Sie sind auf Seite 1von 41

# Flow Meter Applications

## Ch.E. 412: Topic 2e

References: Geankoplis (Chap. 3.2) and
Handbook (Chap. 10)

What’s This?

## Orifice Meter with Pressure Gauges

Intended Learning Outcomes
 To differentiate between the basic types of flow
meters;
 To focus on the working equations for the following
common differential pressure flow meters:
• Pitot Tube
• Orifice Meter
• Venturi Meter
 To evaluate the flowrates and friction or permanent
head loss associated with the three meters
 To combine flowmeters in branching problems
Basic Types of Flow Meters

##  Pitot Tube – for point velocities

• Simple
• Needs conversion to average velocity
 Head Meters – induces pressure drop
• Orifice Meter
• Venturi Meter
• Flow Nozzle
 Area Meters – uses a float in varying annular area
 Others (paddle-wheel; mass flowmeter, magnetic
flow meter)
Orifice Meter
Venturi Meter
Pitot Tube

## Measures point velocity, usually at the center or maximum velocity, umax

Examples To Be Taken
1. The flow rate of water at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is
measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the manometer
reading is 6 cm Hg, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or

## 2. The flow rate of air at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is

measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the
manometer reading is 6 cm H2O and the upstream pressure is 250
kPa, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or permanent

## 3. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Venturi Meter with the same

throat diameter is used.

## 4. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Pitot tube installed at the pipe

center is used.
Use of Manometers
 Measures pressure differential across
pressure or piezometer taps in the line
 Basic Equation (U-Tube Manometer)
• Δhm = Differential Head across meter
• P1-P2 = pressure drop across meter
• ρf = fluid density; ρm = manometer fluid density

P1  P2  m  f  g
hm   Rm  
f  f  gc
General Meter Equation
 vm = fluid velocity in the meter
 Δhm= Differential Head Across Meter
 Cm = Meter Discharge Coefficient
 Ym = Expansion Factor for Gases
 β = Meter Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑚
 𝑣𝑚 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑌𝑚 4
1− 𝛽𝑚
Orifice Meter Equation
 vm = fluid velocity in the orifice
 Δho= Differential Head Across orifice
 Co = Orifice Discharge Coefficient
 Yo = Orifice Expansion Factor for Gases
 βo = Orifice Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑜
 𝑣𝑜 = 𝐶𝑜 𝑌𝑜
1− 𝛽𝑜4
Venturi Meter Equation
 vv = fluid velocity in the venturi
 Δhv= Differential Head Across venturi
 Cv = Venturi Discharge Coefficient
 Yv = Venturi Expansion Factor for
Gases
 βv = Venturi Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑣
 𝑣𝑣 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑌𝑣
1− 𝛽𝑣4
Meter Friction (Fm)

##  General Equation: Fm = Km Δhm

• Orifice Meter: Ko= 1-βo2
• Venturi Meter: Kv= 0.1
• Pitot Tube: KPT= 0
Orifice Meter

## Cm = Co = depends on NRe at the orifice (NReo)

and β or downstream pressure location

Douof Do
NRe o  
f D

Orifice Meter

## Ym = Yo = depends on r = P2/P1; k = Cp/Cv and β

1  r 4 
Yo  1   (0.41  0.35 )
 k 

Venturi Meter

Du f Dv
NRe  
f D

## If NRe > 200,000; Cv = 0.984

If 10,000< NRe < 200,000; Cv = 0.98
If NRe < 10,000; Cv = βv
Venturi Meter

## Ym = Yv = depends on r = P2/P1; k = Cp/Cv and β

 k 1
 
k 
2
k   1 r   1 
k 4

YV  r    1 r  
  
2 
k 1   1   4r k
  

Pitot Tube

Po
Pi

## See Fig. 10-7 to obtain u/umax CPT may be taken as 1; β =0

Pitot Tube Equations

For Liquids
v max  2gC h
For Gases

 k 1

2gCk  Po   Pi  k
 Po = static pressure
v max       1
k  1  o   Po   Pi = impact pressure
 
Examples
1. The flow rate of water at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is
measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the manometer
reading is 6 cm Hg, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or

## 2. The flow rate of air at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is

measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the
manometer reading is 6 cm H2O and the upstream pressure is 250
kPa, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or permanent

## 3. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Venturi Meter with the same

throat diameter is used.

## 4. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Pitot tube installed at the pipe

center is used.
Solution to Problem 1
Solution to Problem 2
Solution to Problem 2
Solution to Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 3
Solution To Problem 4
Solution To Problem 4
Branching with Flowmeter Problem
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution