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Questions u must prepare otherwise ......................................?

Ray optics (7M)

1.A lens is immersed in water . What will the effect on the power ? (decreases)
2.A lens is immersed in water . what will the effect on focal length ? (Increases)
3.Sun glasses have curved surfaces , but they don’t have power ? why
4.Why should the objective of a telescope have larger focal length ?
5.Why must both the objective and the eyepiece of the compound microscope have short focal lengths ?
6.Two lenses of power -3D and 5D are placed in contact. Find the power and focal length of the combined lens.
7.A magician during a show make a glass lens of RI =1.5 disappear in a trough of liquid . What is the R I of the liquid ? same
8. Does frequency of light change when passes from one medium to other ? No
9.An astronomical telescope uses lenses of power 10D and 1D . what is the magnifying power in normal adjustment ?10
10.How does the angle of minimum deviation of a glass prism vary if incident violet light is replaced by red light ? decreases
11.Draw plot showing the variation of power of a lens with the wavelength of incident light .
12. Is dispersion possible in hollow prism ? No
13. Why does bluish colour predominate in a clear sky ?
14.Which basic mode of communication is used for telephonic communication ?
15.A biconvex lens of RI 1.5 is immersed in water of RI 1.33 . Will this lens behave converging or diverging? Converging
16. Why does white light disperse when passed through a glass prism ?
17.Why is frequency different in incoming and outgoing signals ? ( two avoid overlapping of two signals)
1.What do you mean by total internal reflection ? Write its conditions to occur .
2.Derive an expression of equivalent focal length when two lenses are placed in contact .
3.What is optical fibre . Give its applications.
4. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope in the normal adjustment position. Write down the expression
for its magnifying power.
5.Derive an expression for the magnifying power of a simple microscope .
6.The diameter of the objective of telescope A is three times higher than that of a telescope B . How much greater amount of light is gathered by A compared to B? 9
7.Define the term resolving power of an astronomical telescope . How does it get affected on
(i)increasing the aperture of the objective lens .
(ii)increasing the wavelength of light used
(iii)increasing the focal length of the objective lens .
8. 5.Draw a ray diagram showing the formation of image by an astronomical reflecting (Cassegrain) type telescope . Write four advantages of this type of telescope
over refracting type.
9.Define critical angle . Give its relation with refractive index .

5 Marks
1.Derive the Lens makers formula .
2.Trace the path of a ray of light through a prism. Draw a graph showing the variation of angle of incidence and angle of deviation . Hence derive the following
n21 =( Sin(A+Dm)/2)/SinA/2
3.Deduce the following relation :
n2 /v – n1/ u = (n2-n1)/R
4.Draw a ray diagram for the formation of image of a distant object by an astronomical refracting type telescope in normal adjustment . Deduce the expression
for its magnifying power.
Wave optics (7M)
1.What are Coherent sources ?
2.Can we have two independent coherent sources ?
3.Name the phenomenon which describes wave nature of light .( polarisation)
4.State Brewster’s law.
5.State Malus’s law.
6.What is the polarising angle of a medium of refractive index √3.
7.The polarising angle of medium is 60 degree. Find its refractive index.
8.What will be the effect on the fringes produced in Young’s double slit experiment if the apparatus is immersed
in water ?(fringe width decreases )
9.If the polarising angle of air glass interface is 55 degree . What is the angle of refraction ? 35
10.Write the relation between critical angle and polarising angle .
11. State two conditions for sustained interference of light .
12.if s is the size of the source and b is the distance from the plane of the two slits , what is the condition of interference pattern to be seen ?(s/b is less than λ/d)
13. Define Fresnel’s distance .
2/3 marks
1.Write a few differences between interference and diffraction (pattern).
2.Define resolving power of a microscope . write its mathematical form.
3.Define resolving power of a telescope . Write its mathematical form.
4. Write a few uses of Polaroid’s.
5.State Huygens’s principle .
