (see Lecture 5).

After the location is found, analysis is exactly the same as ordinary T-beams.

Similar to ordinary rectangular reinforced concrete beams, the ACI 318 limits

the amount of tension steel in T-beams so that the steel will yield prior to

concrete compression failure. The maximum area of steel, As is shown in the

table below.

Concrete and Steel Properties: Formula (As = in2)

Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI As max = 0.0478[bhf + bw(0.582d – hf)]

Steel fy = 40 KSI

Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI As max = 0.0319[bhf + bw(0.503d – hf)]

Steel fy = 60 KSI

Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI As max = 0.0638[bhf + bw(0.582d – hf)]

Steel fy = 40 KSI

Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI As max = 0.0425[bhf + bw(0.503d – hf)]

Steel fy = 60 KSI

Lecture 25 - Page 8 of 9

Example 2

GIVEN: The T-beam from Example 1.

REQUIRED: Determine the maximum area of tension steel permitted, As max:

From Example 1:

Steel fy = 60 KSI

b = 60”

hf = 4”

bw = 8”

to supply this much steel the beam would require 9 - #9 bars, 15

- #7 bars or 20 - #6 bars! It would be far better to change the

beam dimensions than to try to squeeze this many bars into the

beam.

Lecture 25 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 27 – Two-Way Slabs

Two-way slabs have tension reinforcing spanning in BOTH directions, and may take

the general form of one of the following:

Lecture 27 - Page 1 of 13

The following Table may be used to determine minimum thickness of various two-

way slabs based on deflection:

Two-Way Slab System: Minimum Thickness h:

Flat plate Ln/30

Flat plate with spandrel beams Ln/33

Flat slab Ln/33

Flat slab with spandrel beams Ln/36

Two-way beam-supported slab Ln/33

Ln = clear distance in long direction

Flat Plates

Flat plates are the most common type of two-way slab system. It is commonly

used in multi-story construction such as hotels, hospitals, offices and

apartment buildings. It has several advantages:

• Easy formwork

• Simple bar placement

• Low floor-to-floor heights

statics because of the two-way bending occurring. Accurately determining the

moments on a two-way slab is typically accomplished by finite element

computer analysis.

Lecture 27 - Page 2 of 13

The ACI 318 code allows a direct design method that can be used in most

typical situations. However, the following limitations apply:

2. Slab panels must be rectangular with a ratio of the longer span to

shorter span(measured as centerline-to-centerline of support) not

greater than 2.0.

3. Successive span lengths in each direction must not differ by more than

1/3 of the longer span.

4. Columns must not be offset by more than 10% of the span (in direction

of offset) from either axis between centerlines of successive columns.

5. Loads must be uniformly distributed, with the unfactored live load not

more than 2 times the unfactored dead load (L/D < 2.0).

Design Strips

a) L1 > L2:

L2 L2

Column

(typ.)

Exterior Column Strip

Interior Column Strip

Interior Column Strip

Middle Strip

Middle Strip

L1

Lecture 27 - Page 3 of 13

b) L2 > L1:

L2 L2

Interior Column Strip

Interior Column Strip

Middle Strip

Middle Strip

L1

Slab End Span Interior Span

Moments 1 2 3 4 5

Exterior Positive First Positive Interior

Negative Interior Negative

Negative

Total 0.26Mo 0.52Mo 0.70Mo 0.35Mo 0.65Mo

Moment

Column 0.26Mo 0.31Mo 0.53Mo 0.21Mo 0.49Mo

Strip

Middle 0 0.21Mo 0.17Mo 0.14Mo 0.16Mo

Strip

Mo = Total factored moment per span

1 2 3 4 5

2

wu L2 Ln

Mo = where Ln = clear span (face-to-face of cols.)in the direction of analysis

8

Lecture 27 - Page 4 of 13

Bar Placement per ACI 318-02

below). However, usage of the Direct Design Method prescribes bar

placement as shown below:

Lecture 27 - Page 5 of 13

Example 1

GIVEN: A two-way flat plate for an office building is shown below. Use the following:

• Superimposed service floor Dead load = 32 PSF (not including slab weight)

• Superimposed service floor Live load = 75 PSF

• Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• #4 Grade 60 main tension bars

• Concrete cover = ¾”

REQUIRED: Use the “Direct Design Method” to design the two-way slab for the

design strip in the direction shown.

