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Report on Problems for


Research in Structural
Engineering that can be
funded by DST
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural
Engineering Funded Projects, Jan 30-31, IISc
Bangalore
Workshop Coordinated by: Ananth Ramaswamy, IISc Bangalore

 
Acknowledgements

The undersigned would like to place his deep sense of appreciation to Department of Science and
Technology (DST) Government of India, for taking the initiative to fund this two day brainstorming
workshop to identify frontier research problems of relevance for possible funding through DST.
Thanks is also due to the authorities of the Indian Institute of Science for providing its infrastructural
facilities for conducting this two day event.

A special word of thanks to all the lead speakers in the various identified themes for accepting this
invitation to participate, make a presentation and generously provide a diverse set of ideas that formed
the basis to develop potential set of research problems for funding. Thanks are also due to all the
workshop participants for their contribution to the discussion sessions and the identification of
research directions.

An event of this nature has a large group of volunteers who work tirelessly behind the scene and I take
this opportunity to thank them for their efforts.
Ananth Ramaswamy

 
Table of Contents

1. Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………….. 1
2. Overview ……………………………………………………………………………...3
3. Problems in “Computational Mechanics in Structural Engineering”…………………….
…………………………………….Prof. Arghya Deb……………………………………………………….5
4. Problems in “Treatment of Uncertainty in Structural Engineering”………………………
……………………………………..Prof. Baidurya Bhattacharya……………………………..……. 12
5. Problems in “Condition Assessment and Health Monitoring of Structures”……….
……………………………Prof. C.S. Manohar…………………………………….. 17
6. Problems in “Condition Assessment and Health Monitoring of Railway Infrastructure-
Bridges, Tunnels, and permanent way” Shri Vipul Kumar & Shri Alok Kumar……………. 21
7. Problems in “Materials for Structural Engineering” ……………………………………………………
…………………………………………Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee………………………………………………… 26
8. Problems in “Experimental Methods in Structural Engineering”…………………..
……………………………Prof. J.M. Chandra Kishen……………………………. 29
9. Problems in “Structures under Extreme Loads: Fire and Blast Loads”……………..
……………………………Prof. S.K. Bhattacharya………………………………... 32
10. Problems in “Wind Effects on Structures”………………………………………….
…………………………….Dr. Selvi Rajan……………………………………….., 38
11. Annexures…………………………………………………………………………….
Workshop program details and Presentation files of Prof. Arghya Deb, Prof. Baidurya
Bhattacharya, Prof. C.S. Manohar, Prof. Amrutur Bharadwj, Dr. Balaji Rao, Shri
Vipul Kumar, Shri Alok Kumar, Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee, Prof. J.M. Chandra Kishen,
Prof. B.V.V. Reddy, Dr. G.R. Reddy, Prof. S.K. Bhattacharya and Dr. Selvi
Rajan………………………………………………………………………………….42

 
Overview

The objective of this brainstorming session is to identify specific research areas in Structural
Engineering and to identify modalities to disseminate this information and motivate
researchers in these and allied fields in institutes spread across the country to get involved in
this initiative.

In order to keep pace with the demand for infrastructure (highways, bridges, multi-story
buildings, nuclear power plants, multi-purpose irrigation and power projects, etc.), there has
been a need for both new infrastructure and strengthening of existing infrastructure. The
primary reason for strengthening of structures includes upgrading of resistance to withstand
underestimated loads, increase the load carrying capacity for higher permit loads, eliminating
premature failure due to inadequate detailing, restoration of lost load carrying capacity due to
corrosion or other types of degradation caused by aging, etc.

This rapid demand for construction materials has resulted in a rapid depletion of materials
(e.g. river sand, coarse aggregate, etc) in many cities across the country. Consequently, there
has also been a growing recognition in some sections of society that there is a need for going
“green” and selecting sustainable options that reduce the carbon footprint, while at the same
time offer low cost affordable tenements for economically weaker sections of society.

Many road and railway bridges, buildings (some of them heritage) and other infrastructure in
India are old, some of them over a hundred years. Over these years the design load has grown
substantially. While some of these road and railway bridges have been retrofitted to
accommodate double lining and gauge conversion for rail traffic or widening and multi-lane
for road traffic, besides receiving periodic maintenance, no continuous measures have been
implemented to take stock of these assets to estimate their residual life at present levels of
loading/ enhanced load levels with or without intervention.

Similarly, it is quite evident that consequences of long term exposure to high temperatures
(e.g. fires) thermal induced damages can result leading to substantial degradation of concrete
and steel, which are the backbone of all major structures used in both strategic (e.g., nuclear
reactors) and common applications (buildings, bridges and outer urban structures). Response
of real buildings in fire and blast loads has highlighted that structural resistance to fire
depends strongly on the level of redundancy (availability of multiple load paths) and rate
sensitive behavior of materials. Therefore structural resistance cannot reliably be estimated
by only assessing the resistance of individual structural members (beams, columns, slabs etc)
to fire, as is broadly the current practice internationally. In most cases this practice leads to
safe designs. However, as the design methods are not based on true behaviour and provide
resistance only by “coincidence”, which of course is neither quantifiable nor reliable. This is
the situation regarding fire resistance of “undamaged structures”. There is no current
guidance at all on fire resistance of previously damaged structures. Global structural
collapses may represent a systemic failure of the whole structure resulting from a truly
“global” mechanism however this usually represents an upper-bound. Often the roots of
failure lie in “progressive” propagation of “local” failure (fracture, yield or buckle) initiated
at the material or joint/connection level.

While many of these issues, of structural engineering nature, are being experienced across the
world some of them are country specific (e.g. need for low cost housing). Thus research in

 
areas such as structural design covering lacunae in current codes; characterization of new
‘green’ materials, structural safety, vulnerability & fragility analysis; structural health
monitoring and condition assessment; repair and retrofit for concrete, masonry and steel
structures against monotonic and fatigue loads; assessment of the consequences of special
loads such as those due to fire, blast/explosive loads, wind, and ocean waves, blast loads and
earthquakes need a fillip.

As a result of the two day brainstorming session in Structural engineering a large number of
research problems of relevance have been identified by domain experts across a number of
areas for possible pursuance as funded research projects through the Department of Science
and Technology (DST), Government of India. 

 
 

Problems in “Computational Mechanics in


Structural Engineering”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore
(Compiled by Prof. Arghya Deb, IIT Kharagpur based on his own
presentation and ensuing discussions at the workshop) 
 
Contact Address
Prof. Arghya Deb
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
arghya@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  

 
Problem 1: Improved solution procedures for failure analysis of Civil Engineering structures

 Typical problems in large deformations involve either finite strains or finite rotations. In
certain situations it involves both. Large deformations of plates and shells, finite rotation of
beams etc. are some common civil engineering applications of large deformation theory.
 Large deformations give rise to geometric nonlinearities. In addition, material nonlinearities
may exist because of plastic deformations. An implicit iterative solution procedure for such
nonlinear problems exhibits convergence problems with the onset of significant plastification
and crack growth, a situation quite common during failure analysis of concrete structures.
 This, in many situations, results in premature termination of the numerical solution prior to
the determination of peak load and ultimate strength. The only recourse in such cases is to use
a dynamic explicit algorithm and perform a quasi-static analysis.
 While a quasi-static analysis does not terminate prematurely, it results in oscillatory solutions
at or near the peak load. Sometimes the oscillations make it difficult to accurately determine
the true ultimate load and ultimate state of the structure.
 An efficient and inexpensive modification to the explicit dynamic algorithm which would
enable these spurious high frequency modes to be selectively weeded out and enable accurate
determination of the ultimate load during failure analysis of concrete structures would
enhance the use of finite element analysis for this important class of structural engineering
problems.
Equipment required:
Software: Most existing commercial FEM codes will not allow new solution algorithms to be
implemented within them. Hence the best option would be to use existing finite element source code
(e.g. FEAP) and make modifications.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 2: Improvements to ALE algorithms for soil-structure interaction problems


 Soil structure interaction problems typically result in large deformations in the less stiff and
more plastic soil region which interacts with the stiffer and more elastic structural part.
Lagrangian finite element analyses do not lead to accurate solutions for such problems –
because the mesh distortions in the soil elements interfacing with the structure are excessive.
 Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian mesh smoothing in the soil domain enables these distortions to
be removed and prevents premature termination of the analysis.
 However at the interacting surface problems still exist. To conserve field variables, the
smoothed ALE soil mesh must conserve volume at the the soil surface. In addition no soil

 
finite element node can penetrate the finite elements of the structure, in order not to violate
the contact constraint.
 In practice these two requirements cannot be met simultaneously, because the constraints may
conflict each other. Solving an optimization problem at each node is impractical and
expensive.
 An algorithm to resolve these conflicting constraints is required. Such an alternative approach
may involve giving one constraint priority. The contact constraint may be enforced exactly at
every increment, but the volume preservation constraint may be staggered. The error in
volume may be resolved over several succeeding Lagrangian increments by generating
equivalent ‘artificial’ pressure stresses in the more compliant solid.
Equipment required:
Software: Many existing commercial FEM codes e.g. ABAQUS, LS Dyna have ALE for use with
such problems. But access to the source code is not available. Hence the best option would be to use
existing finite element source code and make modifications.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 3: An adaptive seeding algorithm for improved solution of fluid-structure interaction


problems using CEL
 In multi-physics problems – for instance during contact between solids and fluids – ALE is
not usually very successful. The deformation of the fluid at the interface may be so excessive
due to the interfacial shear, that ALE may prove incapable of resolving the mesh distortions.
 As a solution a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has been tried – and offers some
advantages. The solid which undergoes relatively small deformations is modeled using a
Lagrangian approach – mesh and material are assumed to move together. The fluid which
undergoes large deformations (flow), is modelled as an Eulerian domain – the mesh and the
material move independently.
 Following the Lagrangian step, the boundaries of the Eulerian material in an element are
reconstructed using the volume fraction data, approximating the material boundaries using a
combination of planar facets.
 In the absence of a sufficient number of Eulerian material points and a sufficiently fine
Lagrangian mesh, this leads to contact violation and leakage of the Eulerian fluid.
 Uniformly increasing the number of Eulerian material points throughout the domain is
extremely expensive – and often infeasible.
 Increasing the number of Eulerian material points adaptively may be a solution. The adaptive
seeding criteria should probably incorporate the effects of surface shape (curvature), motion
(velocity) as well as stress (pressure). An algorithm that would do so would increase the

 
accuracy of coupled Euelerian-Lagrangian solutions and allow problems with complicated
solid interfacial geometries to be solved efficiently.

Equipment required:
Software: Many existing commercial FEM codes e.g. ABAQUS, LS Dyna, Ansys-Fluent, have CEL
for use with such problems. But access to the source code is not available. Hence the best option
would be to use existing finite element source code and make modifications.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 4: Coupling Continuum Damage Mechanics with XFEM to model crack propagation
in concrete

• Two approaches exist for studying material failure in solids: fracture mechanics and
continuum damage mechanics.

• When the size of the flaws in a structure is much smaller than the characteristic size of the
structure, one can account for the combined effect of the multiple micro cracks or micro voids
on the overall structural response.

• However when the size of the flaws approach the size of the structure, i.e. the micro-cracks
have coalesced to form a macro-crack, it becomes important to model the actual geometry of
the flaw in order to obtain an accurate structural response.

• However to accurately model a crack in a concrete specimen using traditional finite elements
is computationally difficult. A crack may be a hundred microns wide. A structure with
characteristic dimensions in meters, would require a level of mesh refinement which would be
prohibitive, unless one has access to very superior computers.

• XFEM is a meshless method which can model cracks in a finite element mesh without the
need to have a mesh with mesh size approximating the crack width. However XFEM cannot
model the process of micro-cracking leading to macro-crack growth in concrete.

• This can be done efficiently using Continuum Damage Mechanics. A combined approach
using Continuum Damage Mechanics and XFEM, if implemented, can help resolve some of
these issues. When the macrocrack has not yet been formed, and there is extensive micro-
cracking, Continuum Damage Mechanics can be used. Once the micro-cracks have coalesced
to form a macro-crack, its location and orientation are known. At that point one can switch to
fracture mechanics using XFEM.

 
• A combined approach would lead to significantly reduced computational costs, would not rely
on artificially induced initial notches, and would, if properly tested against experimental crack
patterns, lead to more realistic solutions for crack propagation analyses for concrete
structures.

Equipment required:
Software: ABAQUS has both continuum damage mechanics and XFEM. But access to the source
code is not available. Hence the best option would be to use existing finite element source code and
make modifications.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 5: Studying High Cycle fatigue in concrete structures using Discrete elements
 The response of concrete structures to high cycle fatigue loading is not fully understood.
 For example, concrete under compressive loading cycles shows more long term fatigue
damage than under tensile loading cycles.
 What are the differences in interactions at the particle level under cyclic tensile and
compressive loadings that lead to such radically different response? Can computational
mechanics enable us to answer some of these questions? But to do this one has to switch from
a continuum to a discrete approach.
 Instead of treating concrete as a effective homogenized material, numerical models of
concrete that are capable of modeling concrete as an assemblage of particles are necessary.
The discrete element method appears to be an effective tool to do this.
 Development of discrete element models that can be used to study this behavior may improve
understanding of the long term fatigue behavior of concrete structures.
Equipment required:
Software: PFC 3D is a commercially available DEM code but it has some limitations. It can be used
as a starting point for the study.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 6: Computational algorithms involving coupling between chemical, thermal and


physical (mechanical) phenomena
 Developing numerical models for corrosion of rebars in concrete – involving modeling of the
chemical processes leading to corrosion and resultant changes in geometry and material
properties - which in turn affect the load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete flexural or
compression member.
Equipment required:

 
Software: COMSOL, ANSYS-FLUENT can do some types of multi-physics simulation. But it is
unlikely that all the above phenomena can be modelled using a single software. It may be necessary to
do sequential coupling, where the results of one simulation are used to drive subsequent simulations
and the process repeated over several increments.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 7: Numerical procedures involving problems with different time scales


 Modelling creep and seepage in concrete structures: development, refinement and
characterization of accurate numerical models for creep and seepage is an open problem in
the computational mechanics of concrete.
 In addition, these phenomena occur over very long time periods – but they may influence
structural response subject to short duration loading. Structural response over short time
durations, may affect the long term creep and seepage properties in concrete structures.
Numerical procedures to couple the influence of long and short term effects need to be
developed.
Equipment required:
Software: Various creep models exist in ABAQUS, ANSYS, LS Dyna etc. However seepage is harder
to model. Seepage modelling has also been done for soils using the coupled mechanical-pore water
pressure formulation in ABAQUS. This may perhaps be extended to concrete.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 8: Improved constitutive models for biomaterials


 Improved constitutive models for modeling muscles and cartilage.
Equipment required:
Software: Most commercial FEM codes allow the user to link constitutive models that they have
developed to the software’s built-in solver. This approach can be adopted for this problem.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 9: Improved constitutive models for masonry

 Constitutive models that deal with creep and deterioration in masonry structures.
 That can model damage both in the bricks as well as in the interface.
Equipment required:
Software: Most commercial FEM codes allow the user to link constitutive models that they have
developed to the software’s built-in solver. This approach can be adopted for this problem.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 10: Numerical procedures for multi-hazard analysis


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 Modelling structural failure under the influence of earthquake and fire
 Earthquake damaged structures may be exposed to subsequent fire loading due to fires
originating due to damaged electric circuitry resulting from earthquake.
 Numerical procedures to evaluate structural response under such situations are required.

Equipment required:
Software: This can be done using commercial FEM codes that can do coupled thermo-mechanical
analysis (ABAQUS, ANSYS etc) as well as analyze structural response under earthquake loading. But
the most challenging part is obtaining material data at elevated temperatures. The Eurocodes on fire
contain a lot of data – but not all of it appears to be publicly available.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 11: Numerical procedures for studying changes to mechanical properties under
electrical and magnetic fields

 Time dependent behaviour of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic materials undergoing changes in


their material properties with electric/magnetic field and temperature
 Electric field induced changes in biological tissue
Equipment required:
Software: ERMES, COMSOL, GEMACS etc can be useful.
Hardware: A computer with 4 GB RAM and 2-3 GHz processing speed

Problem 12: Development of a centralized code repository

 Development of a computer code involves considerable overhead and is extremely laborious


and time consuming.
 A central code repository which collects and maintains subroutines and algorithms
contributed by individual researchers and makes them available for others who wish to use
them would increase productivity and encourage code development for complex problems.
Equipment required: A server where this code can be maintained.

Problem 13: Development of a centralized material data repository

 Such a repository would compile and collate experimental test data obtained by various
researchers and would be invaluable in calibrating numerical constitutive models and
validating the results of numerical analyses.
Equipment required: A centralized data storage facility.
11 

 
Problems in “Treatment of Uncertainty in
Structural Engineering”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore 
(Compiled by Prof. Baidurya Bhattacharya, IIT Kharagpur based on
his own presentation and ensuing discussions at the workshop)
 
 
Contact Address
Prof. Baidurya Bhattacharya
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
baidurya@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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1) Modelling the physics of load processes

a. Seismic loads. Accurate modelling of seismic loads remains one of the last great
frontiers of structural engineering. Reliable strong motion data are limited, and
synthetic earthquake records have not gained universal acceptance. Seismic loads on
a structure at a given site depends on numerous factors including nature of source,
intensity at source, distance to site, properties of intervening medium, orientation of
the structure etc. most of which are uncertain in nature. The expected outcome of this
group of projects will be description of seismic hazard curves at a given site
corresponding to various intensity measures.
Hardware: Computers required. Optional equipment: for obtaining seismological /
geological data
Software required: FEA, Matlab etc.
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project

b. Non-stationarity in meteorological phenomena. The extreme value modelling of


wave, wind etc. processes under the IID assumption is well understood and well
established as an engineering discipline. The effect of dependence and clustering too
can be accounted for under additional assumptions as long as stationarity is satisfied.
However, many of these phenomena, especially in the light of global climate change,
should be described as non-stationary processes. Extremes for such processes are
poorly understood, and it is not known under what conditions limiting distributions
may exist. The expected outcome of this group of projects will be describing the non-
stationary nature of a given process based on actual observations, and generalizing
such findings into the possible existence of limiting distributions for extremes.
Hardware / Possible equipment required: Computers and equipment for obtaining
meteorological data.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project.

2) Modelling of large systems

a. Efficient simulations for modelling of systems near failure conditions. The behavior of
large structural systems in near failure conditions when subjected to extreme loads is
a complex problem. Large non-linearities, partial failures, load reversals, interactions
with fluids and soils etc. come into play. In addition, all related uncertainties need to
be taken into account if the probabilistic description of structural response and the
reliability of the system are required. Hence, efficient simulation is essential for
determining the reliability of large systems near failure conditions. The expected
outcome of this group of projects will be an improvement over existing efficient
simulation schemes such as subset simulations with Markov Chain Monte Carlo and
the incorporation of more realistic mechanics of the system in near failure conditions.
Hardware required: Computers including high performance CPU/GPU clusters.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project.

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b. Reliability of large infrastructural systems. As infrastructure systems get bigger and
involve interaction between structural and non-structural components (e.g., operators,
equipment, active control systems etc.), traditional means of systems modeling (e.g.,
fault/event trees) become inadequate. Multilevel failures, dependent failures, load
sharing, load reversal, even incoherent behavior in some cases, etc. become relevant.
System reliability modelling in such complex situation need to account for all these
factors. The expected outcome of this group of projects will be systems reliability
modelling that includes interaction of the structure with non-structural subsystems
and human operators and users. For an existing system undergoing damage, this
model should also incorporate eyewitness data and SHM data as failure progresses.
Hardware required: Computers including high performance CPU/GPU clusters.
Sensors, data loggers etc. for SHM.
Software required: FEA, Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 3 SRFs per project.

3) Data generation

a. Full scale model tests. Statistics of random variables representing strength quantities
are required in structural reliability analyses. These include material strength
properties such as yield strength, elasticity, ultimate strength, fracture toughness etc.
on the one hand, as well as geometry dependent strengths of structural components
and joints on the other. In almost all cases, these statistics are taken from the
literature; these statistics are mostly derived by researchers in other countries testing
materials and components relevant to their setup. The applicability of these statistics
to Indian contexts is questionable. The expected outcome of this group of projects
will be statistics for material strength and component stiffness and strength random
variables that are actually relevant to Indian construction practices. These statistics
in turn will lead to accurate reliability estimates of Indian designs and structures, and
reliability-based design codes that are developed from first principles.
Hardware required: Load frames, shake tables, material testing equipment,
accelerated test facilities, environmental chambers, computers
Software required: Matlab
Manpower required: 4 SRFs per project

b. Expert elicitation for model uncertainty. Any mathematical model of a real system
makes idealizations. In the process some important physics of the real system may be
ignored. The deviation of the model prediction from the actual response may be
uncertain in nature. For models of simple systems that can be observed over
laboratory time and spatial scales, the modeling uncertainty may be estimated from
test data. However, a physical process can span time and/or spatial scales larger than
humans can observe, or is too hazardous or too costly to recreate and observe in
reality. In such cases, the mathematical model cannot be verified with data. Expert
elicitation is the only way that can give a scientific basis to the uncertainty that exists
in such models. The expected outcome of this group of projects will be the statistics
of modelling uncertainty associated with models on loads and structural behavior that

14 

 
cannot be measured directly. These statistics in turn will feed into reliability analyses
and reliability based code calibrations.
Hardware required: Computers. Set-up for collecting data from experts.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project.

4) Risk quantification

a. Determination of acceptable risk. Every engineering product or activity comes with


the possibility of negative consequences if failure occurs. The negative consequences
can include damage to environment and property, economic loss, injury and even loss
of life. Nevertheless, in spite of the potential losses, engineering activities are
undertaken and generally welcomed because of the immense benefit they bring to
individuals and society. However, it is important to ensure that the risk posed by an
activity does not exceed the level that is acceptable to society. Risk in this context
should be defined as expected consequence. Acceptable risk is a function of society’s
expectations, average wealth and the level of education, the voluntary vs. involuntary
nature of exposure, the amount of dread associated with failure of the activity etc.
The expected outcome of this group of projects will be acceptable risk to Indian
society from engineering activities taking into account economic, environmental and
human losses. This information in turn will lead to determination of target
reliabilities of structural systems that can be used in developing reliability based
design codes for unique or high value structures.
Hardware required: Computers. Set-up for collecting data on the public.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 3 SRFs per project. This project will be inter-disciplinary in
nature with possible co-PIs from economics and the social sciences.

b. Risk communication. For any high-value, high-benefit and high-hazard activity, it is


important to have an honest dialogue with the public about the cost benefit aspects of
the activity. From the professional risk communicator’s view, there are four possible
situations: high hazard low outrage, low hazard high outrage, moderate hazard
moderate outrage, and high hazard high outrage. This sort of risk communication
requires accurate engineering analysis of the initial and operational costs, potential
failure costs, and failure probabilities of the activity. This project needs to find out the
effective means to communicate such risks and should be a collaborative effort
involving engineers, economists and social scientists.
Hardware required: Computers.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent. Set-up for collecting data on the public.
Manpower required: 3 SRFs per project. This project will be inter-disciplinary in
nature with possible co-PIs from economics, policy, management and the social
sciences.

5) Material Modelling

a. The physics of aging processes. Civil engineering structures are subject to a range of
deleterious processes during their service lives. These include corrosion (caused by

15 

 
environmental agents such as chlorides, stress, wear, bacteria etc.), fatigue (due to
load and thermal cycles), enhanced brittleness etc. Field conditions can differ
markedly from laboratory conditions based on which most empirical models and
parameters are derived. There is a need for fundamental understanding of aging
processes that take into account modelling and parameter uncertainties. This will be
essential to predicting reliability and remaining life of in service structures. The
expected outcome of this project will be first principles based models of aging
processes that incorporate all uncertainties and make use of relevant laboratory and
field data.
Hardware required: Load frames, material testing equipment, accelerated test
facilities, environmental chambers, and computers.
Software required: Matlab or equivalent
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project.

b. Multi-scale modelling of material properties. Most macroscopically observed


material properties have their roots in the atomic structure. Thus whether to create
new materials with targeted properties, or to get a better understanding about the
behavior of existing materials, it is necessary to model materials at the atomic or in
some cases at the subatomic scale. Random fluctuations and defects cannot be
ignored particularly when trying to model properties governed by extremes rather
than by averages. Scale bridging and concurrent multi-scale modelling will be
necessary to relate atomic or subatomic processes with engineering scale properties.
The output of this project will be an understanding the role of random fluctuations
and defects at the atomic scale on observable material properties.
Hardware required: Imaging and mechanical characterization at atomic scales.High
performance GPU/CPU computer clusters.
Software required: MD, ab initio, FEA, Matlab or equivalent.
Manpower required: 2 SRFs per project.

16 

 
Problems in “Condition Assessment and Health
Monitoring of Structures”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore 
(Compiled by Prof. C.S. Manohar, IISc based on his own
presentation, and the presentations by Prof. S. Asokan and Prof.
Amratur Bharadwaj and ensuing discussions including a
presentation by Dr. Balaji Rao at the workshop)
 
 
Contact Address
Prof. C.S. Manohar
Department of Civil Engineering
IISc Bangalore, India
manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

17 

 
Background

Research in the areas of condition assessment and health monitoring of structures involve
computational modelling, laboratory experiments, and (or) field investigations. The developments in
computing, sensing and actuation technologies are the technological drivers of this field. Notions of
“sentient structures” and “digital twins” are emerging. A good proposal in these areas of research
needs to include one or more of the following features:

• The study should involve combined experimental and computational work elements.
• There must be novel element at least in one of the following aspects: system
identification methodology, sensing, actuating, data handling, testing, and prognosis.
• The assimilation of measurement data typically must be in conjunction with
computational tools such as FEM which is widely used in structural engineering.
• The investigators must have an awareness of relation between structural health
monitoring, structural design philosophy, and prognosis of structural behaviour.
• The proposal must display awareness of effects of non-idealities such as measurement
noise, nonlinearities, environmental effects, and multiplicity of valid mathematical
models.
• The proposal need to include work elements involving studies with synthetic data,
studies with laboratory testing, and studies with field data. Studies which employ only
synthetic measurement data are to be discouraged.
• Projects involving field work need to have collaborative efforts involving structural
engineering, sensing & actuation, and instrumentation.

The following topics can form the basis on which research proposals can be developed.

1. Algorithmic developments in structural system identification

1.1 Motivations
Finite element (FE) models for existing structures are valuable in structural health monitoring,
predicting future performance of the structure and while deciding on change is usage patterns.
A pre-requisite for the acceptability of these models is that the predictions these models must
have been reconciled with measured performance of the structure under operating/test
conditions. This process of reconciliation is the primary motivation behind development of
methods of structural system identification. Currently there exists need for developing system
identification methods in conjunction with large scale finite element models for engineering
structures of practical interest. The scale of the problem here is not only with respect to the
dofs in the FE model but also in terms of number of system parameters to be identified.
1.2 Methods
The identification methods can be based on response sensitivities, Bayesian methods, or
minimization of a metric of difference between model predictions and measured response.
These methods need to be coupled with FE modelling framework and need to address one or
more of the problem complexities: data emanating from multiple tests (static/ dynamic/ NDT,
etc.), geometric and (or) material nonlinear behaviour of structures, account for interactions
(soil-structure, fluid-structure, primary-secondary systems, etc.), and concerns for degradation
mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, etc.) in system modelling. The work could begin with
synthetic measurement data must include laboratory experimental data and (or) field tests.
The conduct of suitable laboratory experiments or field studies could also be part of the
investigations.
18 

 
1.3 Skills needed
Mastery over FE modelling both in terms of methodological moorings and felicity with usage
of professional FE packages. An understanding static/vibration experimental procedures and
issues related to sensing. Competence to perform laboratory tests and (or) field tests. Details
of facilities needed depend upon the problems on hand.
1.4 Potential outcome
Development of workable methods for identifying parameters of FE models for large scale
structures based on static and (or) dynamic response measurements.

2. Prognosis and prediction of future system performance

2.1 Motivations
The structural system identification step leads to a FE model for the structure in its current
state. This forms the basis on which decisions on future performance, immediate
maintenance, repair, or retrofit can be taken. Development of rational frameworks to make
such decisions requires research efforts.
2.1 Methods
The basic methodology typically involves Bayesian methods combined with FE modelling for
structural behaviour. The performance characterization could be based on methods of
reliability and could be developed within the framework of performance based structural
engineering. Questions on modelling deterioration including those due to fatigue and
corrosion are important.
2.2 Skills needed
Mastery over FE modelling both in terms of methodological moorings and felicity with usage
of professional FE packages. Understanding of computational Bayesian methods which
employ Markov Chain Monte Carlo and (or) particle filtering methods. Background in
modelling of deterioration mechanisms. Efforts to link the questions posed to tenets of
performance based engineering would be desirable.
2.3 Potential outcome
Development of software tools for dealing with maintenance of existing infrastructure.

3. Sensing methods: wireless sensing, placement of sensors, sensor development

3.1 Motivations
Advances in sensing and actuation technology are rapidly taking place and these have
been the drivers for development of structural health monitoring methods. Traditional
cable based sensing methods are unwieldy for monitoring large scale civil infrastructures
such as long span bridges and urban infrastructure. Similarly, GPS based technologies are
relevant in structural monitoring. Fibre optic based sensors offer an opportunity for
distributed sensing over extended spatial domains. The data collection here pertains to not
only structural response but also includes environmental variables (like temperature and
humidity). The placement of sensors can be after the structure has been constructed or at
the time of construction itself. Structural engineering community need to gain experience
in using these emerging technologies. A few questions which can be considered here
include:

19 

 
(a) How do wireless sensors work when employed for monitoring large scale structures
such as a long span bridge or a collection of structures such as a stock of buildings in
a given area or a network of bridges on a railway line? How to collect, transmit, and
store data? How to validate the quality of data? How to monitor the sensors over a
long period of time in terms of calibration and functionality?
(b) How to place sensors so as to enhance the effectiveness of structural monitoring? Can
the sensor locations and numbers be adaptively designed? How do sensors which are
embedded at the time of construction work?
(c) How to measure long-term deterioration mechanisms like corrosion? How to measure
prestress and loss of prestress?
(d) Can wireless sensing be used to monitor structures under construction?
(e) How to provide energy requirements for powering wireless sensors, conditioners?

3.1Methods

The focus here is on producing high quality structural performance data which serve as
inputs to problems of structural system identification and performance prognosis.
Proposals can typically designate a chosen structure (bridge, heritage structure, tall
building, or groups of structures) on which the study could be conducted. The work
elements involve designing a suitable array of sensors, data acquisition, transmission and
storage. Validation of performance of sensors (such as wireless sensors and GPS) using
traditional measuring methods (such as those employ LVDT-s, cabled strain gauges and
accelerometers) is required. Attention to be paid to real-time-ness, reliability, interference
from other radio sources, and path loss. Questions on powering of sensors through energy
harvesting methods also are relevant.
3.2 Skills needed
This class of problems is best tackled by a team of structural engineers and electronic
engineers specializing in sensing technologies.

3.3 Potential outcome


Demonstration of sensing technologies in a realistic setting from a structural engineering
perspective.

4 Problems of bridge health monitoring


There exist a huge stock of ageing bridges in India and the problem of maintaining them offers
many technological challenges. Many issues mentioned in previous sections remain relevant here
also. Additionally, the following issues can be looked into:

(a) Development of an instrumented test vehicle to monitor bridge structural characteristics.


(b) Development of instrumented wheel barrow to measure guide way unevenness and
incorporating these measured features into system identification tools.
(c) Development of methods and technologies for monitoring health of foundations-
especially those which are submerged in water.
(d) Development of decision frameworks to monitor a stock of bridges in an area or a
transportation network.
(e) Address issues specific to condition assessment and monitoring ageing masonry arch
bridges.
(f) Development of test protocols for condition assessment of different bridge types.

20 

 
Problems in “Condition Assessment and Health
Monitoring of Railway Infrastructure-Bridges,
Tunnels, and permanent way”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore 
(Compiled by Shri Vipul Kumar & Shri Alok Kumar, Indian Railways
based on their own presentation and ensuing discussions at the
workshop)
 
Contact Address
Shri Vipul Kumar & Shri Alok Kumar
Exec. Director Exec. Director
RDSO Lukhnow Railway Board, New Delhi
vktrackrdso@gmail.com      edceg@rb.railnet.gov.in  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

21 

 
1. Problems in Rail fracture (RF) and weld fracture(WF): Need for early detection of RF
& WF
The Indian Railway network is one of the largest in the world (1, 11, 000 km) carrying more than
25 million people in passenger traffic daily. The rail network is inspected at least once every day
to take stock of wear and tear in the rail and the weld. There is a significant growth in the traffic
every year, more than 10 fold increase from 1950-51 to 2010-11. At present tracks are procured in
lengths of 13 m to 260m in 60 kg and 52 kg with 90UTS. The railways employs track welding to
provide long length joint free tracks. Improvisations have been effected in the compaction of the
subgrade, and sub base of the permanent way besides refinements in the sleeper technology (from
wooden to steel to prestressed concrete sleeper). However, there has been a gradual increase in
instances of rail and weld fracture, with some fractures not being detected in a timely manner
leading to accidents. The existing methodology in place for rail and weld fracture detection is
based on replacement of rails sections based on expected service life, and periodic inspections.
The reasons for rail fracture include, flaws induced due to location related issues, overloading,
corrosion, non-maintenance of tracks to standard, and non-detection of flaws. Thus there is an
urgent need to develop a rail and weld fracture detection technology that could be based on
methodologies such as strain gauging, fibre optic sensing, track integrity system deployments,
traction return current technology, acoustic broken wave detectors, elastic wave analysis for
broken rail, and broken rail detector for communication based control, buried fibre optic sensing
etc. The current ultrasonic testing methods are not able to detect flaws in a rail or weld if the
incident ultrasonic ray does not penetrate the region. Presence of scabs, rust, pitting in the rail
prevent effective acoustic coupling and this in turn results in improper diagnosis. The diagnosis
also fails when the track is on a sharp curve or if the gauge is slack. All of the proposed systems
have been tried and have been found wanting in their ability to diagnose flaws comprehensively (
these methods fail at points and switch expansion joints; Also flaw orientations, rail scabbing, and
corrosion interferes with effective fracture detection).

 Detailed study to understand existing system in place and its limitation


 Develop alternate strategies to overcome limitations in providing advance diagnosis of
rail and weld fracture.
Such a project would need a group of people (PIs) and Railway officials to interact
continuously in developing, implementing and testing a RW/WF diagnosis system at pilot
scale.

2. Condition Assessment of Railway Bridges on the Indian Railway Network


Condition assessment of most railway bridges in the Indian Railway network is based primarily
on visual inspection. A few measurements using non-destructive testing and measurements such
as camber serve to complete the existing methods. This approach has a very limited scope and is
quite inadequate for a large number of bridges. The bridge inspector is not in a position to take
sound decisions. Often, a bridge that appears visibly in a poor condition has no serious problem
while other bridges that appear to be in good condition have serious problems that go undetected.
Inspecting engineers are not in a position to prescribe safe limiting speeds for trains or
recommend the nature and extent of repairs that need to be undertaken.

22 

 
 Need to evolve a more comprehensive bridge inspection procedure for railways. This
would require a comprehensive bridge inspection manual for field inspectors so that they
can make a more informed assessment of bridge condition. Non-destructive testing
methods need to be augmented more routinely into the bridge assessment process.
 A more complete structural model of the bridge based on initial bridge drawings, that are
updated when interventions and repairs are undertaken needs to be maintained. Numerical
modelling of the bridge with the loads applied needs to be undertaken for static, dynamic
and fatigue loading to assess wear and tear on bridge components and joints. Issues such
as material damage (corrosion, concrete spalling, and joint degradation) needs to be
included. This would eventually require numerical model based predictions of bridges
subject to known loads to be reconciled with field measurements for the same conditions
leading to a Bridge condition assessment and health monitoring regime.
Such a project would need a group of people (PIs) and Railway officials to interact
continuously in developing, implementing and testing a RW/WF diagnosis system at pilot
scale.

3. Railway Tunnels Condition Assessment and Health Monitoring System


The Indian Railway system has a vast network of tunnels that have been built on different terrain
often in difficult soil conditions. The present methods in vogue for inspection is primarily one that
is visual along with some soundings taken and in a few instances measurements of deformations
are taken to verify compliance with schedule of dimensions. The availability of design documents
for tunnels is very limited and only a few tunnels have been instrumented. There is a need to
develop

 Sufficient expertise and experience for dealing with complexity involved in Tunnel
health assessment & Monitoring
 Expertise & engagement in live construction projects
 Action plan for meaningful acquisition of data from which tangible benefits in terms of
cost/safety can be derived.
Based on the current status the key research areas are:

1. Development of Tunnel Health Monitoring Plan For Indian Railways


2. Identification and validation of NDT Techniques for Health Assessment of structural
Components of tunnels
3. Development of Back-analysis Methods for Optimal Tunnel Design

The tunnel health monitoring of Indian Railways needs to factor in the following issues:

 Health monitoring needs of different tunnels are different – depending on geology, traffic,
location, etc.
 Indian Railways have constructed a large nmber of tunnels in varying conditions.
 Existing system of assessment of structural health - Regular Inspections
 Systematic Health monitoring (through instrumentation) – relatively a new concept for
IR. The planned system should be able to provide tangible benefits in terms of cost
and safety. Optimization/confirmation of tunnel design and determining safety margin
of existing designs is one of the focus areas
Proposed scope of research:-

23 

 
 Identification of appropriate technologies and instruments (for varying needs)
 Development of Structural Health Assessment Plan (for varying needs)
 Development of protocols for Data acquisition and storage
 Data management and utilization, fixing of thresholds
 Undertaking of a few pilot projects

Such a project would need a group of people (PIs) and Railway officials to interact
continuously in developing, implementing and testing a RW/WF diagnosis system at pilot
scale.

4. Identification and Validation of NDT Techniques for Health Assessment of Tunnels


Condition Assessment and Health Monitoring System
Periodic inspection of railway tunnels for monitoring of structural health of tunnels is critical
to timely detection and remediation of problems to ensure safety and cost effectiveness in
maintenance of tunnels. Common Tunnel structural problems are concrete cracking, concrete
spalling, de-bonding, steel corrosion, and improper drainage, etc. At present a number of non-
destructive methods for assessing the condition of tunnels are in use. Some of the NDT
techniques being used internationally are:

 Ground-penetrating radar (GPR).


 Thermography (handheld thermal camera).
 Ultrasonic tomography.
 Ultrasonic echo.
 Portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA) - ultrasonic surface waves and impact
echo
Adoption of a particular NDT Technique requires careful consideration of relevant factors,
such as site conditions, liner thickness, prevailing ambient conditions, presence of moisture
seepage, etc. Lab and field validation of different NDT techniques is necessary before going
for their large scale adoption. Research leading to identification and adoption of NDT
Techniques will be of great help in Health Assessment of tunnel components.
Proposed scope of research:-
 Identification of appropriate non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies -
 Validation (in lab and at site) of the selected technologies/techniques to detect flaws
 Recommendations on test procedures and protocols to successfully implement these
techniques

Such a project would need a group of people (PIs) and Railway officials to interact
continuously in developing, implementing and testing a RW/WF diagnosis system at pilot
scale.

5. Back-analysis Methods for Optimal Tunnel Design


Design and construction of tunnels involves use of appropriate analytical, or numerical
methods in an attempt to simulate the behavior and state of the physical problem and
ultimately estimate the behavior or state of the surrounding ground. Unfortunately, such
attempts are only as good as the values of the input parameters used, the models or the
methods assumed. In addition, geological uncertainties that prevail primarily in jointed rock
masses, make such efforts difficult.

24 

 
 It is important that monitored data is used to assess the adequacy of the employed
design and its safety margins.
 Data can be used to calibrate numerical or analytical models employed in the design
process so that predicted values of specific magnitudes match the corresponding
values of measured data.
 Back-analysis aims at estimating values of input parameters for numerical or
analytical methods that can be used for prediction of rock mass behavior during
future construction stages.
Proposed scope of research:

 Identification of appropriate back analysis methods (for different ground conditions


and construction methodologies).
 The methods should be supported by and be integrated with major tunnel design
software.
 Field Validation and Detailed Documentation

6. Formation (Embankment) Design

The prevailing practice of design in vogue for the design of formation by Railway Design &
Standards Organization (RDSO) is as follows:
• Uniform Total Thickness of Formation Layer of 2 m.
• The Maximum pressure at bottom of ballast should not exceed 3 kg/cm².
• Pressure at subsoil should not exceed 1kg/cm².
• Permissible cumulative plastic deformation should not exceed 25 mm.
The above practice has to sustain axle loads of 25 ton in vogue at present and is being
increased to 30 ton and eventually 32.5 ton. The train speeds are likely to increase to a
maximum of 160kmph. A dynamic augment of 1.5 is factored in to the design load. The side
slopes of the embankment are 2H to 1V in general and may be flatter depending on the height
of the embankment, the subgrade soil and the sub soil. The cross slope in design is assumed to
be 1 in 30. Suitable soil erosion control measures are introduced.

The soil used for formation must meet CBR ratios ranging from 3 to 7 for higher axle load
and higher levels with blanket (CBR greater than 25) as required. Other parameters meeting
compaction for single and double layer system and the subgrade preparations are also
prescribed in the standard.

The proposed research would focus first on introducing suitable ground Improvement based
on Site Condition and depth of underlying soft soil. The final outcome of the formation design
process should provide the following:

• Characteristics of Subsoil
• Embankment Soil Characteristics
• Prepared Subgrade
• Blanket Thickness with Geogrid
• Blanket Thickness without Geogrid
• Minimum Height of Bank
• Side Slopes & FOS
• Width of Formation

25 

 
Problems in “Materials for Structural
Engineering”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore
(Compiled by Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee, IIT Gandhinagar based on his
own presentation and ensuing discussions including a
presentation by Prof. B.V.V. Reddy at the workshop)
Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee has since moved to Curtin University
Australia

Contact Address
Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee
Department of Civil Engineering
Curtin University, Australia
abhijit.Mukherjee@curtin.edu.au
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

26 

 
1. Development of new construction materials with a focus on minimizing embodied energy
and emissions

India faces the dichotomy of rapidly improving its infrastructure without harming the environment. As
a result of development of infrastructure the carbon emission from construction industry is increasing
at a fast pace. The present technology that consumes a lot of energy in processing of building
materials such as cement, steel and bricks, is not sustainable. Thus, technologies that alleviate energy
consumption are of great importance.

Design of new building materials must focus on their embodied energy and emission. Thus, it is not
enough to make strong materials. The overall performance of the materials must be judged, with the
following paradigm: functions of a material must be examined so as to result in a balanced
combination of Strength, Durability, Emission and energy demand, Distance of source, Thermal and
hygral insulation, Whether material is recycled and or recyclable, Whether reversible processes are
employed, Whether renewable resources are employed, Whether the material senses the environment
and responds to environment and has Whether self-healing aspects are incorporated in this process.

2. Assessment of life cycle costs in selecting structural materials that are sustainable

The concept of life cycle assessment is important in judging the suitability of structural materials.
Methodologies of assessing life cycle costs would need to be developed. To assess such functionalities
the traditional curriculum that focuses on mechanics only would need augmentation. Knowledge of
rheology, heat and mass transfer, chemistry, and finally biology, would be imperative. The aim of
structural design would be to optimize the overall life cycle cost. For example, a brick with
strategically placed voids that offers less strength than solid bricks but more thermal resistance may
score higher. Understandably, optimal design of structural materials for multiple functions would have
high priority.

The variety of structural materials would increase. In near future one expects to have several classes
of materials, viz., Compression elements- Silica, silicates, metal oxides, hydro-oxides; Tension
elements- metals, alloys, synthetic fibres, natural fibres; Rheology controller- plasticizers, viscosity
modifiers; Interface materials- Adhesives, coatings, corrosion inhibitors, curing products- polymers;
Surface finish materials- coatings, paints; Energy harvesting materials- phase change materials;
Sensors- piezo polymers, piezo ceramics, synthetic fibres; Biological agents- microbes, nutrients,
carbon, calcium.

Several properties of the materials need to be investigated, namely, Strength, Stress-strain, Diffusion,
Thermal conductivity, Chemical reactivity, Phase change, Aesthetics- colour, texture. These materials
must be investigated in different length and time scales, e.g., Structure scale (m), Lab scale (100s
mm), Micro scale (um), Molecular scale (nm), Milliseconds- extreme pressure- blast, impact; Hours-
setting, hardening, shrinkage, softening, melting; Days- curing, bond, microstructure; Months-
strength attainment, hydration; Years- environmental effects, creep. The materials must be evaluated
in different extreme exposure conditions, namely, Temperature, Fire, Humidity, Freeze-thaw, Salinity,
Aggressive chemicals, UV.

3. Studies on interaction of different materials at interfaces: repair modalities

27 

 
Along with their individual properties the interplay among the constituent materials would need
critical attention of the researchers. As the infrastructure grows older it would need repairs. Thus,
interfaces among different materials from different generations play a critical role in deciding the
overall performances. Research focussing on interface characterization is critical. To achieve
sustainability the life of the existing infrastructure must be extended. To extend the life of structures
the diagnosis and prognosis of the aging structure must be integrated. Structural health monitoring and
structural repair, rehabilitation and enhancement must be included in the curriculum.

4. Development of Biomimetic structural materials

There are wonderful examples of sustainable habitats in nature. Biomimetic structural materials have
started to emerge. New research shows that it is possible to achieve cementation through bacterial
route. Such a cementation is achieved at normal temperature obviating the need of large energy
consumption as in traditional cement. For success of such processes local biodiversity must be
exploited. Therefore, it is imperative that the tried and tested protocols must be adapted to the local
conditions. Moreover, to achieve local sourcing a good database of materials is imperative. Therefore,
along with the advancement of fundamental research one must encourage the incremental research.
Two areas of locally relevant research are identified:

‐ Data collection: Recording the geospatial diversities in structural materials is imperative. For
example, the variety of naturally occurring stones or manufactured bricks in different parts of the
country need to be meticulously recorded. Masters and undergraduate student projects of the
regional institutions would be ideal for developing such encyclopaedia.
‐ Bio-cementation: Although the basic protocols are already established local adaptation of the
process is tedious and valuable. The local micro-organisms must be isolated; locally available
cheap nutrients must be identified, local varieties of applications must be explored, the impact of
the technology must be assessed locally.
5. Establishment of nodal agencies recording the geospatial diversities in structural materials
and knowledge base on their sustainable deployment across the country.

Due to the growth of engineering education all over the country it is possible to have a minute record.
It is proposed that a nodal agency be identified for each task and the local institutions may work under
their guidance to accomplish the task.

All the five identified Project themes have a multi-disciplinary flavour requiring larger group of
investigators with diverse scientific backgrounds (In addition to structural mechanics, knowledge of
rheology, heat and mass transfer, chemistry, and finally biology, would be imperative).

Equipment / hardware needs: A diverse range of tools facilitating macro scale tests (UTM / servo
hydraulic closed loop testing, acoustic emission testing, Digital image correlation) and micro scale
tests (Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, indentation methods,  XRD,
Raman Spectroscopy, etc., ).

Software packages: Matlab and commercial FEM package.

Manpower: 2 SRF having a background that meets the above needs.

28 

 
Problems in “Experimental Methods in Structural
Engineering”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore 
(Compiled by Prof. J.M. Chandra Kishen, IISc based on his own
presentation and ensuing discussions including a presentation by
Dr. G.R. Reddy at the workshop) 
 
Contact Address
Prof. J.M. Chandra Kishen
Department of Civil Engineering
IISc Bangalore
chandrak@civil.iisc.ernet.in  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

29 

 
1. New / Improved materials and their characterization at macro and micro scale

Experimental investigation is a valuable technique when we seek to improve the level of knowledge
on issues concerning, both, their material response and Structural performance under various loadings.
Sometimes structural testing becomes indispensable when numerous uncertainties in material
behavior, structural geometry and boundary conditions make it essential to have test results for a
reliable validation of numerical simulation of the response of structural elements exposed to complex
load combinations.

Many of the commonly used construction materials are modified in order to achieve enhanced
properties such as strength, ductility, durability including resistance to corrosion, fire and other
environmental effects. Examples of this include partial replacement of Cement using fly ash, silica
fume and other mineral additives; Fine aggregates using quarry dust; Coarse aggregates using
demolished concrete; Steel using polymeric or steel fibers.

Some of the open research problems, such as characterizing new materials or materials having tailored
properties, materials experiencing elevated temperatures, time dependent deformation, etc, that
require experimental studies of material response to loading at different length scales include
understanding the behavior of materials using advanced experimental techniques, such as Scanning
electron microscopy, Energy dissipative spectrum, Micro / nano indentation. It is expected that such
experimentation will provide data needed for developing analytical models that have parameters
requiring calibration over different length scales.

Experimental facilities required in these studies may comprise of (but not be limited to) the following:
a) Universal testing machine / loading frames with actuators; b) Sensors – LVDT’s, strain gages, load
cells; c) Data acquisition system; d) Acoustic emission system – sensors, pre-amplifiers and DAQ; e)
Digital cameras; f) Scanning electron microscope; g) Energy dispersive spectrometer; h) X-Ray
diffract-o-meter (XRD)

Manpower: SRFs and technical helpers

2. Repair and rehabilitation of structural elements:

Repair of old and damaged structural elements are often performed in order to increase the life of a
structure. Some of the commonly used schemes of repair include (e.g. Column, beams, joints)
encasement; Beam strengthening; External pre-stressing, heat straightening (structural steel elements).

These rehabilitation or retrofitting schemes are carried out using steel plates, concrete overlay or
composite fiber wraps.

Research in this area is needed for the development of analytical models to describe the behavior of
damaged and post repair load deformation response correctly. As a first step in this process the
properties of the repair system needs to be established. Furthermore to meet the requirement of having
design guidelines for the repaired configuration, extensive experimental investigations are needed.

Experimental facilities required to conduct these studies include a Universal testing machine of high
capacity, loading frames with actuators / loading jacks, Sensors – LVDT’s, strain gages, load cells and
Data acquisition system for proper instrumentation and data assimilation.

Manpower: SRFs and technical helpers

30 

 
3. Structural Dynamics

Studies here could be on understanding structural behaviour under loads such as earthquakes, wind,
blast, and vehicular traffic. Each of these studies requires different set of experimental hardware and
testing methods.

Items such as multi-channel data acquisition systems, suite of sensors such as accelerometers, strain
gauges, LVDT-s, load cells, and instrumented hammers are typically needed in almost all these works.
The need for actuation devices vary and these include, for example, modal shakers, servo-hydraulic
shake tables, reaction wall based servo-actuation devices, wind tunnel, etc.

Under the effect of earthquakes, structures are subjected to transient, multi-frequency, dynamic
excitations which send structure into inelastic response regimes. Understanding the behaviour at
material, element, and system levels in such situations, as a function of material (masonry, concrete,
RCC, PSC, Steel), component (beams, walls, shear beams, slabs, etc), and structural systems (beam-
column joints, frames, bridge deck-pier system, soil-structure systems, liquid storage tanks, piping,
mechanical systems such as rotors, turbines, battery racks, etc) poses several challenges. Here
multicomponent and spatially varying nature of earthquake induced forces and differences in nature of
near filed and far field ground motions also need to be taken into account. Experimental studies on
large sized systems typically require scaling of geometry and (or) time. Questions on similitude in
this context remain challenging. Current research in this field is dominated by efforts to develop
hybrid simulation methods which include pseudo-dynamic testing and real time sub- structure testing.
The shake tables available in the country (CPRI, SERC Madras, and IGCAR) could be utilized by
investigators. Research into hybrid simulation methods would require servo-hydraulic actuators and
reaction frames.

Problems of vibration control (passive, semi-active, and active) remain of interest. The proposals
could be aimed at technology development, algorithmic advances, and field level demonstrations.
Proposals in this area need to have both experimental and computational components. Some of these
issues were also highlighted in the discussion session by other participants who made brief
presentations that are included as part of this report. Special programmable data acquisition devices
(such as dSpace) would be needed. Problems of vibration isolation of sensitive equipment (such as
electron microscope, nano-devices, MR scanners, etc) require research efforts.

4. Fracture and fatigue

Research in the area of fracture and fatigue of metals and quasi-brittle materials is required in order to
obtain the fracture and fatigue properties of these materials (such as fracture toughness, fracture
energy, critical crack size, threshold SIF, rate law constants). Fatigue behavior of metals is quite
different from that observed in quasi-brittle materials. In the context of quasi-brittle materials, such as
concrete, there is a need to establish these fracture properties (size effect, crack growth rate, fatigue
life) as they are sensitive to composition of the concrete and need to be obtained experimentally and
help in calibrating analytical models.

The equipment required for experimental studies of this kind require a Servo-hydraulic testing
machine, Sensors – LVDT’s, strain gages, load cells, crack mouth opening (COD) gage and a Data
acquisition system. If such studies require the establishment of other fracture parameters, Acoustic
emission system – sensors, pre-amplifiers and DAQ and Digital camera for DIC based studies may be
necessary.

31 

 
 

Problems in “Extreme Load on Structures: Fire


and Blast Loads”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore 
(Compiled by Prof. S.K. Bhattacharya, CBRI Roorkee, based on his
own presentation and ensuing discussions at the workshop) 
 
 
Contact Address
Prof. S.K. Bhattacharya
Central Building Research Institute,
Roorkee, Uttarakhand
srimankb@gmail.com  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

32 

 
1. Effect of Fire on connection with steel structural elements under loaded condition

The study would involve both experimental investigations and theoretical studies on suitably
sized specimen experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model
‘fire’ that are based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to
develop performance based criteria for design.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors.

2. Stability aspects of beam-column steel members under fire

- The study would involve both experimental investigations and theoretical studies on suitably
sized specimen experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model
‘fire’ that are based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to
develop performance based criteria for design.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.
33 

 
o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a
challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors.

3. Effect of fire on Light gauge steel members and their connections

- The study would involve both experimental investigations and theoretical studies on suitably
sized specimen experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model
‘fire’ that are based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to
develop performance based criteria for design.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors.

4. Development of sensors for the measurement of deformation in members due to fire

- The study would involve experimental investigations on suitably sized specimen


experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model ‘fire’ that are
based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to be able to
develop reliable sensors for measurement of loads, displacements and strains in these
structures experiencing mechanical and fire loads simultaneously.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
34 

 
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

5. Developments of robotic sensor for sensing human lives in fire zones

- Development of prototype

The study would involve experimental investigations on suitably sized (“Human” or suitable
object) specimen in a closed chamber under “fire” and development of sensors that can
discern the presence and location of “humans / objects” in the chamber under fire, so as to
assist relief personnel in reaching the objects (or serve the purpose itself).

Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors

6. Development of fire retarding materials

- Experimental investigation

- Model development

The study would involve both experimental investigations and theoretical studies on suitably
sized specimen, both control and those with fire retardant coatings, experiencing an
appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model ‘fire’ that are based on standard
time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to develop performance based
criteria for design.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

35 

 
o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil
furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b)While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors

7. Post fire residual properties of steel / concrete / bond behaviour

The study would involve both experimental investigations and theoretical studies on suitably
sized specimen experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model
‘fire’ that are based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to
develop procedures to assess residual life in such structures based on which decisions on
repair or retrofit decisions may be implemented.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors

8. Mathematical modelling of fire behaviour on concrete and steel structural elements.

The study would involve both experimental investigations (if necessary, else results from the
reported literature, ‘benchmark problems’) and theoretical studies on suitably sized specimen
experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to model ‘fire’ that are

36 

 
based on standard time-temperature curves. The focus of the study would be to develop
performance based criteria for design.

 Hardware required Furnace

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

 Note:

o a) While only furnace is mentioned, it would certainly be appropriate, if an oil


furnace is used, despite the difficulties with the use of oil furnace and its control.
Modelling temperature on the surface will not give the real picture as what
happens in a real fire scenario. There are two alternatives in this aspect: (1)
Collaborate with the institutes who have these kind of furnaces and carry out the
experiments at that institute and the modelling part is done by the proposer. (2)
Alternately, to develop facility in terms of temperature controlled furnace and try
to co-relate the scenario as it is expected in case of fire. Samples could be in
terms of cubes / cylinders / scaled down beams for concrete and scaled down
models for steel specimens.

o b) While measurement of temperature is possible, measuring deformation is a


challenge and possibly we need to develop some gadgets as I have stated in terms
of sensors.

9. Mathematical modelling of blast effects on structures

The study would involve both experimental investigations (if necessary, else results from
the reported literature, ‘benchmark problems’) and theoretical studies on suitably sized
specimen experiencing an appropriate mechanical loads that are then subject to blast
loads that are characterized by pressure waves from source location impacting the
structure and / or projectile impacts on the structure. The focus of the study would be to
include strain rate dependent material models in a numerical modelling based on a
viscoplastic rheological frame work leading up to development of a performance based
criteria for design against blast loads.

 Software required ANSYS / ABAQUS

10. Development of concrete Mix design using different kinds of fibres to reduce
fragmentation of concrete elements after blasting.

The study would involve both experimental investigations to develop a concrete mix
containing a blend of fibres (steel, polypropylene, polyester) that provides a certain level
of blast protection (in terms of kgs of TNT) and theoretical studies on developing a robust
mix design criteria for blast resistant concrete, covering issues such as mix proportions,
aggregate gradations, chemical and mineral admixtures, curing conditions and thickness
of the concrete layer, etc.

 Hardware: Lab work in developing concrete mix design and suitable set up to impart blast
loads on concrete panel structures, sensing and acquisition of applied load and
deformations

37 

 
Problems in “Normal and Extreme Wind Effects
in Structural Engineering”
DST workshop on Brain Storming for Structural Engineering
Funded Projects, Jan 30‐31, IISc Bangalore
(Compiled by Dr. Selvi Rajan, CSIR‐SERC, Chennai based on her
own presentation and ensuing discussions at the workshop‐ This
was a presentation made as part of the discussion session on
extreme loads on structures) 
 
Contact Address
Dr. Selvi Rajan
Structural Engineering Research Centre
Taramani, Chennai
sselvi@serc.res.in  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
38 

 
1.“Cyclone Wind Monitoring for Mitigation of Structural Damage due to Wind Loads”

Motivation:

Recently, a very severe cyclonic storm (‘PHAILIN’) crossed near Gopalpur (Odisha) around
2230 hrs of IST on 12th October 2013 with a sustained maximum surface wind speed of 200-
210 kmph gusting to 220 kmph. The post cyclone structural damage survey conducted by
the Scientists of CSIR-SERC, Chennai, indicated (i) failures of engineered structures like
rooftop lattice tower, ground based communication / transmission line lattice towers and
steel trusses with asbestos or G.I. sheet roofing of industrial sheds (either mono or double
sloped), (ii) total / partial collapse of semi / non-engineered structures like compound walls,
roofs of dwelling units (kutcha / thatched houses) were observed and (iii) damage to roofs of
fuel filling stations and façade (glass) of buildings including glass panels of windows were
observed to be other common failure.

Characterization and physical/numerical modelling of this kind of extreme wind event is


necessary to mitigate such structural damage. Further, as part of on-going wind monitoring
at CSIR-SERC campus, it was observed during some of the recent cyclones that one of the
important features of extreme winds is that wind speeds are highly non-stationary and are
transient in nature, which corroborated with observations made in literature (Kareem, 2009).
Since the current analysis of framework using the Gust Loading Factor approach is
applicable for stationary and Gaussian wind conditions, Kareem (2009) has proposed a
framework based on Gust Front Factor method to account for time varying mean and non-
stationary turbulence. The efficiency of the proposed method is subjected to availability
additional knowledge/data on extreme winds. These observations which are varied in nature
necessitate further research in the characterization and modelling of extreme winds to study
their effects on buildings and structures for damage mitigation.

Experimental facilities needed:

 Identification of Nodal Centres, such as Colleges near the coast


 Establishment of guyed lattice towers instrumented with anemometers at multiple
levels
 Construction of trenches for laying cables and a room to accommodate equipment
and its accessories, with uninterrupted power supply and a rest room
 Collection of wind data using DAQ system during synoptic and transient wind
conditions
 Internet/wireless based data transfer
 PC system for statistical, probabilistic, spectral and wavelet analysis of collected wind
data
Analytical tools needed:

Matlab, Ansys, Abaqus, Labview, capable of analyzing Gaussian and non-Gaussian for
stationary and non-satationary winds.

Potential contribution emerging as a result of this work:

 Efforts toward gleaning information with reference to characteristics of these events


/one event

39 

 
 Quantifying the effects of non-stationary severe wind events on structural loading and
response

 Full scale measurements, aided by new analysis, computational and modeling


techniques

 Codes and standards based description of wind loads and it accounts for the
following features:

 Variation in the velocity profile;


 Dynamics effects introduced by the sudden rise in wind speed (pulse effect);
 Non-stationarity (amplitude/frequency modulations) of turbulence in gust
fronts;
 Transient aerodynamics

2. “Development of vortex induced vibration (VIV) models for generic bluff bodies”

Motivation:

Vortex induced vibration (VIV) models that have been developed for circular sections cannot
be used for the case of sharp cornered bluff bodies, as the flow behavior is completely
different, with predefined flow separation points. Scanlan model has been conventionally
used for sharp cornered bluff bodies and bridge deck sections. But, this model has been
observed to show deviations with respect to wind tunnel experimental results. The semi-
empirical models for VIV evolve with improved understanding of the flow mechanism in the
wake of bluff bodies. Till date, there is no generic model for VIV, and all the models that have
been developed are semi-empirical in nature. The applicability of the models for generic bluff
bodies or practical geometries does not guarantee accuracy of prediction of VIV behavior.

Hence, there is burgeoning need to develop improved models for VIV for generic bluff
bodies. The basis for developing the models should not only be limited to laboratory wind
tunnel tests on scaled down models at low Reynolds numbers.

Experimental facilities needed:

 Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Facility of CSIR-SERC to conduct experiments on


scaled down models at low Reynolds numbers
 3-D printing machine for fabrication of scaled down models of generic bluff bodies
 Design and fabrication of force measurement systems to measure forces related to
VIV due to on-coming wind
 DAQ system along with PC for analysis of collected response data

Analytical tools needed:

Matlab, Ansys, Abaqus, Labview, software packages, capable of acquisition and analysis

Potential contribution emerging as a result of this work:

Improved models for VIV for generic bluff bodies evolving improved understanding of the
flow mechanism in the wake of the bluff bodies

40 

 
3. “CFD Simulation of Transient Aerodynamics”

Motivation:

Earlier and recent studies in fluid dynamics have pointed out an overshoot in aerodynamic
loads on cylinders in unsteady flows. The exposure of trains/trucks suddenly emerging from
a tunnel to the energetics of gust-fronts can lead to drastic aerodynamic modifications, i.e.,
force sign reversal, which have led to serious concerns for their operational safety. This
clearly points at the need to critically assess the impact of abrupt changes in the wind field
magnitudes and associated modifications in aerodynamics of structures and supports the
need for refining the current load descriptions. Efforts to explore these issues in transient
aerodynamics are in place currently at several research establishments in other countries.

Analytical tools needed:

As computers increase in both computational speed and data storage capacity,


computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming a more attractive alternative to quickly
simulating wind effects. Recent work into simulating transient events utilizing FLUENT, a
popular commercial CFD package, has demonstrated its ability to model particular aspects
of the flow field. Kim et al. (2005) utilized FLUENT to model downburst winds and their
effects on a structures, indicating a wide variety of responses and other avenues for
investigation. Chay et al. (2006) modeled a downburst characteristics using FLUENT,
verifying its usefulness in simulating non-turbulent wind fields. The area of CFD modeling
presents many new opportunities, but there are still challenges that limit its widespread use.

41 

 
Annexure- Details of Presentation

SERB-DST Brain Storming Workshop on “Research in Structural


Engineering” 30th & 31st January 2014

Venue: Department of Civil Engineering, IISc, Bangalore

Time Session: Title of Talk


th
Day 1: 30 January 2014
8.30am-9.00am Registration
9am-9.15am Welcome by Prof. Ananth Ramaswamy &
Inaugural Remarks Prof. V. Kalyanaraman
Session I (Prof. V. Kalyanaraman) Computational Mechanics and treatment of
Uncertainty
9.15am-10.15am Lecture 1 Prof. Arghya Deb IIT KGP
“Computational Mechanics issues in
Structural Engineering Problems”
10.15am-10.45am Tea Break
10.45am-11.45am Lecture 2 Prof. Baidurya Bhattacharya IIT
KGP “Treatment of Uncertainty in
Structural Engineering Problems “
11.45am– 1.00pm Chair Prof. A. Deb Discussion
& Prof. Baidurya Bhattacharya
1.00pm- 2.00pm Lunch Break
Session II (Prof. Bishwa Condition Assessment and Structural Health
Bhattacharya) Monitoring
2.00pm- 3.00pm Lecture 3 Prof. C.S. Manohar IISc
“Condition Assessment and Health
Monitoring of Structures”
3.00pm- 3.30pm Tea Break
3.30pm– 4.30pm Lecture 4 Prof. S. Asokan, Instrumentation
& Applied Physics, IISc “Sensing and
Actuating Technologies”
4.30pm-5.30pm Lecture 5 Prof. Amrutur Bharadwaj,
Department of Electrical & Communication
Engg. IISc “Wireless sensing, Data handling
and remote monitoring”
5.30pm -6pm Tea Break
6.00pm- 7.30pm Chair Prof. C.S. Discussion
Manohar, Prof. S. Asokan & Prof. A. (Including one Presentation by Dr. Balaji
Bharadwaj Rao, CSIR-SERC, Chennai)
42 

 
7.30pm onwards Dinner
st
Day 2: 31 January 2014
Session III (Dr. Balaji Rao) Railway Civil Infrastructure
8.30am-9.30am Lecture 6 Shri Alok Kumar (Railway
Board), Shri Dadrya (RDSO) and Shri Vipul
Kumar (RDSO) “Condition Assessment and
Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges,
Tunnels and Permanent ways”
9.30am-10.00am Chair Shri Dadrya, Discussion
Shri V. Kumar & Shri A. Kumar
10.00am-10.30am Tea Break
Session IV (Prof. K.V.L. Materials for SE & Experimental Methods in
Subramaniam) SE

10.30am-11.30pm Lecture 7 Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee IIT


Gandhinagar “Materials for Structural
Engineering”
11.30pm- 12.30pm Lecture 8 Prof. J.M. Chandra Kishen IISc
“Experimental Methods in Structural
Engineering”
12.30pm-1.30pm Chair Prof. J.M. Discussion
Chandra Kishen and Prof. A. (Including one presentation by Prof. B.V.V.
Mukherjee Reddy, IISc and another by Dr. G.R. Reddy
BARC Mumbai)
1.30pm- 2.30pm Lunch Break
Session V (Prof. Ravi Sinha) Structures under Extreme Loads
2.30pm- 3.30pm Lecture 9 Prof. S.K. Bhattacharya, CBRI
Roorkee “Extreme Loads on Structures: Fire
and Blast Loads”
3.30pm- 4.00pm Tea Break
3.30pm– 5.00pm Chair S.K. Discussion on Lecture 9 and on Overall
Bhattacharya & Prof. Ananth Workshop themes.
Ramaswamy (Including a presentation by Dr. Selvi Rajan,
CSIR SERC, Chennai).

43