6.State and prove Brewster’s law of polarisation.
7.Show that when a ray of light is incident on a interface of a transparent medium at polarising angle , the reflected and
The refracted ray are perpendicular to each other .
8.Draw the diagrams to show the behaviour of a plane wave front as they pass through(i) Prism (ii) Convex lens
(iii)Concave mirror
9. How does the resolving power of a compound microscope change (i)when RI of a medium increases (ii)wavelength of light use increases ? (increases , decreases
10.Two narrow slits are illuminated by a single monochromatic source . Name the pattern obtained on the screen . One of the slit is now completely covered .
Name the pattern obtained on the screen . draw intensity pattern in both cases . Also write two differences between the pattern obtained in both the case
?(Interference , Diffraction )
11. What is the effect on the interference pattern in Young’s experiment when
(i) screen is moved away from the plane of the slits .( fringe width increases)
(ii)separation between the slit increases .(fringe width decreases )
(iii)Width of the slit increases .(contrast of maxima minima decreases)
(iv)when light of smaller frequency is used. Fringe width increases .
(v)monochromatic light is replaced by white light .(coloured fringe )
(vi)apparatus is immersed in water . fringe width decreases .
12.Draw the diagram showing the intensity distribution of light on the screen for diffraction of light at single slit .How is the width of central maxima change if
(i) Width of slit is doubled . (decreases )
(ii)wavelength of light increases . (increases )
(iii)distance between slit and screen increases . (increases )
(iv)When light of smaller wavelength is used ? Decreases
13.An unpolarised light is incident on the boundary between two transparent media . State the condition when reflected wave totally plane polarised . Find out
the expression for the angle of incidence in this case . ( Brewster;s law )
14. How can you distinguish between unpolarised light and linearly polarised light using Polaroid’s .
15.Does the appearance of bright and dark fringe violate law of conservation of energy ? Explain.
16.Write the factors by which resolving power of a microscope can be increased ?
17.Why are coherent sources are required to produce a sustained interference pattern ?
18. What change will occur in angular separation and visibility of fringes in Young’s double slit experiment when (i) screen is moved away from the plane of the
slits (ii) width of the source is increased ?
19. Define critical angle and polarising angle . Give relation between these two.
5 Marks
1.State Huygens’s principle , derive laws of reflection and refraction of light .or
How is wavefront defined . Using Huygen;s construction draw a figure showing the propagation of a plane reflecting wave
At the interface of the two media . Show that angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection .or
Using Huygen’s principle with the help of a suitable diagram verify Snell’s law of refraction.
2.In Young’s double slit experiment to produce interference of light , derive an expression for the fringe width
.Hence show that the dark and bright fringes are of equal thickness. Or
In Young’s double slit experiment , describe briefly how bright and dark fringes are obtained on the screen kept in front of a double slit . Hence obtain expression
of fringe Width. The ratio of intensities at minima to the maxima by a monochromatic source of light 9:25.Find the ratio of the width of the two slits .
3.Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit. Explain formation of pattern of fringes obtained on the screen and plot showing variation of intensity with angle
in single slit diffraction.
4. In Young double slit experiment , deduce the condition for (i) Constructive and (ii) destructive interference at a pont on the screen .Draw a graph showing the
variation of resultant intensity in the interference pattern against position .
5.Deduce an expression for the linear width of a central maximum and linear width of a secondary maximum . Hence show that the width of central maximum is
twice the width of a secondary maximum.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter(4M)

1.Define stopping potential.
2.Define work function.
3.The maximum K.E of a photo electron is 3eV . What is the stopping potential ? (3V)
4.Why is de-Broglie’s wavelength associated with a moving football is not visible ?