20’-0”

Ln 20’-0”

20’-0”

L2/4 L2/4

½ Middle strip

= ½(16’ – Col. strip) ½ Middle strip

Col. strip = ½(16’ – Col. strip)

Design Strip = 16’

Lecture 27 - Page 6 of 13

Step 1 – Determine slab thickness h:

Ln

Since it is a flat plate, from Table above, use h =

30

= 220” = 18.33’

220"

h=

30

= 7.333”

= 278.4 PSF

= 0.28 KSF

shorter span(measured as centerline-to-centerline of support) not

greater than 2.0. YES

3) Successive span lengths in each direction must not differ by more than

1/3 of the longer span. YES

4) Columns must not be offset by more than 10% of the span (in direction

of offset) from either axis between centerlines of successive columns.

YES

5) Loads must be uniformly distributed, with the unfactored live load not

more than 2 times the unfactored dead load (L/D < 2.0). YES

Lecture 27 - Page 7 of 13

Step 4 – Determine total factored moment per span, Mo:

2

wu L2 Ln

Mo =

8

=

8

Mo = 188 KIP-FT

Step 5 – Determine distribution of total factored moment into col. & middle strips:

Slab End Span Interior Span

Moments 1 2 3 4 5

Exterior Positive First Positive Interior

Negative Interior Negative

Negative

Total 0.26Mo = 48.9 0.52M o = 97.8 0.70M o = 131.6 0.35Mo = 65.8 0.65Mo = 122.2

Moment

Column 0.26Mo = 48.9 0.31Mo = 58.3 0.53Mo = 99.6 0.21Mo = 39.5 0.49Mo = 92.1

Strip

Middle 0 0.21Mo = 39.5 0.17Mo = 32.0 0.14Mo = 26.3 0.16Mo = 30.1

Strip

Mo = Total factored moment per span = 188 KIP-FT

Step 6 – Determine tension steel bars for col. & middle strips:

= 586.8 KIP-IN

= 586,800 LB-IN

b = 96”

8”

d

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)

= 7”

Lecture 27 - Page 8 of 13

Mu 586,800 LB − IN

=

φbd 2

(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 138.6 PSI

As

ρ=

bd

As = ρbd

= (0.0033)(96”)(7”)

= 2.22 in2

As

Number of bars required =

As _ per _ bar

2.22in 2

=

0.20in 2 _ per _#4 _ bar

Lecture 27 - Page 9 of 13

b) Column strip for region 2 :

= 699,600 LB-IN

b = 96”

8” d

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)

= 7”

Mu 699,600 LB − IN

=

φbd 2

(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 165.2 PSI

Use ρ = 0.0033

Lecture 27 - Page 10 of 13

c) Middle strip for region 2 :

= 474,000 LB-IN

b = 96”

8” d

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)

= 7”

Mu 474,000 LB − IN

=

φbd 2

(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 112.0 PSI

Use ρ = 0.0033

Lecture 27 - Page 11 of 13

Step 7 – Draw “Summary Sketch” plan view of bars:

12 - #4 TOP bars

region 2 20’-0”

6 - #4 BOTTOM bars

12 - #4 BOTTOM bars 20’-0”

20’-0”

4’-0” 4’-0”

Col. strip

16’ – 0”

Lecture 27 - Page 12 of 13

Example 2

GIVEN: The two-way slab system from Example 1.

REQUIRED: Design the steel tension bars for design strip shown (perpendicular to

those in Example 1).

