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20/02/2019 Hindu temple architecture - Wikipedia

Hindu temple architecture


Hindu temple architecture as the main form of Hindu
architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of
the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an
inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the
primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare
cell. Around this chamber there are often other structures and
buildings, in the largest cases covering several acres. On the
exterior, the garbhagriha is crowned by a tower-like shikhara, also
called the vimana in the south and Meru tower in Balinese temple.
The shrine building often includes an ambulatory for parikrama
(circumambulation), a mandapa congregation hall, and sometimes
an antarala antechamber and porch between garbhagriha and Architecture of a Hindu temple (Nagara style).
mandapa. There may further mandapas or other buildings, These core elements are evidenced in the
connected or detached, in large temples, together with other small oldest surviving 5th-6th century CE temples.
temples in the compound.[1]

Hindu temple architecture reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of


dharma, beliefs, values and the way of life cherished under
Hinduism. The temple is a place for Tirtha - pilgrimage.[2] All the
cosmic elements that create and celebrate life in Hindu pantheon,
are present in a Hindu temple - from fire to water, from images of
The Meenakshi temple complex of Madurai,
nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from kama to
mostly built between 1623 and 1655 CE, a large
artha, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to Purusha - the
complex in the Dravidian architecture of South
eternal nothingness yet universality - is part of a Hindu temple India, dominated by gopuram gatehouse towers.
architecture.[2] The form and meanings of architectural elements
in a Hindu temple are designed to function as the place where it is
the link between man and the divine, to help his progress to
spiritual knowledge and truth, his liberation it calls moksha.[3]

The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are


described in Shilpa Shastras and Vastu Sastras.[4][5] The Hindu
culture has encouraged aesthetic independence to its temple
builders, and its architects have sometimes exercised considerable
flexibility in creative expression by adopting other perfect
geometries and mathematical principles in Mandir construction to
express the Hindu way of life.[6] A Badami Shiva temple in Karnataka.

Contents
History
South-East Asian Hindu temples
Design
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The Site
The Layout
The builders
Schools of temple building tradition
Different styles of architecture
Dravida and Nagara architecture
Regional styles
Badami Chalukya architecture
Gadag architecture
Kalinga architecture
Māru-Gurjara temple architecture
The early 10th century Baroli temple complex in
Indonesian architecture
Rajasthan, illustrating the Nagara architecture.
Khmer architecture
Champa architecture
Glossary
Gallery
See also
Notes
References
Bibliography
External links

History
There are hardly any remains of Hindu temples before the Gupta dynasty in
the 4th century CE; no doubt there were earlier structures in timber-based
architecture. The rock-cut Udayagiri Caves are among the most important
early sites.[7] The earliest preserved Hindu temples are simple cell-like stone
temples, some rock-cut and others structural, as at Sanchi.[8] By the 6th or 7th
century, these evolved into high shikhara stone superstructures. However,
there is inscriptional evidence such as the ancient Gangadhara inscription from
about 424 CE, states Meister, that towering temples existed before this time
and these were possibly made from more perishable material. These temples A copperplate engraving of Kaliasa
have not survived.[8][9] Hindu temple (1850).

Examples of early major North Indian temples that have survived after the
Udayagiri Caves in Madhya Pradesh include Deogarh, Parvati Temple, Nachna (465 CE),[9] Lalitpur District (c. 525 CE),
Lakshman Brick Temple, Sirpur (600-625 CE); Rajiv Lochan temple, Rajim (600 CE).[10]

No pre-7th century CE South Indian style stone temples have survived. Examples of early major South Indian temples that
have survived, some in ruins, include the diverse styles at Mahabalipuram. However, according to Meister, the
Mahabalipuram temples are "monolithic models of a variety of formal structures all of which already can be said to typify
a developed "Dravida" (South Indian) order". They suggest a tradition and a knowledge base existed in South India by the
time of the early Chalukya and Pallava era when these were built. Other examples are found in Aihole and
Pattadakal.[10][11]

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By about the 7th century most main features of the Hindu temple were established along with theoretical texts on temple
architecture and building methods.[12] From between about the 7th and 13th centuries a large number of temples and their
ruins have survived (though far fewer than once existed). Many regional styles developed, very often following political
divisions, as large temples were typically built with royal patronage. In the north, Muslim invasions from the 11th century
onwards reduced the building of temples, and saw the loss of many existing ones.[12] The south also witnessed Hindu-
Muslim conflict that affected the temples, but the region was relatively less affected than the north.[13] In late 14th century,
the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire came to power and controlled much of South India. During this period, the distinctive
very tall gopuram gatehouse actually a late development, from the 12th century or later, typically added to older large
temples.[12]

South-East Asian Hindu temples

Prambanan in Java, Indonesia (9th century) and Angkor Wat in Cambodia (12th century), examples of Southeast
Asian Hindu temple architecture. Both temples were modelled after Mount Meru in Hindu cosmology.

The cultural sphere often called Greater India extended into South-East Asia. The earliest evidence trace to Sanskrit stone
inscriptions found on the islands and the mainland Southeast Asia, dated between the 4th and 5th-century CE.[14][note 1]
Prior to the 14th-century local versions of Hindu temples were built in Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand,
Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. These developed several national traditions, and often mixed Hinduism and Buddhism.
Theravada Buddhism prevailed in many parts of the South-East Asia, except Malaysia and Indonesia where Islam
displaced them both.[16][17]

Hindu temples in South-East Asia developed their own distinct versions, mostly based on Indian architectural models,
both North Indian and South Indian styles.[18] However, the Southeast Asian temple architecture styles are different and
there is no known single temple in India that can be the source of the Southeast Asian temples. According to Michell, it is
as if the Southeast Asian architects learned from "the theoretical prescriptions about temple building" from Indian texts,
but never saw one. They reassembled the elements with their own creative interpretations. The Hindu temples found in
Southeast Asia are more conservative and far more strongly link the Mount Meru-related cosmological elements of Indian
thought than the Hindu temples found in the subcontinent.[18] Additionally, unlike the Indian temples, the sacred
architecture in Southeast Asia associated the ruler (devaraja) with the divine, with the temple serving as a memorial to the

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king as much as being house of gods.[18] Notable examples of Southeast Asian Hindu temple architecture are the Shivaist
Prambanan Trimurti temple compound in Java, Indonesia (9th century),[19] and the Vishnuite Angkor Wat in Cambodia
(12th century).[20]

Design
A Hindu temple is a symmetry-driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, depicting perfect
geometric shapes such as circles and squares.[6][2] Susan Lewandowski states that the underlying principle in a Hindu
temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. A temple, states Lewandowski, "replicates
again and again the Hindu beliefs in the parts mirroring, and at the same time being, the universal whole" like an
"organism of repeating cells".[21]:68, 71 The pilgrim is welcomed through mathematically structured spaces, a network of
art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life -
the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth), the pursuit of kama (desire), the pursuit of dharma (virtues, ethical life) and the
pursuit of moksha (release, self-knowledge).[22][23]

At the center of the temple, typically below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no
decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the Supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, which is
present everywhere, connects everything, and is the essence of everyone. A Hindu temple is meant to encourage reflection,
facilitate purification of one’s mind, and trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee.[2] The specific process
is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual
spectrum.

The Site
The appropriate site for a Mandir, suggest ancient Sanskrit texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers
bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm.[2] These
harmonious places were recommended in these texts with the explanation that such are the places where gods play, and
thus the best site for Hindu temples.[2][21]

While major Hindu Mandirs are recommended at sangams (confluence of rivers), river banks, lakes and seashore, the
Brhat Samhita and Puranas suggest temples may also be built where a natural source of water is not present. Here too,
they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens. If water is neither
present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity. Temples may also
be built, suggests Visnudharmottara in Part III of Chapter 93,[24] inside caves and carved stones, on hill tops affording
peaceful views, mountain slopes overlooking beautiful valleys, inside forests and hermitages, next to gardens, or at the
head of a town street.

In practice most temples are built as part of a village or town.[25] Some sites such as capitals of kingdoms and those
considered particularly sacred geography had numerous temples. Some of the ancient capitals vanished, the surviving
temples are now found in a rural landscape. Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal and Gangaikonda Cholapuram are examples.[25]

The Layout
The design, especially the floor plan, of the part of a Hindu temple around the sanctum or shrine follows a geometrical
design called vastu-purusha-mandala. The name is a composite Sanskrit word with three of the most important
components of the plan. Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu
means the dwelling structure.[26] Vastupurushamandala is a yantra.[27] The design lays out a Hindu temple in a
symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles.[6]
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The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a


Hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square
in the space available. The circle of mandala
circumscribes the square. The square is considered
divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of
knowledge and human thought, while circle is
considered earthly, human and observed in everyday
life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each
supports the other.[2] The square is divided into perfect
square grids. In large temples, this is often a 8x8 or 64
grid structure. In ceremonial temple superstructures,
this is an 81 sub-square grid. The squares are called
‘‘padas’’.[6][28] The square is symbolic and has Vedic
origins from fire altar, Agni. The alignment along
cardinal direction, similarly is an extension of Vedic
rituals of three fires. This symbolism is also found
among Greek and other ancient civilizations, through
the gnomon. In Hindu temple manuals, design plans
are described with 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 up to
The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu Temple Floor Plan,
1024 squares; 1 pada is considered the simplest plan, according to Vastupurusamandala. The 64 grid is the most
as a seat for a hermit or devotee to sit and meditate on, sacred and common Hindu temple template. The bright
do yoga, or make offerings with Vedic fire in front. The saffron center, where diagonals intersect above, represents
second design of 4 padas has a symbolic central core at the Purusha of Hindu philosophy.[6][2]
the diagonal intersection, and is also a meditative
layout. The 9 pada design has a sacred surrounded
center, and is the template for the smallest temple. Older Hindu temple vastumandalas may use the 9 through 49 pada
series, but 64 is considered the most sacred geometric grid in Hindu temples. It is also called Manduka, Bhekapada or
Ajira in various ancient Sanskrit texts. Each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form of
a deity or to a spirit or apasara. The central square(s) of the 64 is dedicated to the Brahman (not to be confused with
Brahmin), and are called Brahma padas.[2]

In a Hindu temple’s structure of symmetry and concentric squares, each concentric layer has significance. The outermost
layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; the next inner concentric layer is Manusha padas signifying
human life; while Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. The Manusha padas typically houses the ambulatory.[2]
The devotees, as they walk around in clockwise fashion through this ambulatory to complete Parikrama (or Pradakshina),
walk between good on inner side and evil on the outer side. In smaller temples, the Paisachika pada is not part of the
temple superstructure, but may be on the boundary of the temple or just symbolically represented.

The Paisachika padas, Manusha padas and Devika padas surround Brahma padas, which signifies creative energy and
serves as the location for temple’s primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is
Garbhagruha(Garbha- Centre, gruha- house; literally the center of the house) (Purusa Space), signifying Universal
Principle present in everything and everyone.[2] The spire of a Hindu temple, called Shikhara in north India and Vimana
in south India, is perfectly aligned above the Brahma pada(s).

Beneath the mandala's central square(s) is the space for the formless shapeless all pervasive all connecting Universal
Spirit, the Purusha. This space is sometimes referred to as garbha-griya (literally womb house) - a small, perfect square,
windowless, enclosed space without ornamentation that represents universal essence.[26] In or near this space is typically

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A Hindu temple has a Shikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple.
These spires come in many designs and shapes, but they all have mathematical precision and geometric symbolism.
One of the common principles found in Hindu temple spires is circles and turning-squares theme (left), and a
concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.[2][29]

a murti. This is the main deity image, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives it a local name, such
as Vishnu temple, Krishna temple, Rama temple, Narayana temple, Siva temple, Lakshmi temple, Ganesha temple, Durga
temple, Hanuman temple, Surya temple, and others. It is this garbha-griya which devotees seek for ‘‘darsana’’ (literally, a
sight of knowledge,[30] or vision[26]).

Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a high superstructure called the shikhara in north India, and vimana in south India,
that stretches towards the sky.[26] Sometimes, in makeshift temples, the superstructure may be replaced with symbolic
bamboo with few leaves at the top. The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other
mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares (see below).[2] Scholars such as
Lewandowski state that this shape is inspired by cosmic mountain of Mount Meru or Himalayan Kailasa, the abode of
gods according to its ancient mythology.[21]:69–72

In larger temples, the outer three padas are visually decorated with carvings, paintings or images meant to inspire the
devotee.[2] In some temples, these images or wall reliefs may be stories from Hindu Epics, in others they may be Vedic
tales about right and wrong or virtues and vice, in some they may be idols of minor or regional deities. The pillars, walls
and ceilings typically also have highly ornate carvings or images of the four just and necessary pursuits of life - kama,
artha, dharma and moksa. This walk around is called pradakshina.[26]

Large temples also have pillared halls called mandapa. One on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and
devotees. The mandapa may be a separate structure in older temples, but in newer temples this space is integrated into the
temple superstructure. Mega temple sites have a main temple surrounded by smaller temples and shrines, but these are

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still arranged by principles of symmetry, grids and mathematical precision. An important principle found in the layout of
Hindu temples is mirroring and repeating fractal-like design structure,[31] each unique yet also repeating the central
common principle, one which Susan Lewandowski refers to as “an organism of repeating cells”.[32]

Exceptions to the square grid principle

Predominant number of Hindu temples exhibit the perfect square grid principle.[33] However, there are some exceptions.
For example, the Teli ka Mandir in Gwalior, built in the 8th century CE is not a square but is a rectangle consisting of
stacked squares. Further, the temple explores a number of structures and shrines in 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:5, 3:5 and 4:5 ratios.
These ratios are exact, suggesting the architect intended to use these harmonic ratios, and the rectangle pattern was not a
mistake, nor an arbitrary approximation. Other examples of non-square harmonic ratios are found at Naresar temple site
of Madhya Pradesh and Nakti-Mata temple near Jaipur, Rajasthan. Michael Meister states that these exceptions mean the
ancient Sanskrit manuals for temple building were guidelines, and Hinduism permitted its artisans flexibility in
expression and aesthetic independence.[6]

The Hindu text Sthapatya Veda describes many plans and styles of temples of which the following are found in other
derivative literature: Chaturasra (square), Ashtasra (octagonal), Vritta (circular), Ayatasra (rectangular), Ayata
Ashtasra (rectangular-octagonal fusion), Ayata Vritta (elliptical), Hasti Prishta (apsidal), Dwayasra Vrita (rectangular-
circular fusion); in Tamil literature, the Prana Vikara (shaped like a Tamil Om sign, ) is also found. Methods of
combining squares and circles to produce all of these plans are described in the Hindu texts.[34]

Nashik Maharashtra Vrindavan Uttar Pradesh Khajuraho Madhya Puri Odisha temple
temple, cross section temple plan Pradesh temple plan complex plan
and plan (1910 sketch)

Bhubneshwar Odisha, a Halebidu Karnataka Chidambaram Tamil Thiruvallur, Tamil Hindu


smaller temple plan temple plan Nadu temple plan temple complex

The builders

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The temples were built by guilds of architects, artisans and workmen. Their knowledge and craft
traditions, states Michell, were originally preserved by the oral tradition, later with palm-leaf
manuscripts.[35] The building tradition was typically transmitted within families from one
generation to the next, and this knowledge was jealously guarded. The guilds were like a
corporate body that set rules of work and standard wages. These guilds over time became wealthy,
and themselves made charitable donations as evidenced by inscriptions.[35] The guilds covered
almost every aspect of life in the camps around the site where the workmen lived during the
period of construction, which in the case of large projects might be several years.[36]

The work was led by a chief architect (sutradhara). The construction superintendent was equal in
his authority.[35] Other important members were stonemason chief and the chief image-maker
who collaborated to complete a temple. The sculptors were called shilpins. Women participated in
temple building, but in lighter work such as polishing stones and clearing.[35] Hindu texts are
inconsistent about which caste did the construction work, with some texts accepting all castes to
work as a shilpin.[37] The brahmins were the experts in art theory and guided the workmen when
needed. They also performed consecration rituals of the superstructure and in the sanctum.[38]

In the earliest periods of Hindu art, from about the 4th century to about the 10th century, the
artists had considerable freedom and this is evidenced in the considerable variations and
innovations in images crafted and temple designs. Later, much of this freedom was lost as
iconography became more standardized and the demand for iconometry consistency
An Indian palm
increased.[38] This "presumably reflected the influence of brahman theologians" states Michell,
leaf manuscript
and the "increasing dependence of the artist upon the brahmins" on suitable forms of sacred
page on temple
building. images. The "individual pursuit of self-expression" in a temple project was not allowed and
instead, the artist expressed the sacred values in the visual form through a temple, for the most
part anonymously.[38]

The sponsors used contracts for the building tasks.[38] Though great masters probably
had assistants to help complete principal images in a temple, the reliefs panels in a
Hindu temple were "almost certainly the inspiration of a single artist".[39]

Schools of temple building tradition


Along with guilds, surviving texts suggest that several schools of Hindu temple
architecture had developed in ancient India. Each school developed its own gurukuls
(study centers) and texts. Of these, state Bharne and Krusche, two became most
prominent: the Vishwakarma school and the Maya school.[40][41] The Vishwakarma
school is credited with treatises, terminology and innovations related to the Nagara
style of architecture, while the Maya school with those related to the Dravida
style.[40][42] The style now called Vesara bridges and combines elements of the
Nagara and the Dravida styles, it probably reflects one of the other extinct schools.[43]
Dashavatara temple
Some scholars have questioned the relevance of these texts, whether the artists relied sculpture at Deogarh,
on silpa sastras theory and Sanskrit construction manuals probably written by completed about 500 CE.

Brahmins, and did these treatises precede or follow the big temples and ancient
sculptures therein. Other scholars question whether big temples and complex
symmetric architecture or sculpture with consistent themes and common iconography across distant sites, over many
centuries, could have been built by artists and architects without adequate theory, shared terminology and tools, and if so
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how.[44][40] According to Adam Hardy – an architecture historian and professor of Asian Architecture, the truth "must lie
somewhere in between".[44] According to George Michell – an art historian and professor specializing in Hindu
Architecture, the theory and the creative field practice likely co-evolved, and the construction workers and artists building
complex temples likely consulted the theoreticians when they needed to.[38]

Different styles of architecture


The ancient Hindu texts on architecture such as
Brihatsamhita and others, states Michell,
classify temples into five orders based on their
typological features: Nagara, Dravida, Vesara,
ellipse and rectangle. The plan described for
each include square, octagonal and apsidal.
Their horizontal plan regulates the vertical
form. Each temple architecture in turn has
developed its own vocabulary, with terms that
overlap but do not necessarily mean exactly the
same thing in another style and may apply to a
different part of the temple.[45] Chronologically,
the early Hindu temples are often called
classical (up to 7th or 8th century), while those
Architecture of the Khajuraho temples
after the classical period through 12th or 13th
century are sometimes referred to as medieval.
However, states Michell, this is inappropriate for Hindu architecture given India's artistic tradition to conserve its heritage
and architectural framework, while evolving ideas.[46]

The style of Hindu temple architecture is not only the result of the theology, spiritual ideas, and the early Hindu texts but
also a result of innovation driven by regional availability of raw materials and the local climate.[46] Some materials of
construction were imported from distant regions, but much of the temple was built from readily available materials. In
some regions, such as in south Karnataka, the local availability of soft stone led to Hoysala architects to innovate
architectural styles that are difficult with hard crystalline rocks.[46] In other places, artists cut granite or other stones to
build temples and create sculptures. Rock faces allowed artists to carve cave temples or a region's rocky terrain
encouraged monolithic rock-cut temple architecture. In regions where stones were unavailable, innovations in brick
temples flourished. Hindu temple architecture has historically been affected by the building material available in each
region, its "tonal value, texture and structural possibilities" states Michell.[46]

Dravida and Nagara architecture


Of the different styles of temple architecture in India, the Nagara architecture of northern India and the Dravidian
architecture of southern India are most common.[47] Other styles are also found. For example, the rainy climate and the
materials of construction available in Bengal, Kerala, Java and Bali Indonesia have influenced the evolutions of styles and
structures in these regions.[48] At other sites such as Ellora and Pattadakal, adjacent temples may have features drawing
from different traditions, as well as features in a common style local to that region and period. In modern era literature,
many styles have been named after the royal dynasties in whose territories they were built.[49]

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Feature Nagara architecture[50] Dravidian architecture[51][52] Reference

Vimana that may be multistorey (talas), [53]


Main temple spire (tower) Sikhara above sanctum
the top of which is called the sikhara

Mandapa spire (tower) Yes No [54]

Curvilinear centred over the Straight-edged pyramidal, sometimes


Curvature of the spire sanctum, also straight-edged curvilinear centred over the
pyramidal sanctum[note 2]
Typically single (Vimana may be multi- [55]
Sanctum Single or multi-storey
storey)
Mandapa, sanctum and tower
plans are predominantly
Chaturasra (square);
Plan uncommon: Ashtasra, Vritta, same, plus Prana Vikara [55]
Ayatasra, Ayata Ashtasra, Ayata
Vritta, Hasti Prishta, Dwayasra
Vrita
Characteristic, but not essential; after
10th century often higher than the
Gopuram Not a prominent feature vimana. May be several, on all sides of
the compound, serving as landmarks
for pilgrims
sacred pools, fewer pillared sacred pools, many pillared mandapas
mandapas in temple grounds in temple grounds (used for rites of
(separate dharmashala), passage ceremonies, choultry, temple [55]
Other features
prakara walls rare (e.g. Odisha rituals), prakara walls became common
after 14th century), single or after 14th century, single or multiple
multiple entrances into temple entrances into temple
Latina, Phamsana, Sekhari, Tamil (upper and lower Dravidadesa), [55]
Major sub-styles
Valabhi Karnata, Andhra
northern, western, central and
southern parts of the Indian [55]
Geography eastern parts of the Indian
subcontinent, southeast Asia
subcontinent
Chronology of surviving Late Kushana era, early Gupta:
Late Gupta era: rudimentary; 6th-10th [56]
stone-masonry rudimentary archaic; 6th-10th
century: zenith
monuments century: zenith

Regional styles

Badami Chalukya architecture


The Badami Chalukya Architecture style originated by 5th century in Aihole and was perfected in Pattadakal and Badami.

Between 500 and 757 CE, Badami Chalukyas built Hindu temples out of sandstone cut into enormous blocks from the
outcrops in the chains of the Kaladgi hills.

In Aihole, known as the "Cradle of Indian architecture," there are over 150 temples scattered around the village. The Lad
Khan Temple is the oldest. The Durga Temple is notable for its semi-circular apse, elevated plinth and the gallery that
encircles the sanctum sanctorum. A sculpture of Vishnu sitting atop a large cobra is at Hutchimali Temple. The
Ravalphadi cave temple celebrates the many forms of Shiva. Other temples include the Konthi temple complex and the
Meguti Jain temple.

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Chalukya Architecture of temples at Aihole & Pattadakal

Mallikarjuna temple complex at Aihole

The Virupaksha temple (or Lokesvara temple) at Pattadakal, built by queen Lokamahadevi (queen of Badami
Chalukya King Vikramaditya II) around 740 CE, now a World Heritage Site

Pattadakal is a (World Heritage Site), where one finds the Virupaksha temple; it is the biggest temple, having carved
scenes from the great epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Other temples at Pattadakal are Mallikarjuna,
Kashivishwanatha, Galaganatha and Papanath.

Gadag architecture
The Gadag style of architecture is also called Western Chalukya architecture. The style flourished for 150 years (1050 to
1200 CE); in this period, about 50 temples were built. Some examples are the Saraswati temple in the Trikuteshwara
temple complex at Gadag, the Doddabasappa Temple at Dambal, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, and the
Amriteshwara temple at Annigeri. which is marked by ornate pillars with intricate sculpture. This style originated during
the period of the Kalyani Chalukyas (also known as Western Chalukya) Someswara I.

Gadag/Western Chalukya style Architecture of temples

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Stepped floorplan of Dattatreya Shrine wall and superstructure in


Temple (one side of the shrine) with Kasivisvesvara temple at Lakkundi
five projections at Chattarki in
Gulbarga district, 12th century CE

Ornate Gadag style pillars at Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, Koppal


Sarasvati Temple, Trikuteshwara district in Karnataka, also called
temple complex at Gadag Devalaya Chakravarti,[57][58] 1112 CE,
an example of dravida articulation with
a nagara superstructure.

Kalinga architecture
The design which flourished in eastern Indian state of Odisha and Northern Andhra Pradesh are called Kalinga style of
architecture. The style consists of three distinct type of temples namely Rekha Deula, Pidha Deula and Khakhara Deula.
Deula means "temple" in the local language. The former two are associated with Vishnu, Surya and Shiva temple while the
third is mainly with Chamunda and Durga temples. The Rekha deula and Khakhara deula houses the sanctum sanctorum
while the Pidha Deula constitutes outer dancing and offering halls.

The prominent examples of Rekha Deula are Lingaraj Temple of Bhubaneswar and Jagannath Temple of Puri. One of the
prominent example of Khakhara Deula is Vaital Deula. The Konark Sun Temple is a living example of Pidha Deula.

Māru-Gurjara temple architecture

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Māru-Gurjara temple architecture originated somewhere in the


The three types of Deulas
6th century in and around areas of Rajasthan. Māru-Gurjara
architecture has two prominent styles: Maha-Maru and Maru-
Gurjara. According to Madhusudan Dhaky, Maha-Maru style
developed primarily in Marudesa, Sapadalaksha, Surasena and
parts of Uparamala whereas Maru-Gurjara originated in
Medapata, Gurjaradesa-Arbuda, Gurjaradesa-Anarta and some
areas of Gujarat.[59] Scholars such as George Michell, Dhaky,
Michael W. Meister and U.S. Moorti believe that Māru-Gurjara Rekha and Pidha Deula of the Konark Sun Temple
temple architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture and
is quite different from the North Indian temple architecture.[60]

There is a connecting link between Māru-Gurjara architecture


and Hoysala temple architecture. In both of these styles
architecture is treated sculpturally.[61]

Khakhara Deula of the Vaital Deula


Indonesian architecture
Temples are called candi (pronounced [tʃandi]) in Indonesia,
whether it is Buddhist or Hindu. A Candi refers to a structure based on the Indian type of single-celled shrine, with a
pyramidal tower above it, and a portico for entrance,[62] mostly built between the 7th to 15th centuries.[62][63] In Hindu
Balinese architecture, a candi shrine can be found within a pura compound. The best example of Indonesian Javanese
Hindu temple architecture is the 9th century Prambanan (Shivagrha) temple compound, located in Central Java, near
Yogyakarta. This largest Hindu temple in Indonesia has three main prasad towers, dedicated to Trimurti gods. Shiva
temple, the largest main temple is towering to 47 metre-high (154 ft).

The term "candi" itself is believed was derived from Candika, one of the manifestations of the goddess Durga as the
goddess of death.[64]

The candi architecture follows the typical Hindu architecture traditions based on Vastu Shastra. The temple layout,
especially in central Java period, incorporated mandala temple plan arrangements and also the typical high towering
spires of Hindu temples. The candi was designed to mimic Meru, the holy mountain the abode of gods. The whole temple
is a model of Hindu universe according to Hindu cosmology and the layers of Loka.[65]

The candi structure and layout recognize the hierarchy of the zones, spanned from the less holy to the holiest realms. The
Indic tradition of Hindu-Buddhist architecture recognize the concept of arranging elements in three parts or three
elements. Subsequently, the design, plan and layout of the temple follows the rule of space allocation within three
elements; commonly identified as foot (base), body (center), and head (roof). They are Bhurloka represented by the outer
courtyard and the foot (base) part of each temples, Bhuvarloka represented by the middle courtyard and the body of each
temples, and Svarloka which symbolized by the roof of Hindu structure usually crowned with ratna (sanskrit: jewel) or
vajra.

Khmer architecture
Before the 14th century, the Khmer Empire flourished in present-day Cambodia with its influence extended to most of
mainland Southeast Asia. Its great capital, Angkor (Khmer: អងរ, "Capital City", derived from Sanskrit "nagara"), contains
some of the most important and the most magnificent example of Khmer temple architecture. The classic style of

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Prambanan, an example of Indonesian temple architecture

Prambanan temple (Shivagrha) of Central Java, an example of the 9th century Indonesian Javanese Hindu temple
architecture with mandala layout and prasad tower crowned with stylized ratna-vajra.

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Angkorian temple is demonstrated by the 12th century Angkor Wat. Angkorian builders mainly used sandstone and

A diagram map of Angkor Wat reveal the concentric square galleries. On the right is an aerial view of the central
structure of Angkor Wat, in front of it lies the cruciform terrace.

laterite as temple building materials.

Angkor Wat, a World Heritage Site and one of the world's largest Hindu temples.[66] This Cambodian temple deploys
the same circles and squares grid architecture as described in ancient Indian Vastu Sastras.

The main superstructure of typical Khmer temple is a towering prasat called prang which houses the garbhagriha inner
chamber, where the murti of Vishnu or Shiva, or a lingam resides. Khmer temples were typically enclosed by a concentric
series of walls, with the central sanctuary in the middle; this arrangement represented the mountain ranges surrounding
Mount Meru, the mythical home of the gods. Enclosures are the spaces between these walls, and between the innermost
wall and the temple itself. The walls defining the enclosures of Khmer temples are frequently lined by galleries, while
passage through the walls is by way of gopuras located at the cardinal points. The main entrance usually adorned with
elevated causeway with cruciform terrace.[67]

Champa architecture

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Between the 6th and the 16th century, the Kingdom of Champa
flourished in present-day central and southern Vietnam. Unlike the
Javanese that mostly used volcanic andesite stone for their temples,
and Khmer of Angkor which mostly employed grey sandstones to
construct their religious buildings, the Cham built their temples
from reddish bricks. The most important remaining sites of Cham
bricks temple architecture include Mỹ Sơn near Da Nang, Po Nagar
near Nha Trang, and Po Klong Garai near Phan Rang.

Typically, a Cham temple complex consisted of several different


kinds of buildings.[68] They are kalan, a brick sanctuary, typically in
the form of a tower with garbahgriha used to host the murti of deity. The profile of the 13th-century temple Po
A mandapa is an entry hallway connected with a sanctuary. A Klong Garai near Phan Rang includes all the
kosagrha or "fire-house" is a temple construction typically with a buildings typical of a Cham temple. From left
to right one can see the gopura, the saddle-
saddle-shaped roof, used to house the valuables belonging to the
shaped kosagrha, and mandapa attached to
deity or to cook for the deity. The gopura was a gate-tower leading
the kalan tower.
into a walled temple complex. These building types are typical for
Hindu temples in general; the classification is valid not only for the
architecture of Champa, but also for other architectural traditions of Greater India.

Glossary
The Hindu texts on temple architecture have an extensive terminology. A few of the more common terms are tabulated
below:[69]

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules
stylobate, plinth,
base typically
Manasara XIV,
with mouldings
Athavaksham, Kamikagama 35, [70]
Adhisthana on the side, on
Pista, Pitha Suprabhedagama
which a temple
31
building or pillar
stands
a crowning
ornament on the
top of shikara,
shape of an
Indian amalok
Mayamata [70][71]
Amalaka fruit that looks
silpasastra
like a cogged
wheel. The
amalaka
supports the
kalasha.
lit. interior space
of any building; in
temples, it is the
intermediate Manasara XV,
space (vestibule, XXIII; [70][71]
Antarala Sukhanasi
antechamber) Kamikagama
between the XXXV
sanctum and
space where
pilgrims gather
half hall at each
entrance, usually Manasara XIV,
the reception Kamikagama 35, [70]
Ardhamandapa
area that Suprabhedagama
connects to the 31
mandapa
assembly hall, Agni Purana
grounds inside a XLIII, Matsya
Ayatana temple or Purana CCLXX, [72]
monastery Chandogya
compound Upanishad 6.8.2
a projection often
aligned to one of
the cardinal
directions;
typically of
central part of Manasara XXX- [70]
Bhadra
walls; decoration XXXIV
or a projected
porch for
pilgrims; also
may be a tower
storey projection

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules

a mythical dwarf
or goblin usually
with a protruded [73]
Gana
belly and with
humorous
expression

The womb-
house, adytum,
sanctum
sanctorum; it is
the loci of the
temple and the
darshana, the
spiritual space
that Hindus
circumambulate
clockwise about.
Garbha-griya,
This is where the
Garbha-geha, Brihat Samhita [69]
Garbhagriha main murti image
Sibika, Garbha, LXI
is placed. Usually
Mula-sthana
the space is very
plain, with no
distractions from
the murti, which
is rich in
symbolism. A
large temple may
have many
shrines, each
with a
garbhagriya.
one of the arch
motifs; it is
horseshoe-
shaped, found [74][75]
Gavaksha Gavaksa, kudu
with windows or
for decorating
spires, pillars and
other elements
a gateway at
entrance or one
that connects two
sacred spaces of
the temple;
becomes very
Agni Purana XLII,
large in South
Gopura, Dvara Manasara XI, [77][78]
Gopuram Indian temples,
attalaka XXXIII verses 1-
which may have
601, LVIII
several; it has
roots in ancient
Indian
monasteries and
the Vedic word
gomatipur;[76]

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules

neck ornament [79]


Hara
such as necklace

a trellis, stone
grille, net, first Jali, Indra [80]
Jala
seen in 6th- koshtha
century temples

any moulded
base or pedestal
for the temple or
a statue that Samarangana-
extends out, part sutradhara
Jagata, Pithika,
of platform that LXVIII, Agni [70][81]
Jagati Jagati-pitha, Kati,
forms a terrace to Purana XLII,
Vasudha
stand on or Suprabhedagama
circumambulate 31.19
around on, while
reading the
reliefs and friezes

the pinnacle
element of a
Kalasam, Stupi, Agni Purana CIV, [73][82]
Kalasha temple, a vase
Kumuda Kamikagama 55
finial, cupola or
pitcher

temple tank,
stepwell, pool,
usually with Pushkarani,
Garuda Purana
steps, public Sara, Sagar,
XLVI, [83]
Kunda utility for taking a Tadaga,
Mahanirvana
dip; often Udapana, Var,
tantra XIII
connected to a Vapi
nearby river or
mountain stream
liana, creeper-
style plant, vine,
Lata one type of scroll [84]
work; also found
on sikhara
a mythical fusion
sea creature with
fish-crocodile like
face, trunk or
Suprabhedagama [85]
Makara snout, legs
31.68-72
sometimes with
lion claws and a
tail; vahana of
Varuna

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules
pillared hall or
pavilion, with
pillars usually
carved; a
mandapa is
typically square,
rectangle,
octagonal or
circular; it may
have walls with
perforated stone
windows, it may
just be open on
some or all sides.
Large temples
Manasara XXXII-
may have many
XXXIV,
interconnected Mandapam,
Kamikagama 50, [86][77][87]
Mandapa mandapas. It is a Mantapa,
Brihat samhita,
gathering place, Jagamohan
Vishnu Purana
a place for
6.124-136
pilgrims to rest
(choultry), a part
of the
circumambulation
space, or to wait
during prayers or
Sanskara (rite of
passage) rituals.
A mandapa may
have a tower
(shikhara) of its
own, but it is
lower than that
above the
sanctum.
main shrine in a [86]
Mulaprasada
temple complex
niche on temple
walls or in pillars [88]
Nisha
for sculptures or
stele
the art of
arranging images
and friezes to
create a narrative
or composition, in
some texts it
refers to relative Vastusutra [88][89]
Nyasa
placement of Upanishad VI
images within a
panel to
summarize a
Hindu legend or
fable; also a form
a ritual.

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules
wall that
separates an
inner zone of
temple ground
from an outer
zone; typically
concentric, [90][91]
Prakara
defensive and
fortified, a feature
added after the
wars and
plunders starting
in the 14th-
century

entablature,
horizontal
superstructure of
bands and Chaiva,
moldings above gopanam, Manasara XVI, ; [92][93][94]
Prastara
column capitals, kapotam, Kamikagama LIV
sometimes mancham
functions as a
parapet of a
storey

a facet or vertical
offset projection
on the plan of the
sanctum and
shikhara above,
or other
structure. It is
generally carried
up from the
bottom of the
temple to the
superstructure. A
ratha, meaning
cart, is also the
Ratha temple chariot [95]
used for
processing the
murti at festivals,
and a "ratha
temple" is one
designed to
resemble a cart,
with wheels on
the sides, and
often horses. The
most famous
example is the
Sun Temple,
Konarak.

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules
Round barrel-
roofed, wagon-
roofed pavilion;
rooted in the
thatched roofed
stall for people or
cattle tradition,
then other
materials of
construction; any
mansion or griha;
a pilgrim services
building with
mandapas or
pillared veranda Manasara XXXV [96][97]
Sala Chala
or both inside the verses 1-404
temple complex,
Hindu texts
describe multi-
storey Sala; in
south, sala are
structures used
as a decorative
motif, or an
actual roof, as at
the top of
gopurams; rooted
in ancient
thatched roof
styles.
In North India,
the tower above
the sanctum Shikhara, Sikha,
(entire spire Sikhanta,
above Sikhamani, Deul Brihat Samhita [98][99][100]
Sikhara/Vimana
mulaprasada); in in East India, LVI
South India, that Garbhaka,
top part of tower Garbhamandira
that is above the
vimana

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Illustrative
Synonyms or Hindu text
Term Explanation Reference Image
Similar mention /
design rules
A pillar; it can be
a load bearing
element or an
independent
standing element
with diya (lamps)
and Hindu icons
below, around
and / or on top; Kambha, Manasara XV,
Stambha the designs vary Dwajasthampam, Kasyapa silpa [101]
significantly by Kodimaram sastra IX
region, in Kerala
Hindu temples
they are at the
entrance; on
festive occasions
the wick lamps
are loaded with
oil and lit up.
an external
ornamented
feature over the
entrance to the
garbhagriha or
inner shrine. It
sits on the face of [102]
Sukanasa sukanasa-sika Agni Purana XLII
the sikhara tower
(in South India,
the vimana) as a
sort of antefix.
Can refer to the
antarala below as
well.
tier or storey of a
Tala shikhara, vimana [98]
or gopuram
any arch or
canopy motif,
ornament or
Numerous terms,
architectural Garuda Purana
e.g. Gavaksha [103]
Torana member in XLVII, Manasara
(from 'cow eye'-
temples and XLVI verses 1-77
shaped)
buildings; it also
refers to an
arched gateway
subsidiary turret-
like shikharas on
Brihat Samhita
the side of the [104][105]
Urushringa LVI, Agni Purana
main shikhara;
CIV
the primary turret
is called shringa

Gallery

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Single storey gopura (Dravidian Two stoery gopura (Dravidian


architecture) architecture)

Pillar elements (shared by Nagara Athisthana architectural elements of a


and Dravidian) Hindu temple

Entablature elements A vimana with mandapam elements


(Dravidian architecture)

See also
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Hindu architecture
Vastu Shastra
Shilpa Shastras
Temple tank
Vedic altars
Indian architecture
Hoysala architecture
Western Chalukya architecture / Gadag Style of architecture
Chola art
Indonesian architecture, Candi of Indonesia
Rock-cut architecture
Indian rock-cut architecture
Architecture of Angkor
Hemadpanthi architecture Style
Dwajasthambam (flagstaff)

Notes
1. Richard Salomon dates the earliest Cambodian Sanskrit inscriptions to the 5th century.[15]
2. In rare cases, such as the Brihadishvara temple at Gangaikondacholapuram, the center is outside the temple.

References
1. These are the usual terms, but there are many variants or different ones in the many Indian languages, ancient and
modern.
2. Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3
3. George Michell 1988, pp. 60-61.
4. Jack Hebner (2010), Architecture of the Vastu Sastra - According to Sacred Science, in Science of the Sacred (Editor:
David Osborn), ISBN 978-0557277247, pp 85-92; N Lahiri (1996), Archaeological landscapes and textual images: a
study of the sacred geography of late medieval Ballabgarh, World Archaeology, 28(2), pp 244-264
5. BB Dutt (1925), Town planning in Ancient India (https://books.google.com/books?id=J3jEJFNxdy4C) at Google
Books, ISBN 978-81-8205-487-5
6. Meister, Michael (1983). "Geometry and Measure in Indian Temple Plans: Rectangular Temples". Artibus Asiae. 44
(4): 266–296. doi:10.2307/3249613 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3249613). JSTOR 3249613 (https://www.jstor.org/sta
ble/3249613).
7. Harle (1994), 87-100; Michell (1988), 18
8. Meister, Michael W. (1988–1989). "Prāsāda as Palace: Kūṭina Origins of the Nāgara Temple". Artibus Asiae. 49 (3–4):
254–256. doi:10.2307/3250039 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3250039). JSTOR 3250039 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/3
250039).
9. Michael Meister (1987), Hindu Temple, in The Encyclopedia of Religion, editor: Mircea Eliade, Volume 14, Macmillan,
ISBN 0-02-909850-5, page 370
10. Meister, Michael W. (1988–1989). "Prāsāda as Palace: Kūṭina Origins of the Nāgara Temple". Artibus Asiae. 49 (3–4):
254–280. doi:10.2307/3250039 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F3250039). JSTOR 3250039 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/3
250039).
11. Michael W. Meister and M.A. Dhaky (1983), South India: Lower Dravidadesa, Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple
Architecture, Vol. I, Part I, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691784021, pages 30-53
12. Michell (1988), 18, 50-54, 89, 149-155; Harle (1994), 335

