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HOSPITAL PHARMACY

The government or private hospital setting provides an excellent environment to


work with a variety of specialist, and possibly participate in ward rounds with clinical
pharmacists. This internship provides the students with the necessary skills and
competency in the basic aspects of pharmacy management and pharmaceutical care
services to enable them to function effectively as members of the integrated health care
team. This will also instill awareness among student interns of the pharmacists’ role as
efficient and effective partners in the delivery of health care services.

Specific Objectives:

1. Become familiar with the organizational structure of the hospital and the hospital
pharmacy department
2. Describe how the hospital pharmacy services interface with hospital
administration and other service departments
3. Become familiar and acquire skills in all phases of hospital pharmacy
management including aspects of staffing, business operations, quality assurance,
and interdepartmental relations
4. Become familiar with the functions and organization of the pharmacy and
therapeutics committee
5. Explain the rationale for the use of the hospital formulary system
6. Describe the drug distribution systems employed in the hospital pharmacy
7. Assist the pharmacists in filling and dispensing controlled substances
8. Select the best available resources for drug-related queries
9. Provide counselling to patients
10. Perform inventory and control of pharmaceuticals

Student Trainee Activities:

1. Institutional Orientation
a. Vision, Mission, Objectives/Philosophy
b. Ownership and Management
c. Organization (Including Inter-department relations)
d. Certification and accreditation within the institution
e. Other service departments

2. Pharmacy Orientation
a. VMG/Philosophy of Pharmaceutical Service
b. Organizational Set-up of pharmacy
c. Manpower Requirements (qualifications, duties and responsibilities, etc.)
d. Pharmaceutical Services Offered
e. Physical Arrangement of Pharmaceuticals
f. BFAD Laws and regulations on:
i. Ethical/Prescription and OTC Drugs
ii. Prohibited and Regulated Drugs
iii. Exempt Prohibited and Regulated Drugs
o Prescription Writing, Violations and Requirements
 Drug distribution System
 Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
 Hospital Formulary Systems
B. Tour of the Hospital and Pharmacy Department
C. Practicum
a. Actual participation in filling, labeling and dispensing of prescriptions
under the supervisions of the Pharmacist-in-charge
b. May provide counseling to out-patients and or provide drug information
c. Assist in the development of patient medication profiles (in-patients and
selected out-patients)
d. Participate in the inventory of pharmaceuticals and non-pharmaceuticals
products
e. Participate in checking and coding controlled pharmaceutical products
for proper storage
f. Participate in recording, reporting and safekeeping of reports
g. Participate in preparing IV admixtures
h. Participate in research for pharmacy and therapeutics committee
i. Review the patient chart for possible medication error, dosing error, drug
interactions, and other drug related problems.
ACTIVITY NO. 1
ORGANIZATIONAL SET-UP OF A HOSPITAL PHARMACY

Objectives:
1. To described the organizational structure of a hospital and how hospital pharmacy
department interfaces with hospital administration and other service departments
2. To examine the components of managing a hospital pharmacy including
interdepartmental relations.

Topic for Discussion:


1. Organizational Set-up
a. Organization of the Hospital
b. Organization of the Hospital Pharmacy
2. Function of the Hospital Pharmacy
3. Manpower Requirements
a. Qualifications
b. Training
c. Job Description
d. Functions and Responsibilities
4. Hospital Policy, Rules and Regulations
5. Relationship with Other Service Departments

Activities:

1. Draw an organizational chart of a secondary level pharmacy service and a


tertiary level pharmacy service.

Fig. 1. Organizational Chart of Secondary Level Hospital Pharmacy Service


Fig. 2. Organizational Chart of a Tertiary Level Hospital Service

2. Draw a functional chart of the Hospital Pharmacy Service

Fig. 3. Functional Chart of a Hospital Pharmacy Service


3. List down of the job descriptions and responsibilities of the different pharmacy
personnel.

PERSONNEL JOB DESCRIPTION/S FUNCTIONS/RESPONSIBILITIES


Pharmacy Service
Chief Pharmacist

Supervising
Pharmacist

Senior Pharmacist

Pharmacists

Pharmacy Aide

Clerk

Storekeeper

Utility Workers
ACTIVITY NO. 2
PLANT, FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, REFERENCE SOURCES AND OTHER MATERIALS

Objectives:

1. To describe the physical set-up of a hospital pharmacy


2. To identify the apparatus/equipment/supplies and materials required in the
operation of a hospital pharmacy
3. To familiarize the students in the important available resources for providing drug
information.

