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BMS is the system that manages the batteries smartly by protecting the battery from
operating outside its safe operating area, monitoring its data to calculate some
critical things .It is the independent system that is meant only for battery and
isn't connected to any part of the vehicle.

The BMS built inhouse is built for 48V system. Here is the 14s battery pack making
the 48V

The current setup has the battery pack connected to BMS board (data from the
battery is recieved at the Analog Front End of BMS), the BMS board is connected to
the controller and these data are sent from BMS board to controller through UART.
In order to provide the customer information about the cells and status of BMS, LCD
display is connected. One BMS connects max upto 16 cells,max of 16 such BMS can be
connected over Daisy-Chain and connected to controller.

The 3 main functionalities of the BMS are:

(i)Monitoring and Protection of cells:

The cells are monitored kept monitoring and in any case if the controller senses
the critical parameters of cells such as voltage,current or temperature are out
of range,it immediatley cuts of the connection of the battery through a contactor.
Hence BMS provides continous data fetching and protection such as Over
Voltage,Under voltage,Open Wire Detection, Out of current range and temperature
range protection

(ii)Cell Balancing :
When the batteries are used, they tend to get dicharged unevenly, therby leaving
the batteries is the battery pack to stand at different volatge levels. Due to
this unbalanced cells, the battery pack tend to behave with the characteristics
of the battery with lowest capacity(while chrging,battery with high voltage level
tend to be 100% charged much before than the cells at lower voltages) thereby
reducing the efficiency of the battery pack.
Here we follow the PASSIVE BALANCING method during CHARGING, where in the charge
of the batteries with high voltages tend to get discharged across the bleeding

(iii)State Of Charge Estimation:

SOC of the battery indicates how much ions are present in the battery that
actively participates during charging or discharging.The SOC depends on many
paramters of the battery such as voltage,current,tmperature,life cycle,age of
battery etc.Every battery type has its own characteristic. So we conduct some
test in-house to anlaysize the charcteristic of the battery, therby obtaining
its V-SOC (voltage to SOC) curve. This graph obtained is mathematically modelled
and convereted into equations and algorithm is formed. This way accurate value
of SOC is built by clubbing by OCV(open circuit voltage)and Couloumb
Counting algorithm.