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அழகப்பா பல்கைலக்கழகம்

ேதசியத் தர நிர்ணயக் ��வ�ன் �ன்றாம் �ற்�த் தர மதிப்ப�ட்�ல் A+(CGPA: 3.64) த�தி�ம்


மன�தவள ேமம்பாட்� அைமகச்சகம் - பல்கைலக்கழக மான�யக்��வ�ன் �தல் தரப்
பல்கைலக்கழகம் மற்�ம் தன்னாட்சித் த�தி�ம் ெபற்ற�

காைரக்�� – 630 003

ெதாைலநிைலக்கல்வ� இயக்ககம்

��நிைல வண�க நிர்வாகம்


ப�வம் – II
317 23

வண�க சட்டம்

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 1 5/20/2019 12:57:44 PM


Author
M C Kuchhal, Ex-Reader, SRCC, University of Delhi

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University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu.

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gy;fiyf;fofg; ghlj;jpl;lk; – ghlg;gFg;G ml;ltiz
tzpf rl;lk;

gy;fiyf;fofg;ghlj;jpl;lk; ghlg;gFg;G

gFjp – I: tzpf rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gil mbg;gilfs;


myF 1: ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;: fUj;J – nghUs; – mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs; myF 1: ,e;jpa xg;ge;jj;
– jd;ik, nry;YgbahFk;> cUthf;fk; kw;Wk; nray;jpwd; rYif kw;Wk; rl;lk;> 1872
Vw;G Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tifg;ghLfs;. (gf;fq;fs; 1–13)
myF 2: rYif kw;Wk; Vw;G: mwpKfk; – Kd;nkhopT – Vw;G – toq;fy;fs;> myF 2: rYif kw;Wk; Vw;G
rYifiag; gw;wpa jfty; gupkhw;wk;> Vw;G kw;Wk; rYif mQ;ry; %yk; (gf;fq;fs; 14–28)
Vw;G.
myF 3: guprPyid: tiuaiwfs;> guprPyidfspd; tiffs; – myF 3: guprPyid
guprPyidfspd; jdpAupikfs; jd;ik: tpjptpyf;Ffs; – jpwd;: nghUs; (gf;fq;fs; 29–55)
xg;Gjy; – nray;-Njhw;w xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjw;fhd jPu;Tfs; – xg;ge;j
jPu;Tfs; – Njhw;w xg;ge;jq;fs;.
myF 4: rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs;: ,yhgk; kw;Wk; cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jk; myF 4: rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs;
– gpizak; kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop – Kfthz;ik -tiuaiw – rl;lj;jpd; (gf;fq;fs; 56–72)
cupikfs; – cj;juthjj;ij ePf;Fjy; – gpizak; kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop:
mwpKfk;> tifgpupj;jy;> flikfs; kw;Wk; cupikfs; kw;Wk; cupikahsu;
cupikfs; – gpiz vLg;gpd; KbT.

gFjp – II: $l;lhz;ik kw;Wk; epWtd rl;lk;


myF 5: 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk; mikj;jy;: myF 5: ruf;F tpw;gid
tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; – epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; cj;juthjq;fs; – nrhj;J khw;wk; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
– xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwd;: nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jg;Gs;sp nray;jpwd;> mikj;jy;> 1930
nray;jpwd; kPSUthf;f thf;FWjpapd; mtrpaq;fs; - nrYj;jg;glhj (gf;fq;fs; 73–96)
tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;.
myF 6: ruf;Ffspd; kPjhd rl;lq;fs;: flikfs;> cupikfs; kw;Wk; myF 6: ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nghWg;Gfs;: (i) Vw;wpr;nrYj;jy; rl;lk;> 1865. (ii) ,uapy;Nt rl;lk;> 1989> nry;Yk;NghJ Vw;gLk;
(iii) fly; rl;lj;jpd;fPo; ruf;Ffs;> 1925> (iv) 1972 Mk; Mz;bw;fhd rl;lq;fs;
thd;top rl;lk;> kw;Wk; (v) rhiy %yk; Vw;wpr;nry;Yk; rl;lk;> 2007. (gf;fq;fs; 97–123)
myF 7: khw;wf;$ba Mtzq;fs; rl;lk;> 1881: khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fs;: myF 7: khw;wf;$ba
mk;rq;fs; – tiffs; – jug;Gfs; – nghUs; khw;wk; – khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fs; Mtzq;fs; rl;lk;> 1881
jug;Gfs; – khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fs; rku;g;gpj;jy; (gf;fq;fs; 124–160)
myF 8: fhg;GWjp: rl;lj;jpd; tiuaiw kw;Wk; rl;lq;fs; – ,e;jpahtpy; myF 8: fhg;GWjp
ePjpj;Jiw mikf;fg;gl;lJ – fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; – ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPl;Lr; (gf;fq;fs; 161–192)
rl;lj;jpd; tuyhW – rl;lf; Nfhl;ghLfs; – MAs; fhg;gPl;L mbg;gil
Nfhl;ghLfs; jP fhg;gPL kw;Wk; fly; fhg;gPL.

gFjp – III: IIPR kw;Wk; IT


myF 9: ,e;jpa $l;lhz;ik rl;lk;> 1932 – nghUs; kw;Wk; $l;lhz;ik myF 9: ,e;jpaf; $l;lhz;ik
Nrhjid – epWtdq;fis cUthf;Fjy; kw;Wk; gjpT nra;jy; – nghJ rl;lk;> 1932
fhg;GWjp tzpf ehl;Lilik rl;lk;> 1973. (gf;fq;fs; 193–211)

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myF 10: $l;lhspfspd; cwTfs;: mwpKfk – gq;fhspahf ,Uf;f myF 10: $l;lhspfspd;
jFjpfs; – $l;lhz;ikapy; khw;wq;fisg; gjpT nra;jy;-gq;fhspj;Jtj;jpd; cwTfs;
tiuaWf;fg;gl;l nghWg;Gfs; – epWtdq;fspd; fiyg;G – gz;Gfs; – (gf;fq;fs; 212–250)
tiffs; – $l;bizj;jy; epWtdq;fs; – rq;f epu;thfpfs; Fwpg;ghidAk;
– rq;fj;jpd; jpl;lq;fs;.
myF 11: epWtdq;fs; rl;lk;> 1956 – epWtdq;fspd; jd;ik kw;Wk; myF 11: epWtdq;fs; rl;lk;>
tiffs; – jftywpf;if – ntspg;gLj;jypd; Njitfs; – Nkyhz;ik kw;Wk; 1956
epu;thfk; – ,af;Feu;fs; epakdk; mjpfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; flikfs;. (gf;fq;fs; 251–281)

gFjp – IV: MSME


myF 12: epWtdk; cUthf;Fjy;: mwpKfk; – nray;Kiw – xU myF 12: xU epWtdk;
epkplKk; jPu;khdq;fSk; – ngUepWtd mYty;fs; mikr;rpd; fPo; cs;s cUthf;fk;
Mtzq;fis epug;Gjy; (MCA) 21-epWtdq;fs; Nkyhz;ik – $l;lq;fs; – (gf;fq;fs; 282–308)
tiffs; – Njitfs; – AGM kw;Wk; EGM epu;thff; FO $l;lk;.
myF 13: jfty; njhopy; El;g rl;lk;: mwpKfk; – IT rl;lk;> 2000f;F myF 13: jfty;
gpd;dhy; epahak; – jfty; njhopy;El;gj; rl;lk; 2000: fzpdpka njhopy;El;gtpay; rl;lk;> 2000
milahsk; 2000: fhuzk;; kpd;dZ gjpT – xOq;FKiw rhd;wspf;Fk; (gf;fq;fs; 309–334)
mjpfhupfis xg;Gtpj;jy; kw;Wk; mDg;Gjy;.
myF 14: rpWghd;ikapdu; eyDf;F ghJfhg;G: mwpKfk; – mwpKfk; myF 14: epWtd rl;lk;
– KWf;F Kiwfs; – jfty; rl;lk;> 2005 cupik> rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa kw;Wk; jfty; mwpAk; cupikr;
mk;rq;fs;> nghJ Mizaj;jpd; flik> nghJ jfty; mYtyu; gjtp> rl;lk;> 2005
jfty; ngWtjw;fhd Nfhupf;if. (gf;fq;fs; 335–352)

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cs;slf;fk;
jiyg;G gf;fk;. vz;
Kd;Diu xi

gFjp – I: tzpf rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gil


myF 1 ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 1–13
1.0 Kd;Diu
1.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
1.2 jd;ik> $Wfs; kw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; cUthf;fk;
1.2.1 jd;ik
1.2.2 mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs;
1.2.3 xg;ge;jq;fspd; tifg;gLj;jy;: nry;Ygbahf;fk;> cUthf;fk; kw;Wk;
nray;jpwd;
1.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1.4 RUf;fk;
1.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
1.6 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
1.7 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 2 rYif kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; 14–28


2.0 Kd;Diu
2.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
2.2 rYif kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
2.2.1 rYif (Kd;nkhopT)
2.2.2 nry;YgbahFk; rYif njhlu;ghf rl;l tpjpfs;
2.2.3 ,og;G kw;Wk; rYifia jpUk;gg; ngWjy;
2.2.4 Vw;G
2.2.5 xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G njhlu;ghd rl;l tpjpfs;
2.2.6 rYifiag; gw;wpa jfty;> Vw;G kw;Wk; kWg;Gfs;
2.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
2.4 RUf;fk;
2.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
2.6 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
2.7 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 3 guprPyid 29–55


3.0 Kd;Diu
3.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
3.2 guprPyid: tiuaiwfs;> tiffs; kw;Wk; Kf;fpaj;Jtq;fs;
3.2.1 nry;Ygbahd guprPyidapd; mtrpaq;fs;
3.2.2 xg;ge;jq;fs; kw;Wk; tpjp tpyf;Ffs;
3.3 jpwd; kw;Wk; xg;Gjy;

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3.3.1 xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; ,ytr xg;Gjy;
3.4 nghUspd; rl;lG+u;t jd;ik
3.4.1 jpl;ltl;lkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;l ntw;wpl xg;ge;jq;fs;
3.5 xg;ge;j ntspNaw;wk;
3.6 xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; kw;Wk; mjd; jPu;Tfs;
3.7 Njhw;w xg;ge;jq;fs;
3.7.1 Njhw;w xg;ge;j flikfs;
3.8 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
3.9 RUf;fk;
3.10 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
3.11 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
3.12 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 4 rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs; 56–72


4.0 Kd;Diu
4.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
4.2 cupik kPwy; kw;Wk; cj;juthjk;> cupikfs; kw;Wk; ntspNaw;w xg;ge;jk;
4.2.1 ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jq;fs;
4.2.2 cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jq;fs;
4.2.3 fldpypUe;J cj;jputhjk; ntspNaw;wy;
4.3 gpizak; kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
4.3.1 gpizaj;jpd; tifg;ghLfs;
4.3.2 gpizak; mspg;gtu; kw;Wk; gpizak; ngWgtu; flikfs; kw;Wk; cupikfs;
4.3.3 gpiznaLg;G epWj;jk;
4.4 Kfthz;ik rl;lk;
4.4.1 nghJ xOq;FKiw Kfthz;ik
4.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
4.6 RUf;fk;
4.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
4.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
4.9 NkYk; gbf;f

gFjp – II: $l;lhz;ik kw;Wk; epWtd rl;lk;


myF 5 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk; mikj;jy; 73–96
5.0 Kd;Diu
5.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
5.2 tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
5.3 epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; cj;juthjq;fs;
5.4 ngau; khw;wk; kw;Wk; nrhj;J
5.4.1 nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; njhlu;ghd tpjpfs;
5.5 gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;
5.6 xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; tpw;gid
5.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
5.8 RUf;fk;
5.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;

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5.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
5.11 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 6 ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;; 97–123


6.0 Kd;Diu
6.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
6.2 Cu;jpfs; rl;lk;> 1865
6.3 ,uapy;Nt rl;lk;> 1890
6.3.1 ,uapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; flikfs;
6.3.2 ,uapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.3.3 Nfhupf;iffspd; mwptpg;G (gpupT. 78b)
6.4 fly; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; ruf;Ffs; Vw;wpr;nry;Yjy;> 1925
6.4.1 Cu;jpf; Fj;jif xg;ge;jk;
6.4.2 fly; topahf nfhz;L nry;Yeupd; flikfs;
6.4.3 fly; topahf nfhz;L nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.4.4 fg;gy; cupikahsu; cupkk; kw;Wk; fly;top cupkk;
6.5 1972 tpkhd rl;lk; %yk; vLj;J nry;Yjy;
6.5.1 ruf;Fjhuu; kw;Wk; ruf;F Vw;W cupikahsupd; cupikfs;
6.5.2 ruf;F nfhz;L nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.6 2007 rhiyr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; Vw;wpr;nry;Yjy;
6.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
6.8 RUf;fk;
6.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
6.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
6.11 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 7 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lk;; 124–160


7.0 Kd;Diu
7.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
7.2 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lk;;: tiuaiw> rpwg;gk;rq;fs;> tiffs; kw;Wk;; jug;Gfs;;
7.2.1 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gz;Gfs;
7.2.2 thf;FWjpr; rPl;L
7.2.3 guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;L
7.2.4 fhNrhiy
7.2.5 tq;fp tiuT
7.2.6 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; Kjpu;r;rp
7.2.7 cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy;
7.2.8 tl;b nrYj;Jjy;
7.2.9 itj;jpUg;gtu;
7.3 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;; rl;lj;jpid toq;fy;
7.4 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;; rl;lk; kw;Wk; %yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy; Mfpatw;iw
Neu;ikaw;W ntspNaw;wy;.
7.4.1 Mtzq;fs; kw;Wk; jug;Gfs; ntspNaw;wk;;
7.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
7.6 RUf;fk;
7.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
7.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
7.9 NkYk; gbf;f

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myF 8 fhg;gPL 161–192
8.0 Kd;Diu
8.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
8.2 fhg;gPL: tiuaiw kw;Wk; rl;l %yq;fs;
8.2.1 fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd; tiffs;
8.2.2 ePjpj;Jiw mikg;G kw;Wk; rl;lf; Nfhl;ghl;L fhg;GWjp
8.2.3 ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPL rl;lk;
8.3 xU xg;ge;jkhf fhg;gPL
8.3.1 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik
8.3.2 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs;
8.3.3 MAs; fhg;GWjp
8.3.4 jP fhg;GWjp
8.3.5 fly; fhg;GWjp
8.4 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
8.5 RUf;fk;
8.6 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
8.7 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
8.8 NkYk; gbf;f

gFjp – III: IIPR kw;Wk; IT


myF 9 ,e;jpa $l;lhz;ik rl;lk;> 1932 193–211
9.0 Kd;Diu
9.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
9.2 nghUs; kw;Wk; $l;lhz;ik Nrhjid
9.2.1 $l;lhz;ikapd; mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs;
9.2.2 $l;lhz;ik Ma;T
9.2.3 epWtdq;fis cUthf;Fjy; kw;Wk; gjpT nra;jy;
9.3 MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fofk; rl;lk;> 1956
9.3.1 nghJ fhg;GWjp tzpf ehl;Lilik rl;lk;> 1973
9.3.2 khefuhl;rpapd; gzpfs;
9.3.3 epWtdq;fis ifafg;gLj;Jtjpy; cs;s gzpfs;
9.4 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
9.5 RUf;fk;
9.6 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
9.7 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
9.8 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 10 $l;lhspfspd; cwTfs; 212–250


10.0 Kd;Diu
10.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
10.2 tiuaWf;fg;gl;l nghWg;Gf; $l;lhz;ik rl;lk;
10.2.1 tiuaWf;fg;gl;l nghWg;Gf; $l;lhz;ik> 2008
10.3 $l;lhspfs; cwTfs;: mwpKfk;> jFjp kw;Wk; $l;lhsp khw;w gjpT
10.3.1 epakpf;fg;gl;l $l;lhspfs; (gpupT 7)
10.3.2 epWtdq;fs; fiyg;G
10.4 epWtdq;fs; ,izj;jy;

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10.4.1 epWtdj;jpd; gz;Gfs;
10.5 rq;fj;jpd; Fwpg;ghiz
10.5.1 Fwpg;ghizapd; cs;slf;fq;fs;
10.5.2 Fwpg;ghizia jpUj;jpaikj;jy;
10.6 rq;fq;fspd; fl;Liufs;
10.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
10.8 RUf;fk;
10.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
10.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
10.11 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 11 epWtdq;fs; rl;lk;> 1956 251–281


11.0 Kd;Diu
11.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
11.2 epWtdq;fspd; jd;ik kw;Wk; tiffs;
11.3 jftywpf;if kw;Wk; ntspg;gLj;jypd; Njitfs;.
11.3.1 jftywpf;ifapd; cs;slf;fk;
11.4 Nkyhz;ik kw;Wk; epu;thfk;: ,af;Feu; epakdk;> mjpfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; flikfs;
11.4.1 ,af;Feu;fs; epakdk;
11.4.2 ,af;Fdu;fspd; mjpfhuq;fs;
11.4.3 ,af;Fdu;fspd; flikfs;
11.4.4 gpw epu;thfj; Jiw gzpahsu;fs;
11.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
11.6 RUf;fk;
11.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
11.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
11.9 NkYk; gbf;f

gFjp – IV: MSME


myF 12 epWtdk; cUthf;Fjy; 282–308
12.0 Kd;Diu
12.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
12.2 epWtdk; cUthf;fk;: mwpKfk; kw;Wk; nray;Kiw
12.2.1 gjtp cau;T epiy
12.2.2 gjpT kw;Wk; ,izj;jy; epiy
12.2.3 tzpf epiy njhlf;fk;
12.3 $l;lq;fs;: tiffs; kw;Wk; Njitfs;
12.3.1 AGM kw;Wk; EGM
12.3.2 mrhjhuz my;yJ mtrufhy nghJf; $l;lk; (EGM)
12.3.3 epu;thff; FO $l;lk;
12.3.4 Njitfs;
12.3.5 epkplq;fs; kw;Wk; jPu;khdq;fs;
12.3.6 E-ngUepWtd mYty;fs; mikrfj;jpd; fPOs;s Mtzq;fs; (MCA)
12.4 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
12.5 RUf;fk;
12.6 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 9 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


12.7 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
12.8 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 13 jfty; njhopy;El;gtpay; rl;lk;> 2000 309–334


13.0 Kd;Diu
13.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
13.2 ,e;jpa IT rl;lk; gw;wpa fz;Nzhl;lk;
13.2.1 IT rl;lk;> 2000f;F gpd;dhy; epahak;
13.2.2 jfty; njhopy;El;gr; rl;lk; njhlf;fk;> 2000
13.2.3 IT rl;l jpl;lk;> 2000
13.2.4 fzpdpka ifnahg;gk;
13.3 kpd;dZ gjpTfis> xg;Gtpj;jy; kw;Wk; mDg;Gjy;
13.4 rhd;wspf;Fk; nghWg;ghsu;fis Kiwg;gLj;Jjy;
13.4.1 rhd;wspf;Fk; mjpfhupfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuq;fs;
13.4.2 rhd;wspf;Fk; mjpfhurigapd; flikfs;
13.4.3 fzpdpka milahs rhd;wpjo;fs;
13.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
13.6 RUf;fk;
13.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
13.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
13.9 NkYk; gbf;f

myF 14 epWtd rl;lk; kw;Wk; jfty; mwpAk; cupikr; rl;lk;> 2005 335–352
14.0 Kd;Diu
14.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
14.2 epWtdq;fs; rl;lk;: rpWghd;ik tl;b ghJfhg;G
14.3 epWtdq;fs; rl;lk;: Kuz;ghL Kiwfs;
14.4 jfty; mwpAk; cupikr; rl;lk;> 2005
14.4.1 cupik mwpjy; kw;Wk; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs;
14.4.2 nghJ Mizaj;jpd; flik
14.4.3 nghJ jfty; mYtyupd; gjtp
14.4.4 jfty;fisg; ngWtjw;fhd Nfhupf;if
14.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
14.6 RUf;fk;
14.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
14.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
14.9 NkYk; gbf;f

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 10 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


Kd;Diu
tu;j;jfk;> ifj;njhopy; kw;Wk; tzpfk; njhlu;ghd rl;lq;fis cs;slf;fpa rl;lg;gpuptpd;
fPo; 'tzpf rl;lk;" vd;w gjk; tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;. tu;j;jfk; kw;Wk; tzpfk; vd;w khwptUk;
R+o;epiyfSld;> ,J vg;NghJk; tsu;e;J tUk; xU rl;lkhFk;.
etPd tzpf cyfpy; rpf;fy;fs; mjpfupj;J tUk; epiyapy;> tzpf rl;lj;jpd; Nehf;fk;
kpfg; ngupa mstpy; tpuptile;Js;sJ. ,J xg;ge;jq;fs;> nghUl;fs; tpw;gid> $l;lhz;ik>
epWtdq;fs;> khw;wf;$ba fUtpfs;> fhg;gL
P > nehbg;G> ruf;F Vw;Wjy; kw;Wk; Nkyhz;ikAupik
Nghd;wit njhlu;ghd rl;lq;fis nghJthf Gupe;J nfhs;s KbfpwJ.
rl;lj;jpd; mwpT Njitia typAWj;j KbahJ. rl;l mwpahikf;F ve;j fhuzKk;
,y;iy> ,J rl;lk; gw;wpa mwpahikia tof;fg;gLj;Jtjw;F rl;lj;ij kPWjy; vd;w
xU egUf;F jpwe;Jtpltpy;iy vd;gij Fwpf;fpwJ. rl;lj;ij kPWjy; vd;gJ rl;lj;jpw;F
Kuzhf vijahtJ nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W rl;lk; ,aw;w Ntz;Lk; my;yJ rl;lj;ij
kPWk; vijahtJ nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w fl;lhaj;ij nra;fpwJ. vdNtjhd;> xt;nthU
egUk; rl;lk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W Cfpf;fg;gLtJ nghJthf mwpag;gl;L Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,J Nghd;w nghUshjhu kw;Wk; tu;jj ; f eltbf;iffspy; <Lgl;Ls;s kf;fs;>
mbg;gil tzpfr; rl;lq;fspd; nghJf; Nfhl;ghLfisf; nfhz;L jq;fisg; gof;FtJ
,d;wpaikahjjhf cs;sJ. gy;NtW rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gLtjw;F Kd;> tzpff; nfhLf;fy;
thq;fy;fs;> jug;gpdu;fspd; jdpg;gl;l rl;lq;fspd; %yk; xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;ld. ,e;Jf;fs;
kw;Wk; K];ypk;fspd; cupikfs; mtu;fsJ> me;je;j rl;lq;fshy; epu;tfpf;fg;gl;ld. ,uz;L
jug;GfSNk ,e;Jf;fshf ,Ue;jd. mit ,e;J rl;lj;jpd;gb xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;ld. ,uz;L
jug;GfSNk K];yk P f
; shf ,Ue;jd. mg;NghJ Kfkjpad; rl;lk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. xU jug;gpdu;
,e;Jthf ,Ue;j re;ju;gg ; q;fspYk;> kw;nwhd;W K];ypkhf ,Ue;j Neuq;fspYk; jdpg;gl;l
Kiw gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. ,e;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; K];ypk;fs; jtpu kw;wtu;fs;> kw;Wk; ,e;Jf;fs;
my;yJ K];yk P f
; spd; rl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; topfhl;Ljy;fs; mikjpahf ,Ue;jd> ePjpkd;wq;fs;
nghJthf Mq;fpy rl;lj;jpd; nfhs;ifiag; gad;gLj;jpd. gbg;gbahf> xg;ge;jq;fis
xOq;FgLj;Jk; xU rPUil rl;lk; mky;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba Njit czug;gl;lJ kw;Wk; ,J
toq;fg;gl;lJ. 1872 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> gpwg;G rl;lq;fs;> 1881 tiuapyhd
gy rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gl;ld. tpw;gid nghUl;fs; rl;lk;> 1930; ,e;jpa $l;lhz;ik xg;ge;jk;>
1932; fhg;gL
P rl;lk;> 1938> Kjypad toq;fg;gl;lJ.
tzpf rl;lk; vd;Dk; ,e;E}y; tzpf R+oypy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;Fk; gy;NtW
rl;lq;fSf;F khztu;fis mwpKfg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,e;j E}ypy; xt;nthU myFk; xU
‘mwpKfk;’ vd;w Ra topfhl;b Kiwapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jpy; tpupthd cs;slf;fk;
gpd;du; xU vspa kw;Wk; fl;likf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy; toq;fg;gLk;, ‘cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr;
Nrhjpj;jwpf’, khztupd; Gupjiy Nrhjpf;f cjTfpwJ. RUf;fk;> Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;>
jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs; mlq;fpa njhFj;Jiuj;jy; xt;nthU myfpd;
,WjpapYk; toq;fg;gLfpwJ.

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 11 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


gFjp– I ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

tzpf rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gil

myF 1 ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 Fwpg;Gfs;

mikg;G
1.0 Kd;Diu
1.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
1.2 xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik> $Wfs; kw;Wk; cUthf;fk;
1.2.1 jd;ik
1.2.2 mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs;
1.2.3 xg;ge;jq;fspd; tifg;gLj;jy;;: nry;Ygbahf;fk;>
cUthf;fk; kw;Wk; nray;jpwd;
1.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
1.4 RUf;fk;
1.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
1.6 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
1.7 NkYk; gbf;f

1.0 Kd;Diu
,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; ehk; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk; tpjj;ij
toptFf;fpwJ. xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gil fl;likg;ghdJ ,e;jpa xg;ge;j
rl;lj;jpy; cs;slq;fpaJ kw;Wk; mJ rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpakhd gFjp
MFk;. xU xg;ge;jk;> rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba cld;gbf;if
MFk;. vdNt> xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;baJ: xU xg;ge;jk;
kw;Wk; cld;gbf;if rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;.
xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l egu;fs; xd;W my;yJ kw;wtu;fsplk;
VjhtJ xd;iw nra;a my;yJ nra;ahtpl;lhy; xU cld;gbf;if
eilKiwf;F tUfpwJ. xU xg;ge;jk; rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba
flikia cUthf;f ,ayhtpl;lhy;> mJ xg;ge;jk; my;y. mjhtJ
xU cld;gbf;if vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;ij tpl xU gue;j tpjk; MFk;.
‘midj;J xg;ge;jq;fSk; cld;gbf;iffs; MFk;. Mdhy; midj;J
cld;gbf;iffSk; xg;ge;jq;fs; my;y.’ xOf;f newp cld;gbf;iffs;>
kj my;yJ r%f ,ay;G Mfpait xg;ge;jq;fs; my;y. Vnddpy; mit
rl;lk; %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; xU flikia cUthf;Ftjpy;iy.
xU xg;ge;jk; nry;YgbahFk; tifapy;> mJ mtrpakhd
$Wfisf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd rYifAk;’>
,e;j rYifiag; gw;wp ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd xg;GifAk;’ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
,jdhy; xU cld;gbf;if Vw;gLfpwJ. cld;gbf;if rl;luPjpahd
tpisTfshy; ,izf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; rl;lg;G+u;t flikfis
cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W jug;gpdupilNa xU vz;zk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 1

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 1 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 xt;nthU jug;gpdUk; VjhtJ xd;iw nfhLj;J vijahtJ ngw;W
,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk xU xg;ge;jj;ij rl;lG+u;tkhf mky;gLj;j KbAk;.
nfhLf;fg;gl;l my;yJ ngwg;gl;l xd;W thf;FWjpf;Ff;fhd tpiy
‘guprPyid’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. xU xg;ge;jj;jpw;F midj;J
Fwpg;Gfs; jug;gpdupd; ,ytr xg;Gjy; vd;gJ xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpd;
kw;nwhU ,d;wpaikahj mk;rkhFk;. eilKiwg;gLj;Jjy;> cUthf;fk;
kw;Wk; nray;gLj;Jk; msT Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; gy tifahd
xg;ge;jq;fs; cs;sd.
,e;j myF ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> 1872 
d; ,ay;G> $Wfs;
kw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; tiffis Muha;tij Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

1.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;>
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; nghUis mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik kw;Wk; cUthf;fk; Mfpatw;iw tptupf;f
KbAk;
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,d;wpaikahg; $Wfis mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; tifg;ghl;il mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;
••eilKiwg;gLj;Jjypd; mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffis
Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;
••cUthf;f Kiw mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffis
tpsf;f KbAk;
••nray;gLj;Jk; msT mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffis
mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;
••cUthf;fk; kw;Wk; nray;jpwid mwpa KbAk;

1.2 xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik> $Wfs; kw;Wk; cUthf;fk;


1.2.1 jd;ik
,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk; 1872d; gb> ,e;jpah xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpy; mlq;fpAs;sJ.
,J [k;K kw;Wk; fh\;kPu; khepyk; jtpu ,e;jpah KOtJk; gutpAs;sJ
kw;Wk; nrg;lk;gu; 1> 1872 md;W mkYf;F te;jJ. ,r;rl;lk; KOikay;y.
,J xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; midj;J fpisfisAk; ifahshJ.
khw;Wr; rhjdq;fs;> nrhj;J gupkhw;wk;> nghUl;fs; tpw;gid> $l;LwT>
fhg;gPL Kjypad njhlu;ghd xg;ge;jq;fisf; nfhz;l jdpj;jdp
rl;lq;fs; cs;sd. kWgbAk;> ,e;j rl;lk; ve;jnthU gad;ghLk;
my;yJ tzpf tof;ifAk; ghjpf;fhJ (gpupT 1). ,e;jpa xg;ge;j
(jpUj;jk;) rl;lk;> 1996 rl;lj;jpd; 28 tJ gpuptpy; xU rpwpa jpUj;jk;
nra;ag;gl;lJ.
(h) ,d; gb: ‘rl;lj;jhy;
,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 
mky;gLj;jf;$ba cld;gbf;if xU xg;ge;jkhFk;.’ vdNt> xU
2 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 2 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


cld;gbf;if vd;gJ xU rl;luPjpahd flikia cUthf;FtJ> ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

mjhtJ rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba flik MFk;


Nkw;fz;l tiuaiwapypUe;J> mbg;gilapy; xU xg;ge;jk; ,uz;L
$Wfisf; nfhz;lJ vd;W fhz;fpNwhk;: (1) cld;gbf;if> kw;Wk; (2)
rl;luPjpahd flik> mjhtJ xU rl;lj;jpd; %yk; mky;gLj;jf; $ba Fwpg;Gfs;
flik MFk;. ,e;jf; $Wfis ehk; ,g;NghJ tpupthf Muha;Nthk;.
1. cld;gbf;if: gpupT 2(e) gb> xt;nthU thf;FWjpAk;>
xt;nthU thf;FWjpfspd; njhFg;Gk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W
jPu;khdj;ij cUthf;FtJk; xU xg;ge;jkhFk;. vdNt>
,e;j tiuaiwapypUe;J xU "cWjpnkhop" vd;gJ xU
cld;ghL vd;gJ njspthfpwJ. ‘cWjpnkhop’ vd;why;
vd;d? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;fhd tpil gpupT 2 (b) y;
tiuaWf;fpwJ: 'Kd;nkhopT nra;ag;gl;l egu; jdJ ,irit
Fwpf;Fk;NghJ> me;j Kd;nkhopT Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;W
nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. xg;ge;jr; rl;lk;> 1872y; xU cWjpnkhopahf
khWfpwJ.’ xU jug;gpdu; kw;nwhU jug;gpdu; xU Kd;nkhopT
my;yJ tha;g;gpid toq;Fk; NghJ kl;LNk xU cld;gbf;if
cUthfpwJ> NkYk; me;j jug;gpdu; jdJ xg;Gjiy (mjhtJ>
Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ) vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. RUf;fkhf> xU cld;ghL
vd;gJ ‘rYif’ kw;Wk; ‘xg;Gjy;;’ d; nkhj;jk; MFk;.
2. rl;l flik: NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy;> xg;ge;jkhf
khWtjw;F xU cld;gbf;if xU rl;luPjpahd flikia Mw;w
Ntz;Lk;> mjhtJ rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba flik.
xU cld;gbf;if rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba flikia
cUthf;f ,ayhtpl;lhy;> mJ xg;ge;jk; my;y. vdNt> xU
cld;gbf;if vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;ij tpl tpupthd xd;whFk;. midj;J
xg;ge;jq;fSk; cld;gbf;iffs; MFk; Mdhy; midj;J
cld;gbf;iffSk; xg;ge;jq;fs; my;y. xg;ge;j
newpKiwfs;> mwnewp> kjk; my;yJ r%fj; jd;ik
­
gw;wpa xg;ge;jq;fs; mjhtJ xU ez;gu; tPl;by; kjpa
czT my;yJ xd;whf eilgapw;rp vLf;fyhk; vd;gJ xU
thf;FWjp Nghd;w xU xg;ge;jk; my;y> Vndd;why; rl;luPjpahd
tpisTfshy; mtu;fs; fye;J nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W
tpUk;Gk; vspa fhuzj;jpw;fhf rl;lj;jhy; ,aq;ff;$ba xU
flikia mtu;fs; cUthf;f KbahJ.
tzpf xg;ge;jq;fspy;> fl;rpfs; rl;l cwTfis Njhw;Wtpf;f
tpUk;Gfpd;wd vd;gJ nghJthf Cfpf;fg;gLk;. v.fh. 100 %l;ilfs;
NfhJik> xU %l;il xd;Wf;F 430 vd;w mstpy; xU xg;ge;jk;
Vw;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy; mJ rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba xU jPu;it
mspf;fpwJ> kw;Wk; ,U jug;gpdJk; xU gFjpapy; cs;s ,ay;Gepiyahf
,Ue;jhy;> xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; vd;w xU nraiy xU ePjpkd;wk; %yk;
mky;gLj;j KbAk;. gpupT 10 d; gb nra;ag;gLk; rl;lk;> xU rl;luPjpahd
guprPyidf;F kw;Wk; rl;lG+u;tkhd xU nghUSld; xg;ge;jk; nra;a
jFjp tha;e;j jug;gpdupd; rhu;gpy; ,ytrkhf xg;GjYld; nra;ag;gl;l
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 3

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 3 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 xg;ge;jk; MFk;. ,t;thwhf> ,e;j rl;lk; ‘xg;ge;jk;’ vd;w thu;j;ijia
gad;gLj;jp> jug;GfSf;F ,ilNa rl;lG+u;t flikfis toq;Fk;
xg;ge;jq;fis kl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ vd;W Kbthff; $wyhk;.

Fwpg;Gfs; 1.2.2 mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs;


gpupT 2 (h)-y; xU xg;ge;jk; rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba
cld;gbf;if vd tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. rl;lj;jpd; %yk;
eilKiwg;gLj;jf; $ba tifapy;> xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; 10> 29 kw;Wk; 56
Mfpa gpupTfspy; mlq;fpAs;s nry;yj;jf;f xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gil
$Wfs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk.; gpupT 10 d; gb> midj;J cld;gbf;iffs;
xg;ge;jq;fSldhd cld;gbf;iff;F ,zq;ff; $ba jug;gpd; ,ytr
xg;Gjyhy;> xg;ge;jq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sd> rl;lG+u;tkhd fUj;jpw;fhf>
xU rl;lG+u;tkhd nghUs; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; ntspg;gilahf
mwptpf;fg;gltpy;iy> NkYk; Njitg;gl;lhy; ve;jnthU rl;lj;ijAk;
vOj;J my;yJ rhd;wpjo; my;yJ gjpT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ehk; ,g;NghJ
xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fis RUf;fkhf ,q;F tpthjpg;Nghk;.
nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,d;wpaikah $Wfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. rYif kw;Wk; Vw;G: ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd rYifAk;’> ,e;j rYifiag;
gw;wp ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd xg;GifAk;’ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; xU
cld;ghL Vw;gLk;. ,e;j rYifAk;> Vw;Gk; xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd;
Njitfis mjd; njhlu;gpNyNa G+u;j;jp nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gij
Fwpf;fpwJ.
2. rl;l cwTfis cUthf;Ftjw;fhd Nehf;fk;: ,e;j cld;ghL rl;l
tpisTfSld; ,izf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; rl;lg;G+ut ; flikfis
cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk; jug;gpdupilNa ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xU r%f my;yJ cs;ehl;L ,ay;gpd; xg;ge;jq;fs; rl;l cwT-
fisg; gw;wp rpe;jpf;ftpy;iy. mNjNghy; mit xU xg;ge;jj;ijAk;
nfhLf;ftpy;iy. xU ez;gupd; tPlb; y; rhg;gpl xU cld;ghL nra;tJ
rl;l cwTfis cUthf;Fk; Nehf;fk; xU cld;gbf;if my;y
vdNt xU xg;ge;jk; my;y. fztd; ­ kidtpapilNa xg;ge;jq;fs;>
rl;lg;G+ut
; cwTfis cUthf;Ftjw;fhd Nehf;fk; ,y;iy ,jd;
%yk; xg;ge;jq;fs; nra;a KbahJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:
(a) M jdJ kidtp N f;F> mts; xU ghliyg; ghbdhy; mtSf;F
xU Glitia jUtjhf thf;FWjp mspf;fpwhu;. N ghly;
ghbdhs; Mdhy; M mtSf;F Nriy nfhLf;ftpy;iy. rl;l
cwTfis cUthf;Fk; Nehf;fk; ,y;yhjjhy; cld;ghl;il
eilKiwg;gLj;j ePjpkd;wj;jpy; N xU nraiy nfhz;Ltu
Kbatpy;iy.
(b) gpujpthjpahd muR Copau; xUtu; ,yq;ifapy; gzpahw;wpdhu;.
,q;fpyhe;jpy; mtUk; mtUila kidtpAk; tpLg;Gf;F te;jdu;.
gpujpthjp ,yq;if jpUk;gp tUk; NghJ> mtuJ kidtp
cly;eyk; fhuzkhf mtUld; cld; tu Kbatpy;iy.
4 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 4 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


gpujpthjp mtSf;F £ 30 xU khjj;jpw;F guhkupg;G nrytpdkhf ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

mDg;Gtjhf xg;Gf;nfhz;lhu;. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajhf


mts; $wpdhs;. rl;l eltbf;if vjidAk; guprPypf;ftpy;iy
vd;gjhy; mtuJ eltbf;if js;Sgb nra;ag;gl;lJ> vdNt
xg;ge;jk; vJTk; ,y;iy. (ghy;/Nghu; vs ghy;/Nghu;) Fwpg;Gfs;
3. rl;lG+u;tkhd guprPyid: nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; %d;whtJ
mj;jpahtrpa mk;rk; ‘guprPyidapd;’ Kd;dpiyahFk;.
kw;nwhU jug;gpdu; nfhLj;j thf;FWjpf;F tpiy epu;zak;
nra;Ak; tifapy;> guprPyid tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. xt;nthU
jug;gpdUk; VjhtJ xd;iw nfhLj;J vijahtJ
ngw;W ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk xU xg;ge;jj;ij rl;lG+u;tkhf
mky;gLj;j KbAk;. nfhLf;fg;gl;l my;yJ ngwg;gl;l xd;wpd;>
thf;FWjpf;fhd tpiy> ‘guprPyid’ vdg;gLfpwJ. rpy
tpjptpyf;FfSf;F cl;gl;l> ,ytrkhd thf;FWjpfs; rl;lj;jpy;
mky;gLj;j ,ayhJ.
‘guprPypid’ vd;gJ> xU rl;lk; (VjhtJ nra;J) my;yJ
nghWik (VjhtJ nra;atpy;iy) my;yJ nra;a xU
thf;FWjp my;yJ VjhtJ nra;af;$lhJ vd ,Uf;fyhk;. ,J
fle;j> jw;Nghija my;yJ vjpu;fhykhf ,Uf;fyhk;.
4. jug;gpdupd; jpwd;: xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s jug;gpdu;fs; xg;ge;jk;
nra;a jFjpAs;stu;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> ,y;iynad;why;
mij ePjpkd;wk; eilKiwg;gLj;j KbahJ. xg;ge;jk; nra;a
jFjpAs;s jug;gpdu;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhfTk;> xw;WikahfTk;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtu;fs; ve;jnthU xg;ge;jj;jpd; rl;lj;jpYk;
,Ue;J jFjpaw;wtu;fshf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. (gpupT 11).
5. ,ytr xg;Gjy;: xU xg;ge;jj;jpw;F midj;J jug;gpdupd;
xg;Gjy; vd;gJ xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; kw;nwhU
,d;wpaikahj mk;rkhFk;. ‘xg;Gjy;’ vd;why;> jug;gpdu; xU
fUj;ij xj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 13). ‘,ytr
xg;Gjy;’ ,y;yhj NghJ xg;ge;jk; J}z;lg;gl;lhy;>
(i) gyte;jk;, (ii) fhuzk; ,y;yhj nry;thf;F, (iii) Nkhrb, (iv)
jtwhd gpujpepjpj;Jtk; my;yJ (v) jtW (gpupT 14).
6. rl;lG+u;tkhd nghUs;: xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;ij
cUthf;f> xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s jug;gpdu;fs; xU
rl;lG+u;tkhd nghUSf;F cld;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
mtrpakhFk;. ,e;j cld;gbf;if> xU Nkhrbahd my;yJ
rl;ltpNuhjkhd my;yJ nghJ nfhs;iff;F vjpuhdjhf ,Uf;ff;
$lhJ my;yJ kw;nwhU egupd; nrhj;Jf;fSf;F tpisT
Vw;glhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 23). NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l
fhuzq;fSs; xd;iwNah my;yJ NtW fhuzkhfNth nghUs;
rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghditahf ,Ug;gpd;> mJ nry;Ygbaw;wJ.
,t;thW> xU cupikahsu; tpgr;rhuj;ijr; nra;a xU

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 5

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 5 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 tpgr;rhupf;F xU tPl;il mDkjpf;fpwhu; vd;why;> mtu;
rl;lj;jpd; %yk; thlif kPl;f KbahJ.
7. vOJjy; kw;Wk; gjpT nra;jy;: ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gb>
xU xg;ge;jk; tha;nkhop my;yJ vOj;jpy; ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;
Fwpg;Gfs; rpy rpwg;G re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> ,e;j cld;ghL nry;Ygbahff;
$ba tifapy; vOj;J my;yJ/kw;Wk; gjpT nra;ag;gl;bUf;f
Ntz;Lk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> ,J xU Neuj;ij fldhf nrYj;j
xU xg;ge;jk; vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk;> ,ay;ghd md;G kw;Wk; ghrk;
Mfpatw;wpypUe;J ntspNaWtjw;fhd xU cld;gbf;if vOJk;
kw;Wk; gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 25). mNj Nghy;> gpw
rl;lq;fSk;> rl;lk; filgpbf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W rl;lj;jhy;
mky;gLj;jg;glf;$ba xg;ge;jj;ij vOj my;yJ gjpT nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. vdNt> (i) eLtu; xg;ge;jk; 1996 Mk; Mz;bw;fhd
kj;jpa];j kw;Wk; xg;Gjy; rl;lj;jpd; gb vOjg;gl;bUf;f
Ntz;Lk;; (ii) mirahr; nrhj;jpid tpw;gid nra;tjw;fhd xU
xg;ge;jk; rl;lg;G+u;tkhf mky;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F Kd;du;> 1882
Mk; Mz;bd; nrhj;Jupikr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; vOjg;gl;L gjpT
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
8. cWjp: xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; 29tJ gpupT ‘cld;gbf;iffs;;>
nghUshjhu cWjp my;yJ epr;rakhd jd;ik vd;W
vJTk; ,y;iy’ vd;w nghUisj; jUfpwJ. nry;YgbahFk;
xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fj; Njitg;gLk; nghUl;L> xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpKiwfs;
njsptw;w my;yJ epr;rakw;wjhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. xg;ge;jj;jpd;
mu;j;jj;ijj; njupe;Jnfhs;s mJ rhj;jpakhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;>
,y;iynadpy;> mJ nray;gLj;jg;glhJ.
tpsf;fk;: ‘E}W ld; vz;nza;’ A vd;gtu; B aplk; tpw;f
xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu;. ve;j tifahd vz;nza;fF
; k; jpl;lkplg;gl;bUg;gij
fhl;l vJTNk ,y;iy. ,e;j xg;ge;jk; epr;rakw;wjy;y.
9. nray;jpwd; rhj;jpak;: xU nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jj;jpd;; kw;nwhU
Kf;fpa mk;rk; mJ nray;jpwd; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
gpupT 56 ,d; gb> ‘xU nraiy nra;a Kbahj xU cld;ghL>
mJ jd;dstpy; nray;glhJ’ vd $WfpwJ. ,r;rl;lk; jd;dstpy;
rhj;jpakpy;iy vd;why;> ,ay;ghf my;yJ rl;luPjpahf ,e;j
cld;gbf;ifia rl;lg;gb eilKiwg;gLj;j KbahJ.
tpsf;fk;: A ke;jpuk; %yk; Gijay; fz;Lgpbf;f B cld;
xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu; xg;ge;jk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.
10. ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;glhj ntw;wplk;: rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ,e;j
xg;ge;jk; ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;gltpy;iy. ntspg;gilahf
mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;s rpy tifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; 24-30 ­gpupTfis
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> jpUkzk; jilnra;Ak;
cld;gbf;if> tu;j;jfj;ij jil nra;tjw;fhd xU cld;gbf;if>
kw;Wk; ge;jak; %yk; xU cld;gbf;if KiwNa 26> 27 kw;Wk;
30 Mfpa gpupTfspd; fPo; ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
6 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 6 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


xU rupahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; gy;NtW mj;jpahtrpaq;fis ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

tptupg;gjw;F Kd;du;> Kjypy; ‘xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffs;’ gw;wp


tpthjpg;gJ nghUj;jkhdJ> Vndd;why;> ‘uj;Jnra;af;$ba xg;ge;jk;’>
‘nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk;’> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w cld;gbf;if’ Nghd;w gy
tpjpKiwfis ehk; tpthjpg;Nghk;. Fwpg;Gfs;

