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Flow Meter Applications

Ch.E. 412: Topic 2e


References: Geankoplis (Chap. 3.2) and
Handbook (Chap. 10)

© UST ChE Department


What’s This?

Orifice Meter with Pressure Gauges


Intended Learning Outcomes
 To differentiate between the basic types of flow
meters;
 To focus on the working equations for the following
common differential pressure flow meters:
• Pitot Tube
• Orifice Meter
• Venturi Meter
 To evaluate the flowrates and friction or permanent
head loss associated with the three meters
 To combine flowmeters in branching problems
Basic Types of Flow Meters

 Pitot Tube – for point velocities


• Simple
• Needs conversion to average velocity
 Head Meters – induces pressure drop
• Orifice Meter
• Venturi Meter
• Flow Nozzle
 Area Meters – uses a float in varying annular area
at constant head
 Others (paddle-wheel; mass flowmeter, magnetic
flow meter)
Orifice Meter
Venturi Meter
Pitot Tube

Measures point velocity, usually at the center or maximum velocity, umax


Examples To Be Taken
1. The flow rate of water at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is
measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the manometer
reading is 6 cm Hg, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or
permanent head loss?

2. The flow rate of air at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is


measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the
manometer reading is 6 cm H2O and the upstream pressure is 250
kPa, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or permanent
head loss?

3. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Venturi Meter with the same


throat diameter is used.

4. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Pitot tube installed at the pipe


center is used.
Use of Manometers
 Measures pressure differential across
pressure or piezometer taps in the line
 Basic Equation (U-Tube Manometer)
• Δhm = Differential Head across meter
• P1-P2 = pressure drop across meter
• ρf = fluid density; ρm = manometer fluid density
• Rm = Manometer Reading

P1  P2  m  f  g
hm   Rm  
f  f  gc
General Meter Equation
 vm = fluid velocity in the meter
 Δhm= Differential Head Across Meter
 Cm = Meter Discharge Coefficient
 Ym = Expansion Factor for Gases
 β = Meter Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑚
 𝑣𝑚 = 𝐶𝑚 𝑌𝑚 4
1− 𝛽𝑚
Orifice Meter Equation
 vm = fluid velocity in the orifice
 Δho= Differential Head Across orifice
 Co = Orifice Discharge Coefficient
 Yo = Orifice Expansion Factor for Gases
 βo = Orifice Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑜
 𝑣𝑜 = 𝐶𝑜 𝑌𝑜
1− 𝛽𝑜4
Venturi Meter Equation
 vv = fluid velocity in the venturi
 Δhv= Differential Head Across venturi
 Cv = Venturi Discharge Coefficient
 Yv = Venturi Expansion Factor for
Gases
 βv = Venturi Diameter to Pipe Diameter
ratio
2 𝑔𝑐 ∆ℎ𝑣
 𝑣𝑣 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑌𝑣
1− 𝛽𝑣4
Meter Friction (Fm)

 General Equation: Fm = Km Δhm


• Orifice Meter: Ko= 1-βo2
• Venturi Meter: Kv= 0.1
• Pitot Tube: KPT= 0
Orifice Meter

Cm = Co = depends on NRe at the orifice (NReo)


and β or downstream pressure location

Douof Do
NRe o  
f D

If NReo > 30,000; Co = 0.61

If NReo < 30,000; See HB Fig. 10-16


Orifice Meter

Ym = Yo = depends on r = P2/P1; k = Cp/Cv and β

1  r 4 
Yo  1   (0.41  0.35 )
 k 

See also Fig. 10-18 HB


Venturi Meter

Cm = Cv = depends on NRe at the pipe or βv

Du f Dv
NRe  
f D

If NRe > 200,000; Cv = 0.984


If 10,000< NRe < 200,000; Cv = 0.98
If NRe < 10,000; Cv = βv
Venturi Meter

Ym = Yv = depends on r = P2/P1; k = Cp/Cv and β

 k 1
 
k 
2
k   1 r   1 
k 4

YV  r    1 r  
  
2 
k 1   1   4r k
  

See also Fig. 10-18 HB


Pitot Tube

Po
Pi

Measures point velocity, usually at the center or maximum velocity, umax

See Fig. 10-7 to obtain u/umax CPT may be taken as 1; β =0


Pitot Tube Equations

For Liquids
v max  2gC h
For Gases

 k 1

2gCk  Po   Pi  k
 Po = static pressure
v max       1
k  1  o   Po   Pi = impact pressure
 
Examples
1. The flow rate of water at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is
measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the manometer
reading is 6 cm Hg, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or
permanent head loss?

2. The flow rate of air at 30oC in a 2” Schedule steel pipe is


measured by an orifice meter with a diameter of ¾”. If the
manometer reading is 6 cm H2O and the upstream pressure is 250
kPa, what is the flow in Lit/min? What is the Friction or permanent
head loss?

3. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Venturi Meter with the same


throat diameter is used.

4. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 if a Pitot tube installed at the pipe


center is used.
Solution to Problem 1
Solution to Problem 2
Solution to Problem 2
Solution to Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 3
Solution To Problem 4
Solution To Problem 4
Branching with Flowmeter Problem
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution