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# Lecture 10 – Column Base Plates

## Columns must transmit vertical loads to the concrete footing. An intermediary

steel base plate is used to distribute this column load without crushing the
concrete.

Steel column

See AISC p. 14-9

Base Plate
thickness

## • AISC Spec. Chapter J8 (p. 16.1-70)

• AISC Part 14

Lecture 10 - Page 1 of 6
The design of a base plate involves the following steps:

= 0.85f’cA1

## φcPp where φc = 0.60 LRFD

Pp
where Ωc = 2.50 ASD
Ωc
where: f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete, KSI
A1 = area of steel base plate concentrically loaded on conc, in2
= BN (where B and N use whole inches if possible)
B
bf See AISC p. 14-5

d 0.95d N

0.80bf
n n

N − 0.95d
m=
2

B − 0.80b f
n=
2

Lecture 10 - Page 2 of 6
tmin = minimum base plate thickness per AISC p. 14-6:

2 f pu 3.33 f pa
t min = L t min = L
0 .9 F y Fy
Pu Pa
where: f pu = where: f pa =
BN BN

## Pu = factored axial load, kips Pa = service axial load, kips

Fy = base plate steel yield stress Fy = base plate steel yield stress

m m

L = larger of L = larger of
n n

= LRFD ASD

Lecture 10 - Page 3 of 6
Example (LRFD)
GIVEN: A W14x82 A992 column has a factored axial load Pu = 700 KIPS. It
bears on a steel base plate using A36 steel. The footing has concrete f’c = 3000
PSI.
REQUIRED: Design the column base plate.

= 0.6Pp
= 0.6(0.85f’cA1)

Pu
A1 =
0.6(0.85 f ' c )

700 KIPS
=
0.6(0.85(3KSI ))

A1 = 457.5 in2

## 0.95d − 0.8b f d and bf → from properties p. 1-22

∆=
2

0.95(14.3" ) − 0.8(10.1" )
=
2

= 2.75”

N≈ A1 + ∆

≈ 457.5in 2 + 2.75"

≈ 24.14”

TRY N = 24” and B = 20” (Area = 480 in2 > 457.5 in2)

Lecture 10 - Page 4 of 6
Step 3 – Determine “m” and “n”:

N − 0.95d
m=
2

24"−0.95(14.3" )
=
2

= 5.2”

B − 0.80b f
n=
2

20"−0.80(10.1" )
=
2

= 5.96”

2 f pu
t min = L
0 .9 F y

## where: Pu = factored axial load, kips

= 700 Kips

Pu
f pu =
BN

700 Kips
= = 1.46 KSI
(20" )(24" )

m = 5.2”

L = larger of
n = 5.96” use

2(1.46 KSI )
t min = 5.96"
0.9(36 KSI ) Base plate yield stress

## = 1.79” → use 1⅞” thick plate

Lecture 10 - Page 5 of 6
Step 5 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

20”

W14x82 A992
col. centered 24”
on plate

7
1 " thick A36 steel base plate
8

Lecture 10 - Page 6 of 6
Lecture 12 – Bolted Connections

Below is a typical bolt and the terms given to the parts of a bolt:

Bolts used in structural steel fasteners fall within 2 categories – see AISC Table
2-5 p. 2-41:

1) Carbon steel bolts – These bolts achieve their total strength from shear
(or tension) strength across the diameter of the bolt. They are
relatively low-strength and are used primarily for low-load applications
such as for anchor rods. The typical carbon steel bolt used in
structural steel buildings is ASTM A307 and F1554 for use in anchor
rods.

## 2) High-strength bolts – These bolts are used for high-load connections

and obtain their total strength from the shear strength across the
diameter of the bolt PLUS the friction developed between the nut and
joined steel surfaces. In order to achieve the friction capacity, these
bolts are tensioned to 70% of the ultimate tensile strength of the
material according to the table below. ASTM A325 and A490 bolts are
typically used.

## • AISC Spec. Chapter J3 (p. 16.1-102)

• AISC Part 7
• AISC Part 9
• AISC Part 10

Lecture 12 - Page 1 of 9
Possible Bolted Shear Failure Mechanisms:

There are 4 basic types of failure mechanisms for bolted connections under
shear:

1) Bolt Shear:

This is probably the most obvious failure mode. It occurs when the
applied load exceeds the shear capacity through the bolt. The
design shear strength is dictated in AISC Table J3.2 p. 16.1-104 and
AISC Table 7-1 p. 7-22. Possible remedies include using a larger
diameter bolt, higher grade of bolt or more bolts.

Result

## Bolt shear failure

Lecture 12 - Page 2 of 9
2) Edge Tear-Out:

This occurs when the bolt is located too close to the edge of the
plate in the direction of load. A minimum required edge distance, Le, is
dictated in AISC Table J3.4 p. 16.1-107. Possible remedies include
increasing the edge distance or reducing the bolt diameter.

Le

## Edge Distance failure

Lecture 12 - Page 3 of 9
3) Bearing Failure:

This type of failure occurs when one of the plates is too thin or not
strong enough for the applied loads. The design bearing strength at
bolt holes is dictated in AISC p. 16.1-111 and AISC Table 7-5 p. 7-28
and AISC Table 7-6 p. 7-30. Possible remedies increasing the plate
thickness, use a higher grade of steel or using larger diameter bolts.

Thin plate

Bearing failure

Lecture 12 - Page 4 of 9
4) Net Section Failure:

A net section failure occurs when there are too many bolt holes
perpendicular to the line of action – resulting in too little material to
carry the load. Think of Swiss cheese. The minimum spacing of
bolts is dictated in AISC J3.2 p. 16.1-106 as not less than 2⅔ times
the nominal bolt diameter, preferably 3 times the bolt diameter.
Usually 3” is used as the nominal bolt spacing for bolts < 1” in
diameter.

## Net section failure

Lecture 12 - Page 5 of 9
Types of Bolted Connections

1) Bearing-Type Connections:

## A bearing-type connection is the most common type of bolted

connection. It is used in most simple-shear connections and in
situations when loosening or fatigue due to vibration or load
fluctuations are NOT design considerations. In these connections,
bolts are tightened to the “snug-tight” condition, as defined as the
tightness attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench or the full
effort of an iron worker using an ordinary spud wrench. The design
strength of bearing-type fasteners is per AISC Eq. J3-1 p. 16.1-108.

2) Slip-Critical Connections:

## A slip-critical connection is one in which loosening due to vibration or

load reversals are to be considered. Also, holes that are oversize or
slotted shall be designed as slip-critical connections. Bolts that are
used in slip-critical connections must be pre-tensioned per AISC Table
J3.1 p. 16.1-103. In addition, the design strength of the connection
must be checked in accordance with AISC J3.8, J3.9 and J3.10 p.
16.1-109 thru 111. As an alternative, AISC Table 7-3 and 7-4 p. 7-24
thru 27 can be used.

## See AISC Table J3.3 p. 16.1-105 for hole dimensions

Lecture 12 - Page 6 of 9
Design Strength of Bearing-Type Fasteners

## From AISC J3.6 p. 16.1-108, the design tension or shear strength of a

high-strength bolt or threaded part is:

## Design strength of bolt = φRn LRFD

Rn
Allowable strength of bolt = ASD

where: Rn = FnAb

φ = 0.75 LRFD
Ω = 2.00 ASD

## Fn = nominal tensile or shear stress of fastener, KSI

= from Table J3.2 p. 16.1-104

## Ab = x-sect. nominal area of unthreaded body of bolt, in2

Shear Plane:

The shear plane is the plane in which the various connected parts
are in contact.

from shear plane “N”
shear plane “X”

Single-shear Double-shear

Lecture 12 - Page 7 of 9
Example 1 (LRFD)
GIVEN: A ¾” diameter ASTM A325-N bolt in single-shear is subjected to a
REQUIRED: Determine the design shear strength of the bolt considering bolt
shear ONLY, and comment if the bolt is acceptable.

Pu = 14 KIPS

where: φ = 0.75

= FnAb

## Fn = from Table J3.2 p. 16.1-104

= 48 KSI (threads Not excluded)

π
= D2
4

π
= (0.75" ) 2
4

= 0.44 in2

## Design shear strength = 15.8 KIPS > 14 KIPS → Acceptable

Lecture 12 - Page 8 of 9
Example 2 (LRFD)
GIVEN: Same as Example 1
REQUIRED: Determine bolt design shear using AISC Table 7-1 p. 7-22.

## Step 1 – Refer to Table 7-1:

ASTM A325

Design shear strength = 15.9 KIPS

Bolt Diameter, db = ¾”

Lecture 12 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 13 – Bolted Connections (cont.)

## In the previous lecture, we looked at general strength considerations of bolted

connections. In this lecture we will look at a typical all-bolted beam-to-girder
shear connection to see practical bolted connection considerations.

K Beam

Cope
Lev
S
S

Girder

Connection angles

= Leh

## where: Cope = cut distance of beam flange necessary to clear girder

flange and “K” distance, usually 1½”, 2” or 3”

## K = distance between top of flange to edge of start of flat web

= from beam properties AISC Part 1

## Lev = required minimum vertical edge distance in direction of load

= from AISC Table J3.4 p. 16.1-107

## S = bolt center-to-center spacing from AISC J3.3 p. 16.1-106

= 2⅔ times nominal bolt diameter (minimum)
= 3 times bolt diameter (preferred)
= 3” (typical for bolts up to 1” diameter)

Lecture 13 - Page 1 of 5
Example (LRFD)
GIVEN: A W16x40 A992 steel beam “A” frames into a W18x55 A992 steel girder
“B”. The applied floor Service DL = 80 PSF and the applied floor Service LL =
100 PSF. Use ¾” diameter A325-X bolts with standard bolt holes and double-
angle A36 L3x3x¼ connection angles. The beam is coped at top flange only.
REQUIRED: Design the all-bolted beam-to-girder connection and provide a
summary sketch.
30’-0”
W18x55 Girder “B”

4 @ 6’-0” = 24’-0”
W16x40 Beam “A”

## wu = 1.2[6’(80 PSF) + 40 PLF] + 1.6[6’(100 PSF)]

= 1584 PLF
= 1.6 KLF
Beam weight
wu L
Beam end reaction =
2

## 1.6 KLF (30'−0" )

=
2

= 24 KIPS

Lecture 13 - Page 2 of 5
Step 2 – Use AISC Table 10-1 “All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections”, p. 10-22:

## These tables incorporate all design considerations for typical all-

bolted double-angle connections.

¾” Bolts

See Step 3

See Step 9

W16x40
Beam

See Step 5

See Step 7

See Step 5

See Step 8

Lecture 13 - Page 3 of 5
Step 3 – Check Bolt and Angle Design Strength:

## From Table above,

ASTM A325
Bolt and angle design strength =
Thread Cond. = X 76.4 KIPS > 24 KIPS
Angle thickness = ¼”

## The minimum required vertical edge distance must be greater than

the “K” distance for either the girder or the beam.

5
W18x55 girder “Kdet” = 1 " from AISC p. 1-18
16
Use cope = 1½”
3
W16x40 beam “Kdet” = 1 " from AISC p. 1-20
16

## Hole Type = STD

Beam web design strength = 200 KIPS
Leh = 1¾”
per inch thickness
Lev = 1¼”

## W16x40 web design strength = 0.305”(200 KIPS/inch)

= 61 KIPS > 24 KIPS → OK

Lecture 13 - Page 4 of 5
Step 8 – Check girder Support Design Strength:

## W18x55 web design strength = 0.390”(526 KIPS/inch)

= 205 KIPS > 24 KIPS → OK

= 3(¾”)
= 2¼”

W16x40 Beam

Cope = 1½”
Lev = 1¼”
S = 3”
S = 3”
W18x55 1¼”
Girder

## 2 - L 3x3x¼ x 8½” long A36

connection angles with 9 - ¾”
A325-X bolts in STD holes

## Angle gage = 1¾”

Lecture 13 - Page 5 of 5
Lecture 15 – Welded Connections (cont.)

## The design of a typical all-welded double-angle simple shear connection will be

investigated. Similar to an all-bolted connection, the AISC manual makes use of
a one-stop-shopping design aid Table 10-3 p. 10-48 for all design considerations.

## An example design of a typical all-welded double-angle simple shear connection

is as follows:

Example 1 (LRFD)
GIVEN: A W21x44 A992 girder with a factored end reaction = 87 KIPS has 2 –
L3x3x3/8 connection angles shop-welded to the girder web and field-welded to
the W12x58 A992 column flange as shown.
REQUIRED: Design the connection and provide a summary sketch.

W21x44 Girder

Minimum Web
L=? thickness

W12x58
Column
Weld A
3/16

2X weld
size L2x2x¼ erection
angle shop-welded to
col. flange

L=? 2 – L3x3x3/8
connection angles

Weld B
¼

Lecture 15 - Page 1 of 7
Step 1 – Refer to AISC Table 10-3 p. 10-48 for design info:

See Step 2

## See Step 5 See Step 4

See Step 3

Lecture 15 - Page 2 of 7
Step 2 – Determine minimum length “L” by checking Weld B strength:

From Table above, using a ¼” weld, choose a length “L” such that
φRn > 87 KIPS

## Step 3 - Determine minimum length “L” by checking Weld A strength:

From Table above, using a 3/16” weld, choose a length “L” such
that φRn > 87 KIPS

## From Table above, using a ¼” weld, the required minimum support

thickness = 0.190” < 0.640” OK

## The web thickness, tw for a W21x44 beam = 0.350”

From Table above, using a 3/16” weld, the required minimum web
thickness = 0.286” < 0.350” OK

## Step 6 – Determine angle length:

Since the minimum length of Weld B = 12” which is greater than the
minimum length of Weld A → use 12” long angles.

Lecture 15 - Page 3 of 7
Step 7 – Draw summary sketch:

W21x44 Girder

1¼”

12”

W12x58
Column
Weld A
3/16

## 2(¼”) = ½” L2x2x¼ erection

angle shop-welded to
col. flange

12” 2 – L3x3x3/8
connection angles

Weld B
¼

Lecture 15 - Page 4 of 7

Table 10-3 assumes that the loading is approximately concentric. In other words,
there is no moment acting on the weld.

## In industrial or other situations, connections are applied eccentrically to a column

which creates moment on the column as well as the connection. AISC Tables 8-
4 thru 8-11 can be used for design of eccentrically-loaded welded connections.

Pu
Pu

Example 2 (LRFD)
GIVEN: A ½” plate is welded to the flange of a column as shown below. This
plate carries a cantilevered factored load of 25 KIPS.

Pu = 25 KIPS
16”

¼
¼

4”

Column L = 8”
flange
½” Plate

Lecture 15 - Page 5 of 7
Step 1 – Refer to AISC Table 8-5 p. 8-72:

See Step 3
See Step 2

See Step 4

See Step 3

Lecture 15 - Page 6 of 7
Step 2 – Determine coefficient “k”:

Since “L” = 8”

kL = 4”

k(8”) = 4”

k = 0.5

Since “L” = 8”

aL = 16”

k(8”) = 16”

a = 2.0

k = 0.5
Use “C” = 0.821
a = 2.0

## From Table above

Pu
Lmin = ERROR in AISC Manual!!!
φCC1 D

## Rearranging and solving for Pu:

where: φ = 0.75
C = 0.821
Pu = LφCC1D C1 = 1.0 (AISC p. 8-65)
D = 4 - 1/16ths

= (8”)(0.75)(0.821)(1.0)(4)

## Pu = 19.7 KIPS < 25 KIPS → UNACCEPTABLE

Lecture 15 - Page 7 of 7
Lecture 16 – AISC Code of Standard Practice

## Design, fabrication, and erection of steel-framed buildings should incorporate

provisions of the AISC “Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and
Bridges” and is found in AISC Spec. Section 16.3 and also online at
www.AISC.org. It was first published in 1924 and is now in its 6th edition, dated
March 7, 2005.

## It provides a useful framework for the understanding of the acceptable standards

for the construction of structural steel structures. It is useful for owners,
architects, engineers, contractors, fabricators, construction managers and
anyone else involved with construction using structural steel.

The Code also serves as a basis for technical project specifications, typically CSI
Specification Section 05100 – Structural Steel (see Lecture 17).

GLOSSARY

## Definitions and abbreviations of relevant terms used throughout the Code.

Some important, (but often vague) definitions include:

## • AESS – Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel

• Contract Documents
• Design Drawings
• EOR – Engineer-of-Record
• Erection Drawings
• Erector
• Fabricator
• Inspector
• Owner
• Owner’s Designated Representative for Construction
• Owner’s Designated Representative for Design
• RCSC – Research Council on Structural Connections
• RFI – written Request for Information
• SER – Structural Engineer-of-Record
• Shop Drawings
• Specifications
• SSPC – Society for Protective Coatings (formerly Steel Structures
Painting Council)
• Steel Detailer
• Structural Steel

Lecture 16 - Page 1 of 13
Section 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 – Scope

The Code shall govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel
(unless otherwise noted in Contract Documents).

## • AISC Manual of Steel Construction

• AISC Seismic Provisions
• AISC Specification
• ASTM (lots of referenced standards)
• AWS D1.1 – Structural Welding Code
• RCSC Specification – Specification for Structural Joints using
ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
• SSPC – Steel Structures Painting Council

1.3 – Units

Either U.S. customary or metric units will be used. Each system shall
be independent of the other.

criteria.

## • If the Owner’s Designated Representative for Design provides

the design, the Fabricator and Erector are NOT responsible for
building code conformance of the design.

## • If the Owner enters a contract with the Fabricator for

design/build, then the Fabricator IS responsible for building
code conformance of the design.

## The EOR is responsible for obtaining patents and copyrights of design.

Lecture 16 - Page 2 of 13
1.7 – Existing Structures

## Demolition, protection, field dimensions and/or abatement or removal

of hazardous are NOT the responsibility of the Fabricator or Erector.

## • Erector is responsible for erection of frame.

• SER is responsible for structural adequacy of completed
project.

## • Anchor Rods that will receive structural steel

• Base Plates & bearing plates
• Beams
• Bracing (permanent)
• Columns
• Connections
• Fasteners for connecting structural steel
• Girders
• Hangers
• Lintels
• Shear stud connectors
• Trusses

## Structural design drawings shall consider design loads and forces

in the completed project.

## • Size, section, location and material grade of all members

• Geometry and working points necessary for layout
• Floor elevations
• Column centers and offsets
• Camber requirements for beams (if required)
• Permanent bracing, stiffeners, reinforcement
• Connection details or data that can be used by fabricator for
• Data relating to non-Structural steel elements that interact
with frame
• Painting requirements of Structural steel

Lecture 16 - Page 3 of 13
3.2 – Architectural, Electrical and Mechanical Design Drawings

## Other trades’ design drawings may be used to show structural steel

elements for purposes of defining detail configurations and other
construction information, however, ALL STRUCTURAL INFO.
MUST BE SHOWN ON STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS.

3.3 – Discrepancies

## • Discrepancies discovered in the Contract Documents shall

be resolved by the EOR in a timely manner so as not to
delay the Fabricator’s work.

## Discrepancies between: Which Governs:

Design Drawings Specifications Design Drawings
Scaled graphic drawings Written info in drawing Written info in drawings
Arch., Elect., Mech. Structural Drawings Structural Drawings
Drawings

## Design Drawings must be legible and drawn to a scale of not

smaller than 1/8” = 1’-0” (unless clarity of the drawing is carefully
considered), larger as necessary to convey detailed information.

## All revisions must be communicated either by issuing new Design

Drawings and Specifications or by re-issuing existing Design
Drawings and Specifications. Revisions must be clearly and
individually indicated, dated and identified by a revision number.
These revised sketches become “amendments” to the Contract
Drawings.

## Release of structural Design Drawings and Specifications shall

constitute a release for construction, regardless of the status of
the architectural, electrical, mechanical, or any other trades’
documents.

Lecture 16 - Page 4 of 13
Section 4 – SHOP AND ERECTION DRAWINGS

## The Owner shall furnish the complete structural Design Drawings

and Specifications to the Fabricator in a TIMELY MANNER.

## Fabricator shall produce Shop Drawings and Erection Drawings.

Fabricators are permitted to use the services of independent
detailers.

## Fabricator shall NOT reproduce any part of the Design Drawings

as part of the Shop or Erection Drawings without the express
written permission of Owner’s Designated Representative for
Design.

4.4 – Approval

## Shop and Erection Drawings must be submitted to Owner’s

Representative for Design for review and approval and returned to
Fabricator within 14 calendar days.

Lecture 16 - Page 5 of 13
Section 5 – MATERIALS

## Fabricator is permitted to order materials upon receipt of Contract

Documents that have been issued for construction.

## If mill materials do not meet ASTM A6 tolerances, Fabricator is

permitted to make corrective procedures.

## Fabricator may use stock materials if they meet with required

ASTM specifications. Certified mill test reports are used as
evidence of record of quality of material.

## Materials used for special requirements shall be marked by the

supplier as specified by ASTM A6 prior to delivery to Fabricator’s
shop or point of use.

## Thermal cutting of material is permitted. Surfaced specified as

“finished” shall have a roughness in accordance with ANSI/ASME
B46.1 that is less than or equal to 500.

## Projecting elements of connection materials need not be

straightened in the connecting plane. Backing bars and runoff tabs
shall be used to produce as required to produce sound welds, and
do not need be removed unless specifically designated in the
Contract Documents.

Lecture 16 - Page 6 of 13
6.4 – Fabrication Tolerances

## Member Type: Tolerance Variation:

Both ends finished for contact bearing Length = ± 1/32”
Members < 30’-0” Length = ± 1/16”
Members > 30’-0” Length = ± 1/8”
All members Straightness < 1/1000 axial length
Beam length < 50’-0” Camber variation = 0 → ½”
Beam length > 50’-0” Camber variation = 0 → ½” + 1/8” per

## 6.5 – Shop Cleaning and Painting

Structural steel that does not require shop paint shall be cleaned of
oil, grease, dirt and any foreign material.

## Structural steel requiring shop painting shall be free of oil, grease,

dirt and any foreign material; as well as meeting the requirements
of SSPC-SP2.

## Erection marks shall be painted to all structural steel members.

Connection members shall be shipped in separate closed
containers according to grade, length and diameter.

## Steel shall be delivered in a sequence that will permit efficient and

economical fabrication and erection.

Section 7 – ERECTION

## Structural steel shall be erected using methods and a sequence

that will permit efficiency and economy.

Lecture 16 - Page 7 of 13
7.2 – Job-Site Conditions

following:

## • Access road for deliveries and movement of materials

• Adequate obstruction-free space for operation of Erector’s
equipment

and abutments.

## Owner’s Representative for Construction shall be responsible for

accurate location of building lines and benchmarks and shall furnish
the Fabricator with a plan containing such information.

## Owner’s Representative for Construction shall be responsible for

setting in accordance with Embedment Drawings. The variation in
location shall be as follows:

## Item: Variation in Dimension:

Centers of any 2 anchor rods within an < 1/8”
anchor rod group
Centers of adjacent anchor rod groups < ¼”
Elevation of tops of anchor rods ± ½”
Accumulated variation between centers < ¼” per 100’-0”
of anchor rod groups not to exceed a total of 1”

## 7.6 – Installation of Bearing Devices

All leveling plates, nuts, washers and bearing plates that can be
handled without crane are set to line and grade by the Owner’s
Representative for Construction (otherwise set by Erector).

7.7 – Grouting

## Grouting shall be the responsibility of the Owner’s Representative

for Construction. The usual method for supporting columns during
erection is by use of leveling nuts and washers or shims.

Lecture 16 - Page 8 of 13
7.8 – Field Connection Material

## Fabricator shall provide field connection details consistent with

Contract Documents.

## 7.9 – Loose Material

Unless otherwise noted, loose structural steel items that are not
connected to the steel frame by the Owner’s Representative for
Construction without assistance from Fabricator.

the following:

## • Lateral load resisting system and connecting diaphragm

elements providing stability in the completed structure
• Any special erection conditions that are required by the
design concept, such as use of jacks, shores, etc.

## The Erector shall provide floor coverings, handrails, walkways and

other protection for the Erector’s personnel in accordance with all
applicable safety regulations. Unless otherwise specified, the
Erector is permitted to remove such safety protection form areas
where the erection operations are completed.

Safety protection for other trades that are not under the direct
employment of the Erector shall be the responsibility of the Owner’s
Representative for Construction.

## The accumulation of the mill tolerances (Section 6.4) and

fabrication tolerances shall not cause the erection tolerances
(Section 7-13) to be exceeded.

Lecture 16 - Page 9 of 13
7.13 – Erection Tolerances

## Erection tolerances are referenced from Work Points and Work

Lines defined as:

## • Members other than horizontal members, the member work

point is the actual center of the member at each end of the
shipping piece.
• Horizontal members work point shall be the actual centerline
of the top flange or top surface at each end.
• Work line is defined a s a straight line that connects the
member work points.

## Member: Erection Tolerance:

Column tolerance deviation from plumb ± 1/500 distance between work points
not to exceed 1” total for first 20 stories
Individual straight piece (other than + 3/16”
column) connecting to column - 5/16”

## Correction of minor misfits by means of reaming, grinding, drawing

of elements into line by drift pins, welding or cutting shall be
considered normal erection operations. Errors that cannot be
corrected by these means must be promptly reported to the
Owner’s Designated Representative for Design and Construction.

## 7.15 – Cuts, Alterations and Holes for Other Trades

The Fabricator or the Erector may NOT cut, drill or otherwise alter
their work to accommodate other trades unless work is specified in
the Contract Documents.

## The Erector shall take reasonable care in the proper handling

and storage of structural steel during erection to avoid excess dirt
and foreign matter. However, it is not the Erector’s responsibility to
remove dirt or other foreign material that may accumulate during
normal erection procedures.

Lecture 16 - Page 10 of 13
7.17 – Field Painting

## The Fabricator or the Erector is NOT responsible to paint field

bolts, or to touch-up abrasions of the shop coat, or to perform any
field painting.

## Upon completion and acceptance, the Erector shall remove any of

the Erector’s falsework, scaffolding, rubbish and temporary
structures.

8.1 – General

## The Fabricator shall maintain a quality assurance program to

assure that the work is performed in accordance with this Code.

## 8.2 – Inspection of Mill Material

Certified mill test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence that the
mill product satisfies material order requirements.

## • Fabricator and Erector shall provide the Inspector with

minimum of 24 hours notice must be given prior to
commencement of work.
• Inspector shall inspect work at shop as much as possible.
• Field inspections should be performed as promptly as
possible.
• Deficiencies discovered by Inspector shall be reported to
Fabricator and Erector as soon as possible.
• The Inspector shall NOT approve of any deviations from the
Contract Documents without written approval from the
Owner’s Designated Representative for Design and
Construction.

Lecture 16 - Page 11 of 13
Section 9 – CONTRACTS

## • Lump sum price

• Price per pound
• Price per item
• Unit price

## Weight is determined by calculation of gross weight of materials as

shown on the Shop Drawings. This does NOT include shop and
field weld metal or protective coatings.

## Deductions shall not be made for holes, copes, drilling or other

removals for connections.

## Revisions to Contract Drawings shall be confirmed by change order

or extra work order, and shall constitute authorization by the Owner
that the revision is released for construction.

## When the scope of work and responsibilities of the Fabricator and

the Erector are changed, an appropriate modification to the contract

## Requests for contract price adjustments shall be presented to the

Owner and approved/disapproved in a timely manner.

9.5 – Scheduling

The contract schedule shall state when the Design Drawings will be
released for construction so that erection can start at the
designated time and continue without interference or delay.

## Terms of payment shall be outlined in the Contract Documents.

Lecture 16 - Page 12 of 13
Section 10 – ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL

## The rapidly increasing use of exposed structural steel as an aesthetic

design medium has prompted the use of additional requirements that
apply to these members. Typically they call for closer dimensional
tolerances and smoother finished surfaces than for ordinary structural
steel.

## When members are specifically designated in the Design Drawings

as “Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel”, the requirements in
Sections 1 through 9 shall apply as modified in Section 10.

10.2 – Fabrication

## • All copes, miters and cuts in surfaces exposed to view shall

be made with uniform gaps of 1/8”.

• All welds exposed to view shall not project more than 1/16”
above the surface.

away from view.

## Fabricator shall take extra care and precautions to avoid bending,

twisting or otherwise damaging the structural steel.

10.4 – Erection

## Erector shall take extra care and precautions to minimize damage

during handling and erection procedures.

## Unless otherwise noted, AESS members shall be plumbed, leveled

and aligned to a tolerance that is ½ that of non-AESS members.

Lecture 16 - Page 13 of 13
Lecture 17 – Structural Steel Specifications

## Project-specific construction documents generally consist of two items:

• Design Drawings
• Specifications

The Design Drawings graphically present the specific design of the structure.
However, they do not indicate the specific requirements relating to:

• Materials
• Submittals
• Job conditions
• Testing & inspection
• Execution of work

## The CSI was founded in 1948 in an effort to organize trade-specific

specifications into a uniform, industry accepted format. It developed the
“MasterFormat”, a breakdown of all construction-related activities into 16
divisions as follows:
05050 – Basic Metal Materials
Division 1 – General Requirements 05100 – Structural Steel
Division 2 – Site Construction 05200 – Metal Joists
Division 3 – Concrete 05300 – Metal Deck
Division 4 – Masonry 05400 – Cold-Formed Metal Framing
Division 5 – Metals 05500 – Metal Fabrications
Division 6 – Wood and Plastics 05600 – Hydraulic Fabrications
05650 – Railroad Track & Accessories
Division 7 – Thermal and Moisture Protection
05700 – Ornamental Metal
Division 8 – Doors and Windows 05800 – Expansion Control
Division 9 – Finishes 05900 – Metal Restoration & Cleaning
Division 10 – Specialties
Division 11 – Equipment
Division 12 – Furnishings
Division 13 – Special Construction
Division 14 – Conveying Systems
Division 15 – Mechanical
Division 16 – Electrical

Each division has been further refined into multiple sub-divisions (as
shown for Division 5 above). To obtain samples of specifications, go to
http://www.ogs.state.ny.us/dnc/generalInfo/masterspecdefault.htm

## In addition to technical specifications, the CSI MasterFormat is used by

most of the construction industry for purposes of cost estimating,
contractor qualifications, product research and supply ordering.

Lecture 17 - Page 1 of 8
Section 05100 – Structural Steel

PART 1 - GENERAL

## A. Labor, materials, equipment, services and transportation required to

complete structural steel work on the Drawings, as specified herein or
both. Structural steel work is that work defined in AISC “Code of
Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges”, dated March 7,
2005, plus work listed below and shown on structural drawings.

## 1. Structural steel beams, columns, girders, trusses, and other main

structural components and systems.
2. Furnishing and installation of bracing (temporary and permanent),
struts, brackets, stiffeners, anchors, support angles for metal deck,
hangers, shear studs, and all other miscellaneous steel support
members necessary to complete this Section.
3. Design, fabrication and installation of bolted and welded
connections and splices.
4. Furnishing and installation of column base plates and bearing
plates.
5. Furnishing and installation of anchor rods and loose leveling plates.
6. Furnishing and installation of openings (unreinforced and
reinforced) in structural steel required to accommodate mechanical,
plumbing, and electrical work.
7. Furnishing and application of shop primer, paint, including finish
coat(s) when required, and field touch-up paint for designated
structural steel items.

## A. Comply with latest editions of:

1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Publications:
a. Manual of Steel Construction: Includes "Specification for
Structural Steel Buildings – Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD)", "Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and
Bridges", "Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325
or A490 Bolts".
b. “Building Code of New York State” by New York State
Department of State Division of Code Enforcement and
2. American Welding Society, Inc. (AWS): AWS D1.1 "Structural
Welding Code - Steel".
3. American Hot Dip Galvanizers Association, Inc.; Zinc Institute Inc.:
"Inspection Manual for Hot Dip Galvanized Products".
4. Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC): "Surface Preparation
Specifications".

Lecture 17 - Page 2 of 8
5. Exposed Structural Steel: All exposed structural steel is classified
as Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) as defined by
AISC. Comply with AESS quality requirements for all exposed
structural steel.

## B. Qualifications for Welding Work

1. Qualify welding processes and welding operators in accordance
with AWS Standards.
2. Provide certification that welders to be employed in the Work have
satisfactorily passed AWS qualification tests to perform the type of
welding within previous 12 months.

## C. Qualifications for Fabricator and Erector

1. Fabricator and erector of structural steel shall have not less than 3
years experience in fabrication and erection of structural steel.
2. Submit written description of ability.

## A. The Contractor shall employ a testing laboratory acceptable to Architect

to perform the following tests:
1. Visual inspection of all welds according to AWS.
2. Magnetic particle inspection according to ASTM E709 for 10
percent of all shop and field welds.
3. Ultrasonic inspection according to ASTM E587 for all shop or field
full penetration welds.
4. Inspection of field-assembled high-strength bolted connections.
5. Inspection of erected columns for plumbness within tolerances
specified.
7. Visual inspection of all erected steel for damage.

## B. Weld Inspector shall be certified in accordance with AWS.

1. Submit resumes of technicians who will perform work showing
evidence of one year minimum experience on similar work.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

## A. General: Review of submittals will be for general consideration only.

Compliance with requirements for materials, fabrication, erection and
dimensioning of structural steel shall be Contractor's responsibility.

## B. Connections: Submit proposed connection types for review before

preparing detailed shop drawings.

## C. Shop Drawings - Submit detailed drawings showing: (NOTE: Design

drawings shall NOT be used as shop drawings)
1. Column layout plans.
2. Floor and roof framing plans.
Lecture 17 - Page 3 of 8
3. Shop erection details including cuts, copes, connections, holes,
bolts and other pertinent information.
4. Welds with size, length and type.
5. Anchor bolt locations.
6. Location of shop welded masonry anchors. Coordinate with
Division 4.
7. Shop finishing information.

## D. Material Data: Submit laboratory test reports and other data as

required to show compliance with Specifications. Submit producer's or
manufacturer's specifications and installation instructions for the
following products.
1. Structural steel, including certified copies of mill reports covering
chemical and physical properties.
2. High-strength bolts including nuts and washers.
3. Unfinished bolts and nuts.
4. Structural steel primer paint.
5. Welding electrodes.

## A. Store material in horizontal position on supports above ground.

B. Protect from elements and keep free of dirt and debris.
C. Handle material carefully so as not to bend or mar.
D. Repair or replace damaged materials.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS

## A. Rolled Steel Plates, Angles, Channels, M shapes, HP shapes and Bars:

ASTM A36.
B. W Shapes: ASTM A992.
C. HSS Steel Rectangular, Square and Round: ASTM A500, Grade B.
D. Steel Pipe: ASTM A53 Grade B.
E. Unfinished Bolts, Nuts and Washers: ASTM A307, Grade A.
F. High-strength Bolts, Nuts and Washers: ASTM A325 or A490.
G. Direct Tension Indicating Washers: ASTM F959-85.
H. Headed Studs: ASTM A108, Grades 1015 – 1020, minimum field = 50
KSI.
I. Anchor Rods, Nuts and Washers: ASTM F1554.
J. Non-Shrink Bedding Mortar for Bearing and Base Plates: CRD-C 621,
Type D “Masterflow 713” from Master Builders (or equivalent).
K. Neoprene Bearing Pads: ASTM D412; 70 Durometer Hardness, 2500
PSI Tensile.
L. Weld Electrodes: E70XX and in accordance with AWS.
M. Expansion Bolts: ¾” Diameter stainless steel with ultimate capacities in
4000 PSI concrete of 16,000 lbs. in shear and 16,000 lbs. in tension;
minimum embedment of 6” “Kwik Bolt II” from Hilti Corp. (or equivalent).
Lecture 17 - Page 4 of 8
N. Steel Primer Paint: Fabricator's standard rust-inhibitive primer.
or
None. Bare steel only except where exposed items to be primed are
identified on Drawings.
or
Series 10-1009 grey primer by Tnemec or accepted equal.

## O. Hot Dipped Galvanizing: Hot-dip galvanize after fabrication in

accordance with ASTM A123. Restraighten members after galvanizing,
if necessary, to be square and true.
P. Weld-on Masonry Anchors: No. 317 continuous weld-on anchor rod by
Heckmann Building Products for columns and No. 315 anchor rod for
beams, plain steel or accepted equal.
Q. Below Grade Coating: #46H-413 coal tar epoxy by Tnemec or
accepted equal.
R. Cold Galvanizing: Galvilite Cold Galvanizing Compound by Z.R.C.
Products Company or accepted equal.

2.2 FABRICATION

## A. Fabricate structural steel in strict accordance with reviewed shop

drawings and referenced standards.

possible.

## C. Provide camber as indicated on Drawings. Where no camber is

indicated, fabricate steel with mill camber up.

D. Provide holes for securing other work to structural steel framing. Cut,
drill or punch holes perpendicular to metal surfaces. Do not flame cut
holes or enlarge holes by burning. Drill holes in base and bearing
plates.

## E. Finish and weld column bases to column base plates.

F. Anchor Rods: Furnish anchor rods, leveling plate and/or other devices
necessary for setting anchoring rods required for securing structural
steel to foundation, concrete or masonry.

drawings.

## 2.3 SHOP PAINTING

A. Shop paint only structural steel work which will be exposed to view and
finish painted. Do not paint steel embedded in concrete or mortar or
receive a spray on fireproofing. Do not paint surfaces which are to be

Lecture 17 - Page 5 of 8
welded, including metal deck. Do not paint contact surfaces of high-
strength bolted connections or finished bearing surfaces such as
bearing plates and column base plates.

B. For steel to be shop primed and not exposed to view, remove loose rust
and mill scale by mechanical means in accordance with SSPC-SP3
"Power Tool Cleaning". For steel to be galvanized or primed and finish
painted, remove all dirt, grease, rust and loose mill scale in accordance
with SSPC-SP6 “Commercial Blast Cleaning”, unless recommended
otherwise by paint manufacturer.

## C. Immediately after surface preparation, apply structural steel primer

paint in accordance with manufacturer's instructions but not less than a
uniform dry-film thickness of 2 mils. Use painting methods which will
result in full coverage of joints, corners, edges and exposed surfaces.

## D. Apply below grade coating to column bases and columns to be placed

below top of finished floor.

## E. Apply two coats of cold galvanizing compound to achieve a minimum

dry-film thickness of 3 mils. in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommendations.

2.4 CONNECTIONS

## C. No one-sided or other eccentric connections will be permitted, unless

shown on Drawings.

## D. Minimum Capacity of Beam Connections: For connections not detailed,

provide connection capacity of the nominal full section shear capacity
Vn for the given steel member as dictated in AISC Steel Construction
Manual. A minimum factored shear capacity of 10 kips shall be
provided for all secondary beams. For beam and girders with shear
studs, provide a connection capacity of at least 125 percent of uniform
load values unless indicated otherwise on drawings.

## E. Provide snug-tight unfinished threaded fasteners for bolted bearing

connections of secondary framing members to primary members;
including, but not limited to, girts, door framing systems, roof opening
and other framing systems taking only nominal stresses and in no way
reacting in stress on primary members.

## F. Provide high-strength fasteners for all principal bolted connections,

unless otherwise indicated.

Lecture 17 - Page 6 of 8
G. Provide bearing bolt (X) fastener for all structural connections.

## H. Use only connections which are published by AISC. Do not modify

published connection details unless accepted by Engineer.

## I. Use AISC “Single-Plate Shear Connections” for beam connections to

face of tubes and column flanges which have a width of 6 inches or
less.

## J. Use AISC “Framed Beam Connections” for beam connections to face of

tubes and column flanges which have a width greater than 6 inches,
and for beam-to-beam connections.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSPECTION

## A. Examine conditions under which work shall be erected. Do not proceed

until all unsatisfactory conditions are corrected.

3.2 ERECTION

## A. Set structural frames accurately to lines and elevations indicated. Align

and adjust various members forming part of a complete frame or
structure before permanently fastening.

B. Clean bearing surfaces and other surfaces before assembly that will be
in permanent contact after assembly.

## C. Perform necessary adjustments to compensate for discrepancies in

elevations and alignment. Level and plumb individual members of
structure within specified tolerances.

prohibited.

3.3 TOLERANCES

## B. Fabrication and mill tolerance shall be within limits in AISC Standard

Mill Practice.

Lecture 17 - Page 7 of 8
3.4 TOUCH-UP PAINTING
A. After erection is complete, touch-up paint damaged shop priming coats
and welded areas. Remove weld slag before applying touch-up paint.

## B. Touch-up below grade coatings to all portions of structural steel

embedded within concrete slabs on grades.

## A. Provide temporary shoring and bracing members as required, with

connections of sufficient strength, to bear imposed loads.

## B. Remove temporary members and connections when permanent

members are in place and final connections are made.

## C. Provide temporary guy lines to achieve proper alignment of structures

as erection proceeds.

3.6 PROTECTION
A. Do not use members for storage or working platforms until permanently
secured.

## B. Do not exceed load capacity of members with construction loads.

END OF SECTION

Lecture 17 - Page 8 of 8
Lecture 18 – Open Web Steel Joists

Open web steel joists, or “Bar Joists” are very efficient structural members
commonly used to support roofs, and to a lesser degree, floors.

## Roof construction of Clark Field House facility at SUNY Delhi

Steel joists are NOT considered structural steel. As such, they are manufactured
as proprietary structural members by various manufacturers. The Steel Joist
Institute, SJI, is an organization founded in 1928 that was established to set
standards for manufacture, design and construction of joists. It recognizes
manufacturers who comply with their standards. Some of the larger SJI
recognized manufacturers include Vulcraft, Canam Steel Corp. and SMI Joist
Company.

Lecture 18 - Page 1 of 10
K-Series Joists

The most commonly-used joist style is the so-called “K” series. It has a
depth ranging from 8” up to 30” and is used economically to span up to
60’-0”. A typical K series joist is as shown below:

## A typical designation is 18K3

Section Number = Relative
Actual depth
size of members
in inches
K series

Lecture 18 - Page 2 of 10
Steel joists are fastened to its supporting members usually by field-
welding as shown below:

Unlike structural steel beams, steel joists must use bridging placed
perpendicular to the span to obtain its stability. This bridging can be one
of 2 types:

• Horizontal Bridging
• Diagonal Bridging

## Bridging requirements are shown in the Vulcraft Joist Catalog p. 9 and 35

and is a function of the Section Number and span.

## Joists using horizontal bridging is shown below:

Lecture 18 - Page 3 of 10
LH and DLH Series Joists

The LH series joists have depths ranging between 18” and 48” and are
suitable for spans up to 96’-0”. The DLH series joists have depths ranging
between 52” and 72” and are suitable for spans up to 144’-0”.

## They are not as commonly used as K series joists, but provide an

inexpensive alternative to spanning longer distances than the K series
joists. One difference between K series joists is the required end bearing
width and height are 6” and 5” respectively for the LH and DLH (vs. 4” and
2½” for the K series).

## A typical designation is 32LH10

Section Number = Relative
Actual depth
size of members
in inches
LH series

Lecture 18 - Page 4 of 10
Joist Girders

Joist girders are designed to carry the end reactions from equally-spaced
joists applied to the panel points. Typical depths of joist girders range
from 20” up to 96” with spans of 100’-0” or more.

## A typical joist girder connection to steel column is shown below:

Lecture 18 - Page 5 of 10
Example 1
GIVEN: A roof framing bay is as shown below. The service loads are as follows:

• Service Roof Live Load = 25 PSF
• Service Snow Load = 35 PSF
• Service Wind Uplift = -12 PSF

REQUIRED: Design the K series joists assuming the maximum joist spacing =
6’-0” (based on metal roof deck). Assume the joist + accessories weighs 10 PLF.

36’-0”

60’-0”

## For economy, use a joist spacing = 6’-0” giving 10 even spaces.

Lecture 18 - Page 6 of 10
Step 2 – Determine maximum uniformly distributed total service load:

## Utilizing the 6 allowable stress design load combinations from the

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D
2) D+L
3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)
4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)
5) 0.6D + W
6) 0.6D + 0.7E

= 6’(16 PSF) + 10 PLF
= 106 PLF

## Lr = Roof Live Load

= 6’(25 PSF)
= 150 PLF

= 6’(35 PSF)
= 210 PLF

= 6’(-12 PSF)
= -72 PLF

1) D = 106 PLF
2) D + L = 106 PLF
3) D + L + (Lr or S or R) = 106 + 150 = 256 PLF
4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R) = 106 + 210 = 316 PLF
5) 0.6D + W = 0.6(106) + (-72) = -8.4 PLF
6) 0.6D + 0.7E = 0.6(106) = 64 PLF
Use

Lecture 18 - Page 7 of 10
Step 3 – Select lightest joist from Vulcraft K series Load Table p. 12:

## Total Load = 316 PLF

= 316 PLF – 106 PLF
= 210 PLF

Span = 36’-0”

Possibilities:

24K8 346 222 11.5
26K7 340 240 10.9
28K6 330 252 11.4
30K7 395 323 12.3

## Step 4 – Select lightest joist from “Economical Joist Guide” p. 109:

For length = 36’, start at the top of the list and read down until Total

## Use 28K6 Joist for Final Design

Step 5 – Determine Bridging requirements, assume horizontal bridging:

## From Vulcraft p. 9 → Section Number = 6 Use 1¼ x 7/64 equal

leg angle bridging,
Joist spacing = 6’-0” good for up to joist
spacing = 6’-3”

## From Vulcraft p. 35 → Section Number = 6

Use 3 Rows of
Span = Over 29’ thru 39’ Bridging

Lecture 18 - Page 8 of 10
Step 6 – Draw Summary Sketch of Roof Framing Plan:

## 3 rows of L1¼x7/64 horizontal

bridging equally spaced

28K6 @ 6’-0”

36’-0”

## 10 spaces @ 6’-0” = 60’-0”

Lecture 18 - Page 9 of 10
Example 2
GIVEN: The roof framing bay from Example 1.
REQUIRED: Design the lightest weight 60’-0” span joist girder.

Joist Girder
28K6 @ 6’-0”

36’-0”

## Step 1 – Determine 28K6 joist end reactions:

wL
Joist end reaction =
2

=
2

= 5688 LBS.

## Girder span = 60’-0”

Joist Spaces = 10N @ 6.00’ Select 72” girder
Load on Each Panel Point = 6 KIPS depth → wt. = 35 PLF

## Use 72G 10N 6.0K Joist Girder

Lecture 18 - Page 10 of 10
Lecture 19 – Steel Deck

Steel deck, or sometimes called “metal deck” is used in steel framed construction
as an intermediate structural system to distribute floor and roof loads to
supporting beams. Decking is typically fastened to the steel supporting
members by either puddle welds or powder-actuated fasteners. Although made
of steel, it is NOT considered to be structural steel. Decking is corrugated having
a typical cross-section resembling:

Top flute
Deck height

Bottom flute

## Panel width = 24” → 36”

The Steel Deck Institute, SDI, was established in 1939 in an effort to regulate the
design, manufacture and installation of steel deck. Manufacturers complying with
SDI specifications include Vulcraft, Canam Steel Corp. and United Steel Deck,
Inc.

## Types of Steel Deck

There are 3 general types of steel deck → roof deck, non-composite floor
deck and composite deck.

1. Roof Deck

## Roof deck is used primarily to carry lightweight roof construction. It

is characterized by having relatively narrow bottom flutes so that
there is a wider top flute to maximize the surface contact with rigid
insulation. It comes in heights ranging from 1” up to 3” and in
thicknesses ranging from 24 gage (thinnest) up to 16 gage
(thickest). Depending on the section, roof decking can span as
much as 15’-0”. Acoustical deck is available to control sound
transmission through the decking. It is used for auditoriums,
schools, etc., and is obtained by adding fiber sound-absorbing batts
between the vertical webs of the decking. In addition, roof deck is
available as “cellular” deck for use in placing electrical services or
exposed underside. Data relating to roof deck may be found in the
Vulcraft catalog p. 3 – 18.

Lecture 19 - Page 1 of 8
Built-up roof membrane

Rigid Insulation

## Roof Deck screwed or

puddle-welded to top
chord of steel joist

## Roof Deck Fastened to Steel Bar Joist

Lecture 19 - Page 2 of 8
2. Non-Composite Floor Deck

## This type of deck essentially acts as a form to carry the concrete

slab. It offers no additional strength to the structural steel beam
as composite construction would. It ranges in height from 5/8” up
to 3” and thicknesses of 26 gage up to 16 gage with spans up to
15’-0”. It is also available as acoustical deck or as “cellular” deck.
Data relating to roof deck may be found in the Vulcraft catalog p. 19
- 40.

Welded wire
mesh in
concrete slab

Lecture 19 - Page 3 of 8
3. Composite Floor Deck

## Similar to non-composite deck, except composite deck is used for

composite steel construction. Typically, the decking has built-in
perforations that aids in the bonding to concrete.

## Composite Floor Deck with headed shear studs welded to beams

Lecture 19 - Page 4 of 8
Roof Deck Example
GIVEN: A 1½” Type “F” (intermediate rib) roof deck is to be used in a 3-span
condition with a 7’-0” span. The SERVIVE roof loads are as follows:

• SERVICE roof Live Load = 20 PSF
• SERVICE roof Snow Load = 40 PSF
• SERVICE roof Wind Load = -8 PSF (uplift)

REQUIRED: Design the lightest-weight 1½” Type “F” roof deck using the
Vulcraft catalog.

3 spans (min.)

## Utilizing the 6 allowable stress design load combinations from the

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D
2) D+L
3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)
4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)
5) 0.6D + W
6) 0.6D + 0.7E

= 15 PSF

## Lr = Roof Live Load

= 20 PSF

= 40 PSF

= -8 PSF

Lecture 19 - Page 5 of 8

1) D = 15 PSF
2) D + L = 15 PSF
3) D + L + (Lr or S or R) = 15 + 20 = 35 PSF
4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R) = 15 + 40 = 55 PSF
5) 0.6D + W = 0.6(15) + (-8) = 1 PSF
6) 0.6D + 0.7E = 0.6(15) = 9 PSF
Use

Step 2 – Refer to the Vulcraft Catalog page 4 for 1½” Type F deck:

7’-0” span

3 span

From Table above, use Vulcraft 1½” Type F 19 Gage Roof Deck
→ Allow. Load = 59 PSF > 55 PSF

Lecture 19 - Page 6 of 8
Non-Composite Floor Deck Example
GIVEN: A floor framing plan for an office building is as shown below. The slab is
5” normal-weight concrete over “2.0 C Conform” non-composite 2” deck as
manufactured by Vulcraft. The superimposed SERVICE live load = 50 PSF and a
REQUIRED: Design the lightest weight 2.0 C Conform non-composite deck
assuming 3-span condition.

4 @ 6’-0” = 24’-0”

## Utilizing the 6 allowable stress design load combinations from the

IBC Section 1605.3.1:

1) D
2) D+L
3) D + L + (Lr or S or R)
4) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)
5) 0.6D + W
6) 0.6D + 0.7E

See Vulcraft = 51 PSF + 38 PSF
catalog p. 28 for = 89 PSF
slab wt.
= 50 PSF

## Total Uniform Load = D + L

= 89 PSF + 50 PSF
= 139 PSF
Lecture 19 - Page 7 of 8
Step 2 – Refer to “Allowable Uniform Load” table from Vulcraft p. 29:

No. of Spans = 3

## Clear Span = 6’-0” Use 2C20 → Allowable

unif. load = 173 PSF > 139
Total Uniform Load = 139 PSF PSF

Step 3 – Refer to “Reinf. Conc. Slab Allow. Loads” table Vulcraft p. 28:

## Clear Span = 6’-0” Use 6x6-W2.1xW2.1

Superimposed Unif. Load = Total Load – Slab Wt. 107 PSF > 88 PSF
= 139 PSF – 51 PSF
= 88 PSF

## 5” conc. slab over 2” - 20 Gage

non-composite metal deck reinf.
with 6x6-W2.1xW2.1 W.W.F.

5”

## Steel support beam

Lecture 19 - Page 8 of 8
Lecture 21 – Reinforced Concrete Properties

Reinforced concrete structures are typified by their strength, beauty, bulk and
longevity. It is the material of choice for many structures where these
characteristics are required. Concrete-framed structures have many desirable
advantages over other construction materials including:

## • Concrete can be “molded” to form almost any imaginable shape

• The entire building can be made of concrete – walls, floors, structure
• Concrete frames are inherently stable (vs. steel & wood)
• Concrete structures are heavy – excellent for wind-prone areas
• Concrete is a readily-available material
• Concrete is very fire-resistant
• Weather-resistant (if built properly)
• Relatively inexpensive material

## However, reinforced concrete structures have several shortcomings which may

preclude it as a building material, including:

• Very labor-intensive
• Quality control
• Formwork
• Longer construction schedule due to curing time
• Much larger, heavier member sizes (vs. steel-framed)
• Poor insulation values

Lecture 21 - Page 1 of 8
Concrete Materials:

## 1. Portland Cement – The active ingredient that “glues” the other

materials together, conforming to ASTM C 150-99a. The raw
materials used in portland cement consist mainly of limestone, and
clays & shales. Different types of Portland cement include:

## a) Type I – General purpose

b) Type II – Moderate sulfate protection and lower heat of
hydration
c) Type III – High-early strength
d) Type IV – Low heat of hydration used for massive concrete
structures such as dams
e) Type V – High sulfate resistance

## 2. Water – Water is necessary to create the chemical reaction of

hardening the cement called “hydration.” It should be clean and free
from any impurities (i.e., potable).

ASTM C 33.

## a) Air Entrainment – Tiny bubbles used to reduce cracking in

concrete subject to freeze-thaw cycles. Conforming to
ASTM C 260 with an air content of 4% - 8% by volume.
b) Superplasticizers – Also called “High Range Water
Reducers”, used to increase concrete’s flow (workability)
c) Retarders – Used to slow the hydration process.
Conforming to ASTM C494 Type D.
d) Accelerators – Used to speed-up the curing process,
conforming to ASTM C494 Type C or E.
e) Insulating beads – Increases the “R” value, but diminishes
strength.
f) Fly Ash – The byproduct of coal-burning electric generating
plants. Used to decrease the amount of portland cement
required. Conforming to ASTM C 618 Class F.
g) Colors – Can be mixed to produce any desirable color.

Lecture 21 - Page 2 of 8
Reinforced Concrete Properties:

1) Compressive Strength

## The specified concrete compressive strength, f’c, is actually a stress. It

is the most important structural property of concrete and is VERY
DEPENDENT upon the water-to-cement ratio. This is the ratio of the
weight of water divided by the weight of cement. A low w/c ratio = high
f’c and high w/c ratio = low f’c. A low w/c ratio is very stiff and difficult to
work with, therefore necessitating the need for superplasticizers.
Normal concrete has w/c ratios ranging from about 0.23 (very strong)
up to a maximum of about 0.50 but preferably should not exceed 0.45.
Values of f’c are based on 28 days of curing. Typical ranges of f’c are:

## f’c = 3000 PSI (slab-on-grade, footings, foundation walls)

= 3500 – 5000 PSI (beams, framed slabs)
= 4000 – 14000 PSI (columns)

## The condition in which concrete cures affects the ultimate strength of

the hardened concrete’s f’c. Allowing the freshly-placed concrete to
have continuous moisture applied will significantly increase the
strength, f’c. Conversely, subjecting the freshly-placed concrete to
constant air will decrease the f’c. See the graph below:

## Affect of moist curing on concrete strength

Lecture 21 - Page 3 of 8
2) Tensile Strength

Concrete is a brittle material and has very small tensile strength (about
10% of f’c). It is usually assumed that concrete has zero tensile
strength.

## where f’c = concrete specified compressive stress in PSI

Example:
GIVEN: Concrete with f’c = 4000 PSI.
REQUIRED: Determine Econc

= 3,605,000 PSI

## Econc = 3605 KSI

Lecture 21 - Page 4 of 8
4) Reinforcing Bars – Used to carry ALL of the tension in a concrete
member, as well as helping to carry shear and compression. The steel
uses for bars is typically new “billet” steel having the usual modulus of
elasticity “E” = 29,000 KSI. The size of a bar refers to its diameter in
1/8ths. For example a #5 bar is ⅝” in diameter (see table below). Rebar
should conform to ASTM A615 for deformed (ribbed) bars. Typical

## a) Grade 60 – Has a yield stress Fy = 60 KSI, used for all bars

b) Grade 40 – Has a yield stress Fy = 40 KSI, used for low-strength
applications only

#3 ⅜” 0.11
#4 ½” 0.20
#5 ⅝” 0.31
#6 ¾” 0.44
#7 ⅞” 0.60
#8 1” 0.79
#9 1⅛” 1.00
#10 1¼” 1.27
#11 1⅜” 1.56

## The following diagram shows the typical markings on a deformed

reinforcing bar:

Lecture 21 - Page 5 of 8
Epoxy-coated reinforcing bars are regular bars with a shop-
applied coating of epoxy. These bars have exceptional resistance
to corrosion and are used in situations where there is high
water/salt exposure (such as road bridge decks, marine structures,
etc.). They are smooth to the touch and usually green in color.
Codes allow the placement of epoxy-coated bars to be closer to the
surface than regular bars because of the increased resistance to
corrosion. This usually results in a thinner, lighter concrete beam
or slab. Unfortunately, the epoxy coating is often scratched or
damaged during construction, leaving exposed bare steel. This
exposed bare steel is ripe for allowing moisture and salt deposits to
enter and actually INCREASING the propagation of corrosion.
For this reason, many state Departments of Transportation do not
allow epoxy-coated reinforcing bars for use in bridge decks.

## Bridge deck constructed with epoxy-coated reinforcing bars

Lecture 21 - Page 6 of 8
Reinforcing bars are placed a certain minimum distance away from
the edge of the member to ensure that it will not be susceptible to
water/salt infusion. This is referred to as cover distance. The
cover distance requirements shown below are obtained from ACI
318-02 “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.”

Required minimum
cover distance Concrete member

Reinforcing bars

Required minimum
cover distance

## Minimum Concrete Cover Over Reinforcing Bars

Condition: Minimum cover:
Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 3”
Concrete exposed to earth or No. 6 through No. 18 bars 2”
weather No. 5 and smaller bars 1½”
Concrete NOT exposed to Slabs, walls No. 14 & 1½”
earth or weather & joists No. 18
No. 11 and ¾”
smaller
Beams, Main reinf., 1½”
columns stirrups,
ties, spirals
Shells, No. 6 and ¾”
folded larger
plates No. 5 and ½”
smaller

Lecture 21 - Page 7 of 8
5) Slump – Fresh concrete uses a slump test to determine the workability
of the concrete as per ASTM C 143. It is, however, not a very useful
measure of the concrete’s strength. It is possible to get very workable
concrete with high slump (i.e., very fluid) with the use of
superplasticizers.

## The test involves taking a cone-shaped mold and pouring a sample of

concrete into it. Next, the cone is removed upward and the vertical
displacement of the concrete is measured.

## Recommended Slumps for Various Types of Construction

Type of Concrete Member: Slump:
Maximum Minimum
Foundation walls & footings 3” 1”
Beams and walls 4” 1”
Columns 4” 1”
Pavements and slabs 3” 1”
Mass concrete 2” 1”

Lecture 21 - Page 8 of 8
Lecture 22 – Introduction to ACI 318-02

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is the governing agency for all concrete
construction in the U.S. It was established in 1904 to serve and represent user
interests in the field of concrete. The ACI publishes many different standards,
but the most commonly referenced standard used by architects and engineers is
the ACI 318 “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.” It is updated
every 7 years and the latest version is ACI 318-02 updated in 2002.

Almost all Building Codes, including the IBC, refer to ACI 318 as the basis for
structural design of concrete members.

Contents:
PART 1—GENERAL

## CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................318-9

CHAPTER 2—DEFINITIONS........................................................................ 318-19

## CHAPTER 3—MATERIALS.......................................................................... 318-27

Lecture 22 - Page 1 of 8
PART 3—CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

## CHAPTER 4—DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS............................................ 318-41

CHAPTER 5—CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING, AND PLACING .................318-47
CHAPTER 6—FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES, AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS .............. 318-63
CHAPTER 7—DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT........................................ 318-69

## CHAPTER 8—ANALYSIS AND DESIGN - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................318-85

CHAPTER 9—STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS ...................................318-95
CHAPTER 11—SHEAR AND TORSION....................................................... 318-139
CHAPTER 12—DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT ..............................318-187

## CHAPTER 13—TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS............................................ 318-213

CHAPTER 14—WALLS.............................................................................. 318-233
CHAPTER 15—FOOTINGS........................................................................ 318-241
CHAPTER 16—PRECAST CONCRETE .................................................... 318-249
CHAPTER 17—COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS ........ 318-257
CHAPTER 18—PRESTRESSED CONCRETE........................................... 318-261
CHAPTER 19—SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMBERS...................... 318-289

## CHAPTER 20—STRENGTH EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES.......................... 318-297

CHAPTER 21—SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC DESIGN................318-303

## CHAPTER 22—STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE ....................................318-343

COMMENTARY REFERENCES......................................................318-353

APPENDIXES

## APPENDIX A—STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS ..................................................318-369

APPENDIX B—ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ..............................................318-385
APPENDIX C—ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS................318-393
APPENDIX D—ANCHORING TO CONCRETE.................................................318-399
APPENDIX E—NOTATION................................................................................318-427
APPENDIX F—STEEL REINFORCEMENT INFORMATION ............................318-437
INDEX.................................................................................................................318-439

Lecture 22 - Page 2 of 8
Analysis and Design – General Considerations

Design Basis:

## Similar to the LRFD method in steel, concrete is designed on the basis

Factors are applied to service loads in accordance with ACI 318
Section 9.2. These factored loads are used to determine maximum
factored moments, shears and other effects which are then compared
to the strength of the member. Strength of member is reduced by a
strength reduction factor.

## Factored Load Effects < (φ)Member Strength

1) 1.4(D + F)
2) 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
3) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W)
4) 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
5) 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S
6) 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H
7) 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

Lr = service roof live load
T = Temperature, creep, settlement, shrinkage loads

## Strength Reduction Factors, φ

Member Type: φ
Tension member 0.90
Compression member Spiral reinforced 0.70
Tied reinforced 0.65
Flexural members (beams) 0.85
Shear and torsion 0.75
Bearing 0.65

Lecture 22 - Page 3 of 8
Example 1
GIVEN: The interior column of a 2-story concrete-framed building has the
following applied service loads to the 1200 ft2 tributary area as shown:

## Roof live load = 20 PSF

Roof superimposed dead load (not including 8” thick slab) = 16 PSF
Roof wind uplift = -8 PSF
Floor live load = 100 PSF
Floor superimposed dead load (not including 10” thick slab) = 42 PSF

REQUIRED: Determine the maximum factored load, Pu, at the bottom of the 20”
x 20” square column.

## Trib. area = 1200 ft2

Lecture 22 - Page 4 of 8
Step 1 – Determine the total service loads on the roof:

## a) Service roof live load, Lr = Trib. area(Roof PSF)

= 1200 ft2(20 PSF)
= 24,000 lbs.
= 24.0 KIPS

## b) Service snow load, S = Trib. area(Floor PSF)

= 1200 ft2(45 PSF)
= 54,000 lbs.
= 54.0 KIPS

## c) Service wind uplift load, W = 1200 ft2(-8 PSF)

= -9,600 lbs.
= -9.6 KIPS

= 1200 ft2(16 PSF) + 1200 ft2 ⎛⎜ 8" (150 PCF ) ⎞⎟
⎝ 12 ⎠

= 139,200 lbs.
= 139.2 KIPS

## a) Service floor live load, L = 1200 ft2(100 PSF)

= 120,000 lbs.
= 120.0 KIPS

= 1200 ft2(42 PSF) + 1200 ft2 ⎛⎜ 10" (150 PCF ) ⎞⎟
⎝ 12 ⎠

## = 50,400 lbs. + 150,000 lbs.

= 200,400 lbs.
= 200.4 KIPS

Step 3 – Determine the total service dead load of the concrete column:

⎛ 20" ⎞⎛ 20" ⎞
⎟(28 ft ) 150lb / ft
3
)
⎝ 12 ⎠⎝ 12 ⎠
= 11,667 lbs.
= 11.7 KIPS

Lecture 22 - Page 5 of 8

## Total service dead load, D = Droof + Dfloor + Dcolumn

= 139.2 KIPS + 200.4 KIPS + 11.7 KIPS
= 351.3 KIPS

## Step 5 – Check all 7 load factors, select “worst” case:

1) 1.4(D + F)
1.4(351.3) = 491.8 KIPS

## 2) 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(120.0) + 0.5(54.0) = 640.6 KIPS ← USE

## 3) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W)

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(54.0) + (1.0(120.0)) = 628.0 KIPS

## 4) 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

1.2(351.3) + 1.6(-9.6) + 1.0(120.0) + 0.5(54) = 553.2 KIPS

## 5) 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S

1.2(351.3) + 1.0(120) + 0.2(54.0) = 552.4 KIPS

## 6) 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H

0.9(351.3) + 1.6(-9.6) = 300.8 KIPS

## 7) 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

0.9(351.3) = 316.2 KIPS

## From above, Pu = 640.6 KIPS

Lecture 22 - Page 6 of 8
Example 2
GIVEN: The cantilevered floor balcony beam/slab as shown below. The service
superimposed service live load = 75 PSF.
REQUIRED: Determine the maximum factored moment, Mu on the cantilevered
beam.

14’-0”

18”

5” slab

10” Beam

16’-0”

wu

14’-0”

## Side view of cantilevered beam

Lecture 22 - Page 7 of 8

## Since there are 2 beams, each supports ½ of the balcony:

5” slab

18”
10”
8’-0” 18” – 5” slab
16’-0”

## 150lb ⎛ 5" 10" 13" ⎞

Weight of concrete (shaded area) = 3 ⎜
(8' )( ) + ( )( ) ⎟
ft ⎝ 12 12 12 ⎠
= 635.4 PLF

= 112 PLF

= 747.4 PLF

= 600 PLF

= 1857 PLF
= 1.9 KLF

## Step 4 – Determine maximum factored moment on beam, Mu:

wu L2
For a cantilevered beam, Mmax = Mu =
2

## (1.9 KLF )(14'−0" ) 2

=
2

Mu = 186.2 KIP-FT

Lecture 22 - Page 8 of 8
Lecture 23 – Flexural Members

Flexural members are those that experience primarily bending stresses, such as
beams. A typical reinforced concrete beam is shown below:

Width “b”

Hanger bars
Depth to steel “d”

(#4 or #5 bars)
Height “h”

to prevent diag.
tension cracks)
spaced at d/2
apart

## Concrete cover Tension bars “As”

= ¾” → 2” as
Section A-A
per ACI reqmts.

Lecture 23 - Page 1 of 9
Sometimes, 2 (or more) rows of main tension bars are necessary. It is
important to provide minimum adequate cover around all reinforcing bars
so that these bars can properly bond with the concrete. ACI 318 dictates
that the minimum spacing between bars is 1.5 times the maximum
concrete aggregate size. Typical concrete batches use a maximum
aggregate size of ¾” diameter, so then the minimum bar spacing = 1.5(¾”)
= 1⅛”.

Height “h”

Min. bar
spacing

## Tension bars “As”

Min. bar
spacing

Lecture 23 - Page 2 of 9
As = Total cross-sectional area of all tension bars, in2

## d = depth to center of tension bars, inches

= h – (concrete cover) – (stirrup bar dia.) – ½(tension bar dia.)

## fy = yield stress of reinforcing bars

= 60 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 60 bars
= 40 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 40 bars

A
= s
bd

## ρmin = minimum allowable ratio of tension steel per ACI 318

200
= where fy = PSI
fy

Lecture 23 - Page 3 of 9
Example 1
GIVEN: A rectangular concrete beam is similar to the one shown above.
Use the following:
• Height h = 20”
• Width b = 12”
• Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI
• Concrete cover = ¾”
• All bars are A615 – Grade 60 (fy = 60 KSI)
• Stirrup bar = #3
• 4 - #7 Tension bars
REQUIRED:
1) Determine total area of tension bars, As.
2) Determine depth to center of tension bars, d.
A 200
3) Determine ρactual = s where ρmin = and state if it is acceptable.
bd fy

As = 2.40 in2

## = h – (concrete cover) – (stirrup bar dia.) – ½(tension bar dia.)

= 20” – ¾” – ⅜” – ½(⅞”)

d = 18.44”

## Step 3 – Determine ρactual and ρmin :

As 200
ρactual = ρmin =
bd fy

2.40in 2 200
= =
(12" )(18.44" ) 60000 PSI

## Since ρactual > ρmin → beam is acceptable

Lecture 23 - Page 4 of 9
A basic understanding of beam mechanics is necessary to study concrete beam
behavior. Consider a simply-supported homogeneous rectangular beam loaded
by a uniformly-distributed load as shown below:

Span L

Taking a section through the beam at any place along the length reveals the
following stress distribution about the cross-section of the beam:

Compression
Neutral
Axis The stress distribution
varies linearly from zero
stresses at the neutral
axis, to a maximum tensile
or compressive stress at
the extreme edges.

Homogeneous Beam
Tension

Lecture 23 - Page 5 of 9
In a reinforced concrete beam, the stress distribution is different. Above the
neutral axis, the concrete carries all the compression, similar to the
homogeneous beam. Below the neutral axis however, the concrete is incapable
of resisting tension and must rely on the reinforcing bars to carry all the tension

Compression
Neutral
Axis The actual stress distribution
in the compression side
varies non-linearly from zero
stresses at the neutral axis,
to a maximum compressive
stress at the extreme edge.

## Reinforced Concrete Beam

Tension = T
Reinforcing bars

Looking at a side view of the stress distribution of the reinforced concrete beam:
0.85f’cb
“Whitney” stress block

½ (a)
a = β 1C

Neutral d
Axis Moment arm = Z

T = Asfy T = Asfy

## Actual Stress Distribution Idealized Stress Distribution

Lecture 23 - Page 6 of 9
Assuming an idealized beam, tension equals compression:

Tension = Compression
Asfy = Area of Whitney stress block
Asfy = 0.85f’cab

Solve for a:

As f y
a= = β 1C
0.85 f ' c b

## β1 = 0.85 for f’c < 4000 PSI

= 0.80 for f’c = 5000 PSI
= 0.75 for f’c > 6000 PSI

## Mn = Nominal moment capacity of concrete beam

= Asfy(Moment arm)
= AsfyZ
a
= Asfy(d - )
2

## Mu = Usable moment capacity of concrete beam

= φMn
= 0.9Mn
a
Mu = 0.9(Asfy(d - ) )
2

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤
Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )
⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

## ⎛ 0.85β1 f ' c ⎞⎛ 87,000 ⎞

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ where fy = PSI
⎜ fy ⎟⎜ 87,000 + f ⎟
⎝ ⎠⎝ y ⎠

ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318
= 0.75ρbal

Lecture 23 - Page 7 of 9
Example 2
GIVEN: The concrete beam from Example 1 is used to support the loading as
shown below.
REQUIRED:
1. Determine the maximum factored applied moment, Mmax.
2. Determine the usable moment capacity of the beam, Mu, and determine if
it is acceptable based on Mmax.
3. Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax.

20’-0”

## Step 1 – Determine maximum factored applied moment, Mmax:

wu L2
Mmax =
8

(3KLF )(20'−0" ) 2
=
8

## Step 2 - Determine the usable moment capacity of the beam, Mu:

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤
Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ) where ρact = 0.0108 (see Ex. 1)
⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ (0.0108)(60 KSI ) ⎞⎤
= 0.9(2.40 in2)(60 KSI)(18.44”)(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎟⎥ )
⎣ ⎝ 4 KSI ⎠⎦

= 2161.4 KIP-IN

Mu = 180.1 KIP-FT

## Since Mu = 180.1 KIP-FT > Mmax = 150 KIP-FT → beam is acceptable

Lecture 23 - Page 8 of 9
Step 3 – Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax:

ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318
= 0.75ρbal

## ⎛ 0.85β1 f ' c ⎞⎛ 87,000 ⎞

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ where fy = PSI
⎜ fy ⎟⎜ 87,000 + f ⎟
⎝ ⎠⎝ y ⎠

## ⎛ 0.85(0.85)(4 KSI ) ⎞⎛ 87,000 ⎞

=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 60 KSI ⎠⎝ 87,000 + 60000 PSI ⎠

= 0.0285

ρmax = 0.75(0.0285)

## ρmax = 0.0214 > ρact = 0.0108 → beam is acceptable

Lecture 23 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 24 – Flexural Members (cont.)

## Determining the usable moment capacity, Mu, of a rectangular reinforced concrete

beam is accomplished by using the formula below: (see Lect. 23)

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤
Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )
⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

Designing a beam using the equation above is much more difficult. Assuming the
material properties and dimensions are known, the equation above still has 2
unknown variables – As and ρact. Therefore, design of steel reinforcement for a given
beam is largely one of trial-and-error.

Beam Design
Design of concrete beam members is often one of trial-and-error. It’s difficult
to directly solve for all the variables in a reinforced concrete beam. Usually,
material properties are known as well as maximum applied factored moment,
Mmax.

## Minimum Suggested Thickness “h” of Concrete Beams & One-Way Slabs

Member: End Conditions
Simply One end Both ends Cantilever
supported continuous continuous
Solid one-way slab L/20 L/24 L/28 L/10
Beam L/16 L/18.5 L/21 L/8
Span length L = inches

Beams are usually rectangular having the width typically narrower than the
height. The diagram below shows typical beam aspect ratios:

h ≈ 1.5b → 2.5b

Lecture 24 - Page 1 of 9
Beam Design Aid
It is still difficult to directly design a reinforced concrete beam even if
dimensions and material properties are known. The use of design aids are
commonly used to streamline the design process instead of laboriously using
a trial-and-error approach.

Mu
The design aid shown below is used for design or analysis. Values of
φbd 2
are in units of PSI. It can be used to directly solve for ρact knowing factored
actual moment Mu, f’c, fy, b and d.

## Table 1 - Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI, Grade 60 Bars

Lecture 24 - Page 2 of 9
Table 2 – Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI, Grade 60 Bars

Lecture 24 - Page 3 of 9
Example 1
GIVEN: A rectangular concrete beam with dimensions is shown below (stirrup bars
not shown). Use concrete f’c = 4000 PSI and grade 60 bars.
REQUIRED:
1) Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using formula.
2) Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using Table 2.

b =12”

d = 18”

3 - # 7 bars

As
ρact =
bd

## 3(0.60in 2 _ per _ bar )

=
(12" )(18" )

ρact = 0.0083

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y ⎞⎤
Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ )
⎢⎣ ⎝ f 'c ⎠⎥⎦

⎡ ⎛ (0.0083)(60 KSI ) ⎞⎤
= 0.9(1.80 in2)(60 KSI)(18”)(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎟⎥ )
⎣ ⎝ 4 KSI ⎠⎦

= 1621 KIP-IN

Mu = 135 KIP-FT

Lecture 24 - Page 4 of 9
Step 2 - Determine the usable moment capacity Mu of the beam using Table 2:

From Table 2:

Mu
At ρ = 0.0083 → = 461.4 PSI
φbd 2

## Solving for Mu:

Mu = 461.4 PSI(φbd2)

= 461.4 PSI[(0.9)(12”)(18”)2]

= 1,614,531 LB-IN

= 1615 KIP-IN

Mu = 134.6 KIP-FT

## NOTE: This answer is the same as in Step 1.

Lecture 24 - Page 5 of 9
Example 2
GIVEN: The concrete beam below. Use the following:

## • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• Concrete cover = ¾”
• #8 bars are to be used for main tension bars
• #3 stirrups

REQUIRED: Design the rectangular beam such that h ≈1.5b and ρact ≈ ½ (ρmax).

wu = 2 KLF

28’-0”

## Step 1 – Determine maximum factored moment, Mmax:

wu L2
Mmax =
8

(2 KLF )(28'−0" ) 2
=
8

## Mmax = 196 KIP-FT

= 2352 KIP-IN

= 2,352,000 LB-IN

Lecture 24 - Page 6 of 9
Step 2 – Select values from Table 2:

= ½(0.0214)

## TRY ρact = 0.0107

Mu
b) At ρ = 0.0107 → = 581.2 PSI
φbd 2

Step 3 – Solve for “b” and “d” by substituting Mmax for Mu in above equation:

Mu
= 581.2 PSI
φbd 2

φ = 0.9

d = 1.5b

2352000
= 581.2 PSI
(0.9)(b)(1.5b) 2

## Solve for “b”:

2352000
= 581.2 PSI
(0.9)(2.25b 3 )

2352000
b=3
(0.9)(2.25)(581.2)

## b = 12.6” → Use b = 12”

d = 1.5b
= 1.5(12”)

d ≈ 18”

Lecture 24 - Page 7 of 9
Step 4 – Select beam dimensions:

= 18.375”

## Step 5 – Determine required area of main tension bars:

As
From above, ρact = 0.0107 =
bd

## Solve for As:

As = 0.0107(b)(d)

= 0.0107(12”)(18.375”)

As = 2.36 in2

## Step 6 – Determine number of #8 main tension bars:

As
No. of bars =
Area _ of _ one _ bar

2.36in 2
=
0.79in 2 _ per _#8 _ bar

## = 2.99 bars → USE 3 - #8 bars

Lecture 24 - Page 8 of 9
Step 7 – Check beam height with “Minimum Thickness of Beams” Table:

From Table:

## Member type = Beam L

h≈
End Condition = Simply-supported 16

L
h≈
16

(28'−0" )(12" / ft )

16

## h ≈ 21” which is approximately = 20” as designed

Step 8 – Draw “Summary Sketch” labeling all information necessary to build it:

12”

2 - #4 hanger
bars

#3 stirrup bars
20”

@ 9” o.c.

## ¾” concrete cover 3 - #8 main bars

Section A-A

Notes:
1) Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI normal-weight
2) All bars ASTM A615 Grade 60

Lecture 24 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 25 – T- Beams

Concrete beams are often poured integrally with the slab, forming a much stronger
“T” – shaped beam. These beams are very efficient because the slab portion
carries the compressive loads and the reinforcing bars placed at the bottom of the
stem carry the tension. A T-beam typically has a narrower stem than an ordinary
rectangular beam. These stems are typically spaced from 4’-0” apart to more than
12’-0”. The slab portion above the stem is designed as a one-way slab spanning
between stems (see Lecture 26).

Slab

## Main tension bars

at bottom of stem

## b = Effective flange width

hf = Slab
thickness

Overhang
width d

bw Clear distance bw
NOTE: Stirrups in T-beam
are required (not shown in
this sketch)

Lecture 25 - Page 1 of 9
Assuming T-beams are symmetrical, the following design dimensions are used:

8hf

## Overhang width = smaller or

½(Clear distance)

¼(Beam span)

b = smaller or

(2 x overhang width) + bw

T-Beam Analysis
T-beams are analyzed similarly to rectangular beams, except the
compression area is a narrow “strip” usually located in the slab.

a = Effective conc.
compressive b = Effective flange width
thickness

hf

a
Z = (d - ) d
2
= Effective concrete
compression area As = Total area of
= (a)(b) bw
main tension bars

Lecture 25 - Page 2 of 9
Mu = Usable moment capacity of T-beam

= φTZ

where: φ = 0.9

= Asfy

T
=
0.85 f ' c

A
= c
b

## Z = Moment arm distance between center of

compression to center of tension

a
=d-
2

Lecture 25 - Page 3 of 9
Example 1
GIVEN: A commercial building has T-beams spaced 6’-6” (center-to-center) with a 4”
concrete slab as shown in the framing plan and cross-section views below. Use the
following information:

• Superimposed service floor dead load (NOT including conc. wt.) = 40 PSF
• Superimposed service floor live load = 100 PSF
• Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI
• ASTM A615 Grade 60 bars

REQUIRED:
1) Determine the maximum factored moment, Mmax, on the T-beam.
2) Determine the usable moment capacity, Mu, for the T-beam.

T-beam

## T-beam span = 20’-0”

A A

6’-6”
Perimeter girder Column
Typ.

Framing Plan

Lecture 25 - Page 4 of 9
6’-6”
4”

16”

2 - #9 bars
8”

## Determine area of T-beam = Slab area + Stem area

= (6.5’)(0.333’) + (1’)(0.666’)
= 2.83 ft2

## Determine service weight of T-beam = Area of T-beam x Conc. unit wt.

= 2.83 ft2(150 lb/ft3)
= 425 PLF

## = 1.2[(6.5’)(40 PSF) + 425 PLF] + 1.6[(6.5’)(100 PSF)]

= 822 PLF + 1040 PLF
= 1862 PLF → Use wu = 1.9 KLF

wu L2
Det. Maximum factored moment, Mmax =
8

## (1.9 KLF )(20'−0" ) 2

=
8

Mmax = 95 KIP-FT

Lecture 25 - Page 5 of 9
Step 2 – Determine effective concrete slab width “b”:

b = smaller or

## T = Tension force developed in main bars

= Asfy
= 2 bars(1.00 in2 per #9 bar)(60 KSI)
= 120 KIPS

## Ac = Effective concrete compression area

T
=
0.85 f ' c

120 KIPS
=
0.85(3KSI )

= 47.1 in2

Lecture 25 - Page 6 of 9
Step 4 – Determine usable moment capacity, Mu for the T-beam:

A
= c
b

47.1in 2
=
60"

a = 0.79”

## Z = Moment arm distance between center of

compression to center of tension

a
=d-
2

0.79"
= 16” -
2

Z = 15.6”

Mu = φTZ

= 0.9(120 KIPS)(15.6”)

= 1685 KIP-IN

Mu = 140.4 KIP-FT

## NOTE: Since Mu = 140.4 KIP-FT > Mmax = 95 KIP-FT, T-

beam is ACCEPTABLE.

Lecture 25 - Page 7 of 9
Heavily-Reinforced T-Beams
T-beams with a lot of tension reinforcement may have a portion of the effective
concrete area located within the stem as shown below:

hf

d
Z
= Effective concrete
compression area
bw
As

## The location of the centroid of the effective concrete compression area is

found by methods discussed in AECT 210 – Structural Theory (see Lecture 5).
After the location is found, analysis is exactly the same as ordinary T-beams.

Similar to ordinary rectangular reinforced concrete beams, the ACI 318 limits
the amount of tension steel in T-beams so that the steel will yield prior to
concrete compression failure. The maximum area of steel, As is shown in the
table below.

## Maximum Tensile Steel Permitted in T-Beams

Concrete and Steel Properties: Formula (As = in2)
Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI As max = 0.0478[bhf + bw(0.582d – hf)]
Steel fy = 40 KSI
Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI As max = 0.0319[bhf + bw(0.503d – hf)]
Steel fy = 60 KSI
Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI As max = 0.0638[bhf + bw(0.582d – hf)]
Steel fy = 40 KSI
Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI As max = 0.0425[bhf + bw(0.503d – hf)]
Steel fy = 60 KSI

Lecture 25 - Page 8 of 9
Example 2
GIVEN: The T-beam from Example 1.
REQUIRED: Determine the maximum area of tension steel permitted, As max:

From Example 1:

## Concrete f’c = 3000 PSI

Steel fy = 60 KSI
b = 60”
hf = 4”
bw = 8”

## NOTE: This area of tension steel As = 8.7 in2 is a LOT!! In order

to supply this much steel the beam would require 9 - #9 bars, 15
- #7 bars or 20 - #6 bars! It would be far better to change the
beam dimensions than to try to squeeze this many bars into the
beam.

Lecture 25 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 27 – Two-Way Slabs

Two-way slabs have tension reinforcing spanning in BOTH directions, and may take
the general form of one of the following:

## Types of Two-Way Slab Systems

Lecture 27 - Page 1 of 13
The following Table may be used to determine minimum thickness of various two-
way slabs based on deflection:

## Minimum Suggested Thickness “h” for Two-Way Slabs

Two-Way Slab System: Minimum Thickness h:
Flat plate Ln/30
Flat plate with spandrel beams Ln/33
Flat slab Ln/33
Flat slab with spandrel beams Ln/36
Two-way beam-supported slab Ln/33
Ln = clear distance in long direction

Flat Plates

Flat plates are the most common type of two-way slab system. It is commonly
used in multi-story construction such as hotels, hospitals, offices and
apartment buildings. It has several advantages:

• Easy formwork
• Simple bar placement
• Low floor-to-floor heights

## Two-way slabs are inherently difficult to analyze by conventional methods of

statics because of the two-way bending occurring. Accurately determining the
moments on a two-way slab is typically accomplished by finite element
computer analysis.

## Computer analysis of two-way slab

Lecture 27 - Page 2 of 13
The ACI 318 code allows a direct design method that can be used in most
typical situations. However, the following limitations apply:

## 1. Must have 3 or more continuous spans in each direction.

2. Slab panels must be rectangular with a ratio of the longer span to
shorter span(measured as centerline-to-centerline of support) not
greater than 2.0.
3. Successive span lengths in each direction must not differ by more than
1/3 of the longer span.
4. Columns must not be offset by more than 10% of the span (in direction
of offset) from either axis between centerlines of successive columns.
5. Loads must be uniformly distributed, with the unfactored live load not

Design Strips

a) L1 > L2:

L2 L2
Column
(typ.)
Exterior Column Strip
Interior Column Strip
Interior Column Strip

Middle Strip

Middle Strip

L1

## L2/4 L2/4 L2/4

Lecture 27 - Page 3 of 13
b) L2 > L1:

L2 L2

## Exterior Column Strip

Interior Column Strip
Interior Column Strip

Middle Strip

Middle Strip
L1

## Design Moment Coefficients for Flat Plate Supported Directly by Columns

Slab End Span Interior Span
Moments 1 2 3 4 5
Exterior Positive First Positive Interior
Negative Interior Negative
Negative
Total 0.26Mo 0.52Mo 0.70Mo 0.35Mo 0.65Mo
Moment
Column 0.26Mo 0.31Mo 0.53Mo 0.21Mo 0.49Mo
Strip
Middle 0 0.21Mo 0.17Mo 0.14Mo 0.16Mo
Strip
Mo = Total factored moment per span

## End Span Interior Span

1 2 3 4 5

2
wu L2 Ln
Mo = where Ln = clear span (face-to-face of cols.)in the direction of analysis
8

Lecture 27 - Page 4 of 13
Bar Placement per ACI 318-02

## The actual quantity of bars required is determined by analysis (see Example

below). However, usage of the Direct Design Method prescribes bar
placement as shown below:

Lecture 27 - Page 5 of 13
Example 1
GIVEN: A two-way flat plate for an office building is shown below. Use the following:

## • Column dimensions = 20” x 20”

• Superimposed service floor Dead load = 32 PSF (not including slab weight)
• Superimposed service floor Live load = 75 PSF
• Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI
• #4 Grade 60 main tension bars
• Concrete cover = ¾”

REQUIRED: Use the “Direct Design Method” to design the two-way slab for the
design strip in the direction shown.

## L2 = 16’-0” L2 = 16’-0” L2 = 16’-0”

20’-0”

Ln 20’-0”

20’-0”

L2/4 L2/4
½ Middle strip
= ½(16’ – Col. strip) ½ Middle strip
Col. strip = ½(16’ – Col. strip)
Design Strip = 16’

Lecture 27 - Page 6 of 13
Step 1 – Determine slab thickness h:

Ln
Since it is a flat plate, from Table above, use h =
30

= 220” = 18.33’

220"
h=
30

= 7.333”

= 278.4 PSF

= 0.28 KSF

## 2) Slab panels must be rectangular with a ratio of the longer span to

shorter span(measured as centerline-to-centerline of support) not
greater than 2.0. YES

3) Successive span lengths in each direction must not differ by more than
1/3 of the longer span. YES

4) Columns must not be offset by more than 10% of the span (in direction
of offset) from either axis between centerlines of successive columns.
YES

5) Loads must be uniformly distributed, with the unfactored live load not
more than 2 times the unfactored dead load (L/D < 2.0). YES

Lecture 27 - Page 7 of 13
Step 4 – Determine total factored moment per span, Mo:

2
wu L2 Ln
Mo =
8

## (0.28KSF )(16' )(18.33' ) 2

=
8

Mo = 188 KIP-FT

Step 5 – Determine distribution of total factored moment into col. & middle strips:

## Design Moment Coefficients for Flat Plate Supported Directly by Columns

Slab End Span Interior Span
Moments 1 2 3 4 5
Exterior Positive First Positive Interior
Negative Interior Negative
Negative
Total 0.26Mo = 48.9 0.52M o = 97.8 0.70M o = 131.6 0.35Mo = 65.8 0.65Mo = 122.2
Moment
Column 0.26Mo = 48.9 0.31Mo = 58.3 0.53Mo = 99.6 0.21Mo = 39.5 0.49Mo = 92.1
Strip
Middle 0 0.21Mo = 39.5 0.17Mo = 32.0 0.14Mo = 26.3 0.16Mo = 30.1
Strip
Mo = Total factored moment per span = 188 KIP-FT

Step 6 – Determine tension steel bars for col. & middle strips:

= 586.8 KIP-IN
= 586,800 LB-IN

b = 96”

8”
d

## d = 8” – conc. cover – ½(bar dia.)

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)
= 7”

Lecture 27 - Page 8 of 13
Mu 586,800 LB − IN
=
φbd 2
(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 138.6 PSI

As
ρ=
bd

## Solve for As:

As = ρbd
= (0.0033)(96”)(7”)
= 2.22 in2

As
Number of bars required =
As _ per _ bar

2.22in 2
=
0.20in 2 _ per _#4 _ bar

## = 11.1 → Use 12 - #4 TOP bars

Lecture 27 - Page 9 of 13
b) Column strip for region 2 :

= 699,600 LB-IN

b = 96”

8” d

## d = 8” – conc. cover – ½(bar dia.)

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)
= 7”

Mu 699,600 LB − IN
=
φbd 2
(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 165.2 PSI

Use ρ = 0.0033

## Use 12 - #4 BOTTOM bars

Lecture 27 - Page 10 of 13
c) Middle strip for region 2 :

= 474,000 LB-IN

b = 96”

8” d

## d = 8” – conc. cover – ½(bar dia.)

= 8” – ¾” – ½(4/8”)
= 7”

Mu 474,000 LB − IN
=
φbd 2
(0.9)(96" )(7" ) 2

= 112.0 PSI

Use ρ = 0.0033

## Use 6 - #4 Bottom bars at each ½ Middle Strip

Lecture 27 - Page 11 of 13
Step 7 – Draw “Summary Sketch” plan view of bars:

12 - #4 TOP bars

## ½ Middle strip for

region 2 20’-0”
6 - #4 BOTTOM bars

## Col. strip for region 2

12 - #4 BOTTOM bars 20’-0”

20’-0”

4’-0” 4’-0”

## ½ Middle strip = 4’-0” ½ Middle strip = 4’-0”

Col. strip

16’ – 0”

Lecture 27 - Page 12 of 13
Example 2
GIVEN: The two-way slab system from Example 1.
REQUIRED: Design the steel tension bars for design strip shown (perpendicular to
those in Example 1).

## 16’-0” 16’-0” 16’-0”

20’-0”
½ Middle strip = 6’-0”

## ½ Middle strip = 6’-0”

20’-0”

20’-0”

Lecture 27 - Page 13 of 13
Lecture 28 – Shear in Beams

Heavy loads on concrete beams produce diagonal shear cracks as shown below:

Column
Shear cracks in areas (typ.)
of high shear

Cracking in beams is normal and indicates the tension bars are actually working.
Excessive cracking needs to be controlled by additional bars called stirrups
placed perpendicular to the cracks as shown below:

crack

## Stirrup bar spacing, s

Lecture 28 - Page 1 of 9
Stirrups may take the shape of the following typical configurations:

## Design for Shear in Concrete Beams

Vertical shear is carried by the concrete shear capacity and the shear
capacity provided by the stirrups. In other words:

## where: Vu = factored vertical shear determined at a distance

“d” away from the face of support

φ = 0.75

= 2 f ' c bw d

## f’c = concrete strength, PSI

bw = width of beam

## Vs = shear strength provided by stirrups bars

Vu − φVc
=
φ

Lecture 28 - Page 2 of 9
If Vs < 4 f ' c bw d d
2
then Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of
or

24”
If 4 f ' c bw d < Vs < 8 f ' c bw d
d
then Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of 4

or

Av f y d
s= < Smax
Vs

## d = depth to center of tension bars

Lecture 28 - Page 3 of 9
Example
GIVEN: A simply-supported concrete beam having the following: (Assume the
beam is adequate based on flexure)

## • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• #3 Grade 60 U-shaped stirrup bars

## REQUIRED: Determine stirrup requirements along the length of the beam.

wu = 5.6 KLF
(includes beam wt.)

Conc.
column

beam

20’-0”

12”

## #3 U-shaped d = 18” h = 20”

stirrup bars

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 28 - Page 4 of 9
Step 1 – Determine maximum factored shear Vu at “d” away from face of support:

wu L
Simply-supported beam end reaction =
2

=
2
d = 18”
= 56 KIPS = 1.5’

= 47.6 KIPS

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS
56 KIPS

0 Shear
0
Diagram
d = 1.5’

## φVc = 0.75( 2 f ' c bw d )

= 0.75( 2 4000 PSI (12" )(18" )
= 20,492 Lbs.
= 20.5 KIPS

Lecture 28 - Page 5 of 9
Step 3 – Determine range where stirrups are required:

## ½(φVc) = ½(20.5 KIPS)

= 10.25 KIPS

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS
56 KIPS
½(φVc) = 10.25 KIPS

0 0

-47.6 KIPS
-10.25 KIPS
d = 1.5’ Stirrups Stirrups d = 1.5’
required Stirrups not required required

Vu − φVc
=
φ

## 47.6 KIPS − 20.5KIPS

=
0.75

Vs = 36.1 KIPS

Lecture 28 - Page 6 of 9
Step 5 – Determine stirrup spacing, s:

## 36.1 KIPS < 54,644 Lbs. → YES

Then: d 18"
= = 9”
2 2
Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of
or

24”

## b) Check spacing requirement:

Assumed shear
crack
Av f y d
s= < Smax #3 U-shaped
Vs
stirrup bars

2 - #3 bars
spanning crack
Av = 2(0.11 in2 per #3 bar)
= 0.22 in2

=
36.1KIPS

6” < 9”

## Use #3 Stirrup bars spaced 6” o.c.

Lecture 28 - Page 7 of 9
Step 6 – Determine number of stirrups – assuming only ONE spacing:

wu = 5.6 KLF

Vu = 47.6 KIPS
56 KIPS
½(φVc) = 10.25 KIPS

0 0

-47.6 KIPS
-10.25 KIPS
d = 1.5’ Stirrups Stirrups d = 1.5’
required Stirrups not required required

## ⎛ Dis tan ce _ where _ stirrups _ required ⎞

Number of stirrups required = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + 1
⎝ Stirrup _ spacing ⎠

⎜⎜ ⎟12" / ft ⎟
= ⎜⎝ ⎠ ⎟ +1
5.6 KLF
⎜ 6" o.c. ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

## Use 15 - #3 U-shaped stirrups @ 6” o.c. ea. end of beam

Lecture 28 - Page 8 of 9
Step 7 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

20’-0”

15 - #3 U-shaped stirrups
at ea. end of beam

## Stirrup bar spacing = 6” o.c.

12”

15 - #3 Grade 60 U-
shaped stirrup bars @
6” o.c. at each end of 20”
beam

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 28 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 29 – Shear in Beams (cont.)

## As a continuation of our discussion of shear in concrete beams, let’s look at an

example of a concrete girder with point loads.

Example
GIVEN: The 20” x 34” concrete girder as shown below. Use the following:

## • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• #3 – Grade 60 U-shaped stirrups

REQUIRED: Determine the stirrup bar requirements. Assume only one spacing
for the beam.

wu = 1.2 KLF

Conc.
column

## 8’-0” 8’-0” 8’-0” 8’-0” 8’-0”

40’-0”

20”

#3 U-shaped d = 32”
h = 34”
stirrup bars

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 29 - Page 1 of 6
Step 1 – Draw shear diagram:

wu = 1.2 KLF

Conc.
column

40’-0”

74 64.4

39.4 29.8

4.8
NOTE: All -4.8
Kips -29.8 -29.8

-39.4 -74

## Step 2 – Determine Vu at distance “d” from face of support:

32"
Vu = 74 KIPS - (1.2 KLF )
12" / ft

= 70.8 KIPS

## φVc = 0.75( 2 f ' c bw d )

= 0.75( 2 4000 PSI (20" )(32" ))
= 60,716 Lbs.
φVc = 60.7 KIPS

Lecture 29 - Page 2 of 6
Step 4 – Determine range where stirrups are required:

= 30.4 KIPS

wu = 1.2 KLF

Vu = 70.8

74 64.4
½(φVc) = 30.4
39.4
29.8
4.8
-4.8
Shear Diagram

-39.4 -74

Stirrups reqd.

## Because of symmetry → Same

condition on right side of beam
as left side of beam
39.4kips − 30.4kips
Distance “X” =
1.2kips _ per _ foot

= 7.5 feet

= 90”

Lecture 29 - Page 3 of 6
Step 5 – Determine shear strength provided by stirrups, Vs:

Vu − φVc
=
φ

=
0.75

Vs = 13.5 KIPS

## 13.5 KIPS < 161,900 Lbs. → YES

Then: d 32"
= = 16”
2 2
Max. stirrup spacing smax = smaller of
or

24”

Use

Lecture 29 - Page 4 of 6
b) Check spacing requirement:
Assumed shear
crack
Av f y d
s= < Smax #3 U-shaped
Vs
stirrup bars

2 - #3 bars
spanning crack
Av = 2(0.11 in2 per #3 bar)
= 0.22 in2

=
13.5KIPS

## ⎛ Dis tan ce _ where _ stirrups _ required ⎞

Number of stirrups required = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + 1
⎝ Stirrup _ spacing ⎠

## ⎛ (96"−32" ) + ( Dis tan ce _" X " ) ⎞

=⎜ ⎟ +1
⎝ 16" o.c. ⎠

See shear
diagram
⎛ (96"−32" ) + 90" ⎞
=⎜ ⎟ +1
⎝ 16" o.c. ⎠

## Use 11 - #3 U-shaped stirrups @ 16” o.c. ea. end of beam

Lecture 29 - Page 5 of 6
Step 8 – Draw “Summary Sketch”:

40’-0”

11 - #3 U-shaped stirrups
at ea. end of beam

## Stirrup bar spacing = 16” o.c.

20”

11 - #3 Grade 60 U-
shaped stirrup bars @
16” o.c. at each end of 34”
beam

Beam Cross-Section

Lecture 29 - Page 6 of 6
Lecture 30 – Development of Reinforcement, Splices, Hooks

## Reinforcing bars must be embedded a minimum distance into the concrete in

order to achieve the full tensile capacity, T of the bar. This length is referred to
as “Development Length”, Ld.

Concrete

Rebar
T = Asfy

Ld

The development length is based upon the BOND between the rebar and the
concrete. Factors affecting this bond include the following:

## • Type of ribbing on the bar

• Presence of epoxy (or other ) coating
• Concrete quality
• Distance between bar and edge of concrete
• Type of end anchorage into the concrete

Lecture 30 - Page 1 of 9
Determining Ld for Tension Bars:

d b f y αβλ
Ld =
25 f ' c

## b) #7 and larger bars:

d b f y αβλ
Ld =
20 f ' c

where:
db = diameter of bar

## f’c = specified concrete compressive strength, PSI

α = alpha
= Bar location factor
= 1.3 for top reinforcement
= 1.0 for all other locations

β = beta
= Coating factor
= 1.5 for epoxy coated bars
= 1.0 for uncoated bars

λ = lambda
= Lightweight aggregate factor
= 1.3 for lightweight aggregate
= 1.0 for normal weight aggregate

Lecture 30 - Page 2 of 9
Example 1
GIVEN: A #6 rebar under tension force. Assume the following conditions:

## • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI

• Normal weight concrete (λ = 1.0)
• ASTM A615 Grade 60 rebar
• #6 rebar (γ = 0.8)
• Uncoated bar (β = 1.0)
• Bar location is bottom of beam (α = 1.0)

## REQUIRED: Determine the development length, Ld to achieve full tensile

strength of the bar.

## Step 1 – Use the formula above to determine Ld:

d b f y αβλ
Ld =
25 f ' c

⎛6⎞
⎜ ⎟(60,000 PSI )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)
Ld = ⎝ ⎠
8
25 4000 PSI

Ld = 28.5”

Concrete

#6 Rebar

Ld = 28.5”

Lecture 30 - Page 3 of 9
Assuming “normal” conditions, the following table may be used to determine
development lengths of bars in tension:

## Development Length Ld of Grade 60 bottom bars in normal weight concrete

Condition Concrete f’c No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and larger
bars bars
Clear spacing of 3000 PSI 44db 55db
bars > db, clear 4000 PSI 38db 47db
cover > db 5000 PSI 34db 42db
All other cases 3000 PSI 66db 82db
4000 PSI 57db 71db
5000 PSI 51db 64db

Example 2
GIVEN: The same information as Example 1.
REQUIRED: Using the table above, determine the Ld for a #6 bar.

## Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI Ld = 38db

= 38(6/8”)
Clear spacing of bars > db, clear cover > db Ld = 28.5”

Lecture 30 - Page 4 of 9
Determining Ld for Compression Bars:

## The development length of bars in compression is not as large as the

development length in tension because of the absence of tension cracking
in the concrete.

## Ldc = Development length in compression

db f y
Ldc = 0.02
f 'c

= larger of or

Ldc = 0.0003dbfy

Example 3
GIVEN: A #6 bar in compression. Use f’c = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars.
REQUIRED: Determine the Ldc for the bar.

## Ldc = Development length in compression

6
db f y (60,000 PSI )
Ldc = 0.02 = 0.02 8 = 14.2” ← Use
f 'c 4000 PSI

= larger of or

## Ldc = 0.0003dbfy = 0.0003(6/8”)(60,000 PSI) = 13.5”

Ldc = 14.2”

Lecture 30 - Page 5 of 9
Lap Splices of Bars
Bars are generally fabricated to lengths of about 60’-0”, but transportation,
workability and other concerns often require bars to be less than about
40’-0” long. For long walls, beams, slabs and other situations requiring
long lengths of bars, lap splicing is commonly used. It is good practice to
place laps at regions of small tension, i.e., low moment.

Concrete

Ls

## = 1.0Ld for “Class A” splice if the area of reinforcement

provided through the splice > twice that required by analysis
and not more than 50% of the total reinforcement is spliced
within the lap length

## = 1.3Ld for “Class B” splice if reinforcement does not

meet Class A requirements

Lecture 30 - Page 6 of 9
Hooked and Bent Bars
Hooks are used in concrete members where there is not sufficient straight
length to achieve the full development length Ld.

## The following is a diagram showing the required lengths of bends and

hooks:

Ldh = Lhbλ

Lecture 30 - Page 7 of 9
Where: Lhb = Basic development length of hook in tension

db
= 1200
f 'c
λ = 1.0 unless otherwise specified below:
fy
= if using other than Grade 60 bars
60,000

## = 1.3 if lightweight concrete

Re quired _ As
=
Pr ovided _ As

Example 4
GIVEN: A #5 Grade 40 bar is in tension as shown below. Use LIGHTWEIGHT
concrete with f’c = 4000 PSI.
REQUIRED: Determine the min. required hook dimensions “X”, “Y” and “Z”.
Z = Ldh
Side cover = 1½”

Y
End cover = 1½” Critical section

## Step 1 – Determine dimension “X”:

X = 12db

= 12(5/8”)

X = 7½”

Lecture 30 - Page 8 of 9
Step 2 – Determine dimension “Y”:

= 4(5/8”)

Y = 2½”

db
Lhb = 1200
f 'c

5
= 1200 8"
4000 PSI

= 11.9”

Ldh = Lhbλ

## = 1.3 since lightweight concrete

fy 40000 PSI
= = = 0.67
60000 PSI 60000 PSI

Ldh = Lhbλ

= 11.9”(1.0)(1.3)(0.67)

Ldh = 10.4”

Lecture 30 - Page 9 of 9
Lecture 31 – Serviceability

## Serviceability refers to the structural “performance” of the finished building under

• Beam deflection
• Lateral drift
• Vibration

We will be focusing our discussion on beam deflection. The ACI 318-02 Code
dictates that the deflections be checked on the basis of effective moment of
inertia, Ie, under service loads. Before we can determine the value of the
effective moment of inertia, we must first have an understanding of the gross
moment of inertia, Ig, and the cracked moment of inertia, Icr.

## The gross moment of inertia is not appropriate for reinforced concrete

beams because the concrete under the neutral axis is in tension and is
ineffective. Since tension is carried by the steel rebar, the beam becomes
composite and therefore must be analyzed as such (See AECT 210 –
Lecture 6). The calculated value of gross moment of inertia is higher than
what is actually present.

## Ig = Gross moment of Inertia

bh 3
=
12

Lecture 31 - Page 1 of 7
Cracked Moment of Inertia Icr:

## The cracked moment of inertia takes into consideration the composite

action between the concrete and steel rebar. This assumes that the
concrete in the tension zone is totally ineffective, which is overly
conservative. However, the cracked moment of inertia is far closer to
predicting the actual moment of inertia of a reinforced concrete beam than
the gross moment of inertia.

N.A. d

nAs

by 3
Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2
3

## Where: n = Modular ratio

E 29,000,000 PSI
= steel =
E conc 57,000 f ' c

## As = Area of steel rebar in tension, in2

⎡ bd ⎤
nAs ⎢ 1 + 2 − 1⎥
⎣ nAs ⎦
y=
b

Lecture 31 - Page 2 of 7
Effective Moment of Inertia, Ie:

## The effective moment of inertia is typically used to determine the section

property of the member at a specific point along the moment diagram. In
most cases, the effective moment of inertia is used to determine the actual
deflection of the member when comparing to Code-dictated maximums.

⎧⎪⎛ M ⎞
3
⎡ ⎛M ⎞
3
⎤ ⎫⎪
Ie = ⎨⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ I g + ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ ⎥ I cr ⎬ ≤ I g
⎪⎩⎝ M a ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ M a ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

fr I g
=
yt

= 7.5 f ' c

## yt = dist. from N.A. of uncracked cross-section

to extreme tension fiber

h
=
2

## Ma = maximum unfactored moment at specific

location along the moment diagram

## Icr = cracked moment of inertia

Lecture 31 - Page 3 of 7
Example 1
GIVEN: A simply-supported rectangular beam is shown below. The loads
indicated are SERVICE loads. Use concrete f’c = 4000 PSI and grade 60 bars.
REQUIRED:
1) Determine the gross moment of inertia Ig of the beam.
2) Determine the cracked moment of inertia Icr of the beam.
3) Determine the maximum allowable mid-span deflection of the beam
assuming ∆allow = L/360.
4) Determine the actual mid-span deflection of the beam using Ie.

25’-0”

12”

2 - #4 hanger
bars

#3 stirrup bars
20”

@ 9” o.c.

Section A-A

## d = h – conc. cover – stirrup bar dia. – ½(main tension bar dia.)

= 20” – ¾” – ⅜” – ½(8/8”)
= 18.375”

Lecture 31 - Page 4 of 7
Step 1 – Determine gross moment of inertia Ig:

bh 3
Ig =
12

(12" )(20) 3
=
12

Ig =8000 in4

## Step 2 – Determine cracked moment of inertia Icr:

by 3
Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2
3

## Where: n = Modular ratio

E 29,000,000 PSI 29,000,000 PSI
= steel = =
E conc 57,000 f ' c 57,000 4000 PSI

= 8.04

## As = Area of steel rebar in tension, in2

= 3 bars(0.79 in2 per #8 bar)
= 2.37 in2

⎡ bd ⎤
nAs ⎢ 1 + 2 − 1⎥
⎣ nAs ⎦
y=
b

⎡ (12" )(18.375" ) ⎤
(8.04)(2.37in 2 ) ⎢ 1 + 2 2
− 1⎥
= ⎣ (8.04)(2.37in ) ⎦
12"

= 6.2”

Lecture 31 - Page 5 of 7
by 3
Icr = + nAs (d − y ) 2
3

(12" )(6.2" ) 3
= + 8.04(2.37in 2 )(18.375"−6.2" ) 2
3

## Step 3 - Determine the maximum allowable mid-span deflection of the

beam assuming ∆allow = L/360:

L
∆allow =
360

(25'−0" )12" / ft
=
360

∆allow = 0.83”

= 7.5 f ' c
= 7.5 4000 PSI
= 474.3 PSI

fr I g
=
yt

## (474.3PSI )(8000 PSI )

=
20"
2

= 379,473 Lb-In
= 379.4 KIP-In
= 31.6 KIP-FT

Lecture 31 - Page 6 of 7
Ma = maximum unfactored moment at specific
location along the moment diagram

wL2
=
8

(1.5KLF )(25'−0" ) 2
=
8

Ma = 117.2 KIP-FT

⎧⎪⎛ M ⎞
3
⎡ ⎛M ⎞
3
⎤ ⎫⎪
Ie = ⎨⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ I g + ⎢1 − ⎜⎜ cr ⎟⎟ ⎥ I cr ⎬
⎪⎩⎝ M a ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ M a ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

## ⎧⎪⎛ 31.6 ⎞ 3 ⎡ ⎛ 31.6 ⎞ 3 ⎤ ⎫

4 ⎪
= ⎨⎜ ⎟ (8000in 4
) + ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ (2904in )⎬ ≤ I g
⎪⎩⎝ 117.2 ⎠ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 117.2 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

Ie = 3004 in4

## Step 5 – Determine actual mid-span deflection using Ie:

5wL4
∆act =
384 E conc I e

⎛ 1500 PLF ⎞
5⎜ ⎟(25'−0" x12" / ft )
4

= ⎝ ⎠
12
384(57000 4000 PSI )(3004in 4 )

∆act = 1.22”

## Since ∆act = 1.22” > ∆allow = 0.83” → member is NOT acceptable

Lecture 31 - Page 7 of 7