20’-0”

½ Middle strip = 6’-0”

20’-0”

20’-0”

Lecture 27 - Page 13 of 13

Lecture 28 – Shear in Beams

Heavy loads on concrete beams produce diagonal shear cracks as shown below:

Column

Shear cracks in areas (typ.)

of high shear

Cracking in beams is normal and indicates the tension bars are actually working.

Excessive cracking needs to be controlled by additional bars called stirrups

placed perpendicular to the cracks as shown below:

crack

Lecture 28 - Page 1 of 9

Stirrups may take the shape of the following typical configurations:

Vertical shear is carried by the concrete shear capacity and the shear

capacity provided by the stirrups. In other words:

“d” away from the face of support

φ = 0.75

= 2 f ' c bw d

bw = width of beam

Vu − φVc

=

φ

Lecture 28 - Page 2 of 9

If Vs < 4 f ' c bw d d

2

then Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of

or

24”

If 4 f ' c bw d < Vs < 8 f ' c bw d

d

then Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of 4

or

Av f y d

s= < Smax

Vs

Lecture 28 - Page 3 of 9

Example

GIVEN: A simply-supported concrete beam having the following: (Assume the

beam is adequate based on flexure)

• #3 Grade 60 U-shaped stirrup bars

wu = 5.6 KLF

(includes beam wt.)

Conc.

column

beam

20’-0”

12”

stirrup bars

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 28 - Page 4 of 9

Step 1 – Determine maximum factored shear Vu at “d” away from face of support:

wu L

Simply-supported beam end reaction =

2

=

2

d = 18”

= 56 KIPS = 1.5’

= 47.6 KIPS

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS

56 KIPS

0 Shear

0

Diagram

d = 1.5’

= 0.75( 2 4000 PSI (12" )(18" )

= 20,492 Lbs.

= 20.5 KIPS

Lecture 28 - Page 5 of 9

Step 3 – Determine range where stirrups are required:

= 10.25 KIPS

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS

56 KIPS

½(φVc) = 10.25 KIPS

0 0

-47.6 KIPS

-10.25 KIPS

d = 1.5’ Stirrups Stirrups d = 1.5’

required Stirrups not required required

Vu − φVc

=

φ

=

0.75

Vs = 36.1 KIPS

Lecture 28 - Page 6 of 9

Step 5 – Determine stirrup spacing, s:

Then: d 18"

= = 9”

2 2

Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of

or

24”

Assumed shear

crack

Av f y d

s= < Smax #3 U-shaped

Vs

stirrup bars

2 - #3 bars

spanning crack

Av = 2(0.11 in2 per #3 bar)

= 0.22 in2

=

36.1KIPS

6” < 9”

Lecture 28 - Page 7 of 9

Step 6 – Determine number of stirrups – assuming only ONE spacing:

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS

56 KIPS

½(φVc) = 10.25 KIPS

0 0

-47.6 KIPS

-10.25 KIPS

d = 1.5’ Stirrups Stirrups d = 1.5’

required Stirrups not required required

Number of stirrups required = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + 1

⎝ Stirrup _ spacing ⎠

⎜⎜ ⎟12" / ft ⎟

= ⎜⎝ ⎠ ⎟ +1

5.6 KLF

⎜ 6" o.c. ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Lecture 28 - Page 8 of 9

Step 7 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

20’-0”

15 - #3 U-shaped stirrups

at ea. end of beam

12”

15 - #3 Grade 60 U-

shaped stirrup bars @

6” o.c. at each end of 20”

beam

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 28 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 29 – Shear in Beams (cont.)

example of a concrete girder with point loads.

Example

GIVEN: The 20” x 34” concrete girder as shown below. Use the following:

• #3 – Grade 60 U-shaped stirrups

REQUIRED: Determine the stirrup bar requirements. Assume only one spacing

for the beam.

wu = 1.2 KLF

Conc.

column

40’-0”

20”

#3 U-shaped d = 32”

h = 34”

stirrup bars

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 29 - Page 1 of 6

Step 1 – Draw shear diagram:

wu = 1.2 KLF

Conc.

column

40’-0”

74 64.4

39.4 29.8

4.8

NOTE: All -4.8

loads are in

Kips -29.8 -29.8

-39.4 -74

32"

Vu = 74 KIPS - (1.2 KLF )

12" / ft

= 70.8 KIPS

= 0.75( 2 4000 PSI (20" )(32" ))

= 60,716 Lbs.

φVc = 60.7 KIPS

Lecture 29 - Page 2 of 6

Step 4 – Determine range where stirrups are required:

= 30.4 KIPS

wu = 1.2 KLF

Vu = 70.8

74 64.4

½(φVc) = 30.4

39.4

29.8

4.8

-4.8

Shear Diagram

-39.4 -74

Stirrups reqd.

condition on right side of beam

as left side of beam

39.4kips − 30.4kips

Distance “X” =

1.2kips _ per _ foot

= 7.5 feet

= 90”

Lecture 29 - Page 3 of 6

Step 5 – Determine shear strength provided by stirrups, Vs:

Vu − φVc

=

φ

=

0.75

Vs = 13.5 KIPS

Then: d 32"

= = 16”

2 2

Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of

or

24”

Use

Lecture 29 - Page 4 of 6

b) Check spacing requirement:

Assumed shear

crack

Av f y d

s= < Smax #3 U-shaped

Vs

stirrup bars

2 - #3 bars

spanning crack

Av = 2(0.11 in2 per #3 bar)

= 0.22 in2

=

13.5KIPS

Number of stirrups required = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + 1

⎝ Stirrup _ spacing ⎠

=⎜ ⎟ +1

⎝ 16" o.c. ⎠

See shear

diagram

⎛ (96"−32" ) + 90" ⎞

=⎜ ⎟ +1

⎝ 16" o.c. ⎠

Lecture 29 - Page 5 of 6

Step 8 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

40’-0”

11 - #3 U-shaped stirrups

at ea. end of beam

20”

11 - #3 Grade 60 U-

shaped stirrup bars @

16” o.c. at each end of 34”

beam

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 29 - Page 6 of 6

Lecture 30 – Development of Reinforcement, Splices, Hooks

order to achieve the full tensile capacity, T of the bar. This length is referred to

as “Development Length”, Ld.

Concrete

Rebar

T = Asfy

Ld

The development length is based upon the BOND between the rebar and the

concrete. Factors affecting this bond include the following:

• Presence of epoxy (or other ) coating

• Concrete quality

• Distance between bar and edge of concrete

• Type of end anchorage into the concrete

Lecture 30 - Page 1 of 9

Determining Ld for Tension Bars:

d b f y αβλ

Ld =

25 f ' c

d b f y αβλ

Ld =

20 f ' c

where:

db = diameter of bar

α = alpha

= Bar location factor

= 1.3 for top reinforcement

= 1.0 for all other locations

β = beta

= Coating factor

= 1.5 for epoxy coated bars

= 1.0 for uncoated bars

λ = lambda

= Lightweight aggregate factor

= 1.3 for lightweight aggregate

= 1.0 for normal weight aggregate

Lecture 30 - Page 2 of 9

Example 1

GIVEN: A #6 rebar under tension force. Assume the following conditions:

• Normal weight concrete (λ = 1.0)

• ASTM A615 Grade 60 rebar

• #6 rebar (γ = 0.8)

• Uncoated bar (β = 1.0)

• Bar location is bottom of beam (α = 1.0)

strength of the bar.

d b f y αβλ

Ld =

25 f ' c

⎛6⎞

⎜ ⎟(60,000 PSI )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)

Ld = ⎝ ⎠

8

25 4000 PSI

Ld = 28.5”

Concrete

#6 Rebar

Ld = 28.5”

Lecture 30 - Page 3 of 9

Assuming “normal” conditions, the following table may be used to determine

development lengths of bars in tension:

Condition Concrete f’c No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and larger

bars bars

Clear spacing of 3000 PSI 44db 55db

bars > db, clear 4000 PSI 38db 47db

cover > db 5000 PSI 34db 42db

All other cases 3000 PSI 66db 82db

4000 PSI 57db 71db

5000 PSI 51db 64db

Example 2

GIVEN: The same information as Example 1.

REQUIRED: Using the table above, determine the Ld for a #6 bar.

= 38(6/8”)

Clear spacing of bars > db, clear cover > db Ld = 28.5”

Lecture 30 - Page 4 of 9

Determining Ld for Compression Bars:

development length in tension because of the absence of tension cracking

in the concrete.

db f y

Ldc = 0.02

f 'c

= larger of or

Ldc = 0.0003dbfy

Example 3

GIVEN: A #6 bar in compression. Use f’c = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars.

REQUIRED: Determine the Ldc for the bar.

6

db f y (60,000 PSI )

Ldc = 0.02 = 0.02 8 = 14.2” ← Use

f 'c 4000 PSI

= larger of or

Ldc = 14.2”

Lecture 30 - Page 5 of 9

Lap Splices of Bars

Bars are generally fabricated to lengths of about 60’-0”, but transportation,

workability and other concerns often require bars to be less than about

40’-0” long. For long walls, beams, slabs and other situations requiring

long lengths of bars, lap splicing is commonly used. It is good practice to

place laps at regions of small tension, i.e., low moment.

Concrete

Ls

provided through the splice > twice that required by analysis

and not more than 50% of the total reinforcement is spliced

within the lap length

meet Class A requirements

Lecture 30 - Page 6 of 9

Hooked and Bent Bars

Hooks are used in concrete members where there is not sufficient straight

length to achieve the full development length Ld.

hooks:

Ldh = Lhbλ

Lecture 30 - Page 7 of 9

Where: Lhb = Basic development length of hook in tension

db

= 1200

f 'c

λ = 1.0 unless otherwise specified below:

fy

= if using other than Grade 60 bars

60,000

Re quired _ As

=

Pr ovided _ As

Example 4

GIVEN: A #5 Grade 40 bar is in tension as shown below. Use LIGHTWEIGHT

concrete with f’c = 4000 PSI.

REQUIRED: Determine the min. required hook dimensions “X”, “Y” and “Z”.

Z = Ldh

Side cover = 1½”

Y

End cover = 1½” Critical section

X = 12db

= 12(5/8”)

X = 7½”

Lecture 30 - Page 8 of 9

Step 2 – Determine dimension “Y”:

= 4(5/8”)

Y = 2½”

db

Lhb = 1200

f 'c

5

= 1200 8"

4000 PSI

= 11.9”

Ldh = Lhbλ

fy 40000 PSI

= = = 0.67

60000 PSI 60000 PSI

Ldh = Lhbλ

= 11.9”(1.0)(1.3)(0.67)

Ldh = 10.4”

Lecture 30 - Page 9 of 9

Lecture 31 – Serviceability

service loads.

• Beam deflection

• Lateral drift

• Vibration

We will be focusing our discussion on beam deflection. The ACI 318-02 Code

dictates that the deflections be checked on the basis of effective moment of

inertia, Ie, under service loads. Before we can determine the value of the

effective moment of inertia, we must first have an understanding of the gross

moment of inertia, Ig, and the cracked moment of inertia, Icr.

beams because the concrete under the neutral axis is in tension and is

ineffective. Since tension is carried by the steel rebar, the beam becomes

composite and therefore must be analyzed as such (See AECT 210 –

Lecture 6). The calculated value of gross moment of inertia is higher than

what is actually present.

bh 3

=

12

Lecture 31 - Page 1 of 7

Cracked Moment of Inertia Icr:

action between the concrete and steel rebar. This assumes that the

concrete in the tension zone is totally ineffective, which is overly

conservative. However, the cracked moment of inertia is far closer to

predicting the actual moment of inertia of a reinforced concrete beam than

the gross moment of inertia.

