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ϭ
Gopala Krishnan (Ed.), Kanyakumari District Gazetteers, Nagercoil, 1995, p.1065.
Ϯ
Ananda E. Wood, The Indian Tradition in Changing Kerala, Cochin, 1985, p.115.

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3
School is otherwise known as paillakam in Tamil.
Nagam Aiya, Travancore State Manual, Vol.II, Trivandrum, 1906, p.453.
4
Personal Interview with Kannan Raja Ram, Lecturer of ATSVS College, Munchirai, August
13, 2011.
5
Personal Interview with John Rose, Varma Aasan, Mankarai, March 14, 2013.
6. Sparisa theekshai is a blessing with a touch of an Aasan or Varmani soon after a student kneel down
before him. Sparisam means touch. Thanka Raj Aasan A., Aattalmigu Arputha Varma Kalai
Manuscript, Chideral, 2014. P.8

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7
Personal Interview with Rajendran, Varma Aasan, Moolachel, August 3, 2011.
8
Personal Interview with John Rose, Varma Aasan, Mankarai, March 14, 2013.
9
Rasa, Neengalum Varmam Karkalam, Chennai, 2002, p.9.

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10
Personal Interview with Pushpa Raj, Varma Aasan, Parakunnu, July 15 2011.
11
Rasa, Op. cit., p.11.
12
Personal Interview with Kannan Rajaram, Lecturer of ATSVS College, Munchirai, August 13,
2011.
ϭϯ
Palm Leaf Manuscript, (P.L.M.), Agastiyar Muligai Marmam, Naadi, Poem 4.
14
Chandalas means unworthy, unjust and evil-doer to the people.
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 206, Poem 3.

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15
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 206, Poem 2.
16
Pootha Shanmugam, Veetuku Uthavum Naatu Vaidhyam, Chennai, 1976, p.25.
ϭϳ
P.L.M.,Agastiyar Muligai Marmam, Naadi, Poem.5.
18
Ibid., Poem.6.
ϭϵ
Mantiram means prayer and thantiram tactics with prudence.
20
P.L.M.,Agastiyar Muligai Marmam, Naadi, Poem.7.

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21
Personal Interview with John Rose, Varma Aasan, Mankarai, March 14, 2013.
ϮϮ
Personal Interview with Sinthamani, Varma Aasan, Munchirai, January 23, 2014.
23
Manikkavasakkam R., Alternative Medicines, Part-I, Chennai, 2001, pp.162-163.
24
Ananda E. Wood, Op.cit., p.115.

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25
Thiruvattar is a place in Vilavancode taluk in Kanyakumari District, 10 km Southwards from
Marthandam. (Immanuel M., The Dravidean Lineages; The Nadars through the Ages, Nagercoil,
2002, p.215).
Ϯϲ
P.L.M.,Varma Odivu Murivu Saari Suthiram 1500, Poem 272.
27
Vasantha Kumar P., Siddha V(M)armology, Chuzhal, 2004, pp.37-38.
Ϯϴ
P.L.M.,Varma Kannadi 500, Poems 10-11.

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29
P.L.M.,Varma Odivu Murivu Sara Suthiram 1200, Poem 93.
30
P.L.M.,Poorna Varma Beerangi 100, Poem 1.
31
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 200, Poem 5.
32
Hand Written Manuscript, Karungal Alexander Aasan, Varma Kalai Paada Thodar 20,
(Tamil).
ϯϯ
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 200, Poem 3.
34
Kuna Sekaran A., Tanjore Saraswathi Mahal Library, Chennai, 2004, p.14.

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35
Kannan Raja Ram T., Mohana Raj T., Varma Pulligalin Irupidam, Munchirai, 2009, p. 24.
36
Dakshina means offerings or equal value of money or things offered for texts which an Aasan is
provided. (Immanuel M., Op.cit., p.213).
ϯϳ
P.L.M.,Varma Kannadi 500, Poem 156.
38
Personal Interview with Thankaraj Aasan, Chitharal, January 8, 2014.
39
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 200, Poem 132.

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40
P.L.M.,Sathuramami Suthiram 600, Poems 214-216, 219.
ϰϭ
Personal Interview with Sinthamani, Varma Aasan, Munchirai, January 23, 2014.
42
Kai murai means compact fighting. Sei murai means practice. Pidi murai means wrestling and
silambam means fighting with stick.
P.L.M.,Varma Suthiram 200, Poem 133.

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43
Varma adi murai means varma fighting. Varma adavu murai means varma techniques. Varma pidi
murai or varma pootu murai means varma locks and varma suvadu murai means footsteps along with
varma attack.
(Kannan Raja Ram T., Varma Kaaya Eyal, Kanyakumari, 1995, p.61).
ϰϰ
Personal Interview with Sinthamani, Varma Aasan, Munchirai, January 23, 2014.
ϰϱ
P.L.M.,Varma Naalu Mathirai, Poems 133, 135,137,141,143-147,151, 153, 158, 160, 164,168,
170, 172-175.

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ϰϲ
Varma adi murai means varma fighting. Thekkan kalari is a martial art of Southern
Travancore.Gopala Krishnan (Ed.), Op.cit., p134.
47
Personal Interview with Thankaraj Aasan, Chitharal, January 8, 2014.
ϰϴ
Kannan Raja Ram T., Op.cit., p.61.

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49
Kannan Raja Ram T., Op.cit., p.61.
50
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 600, Poems 278-279.
51
P.L.M.,Varma Odivu Murivu Sara Suthiram 1200, Poems 830-862.

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52
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 600, Poem 280.
53
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 600, Poems 281-283.
ϱϰ
Ibid., Poems 284-290.

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P.L.M.,Varma Odivu Murivu sara Soothiram 1200, Poems 811-829.
ϱϲ
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 200, Poem 131.
ϱϳ
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 600, Poems 275-277.
ϱϴ
P.L.M.,Varma Odivu Murivu Sara Suthiram 1200, Poems 830-862.

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59
P.L.M.,Sathuramani Soothiram 600, Poems 49-53
60
Personal Interview with Thankaraj Aasan, Chitharal, January 7, 2014.
61
Kannan Raja Ram T., Op.cit., pp.310-311.
ϲϮ
Alexander Aasan S.M., Varma Kalai Kalanjiyam, Karungal, 1998, pp.336-339.

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63
Rasa, Op.cit., p.51.
64
Kannan Raja Ram T., Op.cit., p.312.
65
Rasa, Op.cit., pp.51-52.
ϲϲ
Ibid., p.51.

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67
Kannan Raja Ram T., Op.cit., pp.311-314.
68
Muralidhar S.N., Varma Kalai Kalanjiyam, Chennai, 2011, p.57.

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Indian Journal of the History of Medicine, Vol.III, Madras, 1958, p.16
74
Karpa Aviltham, Siddha Medicinal Monthly, Vol.2, No.20, Palayamkottai, August 2011, p.5.

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   The copper plate of 857-885 AD discovered in Kanyakumari District, near Munchirai at
Partipasekarapuram clearly reveals that Kokarunthadagan (855-885 A.D) of Aay King established a
salai (boarding school) for 95 Vedic students known as Sattars
Personal Interview with Kannan Raja Ram, Lecturer of ATSVS College, Munchirai,
December 10, 2013.
ϳϳ
Personal Interview with Sinthamani, Varma Aasan, Munchirai, January 23, 2014.
78
Tholkappiyam (is written by Tholkappiynar) and Thirukural (is written by Thiruvalluvar) are
Sangam works.
Personal Interview with Kannan Raja Ram, Lecturer of ATSVS College, Munchirai, August
13, 2011.

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Ibid., January 10, 2014.
84
Personal Interview with Kannan Raja Ram, Lecturer of ATSVS College, Munchirai, August
13, 2011.
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Personal Interview with Thankaraj Aasan, Chitharal, January 9, 2014.

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Personal interview with Thankaraj Asan, Chitharal, January 9,2014.
88
Karpa Aviltham, Siddha Medicinal Monthly, Vol.10, No.19, Palayamkottai, April 2011, p.10.

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Karpa Aviltham, Siddha Medicinal Monthly, Vol.3, No.17, Palayamkottai, August 2008, p.26.

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