Topics for discussion:

1. Physical Set-up of Pharmacy


a. Size/floor area of pharmacy
b. Display cabinets
c. Arrangement of stocks, FIFO system
d. Storage facilities/conditions (poisons, dangerous drugs, biologicals)
e. Sanitary facilities
f. Apparatus/equipment
2. Apparatus/Equipment/Supplies
3. References used in the Hospital Pharmacy

Activities:

1. Draw a physical layout of hospital pharmacy


2. List down the utensils, apparatus and other equipment and materials for all level
hospitals in accordance with BFAD rules and regulations.

3. Provide a list of the most important reference materials used in the hospital
pharmacy.
ACTIVITY NO 3.
DRUG PROCUREMENT AND INVENTORY CONTROL

Objectives:

1. To described the procurement and inventory control systems utilized by the


hospital pharmacy
2. To conduct actual drug inventory

Topics for discussion:

1. Drug Procurement
a. Purchasing
b. Control on purchase
c. Procedures on product specifications, contracts and bidding
d. Ordering procedure
e. Receiving, checking and coding
2. Inventory Control
a. Functions of Inventory Management
b. Arrangement of Inventory
i. Routine Stocks
ii. Special Storage Areas
3. Merchandising Return Policies and Procedures
4. Product recall Procedures

Activities:

1. Write down the responsibilities of the pharmacist in terms of requisition and


procurement of drugs and medicines.
2. Differentiate the process of purchasing drugs and medicines between
government and private hospital pharmacy services. How are these process
different from the community setting?

3. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using the POS in terms of


inventory management.
ACTIVITY NO. 4
STORAGE AND PRESENTAION OF PHARMACEUTICALS

Objectives:

1. To describe the proper methods by which drug and medicines are stored and
preserved to maintain potency for expected therapeutic value
2. To describe how unused pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical wastes
are disposed.

Topic for discussion:

1. Drug Storage and Preservation


a. Central Storage vs Pharmacy Storage
b. Storage conditions
c. Monitoring of Storage Conditions
d. Stock rotations and Control
e. Containers and Containers Labeling
2. Requirements in Designing a Pharmacy Storage area
a. Size
b. Shelves and Cabinets

Activities for discussion:

1. What are the general principles of storage of pharmaceutical products?

2. What are the storage requirements of pharmaceutical and biological


products?

3. How are unused pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical wastes


disposed?
ACTIVITY NO. 5
DRUG DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Objectives:

1. To describe the drug distribution system employed by the hospital pharmacy


2. To appropriately apply their knowledge and skills in actual drug dispensing
3. To apply the laws, regulations and procedures when dispensing controlled
substances, and prepackaging of pharmaceuticals.
4. To demonstrate good aseptic techniques in preparing IV admixtures, and parental
drugs.

Topic for discussion:

1. Drug Distribution System


2. In-patient Drug Distribution
a. Pharmacist’s responsibilities
b. Dispensing Practices
c. Methods of Drug Distribution to In-patients
i. Individual Prescription Order System
ii. Floor Stock System
iii. Combination of Individual Prescription Order and Floor Stocks System
iv. Unit Dose Drug Distribution System (UDDDS)
3. Out-Patient Distribution
a. Location
b. Dispensing Pharmaceutical Services
c. Other pharmaceutical Services
i. Patient Counseling
ii. Self-Care Consultation
4. Classification of Drugs
a. Classes of Drugs
b. Requirements of Control
i. Ethical/Prescription Drugs
ii. Over-the-Counter Drugs
iii. Prohibited and Regulated Drugs
iv. Counterfeit Drugs
v. Abandoned Drugs (Discharged Patient, Deceased Patient)
5. Generic Dispensing
a. Guidelines in Generic Dispensing
b. Correct Prescription
c. Incorrect Prescription
i. Violative Prescription
ii. Erroneous Prescription
iii. Impossible Prescription
d. Steps in Filling/Dispensing of Prescription
e. Substitution for Bioequivalent Drugs
f. Guidelines on Generic Labeling
6. Compounding and Preparing IV Admixtures and Parenteral Drugs
a. Aseptic Techniques in Preparing IV Admixtures

Activities:

1. Secure an in-patient medical order and an out-patient prescription order and


identify correctly their contents and their parts.

2. Identify whether the prescription in no. 1 are erroneous, violative or impossible


prescription. Indicate what course of action to take if the prescription is erroneous,
violative or impossible.

3. Secure a Dangerous Drug Prescription and identify its contents and its parts.
4. Discuss how controlled substance are ordered, individual and stored.

5. Cite the measures to be undertaken for abandoned drugs.

6. Described the advantages and disadvantages of the four methods of drug


distribution.
ACTIVITY NO. 6
PHARMACY REPORTING AND RECORDING

Objectives:

1. To prepare written reports of adverse drug events, medication errors, details in


product quality or detection of counterfeit products.
2. To perform proper recording of hospital pharmacy documents.

Topic for discussion:

1. Reports
a. Administrative Reports
b. Regulatory Reports
2. Attributes of Reports
a. Organizational Methods
b. Timely
c. Reporting Period
d. Summary and Details
3. Reports and Records Maintenance
4. Recording:
a. Recording Professional Activities and Pertinent Data
b. Recording of Dispensed Prescription Drugs and Controlled Substances in
i. Prescription Book
ii. Additional Opium Book
iii. Dangerous Drug Book
iv. Poison Book
v. Exempt Preparation Book
vi. BFAD Special Record Book
5. Reporting/Safekeeping
a. Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting
b. DDB report and safe keeping of yellow prescription forms (DD)
c. Ordinary Prescriptions Safe Keeping

Activities:

1. What are the different types of ADRs


2. What are considered examples of adverse drug events and reactions?

3. How are adverse drug reactions reported?

4. What measures are undertaken by the hospital pharmacy when medication errors
and counterfeit pharmaceuticals are detected?

5. How long are hospital records kept?


ACTIVITY NO. 7
PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTICS COMMITTEE

Objectives:

1. To discuss the purpose, function and organization of the Pharmacy and


Therapeutic Committee
2. To describe the role of pharmacist in the P&T Committee

Topics for Discussion:

1. Definition
2. Purpose of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
3. Organization and Operation
4. Functions and Scope
5. Role of Pharmacist in the P&T Committee
6. The Committee Agenda
7. Policies of the Committee

Activities:

1. What are the major functions performed by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Committee?

2. How often does the committee convene?

3. What role does the pharmacist have in the Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Committee?
ACTIVITY NO. 8
HOSPITAL FORMULARY AND THE FORMULARY SYSTEM

Objectives:

1. To explain the rationale for the hospital formulary system


2. To describe the process for drug selection and deletion

Topics for discussion:

1. Definition
a. Formulary
b. Formulary System
c. Formulary Drug
d. Non-Formulary Drugs
2. Purpose of the Hospital Formulary System
3. Application of the Hospital Formulary System
4. Role of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
5. The Hospital Formulary
a. Content and Organization
b. Formulary Drug Designation
c. Adding and Deleting Drugs to/from the Formulary
d. Restricted Formulary Drugs
6. Procedures for Obtaining Non-Formulary
7. Monitoring of Non-Formulary Drug Prescribing
8. Requirements and Costs for Hospital Formulary Implementation
9. Updating of the Contents of the Hospital Formulary

Activities:

1. Secure a copy of a Hospital Formulary and evaluation its contents. Comment on


how the contents are organized.

2. Discuss how formulary drugs are designated.


3. Determine if all tertiary level hospitals are using the Hospital Formulary System.

4. Described the process of drug inclusion and exclusion in the hospital formulary.
Make an algorithm for the process.

5. Discuss how often the contents of the Hospital Formulary are revised and updated.

6. Determine if it is possible to use drugs not included in the hospital formulary. Explain
briefly.

7. Discuss how different is the PNDF and Hospital formulary.


ACTIVITY NO. 9
DRUG INFORMATION SERVICE

Objectives:

1. Describe the drug information service provided by the hospital pharmacy


2. Select the best available resource for answering a drug-related request
3. Obtain and provide accurate and concise information in a professional
manner to health professionals and patients.

Topics for discussion:

1. Drug Information Service (DIS)


2. Functions
3. Drug Information Resources
4. Establishing and Organizing the DIS
5. Scope and Services
6. Space
7. Personnel
8. Equipment
9. Filling and Retrieval Systems
10. Information to be Supplied
11. Activities

Activities:

1. Describe the scope of services catered by the hospital drug information services
to their clients.
ACTIVITY NO. 10
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR THE PHARMACY SERVICE

Objectives:

1. Described the quality assurance program implemented by the hospital


pharmacy.
2. Described the pharmacy service effectiveness and efficiency standards.

Topics for discussion:

1. Definition
2. Benefits Derived from the Quality Assurance for Pharmacy Services
3. Quality assurance activities
4. Steps in Developing a Quality Assurance for Pharmacy Service
5. Pharmacy Service Effectiveness Standard
6. Pharmacy Service Efficiency Standard

Activities:

1. As a pharmacist, how will you meet challenge of the growing demand for assuring
the quality of the pharmacy services that you provide?

2. What are the practical tools that you need to use to collect and analyze
information regarding quality-related events, such as errors and omissions in
prescription dispensing that may occur at the pharmacy?

3. What are the pharmacy functions that should be monitored using quality
indicators?
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
ATTENDANCE LOG SHEET

This attendance log sheet should be filled out during the internship program and must be
validated by the preceptor.

NAME OF INTERN: _________________________________________________


SCHOOL: _________________________________________________
PRECEPTOR NAME: _________________________________________________
NAME OF ESTABLISHMENT: _________________________________________________
ADDRESS: _________________________________________________
INCLUSIVE DATES: _________________________________________________

O Community Pharmacy O Hospital Pharmacy O Manufacturing Pharmacy

DATE TIME DURATION PRECEPTOR


TIME IN REMARKS
(dd/mm/yyyy) OUT (hh:mm) SIGNATURE

TOTAL NO. OF HOURS:____________________________

INTERN’S SIGNATURE:_______________________
APPENDIX B
INTERN’S DAILY TIME RECORD

PHARMACY DEPARTMENT
DAILY TIME RECORD

Name of Intern: ___________________________________________________


Name of Establishment: ___________________________________________________
Address of Establishment: ___________________________________________________
For the month of ___________________________________
DATE AM PM NO. OF HOURS

TOTAL:_________________________
Certified:

_________________________________ _________________________________
Director/Manager of Firm Intern’s Signature

_________________________________ Noted by:


Printed Name & Signature
of Pharmacist-in-charge _________________________________
Registration No.: ___________ Dean
PTR No.: ___________________
Date Issued: _______________
APPENDIX C
CHECKLIST OF DAILY ACTIVITIES

This checklist will serve as a guide during the internship program to monitor the attainment
of objectives of the internship program.

NAME OF INTERN: _________________________________________________


SCHOOL: _________________________________________________
PRECEPTOR NAME: _________________________________________________
NAME OF ESTABLISHMENT: _________________________________________________
ADDRESS: _________________________________________________
INCLUSIVE DATES: _________________________________________________

Please check the appropriate column next to the activities:

YES- Activities completed NO- activities not completed

In the remarks, record the dates when the activities were undertaken, or reasons why
activities were not completed.

MANUFACTURING/INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY
ACTIVITIES YES NO REMARKS
A. ORIENTATION
1. Hospital Orientation
 Philosophy, V,M,G
 Organizational Structure
 Ownership and Management
 Certification/Accreditation
 Other Service Department
 Manpower
 Hospital Rules and Regulations
2. Hospital Pharmacy Department
 Philosophy, V,M,G
 Organizational Structure of HP
Department
 Functional Chart
 Pharmacy Personnel
 Duties and Responsibilities
 Pharmaceutical Services
Offered
 Physical Set-up and Facilities
 Physical Arrangement of
Phar’cals
 BFAD Laws and Regulations
-Ethical/Prescription Drugs
and OTC
-Prohibited and Regulated
Drugs
-Exempt Prohibited and
Regulated Drugs
-Prescription Writing Violations
and Requirements
 Drug Distribution System
 Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Committee
B. TOUR OF THE FACILITY
C. PRACTICUM
1. Participate in filling and dispensing
prescriptions under the supervision of
a pharmacist.
a. In-patient Dispensing
 Knowledge of distribution
system used
 Interpreting and evaluating
medication orders
 Processing medication orders
 Delivering medication orders
 Recording and filing of
medication orders
b. Out-patient Dispensing
 Interpreting and evaluating
 Prescriptions
 Processing prescription orders
 Dispensing Filed Prescription
 Providing Information on
Proper Use and or Storage
 Medication discharge
counseling
 Recording of prescription
drugs in prescribed record
books and proper filing of
prescriptions
2. Assist in developing patient medication
profiles (In-patient and selected Out-
patient)
3. Assist in preparing IV admixtures
4. Participate in Inventory of
pharmaceutical products for proper
storage
5. Check and code of controlled
pharmaceutical products for proper
storage
6. Participate in ordering process and
replenishment of stocks
7. Conduct patient therapeutic monitoring
8. Participate in research activities for
pharmacy and therapeutics committee
APPENDIX D
INTERN’S PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SHEET

NAME OF INTERN: _________________________________________________


SCHOOL: _________________________________________________
PRECEPTOR NAME: _________________________________________________
NAME OF ESTABLISHMENT: _________________________________________________
ADDRESS: _________________________________________________
INCLUSIVE DATES: _________________________________________________

BEHAVIORS/SKILLS RATING REMARKS


1. Manage time effectively.
2. Demonstrate harmonious relationship with
peers, supervisors, and customers.
3. Show diligence in performing tasks.
4. Attend directly to the customers applying
the art of communication.
5. Show evidence of in-depth theoretical
knowledge.
6. Apply theoretical knowledge to actual
cases (technical skills)
7. Perform tasks with accuracy and/or
efficiency.
8. Demonstrate positive attitude.
9. Possess admirable personality traits.
AVERAGE

REMARKS:_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________
Name & Signature of Training Supervisor

Designated position: _____________________


License No.: _____________________________
Date signed:_____________________________
APPENDIX E
PRECEPTOR EVALUATION OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE

NAME OF INTERN: _________________________________________________


SCHOOL: _________________________________________________
PRECEPTOR NAME: _________________________________________________
NAME OF ESTABLISHMENT: _________________________________________________
ADDRESS: _________________________________________________
INCLUSIVE DATES: _________________________________________________

O Community Pharmacy O Hospital Pharmacy O Manufacturing Pharmacy

Direction: This evaluative tool is designed to assess the competency of the pharmacy students in
the delivery of the basic pharmacy services. Using the scale below, check the appropriate
number next to each indicator.

RATING SCALE
Requires no supervision. Performs functions with a high
5 EXCELLENT
degree of competence.
Requires minimal supervision. Performs functions with a
4 VERY GOOD
satisfactory degree of competence.
Requires occasional supervision. Performs functions with
3 GOOD
acceptable degree of competence.
Needs consistent supervision. Performs functions with
2 FAIR
limited ability.
1 POOR Cannot perform function without supervision.
NA NOT APPLICABLE The indicator is not applicable.

INDICATOR 5 4 3 2 1 NA
A. PERSONAL & PROFESSIONAL ATTRIBUTES
1. Reliability. Full attendance requirements;
correctly completed all assignments.
2. Maintain a professional image.
3. Time management. Uses time effectively and
efficiently in the performance of assigned tasks.
4. Self-initiative. Initiate professional activities and
interactions with staff, health professionals, and
colleagues; utilizes time in pursuing knowledge
and experience.
5. Independence/Assertiveness. Self-directed in
undertaking responsibilities; seek appropriate
clarification, but require minimal supervision in
completing assignment; articulate own view
point.
6. Organized/Plans. Use own and other people’s
time effectively and efficiently; are systematic
and methodical in approaching activities; well-
prepared.
7. Decision-making. Use good judgment; seek out
and utilize important facts and information;
recognize and evaluate available alternatives.
B. PERFORMANCE OF BASIC COMPETENCE
1. Communication Skills
1.1 Demonstrate appropriate verbal, non-verbal
and listening skills.
1.2 Display effective writings.
1.3 Use appropriate communication techniques
when communicating with peers, health
care providers, and staff.
1.4 Demonstrate respect, sensitivity and
empathy when communicating with others.
1.5 Demonstrate comprehension and fluency in
written and verbal communication.
1.6 Demonstrate appropriate and effective
patient interviewing techniques.
2. Drug Information
2.1 Assume responsibility for information retrieval,
evaluation and dissemination to ensure safe
and effective provision of pharmaceutical
care.
2.2 Respond appropriately to drug information.
2.3 Identify current and reliable sources of drug
information.
2.4 Evaluate drug literature.
2.5 Use effective and innovative methods for
conveying drug information.
2.6 Access and use clinical and scientific
literature to support decision making.
3. Dispensing
3.1 Evaluate and accurately fill out a
prescription.
3.2 Prepare extemporaneously compounded
products and IV admixtures in a safe manner
by demonstrating good aseptic techniques
and taking appropriate precautions when
working.
3.3 Identify errors, if they exist, and appropriate
consult the prescriber.
3.4 Make sound recommendations regarding
drug selection and dosage consistent with
existing protocols and laws.
3.5 Adhere to quality control procedures for
ingredients when dispensing in
manufacturing plant.
3.6 Apply all aspects of the Pharmacy Laws
relating to dispensing a product.
3.7 Efficiently complies with the laws/regulations
and procedures while dispensing and
maintaining records for controlling drugs.
4. Patient Counseling
4.1 Use effective teaching/learning strategies for
counseling the patient.
4.2 Provide correct and appropriate education
on the proper use of the patient’s
medication including precautions, side
effects, and assess patient understanding of
the instructions.
4.3 Use a systematic approach to assist clients to
select appropriate non-prescription
medication, medical or surgical products.
4.4 Demonstrate effective patient interviewing
techniques and recommend interventions
related to drug therapy, disease prevention
and self-care.
4.5 Provide patient self-care consultations.
5. Inter-professional Relationship
5.1 Collaborate effectively with peers, other
health care professionals and patients to
optimize patient care.
5.2 Share accurate and salient information when
referring to clients.
5.3 Accept responsibility for actions and
decisions made.
5.4 Demonstrate respect for others.
5.5 Maintain appropriate inter-professional
relationships required to provide quality
pharmacy care to individual patients.
5.6 Consistently provide professional pharmacy
care to individual patients that complies with
the ethical guidelines governing the
profession.
5.7 Demonstrate personal and professional
integrity.
5.8 Reject the acceptance of gifts/advantages
that give the appearance of bias or conflict
of interest.
6. Personal and Professional Development
6.1 Continuously strive to improve professional
competence through the use of appropriate
learning to address areas identified for
professional improvement/growth.
6.2 Display effective self-assessment.
6.3 Accept appropriate assessment from others.
6.4 Display an attitude for professional growth
and involvement in professional activities.
7. Pharmacy Management
7.1 Explains the business principles of operating a
pharmacy.
7.2 Explain the legal requirements of establishing
a pharmacy.
7.3 Manage drug distribution by performing
functions of acquisition, preparation, and
distribution of drugs to ensure the safety,
accuracy, and quality of supplied products.
7.4 Have a working knowledge of drug
procurement and drug inventory
management.
8. Manufacturing & Industrial Pharmacy Practice
8.1 Perform activities in the different process
involved in the manufacturing of drugs such
as, but not limited to production, QA/QC
testing, packaging, dispensing of raw
materials, warehousing, inventory,
documentation and research and
development.
8.2 Have a working knowledge in securing and
maintaining liscense to operate for
manufacturing and pharmaceutical firms.
8.3 Acquire knowledge in the marketing and
distribution of pharmaceuticals.
8.4 Learn the process involved in getting product
registered in government regulatory
agencies.
9. Legal & Ethical Practice
9.1 Demonstrate comprehension and
understanding of the pharmacy laws.
9.2. Adhere to the organizational policies and
procedures.
9.3 Adhere to the national and international
code of ethics for pharmacists.
9.4 Describe the ethical and legal responsibilities
of the pharmacists.
9.5 Perform all activities in accordance with the
laws governing the practice of pharmacy.
9.6 Accept responsibility and accountability of
own actions and decisions.
9.7 Maintain client/customer confidentiality at all
times.
10. Judgment & Decision-making Skills
10.1 Take an appropriate course of action based
o knowledge, ethics and pharmacy laws.
10.2 Apply functional knowledge while solving
problems and make appropriate decision
matters pertaining to the area of pharmacy
practice with the goal of optimizing
pharmaceutical care and professional
relations.