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13. George Michell 1995, pp. 9-10, Quote: "The era under consideration opens with an unprecedented calamity for
Southern India: the invasion of the region at the turn of the fourteenth century by Malik Kafur, general of Alauddin,
Sultan of Delhi. Malik Kafur's forces brought to an abrupt end all of the indigenous ruling houses of Southern India,
not one of which was able to withstand the assault or outlive the conquest. Virtually every city of importance in the
Kannada, Telugu and Tamil zones succumbed to the raids of Malik Kafur; forts were destroyed, palaces dismantled
and temple sanctuaries wrecked in the search for treasure. In order to consolidate the rapidly won gains of this
pillage, Malik Kafur established himself in 1323 at Madurai (Madura) in the southernmost part of the Tamil zone,
former capital of the Pandyas who were dislodged by the Delhi forces. Madurai thereupon became the capital of the
Ma'bar (Malabar) province of the Delhi empire.".
14. Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (https://books.googl
e.com/books?id=QKgraWbb7yoC&pg=PA587). ABC-CLIO. pp. 587–588. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
15. Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other
Indo-Aryan Languages (https://books.google.com/books?id=XYrG07qQDxkC). Oxford University Press. pp. 155–157.
ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.
16. Michell (1988), 18-19, 54, 159-182
17. Richard Salomon (1990). "Indian Tirthas in Southeast Asia" (https://books.google.com/books?id=McwUAAAAIAAJ). In
Hans Bakker. The History of Sacred Places in India As Reflected in Traditional Literature: Papers on Pilgrimage in
South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 160–176. ISBN 978-90-04-09318-8., Quote: "In the Indianized regions of ancient
southeast Asia, comprising the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and
Indonesia (...)"
18. George Michell 1988, pp. 159-161.
19. "Prambanan - Taman Wisata Candi" (http://borobudurpark.com/en/temple/prambanan-2/). borobudurpark.com.
Retrieved 2017-12-15.
20. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Angkor" (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668). whc.unesco.org. Retrieved
2017-12-15.
21. Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development
of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, Chapter 4
22. Alain Daniélou (2001), The Hindu Temple: Deification of Eroticism, Translated from French to English by Ken Hurry,
ISBN 0-89281-854-9, pp 101-127
23. Samuel Parker (2010), Ritual as a Mode of Production: Ethnoarchaeology and Creative Practice in Hindu Temple
Arts, South Asian Studies, 26(1), pp 31-57; Michael Rabe, Secret Yantras and Erotic Display for Hindu Temples,
(Editor: David White), ISBN 978-8120817784, Princeton University Readings in Religion (Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers), Chapter 25, pp 435-446
24. Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, page 5-6
25. Michell (1988), 50
26. Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development
of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp 68-69
27. Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple Volume 1 & 2, ISBN 81-208-0223-3
28. In addition to square (4) sided layout, Brhat Samhita also describes Vastu and mandala design principles based on a
perfect triangle (3), hexagon (6), octagon (8) and hexadecagon (16) sided layouts, according to Stella Kramrisch. The
49 grid design is called Sthandila and of great importance in creative expressions of Hindu temples in South India,
particularly in ‘‘Prakaras’’.
29. Meister, Michael W. (March 2006). "Mountain Temples and Temple-Mountains: Masrur". Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians. 65 (1): 26–49. doi:10.2307/25068237 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F25068237).
JSTOR 25068237 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/25068237).
30. Stella Kramrisch 1976, p. 8.
31. Trivedi, K. (1989). Hindu temples: models of a fractal universe. The Visual Computer, 5(4), 243-258
32. Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development
of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp 71-73

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33. Meister, Michael W. (April–June 1979). "Maṇḍala and Practice in Nāgara Architecture in North India". Journal of the
American Oriental Society. 99 (2): 204–219. doi:10.2307/602657 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F602657).
JSTOR 602657 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/602657).
34. Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. 66-69 with Figure 5.8.
35. Michell (1977), 55-56 with Figure 20
36. Michell (1977), 55-57
37. Stella Kramrisch (1994), Exploring India's Sacred Art, Editor: Stella Miller, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-
1208-6, pages 60–64
38. Michell (1977), 54-55, 57
39. Michell (1977), 57
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56. Madhusudan A. Dhaky (1977). The Indian Temple Forms in Karṇāṭa Inscriptions and Architecture (https://books.googl
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68. Tran Ky Phuong, Vestiges of Champa Civilization.
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71. Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, p. 283.
72. Prasanna Kumar Acharya 2010, pp. 59-60.
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74. Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, p. 73-80.
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78. Prasanna Kumar Acharya 2010, pp. 157-161.
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External links
Sabha, Vedic altar, Indian temples and Buddhist Mandala: Drawings (http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/george/), Patrick
George, University of Pennsylvania
Space and Cosmology in the Hindu Temple (http://www.ece.lsu.edu/kak/Time2.pdf)
Hindu Javanese Temples (https://web.archive.org/web/20040624010732/http://pages.slc.edu/~eraymond/ccorner/repr
esentation2.html)

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