N.A. d

nAs

by 3

Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2

3

E 29,000,000 PSI

= steel =

E conc 57,000 f ' c

⎡ bd ⎤

nAs ⎢ 1 + 2 − 1⎥

⎣ nAs ⎦

y=

b

Lecture 31 - Page 2 of 7

Effective Moment of Inertia, Ie:

property of the member at a specific point along the moment diagram. In

most cases, the effective moment of inertia is used to determine the actual

deflection of the member when comparing to Code-dictated maximums.

⎧⎪⎛ M ⎞

3

⎡ ⎛M ⎞

3

⎤ ⎫⎪

Ie = ⎨⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ I g + ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ ⎥ I cr ⎬ ≤ I g

⎪⎩⎝ M a ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ M a ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

fr I g

=

yt

= 7.5 f ' c

to extreme tension fiber

h

=

2

location along the moment diagram

Lecture 31 - Page 3 of 7

Example 1

GIVEN: A simply-supported rectangular beam is shown below. The loads

indicated are SERVICE loads. Use concrete f’c = 4000 PSI and grade 60 bars.

REQUIRED:

1) Determine the gross moment of inertia Ig of the beam.

2) Determine the cracked moment of inertia Icr of the beam.

3) Determine the maximum allowable mid-span deflection of the beam

assuming ∆allow = L/360.

4) Determine the actual mid-span deflection of the beam using Ie.

∆

25’-0”

12”

2 - #4 hanger

bars

#3 stirrup bars

20”

@ 9” o.c.

Section A-A

= 20” – ¾” – ⅜” – ½(8/8”)

= 18.375”

Lecture 31 - Page 4 of 7

Step 1 – Determine gross moment of inertia Ig:

bh 3

Ig =

12

(12" )(20) 3

=

12

Ig =8000 in4

by 3

Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2

3

E 29,000,000 PSI 29,000,000 PSI

= steel = =

E conc 57,000 f ' c 57,000 4000 PSI

= 8.04

= 3 bars(0.79 in2 per #8 bar)

= 2.37 in2

⎡ bd ⎤

nAs ⎢ 1 + 2 − 1⎥

⎣ nAs ⎦

y=

b

⎡ (12" )(18.375" ) ⎤

(8.04)(2.37in 2 ) ⎢ 1 + 2 2

− 1⎥

= ⎣ (8.04)(2.37in ) ⎦

12"

= 6.2”

Lecture 31 - Page 5 of 7

by 3

Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2

3

(12" )(6.2" ) 3

= + 8.04(2.37in 2 )(18.375"−6.2" ) 2

3

beam assuming ∆allow = L/360:

L

∆allow =

360

(25'−0" )12" / ft

=

360

∆allow = 0.83”

= 7.5 f ' c

= 7.5 4000 PSI

= 474.3 PSI

fr I g

=

yt

=

20"

2

= 379,473 Lb-In

= 379.4 KIP-In

= 31.6 KIP-FT

Lecture 31 - Page 6 of 7

Ma = maximum unfactored moment at specific

location along the moment diagram

wL2

=

8

(1.5KLF )(25'−0" ) 2

=

8

Ma = 117.2 KIP-FT

⎧⎪⎛ M ⎞

3

⎡ ⎛M ⎞

3

⎤ ⎫⎪

Ie = ⎨⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ I g + ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ ⎥ I cr ⎬

⎪⎩⎝ M a ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ M a ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

4 ⎪

= ⎨⎜ ⎟ (8000in 4

) + ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (2904in )⎬ ≤ I g

⎪⎩⎝ 117.2 ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 117.2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

Ie = 3004 in4

5wL4

∆act =

384 E conc I e

⎛ 1500 PLF ⎞

5⎜ ⎟(25'−0" x12" / ft )

4

= ⎝ ⎠

12

384(57000 4000 PSI )(3004in 4 )

∆act = 1.22”

Lecture 31 - Page 7 of 7