5.How is the photo current increases on increasing (i) frequency (ii) intensity of incident radiation ?(same, increases)
6.Two metals A and B have work function 4eV and 10 eV respectively , Which metal has higher threshold wavelength ?(A)
7.Are matter waves electromagnetic ? No
8.Does the stopping potential depend on (i)frequency (ii)intensity of incident radiation ? (f requency)
9.The cut off voltage in a certain experiment is 1.5V . What is the maximum k.E ?
10.The work function of a metal is 4.2eV. will this metal give photoelectric emission for incident radiation of wavelength
11.Draw a plot showing the variation of de-Broglie’s wavelength of electron as function of its KE.
1.A proton and an alpha particle are accelerated through same potential difference . Which one will have greater de-Broglie’s wavelength ?
2.If the frequency of incident radiation is doubled , how does the KE change ?(KE becomes more than double )
3.Is photoelectric emission possible at all frequencies of incident radiation ? Explain . (No)
4.An electron , alpha particle , proton have same KE. Which one will have lower de-Broglie’s wavelength? alpha particle
5.Draw a graph showing the variation of frequency of incident radiation and the maximum KE of electrons . State briefly how this graph can be used to
determine (i) Planck’s constant (ii) Work function .
6.Show that Bohr’s second postulate can be explained on thebasis of de-Broglie’s hypothesis .
7.Draw a graph showing the variation of stopping potential with frequency of incident radiation in relation to phoelectric effect . Deduce an expression for the
slope and intercept of this graph using Einstein’s photoelectric equation . Write the signif icance /importance of the slope and intercept of this graph .
8.Define the terms (i) cut off voltage (ii) threshold frequency in relation to Photoelectric effect . Using Einstein’s photoelectric equation show how the cut off
voltage and threshold frequency can be determined with the help of this diagram .
9.Write the important properties of photon which are used to establish Einstein’s photoelectric equation . Use this equation to explain the concept of (i) threshold
frequency (ii) stopping potential.
10.Derive de-Broglie’s wave equation for material particles /photon.
11.Why photoelectric effect can’t be explained on the basis of wave theory of light ? Explain.
12.Establish Einstein’s photoelectric equation . Use this equation to explain photoelectric effect .
13.A source of light placed at distance 50 cm from a photocell and cut off potential is found to be V0. If the distance between the light source and the photocell is
doubled , what will be the new cut off potential ? ( Same)
14.Plot a graph showing the variation of photo current as a function of abode potential for two light beam having the same frequency but different intensity .
5 Marks
1.Describe Davisson and Germer Experiment to demonstrate the wave nature of electrons . Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus . OR Describe how de-
Broglie’s hypothesis is experimentally verified .
Atoms (3-6M)
1.Define impact parameter.
2.Mention one limitations of Rutherford’s atom model .
3.What is the significance of negative sign in the expression of total energy of electron ?
4.Name the spectral series of hydrogen spectrum lying in UV region.
5.Name the spectral series of hydrogen spectrum lying in visible region .
6.What is the significance of negative energy of electron in an orbit ?
2/3 marks
1.Total energy of the electron in the first excited state of hydrogen is -3.4eV.What is the KE and PE of the electron in this state .Which answer will change if
reference frame changes ?
2.Define distance of closest approach . Find its expression.
3.Using second postulates of Bohr’s , show that the circumference of the electron in the nth orbit in a hydrogen atom is n times de-Broglie’s wavelength associated
with it .
4.Show that the radius of orbit in hydrogen atom varies as n 2 , where n is the principal quantum no of the orbit .
5.In the study of Geiger Marsden experiment on scattering of alpha particle by a thin gold foil . draw the trajectory of alpha particles in Coulomb field. Explain
briefly how one gets the information on the size of the nucleus from this study .
6.Show that the decay rate R of a radioactive sample is related to the no of radioactive nuclei at any instant as R =λN
7.Write the nuclear decay process of P 32.
8.A radioactive substance decay to 1/32 th of its initial value in 25 days . Calculate the half life .
9.With the help of example how neutron to proton ration change during alpha decay .
10Why is the mass of the whole nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the constituents ?
1.Draw a labelled diagram of Rutherford’s experiment . Explain the observations and conclusions of this experiment.
Or Draw a schematic arrangement of Geiger –Marsden experiment showing the scattering of alpha particles by thin gold foil .
Why is the most of alpha particles go right through the foil / and only small fraction get scattered at large angles . Draw the trajectory of the alpha particles in
Coulomb field of a nucleus .
2.State Bohr’s postulates . Using those derive an expression total energy of electron in the nth orbit .
3.Using Bohr’s postulates , derive the expression for the frequency of radiation emitted when electron in hydrogen atom undergoes transition from higher energy
state(ni) to lower energy state(nf). When electron in hudrogen atom jumps from energy state n i=4 to nf = 3,2,1 . Identify the spectral series to which emission lines
belong .
1.Define binding energy.
2.Define mass defect.
3.Define mass defect .
4.Find energy equivalent to one amu or u ?
5.The mass no of two nuclei is 27 and 64 , find the ratio of their nuclear radi?
6.Define activity of a radioactive substance . Give its S I unit .
7.Why is beta ray spectrum ray continuous ?
8.Why was it very difficult to detect neutrino ?
9.Why do we observe electrons during beta decay ?
10.How is mean life related to half life.
11.Why is heavy water used as a moderator in a nuclear reactor .
12.Two nuclei have mass no in the ration 1:5 . What is the ratio of their nuclear densities . (1:1)
13. Name the absorbing material used to control nuclear reaction rate in a nuclear reactor ? ( Cadmium)
2/3 Marks
1.Define activity of a radioactive nuclide . Write its SI unit . Give plot of the activity of a radioactive species versus time .
2.Define the following terms : Decay constant, Half life . Establish relation between these two.
3.Define decay constant , mean life . Establish relation between these two .
4.Derive the relation N =N0e-λt.
5.Write four properties of nuclear forces .
6.Draw a graph showing the variation of average binding energy with mass no . Mention two important observations and conclusions from this graph .
7.Show that nuclear density is independent of mass no .
8. Give an example of alpha decay .
10. Write examples of beta + and beta – decay ?
11.Draw the energy level diagrams of a typical gamma decay ? (Co)
12.Draw a graph showing the variation of P.E between a pair of nucleons as function of their separation . Indicate the region in which nuclear force is
(i)attractive (ii) Repulsive . Write two important conclusions which you can draw regarding the nature of the nuclear force .
13(i) Draw the energy level diagrams showing the emission of beta particles followed by gamma decay by Co 60.
(ii) Plot distribution of KE of alpha particles .
14.(i) Draw the plot of binding energy per nucleon as function of mass no. Write two important conclusions that can be drawn from this graph .
(ii)Use this graph to explain the release of energy during nuclear fission and fusion process .
(iii) write the basic process of neutron undergoing beta decay.
15. Explain how radioactive nuclei can emit beta particles even though atomic nuclei don’t contain these particles . Hence explain why mass no of radioactive
nuclei does not change during beta decay ?
16.State the law of radioactivity . plot graph showing the variation the no of un decayed (N) as a function of time (t) of a radioactive sample .
17. Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion .
One mark
1.What is the net charge of a p type or n type semiconductor ? (0)
2.How does a pure semiconductor behave at absolute zero temperature ?
3.What is the ratio of no electrons to holes in a pure semiconductor ? 1;1
4.What are the majority charge carriers in P type semiconductor ?
5.Why is the base region of a transistor made lightly doped or thin ?
6.Why is common emitter CE configuration preferred over other configuration ?
7. Expand LASER.
8.Name the process that occur while forming the PN junction.
9.Define doping.
10.How does the thickness of a PN junction diode change during forward and reverse bias .
11.In which region is a transistor kept to use it as an amplifier ?
12.Draw the symbol of a Zener diode.
13. Draw the symbol for PNP or NPN transistor.
2/3 marks
1.Distinguish between analog and digital signal .
2.Write two advantages of LED over other conventional lamps .
3.Distingiush between conductors , semiconductors , and insulators on the basis of band theory .
4.Explain with the help of a diagram how will you use Zener diode as a voltage Regulator.
5.What are Universal gates ? Why are they named so ?
6.Distinguish between N type and P type semi conductor on the basis of energy band diagram .
7.Draw circuit diagram of a PN junction in forward bias . Sketch the voltage vs current graph for the same.
8.Draw the circuit diagram to study characteristic curve in reverse bias . Draw the characteristic curve.
9.Explain forward and reverse biasing of a PN junction diode.
10.Explain with the help of a block diagram the formation of a PN junction diode . Define barrier potential and depletion region .
11.Explain with the help of a digram the mechanism of current conduction of a PNP or a NPN transistor .
12.Draw the symbol of an AND gate. Make the truth table .
13.Draw the symbol of an OR gate. Make the truth table 5marks
14.Draw the symbol of an NOT gate. Make the truth table
15.Draw the symbol of an NOR gate . Make its truth table.
16.Draw the symbol of an NAND gate. Make the truth table .
17.Explain with the help of circuit diagram how will you use PN junction diode as a full wave rectifier. Draw the input and o ut put waveforms.
18. Explain with the help of circuit diagram how will you use PN junction diode as a half wave rectifier. Draw the input and out put waveforms
19. What is a photo diode . Draw its symbol and characteristic curves.
20.What is an LED. Draw its symbol and characteristic curves .
21.Write uses of LED and solar cell .
22.What is a solar cell ? Draw its V-I characteristics .
23.Explain forward and reverse biasing of a PN junction diode.
24.Three diodes A, B and C are having band gaps 2.5 eV , 2 eV and 3 eV respectively . Which one will be able to detect light of wavelength 6000A0.
25. State the factors which controls (i) wavelength of light (ii) intensity of light emitted by an LED ?
26. Draw the energy band diagram of P –type and N type semiconductor .
5 marks
1.Draw the circuit diagram of a common emitter NPN transistor amplifier . Explain its working . Derive the expression for its voltage gain.
2.Draw the circuit diagram of common emitter NPN collector tuned oscillator. Explain briefly how oscillation is produced .
Or State briefly underlying principle of a transistor oscillator . Draw circuit diagram showing how the feedback is accomplished by inductive capacitance . Explain the
oscillator action .
3.Draw circuit diagram to study the characteristic curves of a common emitter NPN transistor . Draw the input and out put characteristic curves . Define (i) input
resistance (ii) Output resistance (iii) Current amplification factor.
Communication Systems ( 5M)
1. What are the three basic units of a communication system?
2. Mention two limitations of amplitude modulation.
3. Is it necessary for the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna to be at same height ? No.
4. Define modulation index . Mention its importance.
5. What is meant by band width of information signal?
6. Write two advantages of frequency modulation.
7. What characteristic of modulated carrier wave does vary in amplitude modulation?
8. What characteristic of modulated carrier wave does vary in frequency modulation
9. Distinguish between Fax and E –mail.
10. What is the bandwidth of amplitude modulation ?
12. Expand MODEM , SIM, GPS
13. What should be the length of the dipole antenna for a carrier wave of frequency 3x10 8 Hz .
14.Why do we need carrier wave of high frequency ?
15. What happens when modulation index becomes more than one ? Distortion appears .
16.Sky waves are not used for transmitting TV signal . why ?
17.Give two examples of communication system which uses space wave , (LOS, satellite )
18. What type of modulation is required for TV broadcast ? FM
19 Why is communication using LINE of SIGHT MODE limited to frequencies above 40MHZ ?
20.State two advantages of using satellite for communication purposes ?
21. Draw a plot of variation of amplitude vs frequency of AM wave.
22.The maximum amplitude of AM wave 15V while its minimum amplitude is 3V. What is the modulation index?
23. How does the effective power radiated from a linear antenna depend on wavelength ?
24.Distinguish between amplitude modulation and frequency modulation .
1. What is modulation ? why do we need modulation ?
2. What are carrier waves ? what are its types.
3. What are the different types of modulation.
4. Derive an expression for covering range of TV transmission tower.
5 Draw the block diagram of a generalised communication system .
6. Define amplitude modulation . explain an amplitude modulated wave graphically.
7. Why do we need carrier wave?
8. Mention three different modes of propagation used in communication system . Explain with the help of a diagram how
long distance communication can be achieved by ionosphere reflection of radio waves .
15 What is amplitude modulation/ Represent the process graphically. Write its two limitations and two advantages.
16. State two factors by which the range of TV signal can be increased?
17 Distinguish between ‘point to point’ and ‘broadcast’ communication modes, Give one example of each.
18. We do not choose to transmit an audio signal by just directly converting it to an e.m. wave of the same frequency. Give two reasons for the same.
19 Explain the following terms:
(i) ground waves
(ii) space waves and
(iii) sky waves
20 Why cannot the (i) ground waves (ii) space waves and (iii) sky waves be sustained for long distance communication
beyond 10 to 20 MHz?
21 What is meant by critical frequency for sky wave propagation? Write an expression for the critical frequency in
terms of the maximum electron density of the ionosphere. What is the range of variation of frequency for this critical freque ncy?
22.Define modulation index . write its importance . .
24. What does the process of detection of amplitude wave mean? The amplitude modulated carrier wave of angular frequency ῳc, (ῳc - ῳm and ῳc + ῳm) and (ῳc -
ῳm), where ῳm is the angular frequency of the modulating signal. Discuss, in brief, with the help of a block diagram the essential detail s of a simple method used for
‘detecting’ the modulating signal from this modulated carrier wave.
25. A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has a height 32 m and the height of the receiving antenna is 50 m. What is the maximum distance between them for
satisfactory communication in LOS mode? Given radius of earth 6.4 × 106 m.
26 A message signal of frequency 10 kHz and peak voltage of 10 volts is used to modulate a carrier of frequency 1 MHz and peak voltage of 20 volts. Determine
(a) modulation index, (b) the side bands produced.
27 A carrier wave of peak voltage 12V is used to transmit a message signal. What should be the peak voltage of the modulating si gnal in order to have a modulation
index of 75%?
28.Define the following terms : transducer , modulation , demodulation , noise , bandwidth , amplification , attenuation , channel, transmitter , receiver , repeater .
29. Define frequency modulation . Show it graphically .
30.Distinguish between analog digital signal .
31. Write differences between LAN and WAN.
33.Explain the function of repeater in communication system .
34.Draw a schematic diagram showing the (i) ground wave (ii) sky wave (iii) space wave modes of propagation of EM waves..
36.Explain the following terms in relation to the use of interne
(i) Internet surfing (ii) Social networking (iii) E –mail.
37. Write two factors which justify the need of modulating a low frequency signal into a high frequency signal before transmi ssion .
5 marks question
1 Define the term modulation. Explain the need of modulation. Name three different types of modulation used for a message signal using a sinusoidal continuous
carrier wave. Explain the meaning of any one of them.
2 What does the term LOS communication mean? Name the types of waves that are used for this communication. Give typical examples, with the help of suitable
figure of communication:
3 What is space wave propagation? Derive an expression for the range covered by a TV antenna.
4. what is amplitude modulation ? Explain with the help of a diagram how an amplitude modulated wave is produced.
5.What is demodulation or detection ? Explain with the help of a diagram how the process of demodulation is carried out .
6.Explain with the help of block diagram how an amplitude modulated wave is produced ?(AM wave)
7.Expand LOS . Name the types of waves that are used for this communication .Give typical examples with the help of suitable figure of communication systems that uses
space wave mode propagation .