1.2.3 xg;ge;jq;fspd; tifg;gLj;jy; : nry;Ygbahf;fk;> cUthf;fk;


kw;Wk; nray;jpwd;
A. mkyhf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapyhd xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffs;
eilKiwg;gLj;Jjypd; mbg;gilapy;> xU xg;ge;jk; nry;YgbahFk;
my;yJ uj;Jnra;af;$ba my;yJ nry;Ygbaw;w my;yJ
nray;gLj;jg;glhj my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjkhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.
1. nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jk;: xU nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ
rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU cld;gbf;ifahFk;;. xU
cld;gbf;if nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; midj;J mj;jpahtrpa
$WfSk; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;gLk;.
2. uj;Jnra;af;$ba xg;ge;jk;: gpupT 2 (i) gb> ‘xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l jug;gpdu;fspd; tpUg;gg;gb rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba
xU cld;ghL> Mdhy; kw;iwNah my;yJ kw;wtu;fSila
tpUg;gNkh my;y ,J xU uj;Jnra;af; $ba xg;ge;jkhFk;.’
vdNt> xU uj;Jnra;af;$ba xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ jug;gpdupd; xU
tpUg;gj;jpd; Ngupy; rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba xd;whFk;. me;j
rhu;gpy; jdJ tpUg;gj;ijr; nray;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mt;thW
nra;aj; jFjpAs;s jug;gpduhy; mJ jtpu;f;fg;gLfpwJ my;yJ
uj;J nra;ag;gLfpwJ> ,J xU nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jk; MFk;.
3. nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk;: cz;ikapy;> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w’ vd;w
thu;j;ijapd; nghUs; ‘rl;lj;jpy; gpizf;fg;gltpy;iy’
vd;gjhFk;. mjd;gb> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ xU
gadw;w xg;ge;jk;> ,jpy; ve;j rl;lG+u;tkhd tpisT-
fSk; ,y;iy. ve;j xg;ge;jKk; ,y;yhjjhy; mj;jifa
xg;ge;jk; xU G+[;ak;. gpupT 2  (j): ‘rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;j
Kbahj xU xg;ge;jk; mky;gLj;jg;glhky; epWj;jg;gLifapy;
nry;Ygbaw;wJ’ vd tiuaWf;fpwJ. xU nry;Ygbaw;w
xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ mjd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J nry;Ygbaw;wJ
my;y kw;Wk; mJ rupahdJ kw;Wk; Muk;gj;jpy; Eioe;j gpd;du;
jug;gpdu; kPJ gpizf;fg;gl;ld kw;Wk; mJ jtwhdJ> rpy
fhuzq;fs; ,Ug;gjhy; mJ jtwhdjhfTk;> rl;lG+u;tkhd
tpisit mile;JtpLk; vd;Wk; tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ.
4. nray;gLj;jg;glhj xg;ge;jk;: xU nray;gLj;jg;glhj xg;ge;jk;>
mjd; %yk; nry;YgbahFk; xd;W MFk;> Mdhy; vOj;J>
gjpT> Njitahd Kj;jpiu> Kjypatw;Wf;fhd rpy njhopy;El;g
FiwghL fhuzkhf my;yJ rl;lj;jpd; tpjpKiwfshy;
jilnra;ag;gl;l Neuj;jpdhy; rl;l ePjpkd;wj;jpy; nray;gl
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 7

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 7 5/20/2019 12:57:45 PM


,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 KbahJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> tha;nkhop eLtu; cld;gbf;if Vw;f
KbahjJ> Vnddpy; xU eLtu; cld;gbf;if vOj rl;lk;
Njit MFk;.
5. rl;ltpNuhjkhd my;yJ rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghd xg;ge;jk;:
Fwpg;Gfs; ‘rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ’ vd;w thu;ji ; japd; nghUs; ‘rl;lj;jpw;F
KuzhdJ’ kw;Wk; ‘xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gjd; nghUs; ‘rl;lj;jhy;
mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU cld;gbf;if’ vd;gjhFk;. xU ‘rl;ltpNuhj
xg;ge;jj;ij’ gw;wp NgRtjpy; xU Kuz;ghL cs;sJ> Vndd;why;
mJ rl;lj;jhy; epiwNtw;wf;$ba kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpw;F Kuzhd xU
cld;gbf;if vd;W cs;sJ. mbg;gilapy; xU ntspg;gilahd
Kuz;ghL cs;sJ. NkYk;> rl;ltpNuhj ,ay;ghd epiyapy;>
mj;jifa cld;gbf;if xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; epiyia vl;l KbahJ.
vdNt> ‘rl;ltpNuhj xg;ge;jk;’ vd;w thu;ji ; jf;F ‘rl;ltpNuhj
cld;gbf;if’ vd;gij gad;gLj;JtJ ­ rupahdjhFk;. xU
rl;ltpNuhj cld;gbf;if uj;J nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

B. cUthf;fk; Kiw mbg;gilapyhd xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffs;


cUthf;f Kiw mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fs;> ntspg;gilahd my;yJ
kiwKfkhd my;yJ Mf;fG+u;tkhdjhf ,Uf;fyhk;.
1. ntspg;gilahd xg;ge;jq;fs;: xU cld;gbf;if Vw;gLtjw;fhd
xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; Mfpa ,uz;Lk; Ngr;Rthu;j;ij
my;yJ vOjg;gl;l nrhw;fspy; rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;gLk;
,J xU ntspg;gilahd xg;ge;jkhFk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> A
njhiyNgrpapy; B aplk; NgrpaNghJ> jdJ fhiu tpw;f
20>000 &gha;f;F tpw;f Ntz;Lnkd;W mtu; $Wfpwhu; B gjpy;
mspg;gjpy; mij xg;Gf;nfhs;tjhf A aplk; $Wfpwhu;> ,jpy;
ntspg;gilahd xg;ge;jk; cs;sJ.
2. kiwKfkhd xg;ge;jq;fs;: rl;lj;jpd; %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk;
cld;gbf;if kw;Wk; rYif Mfpa ,uz;bYk; nrhw;fs;
jtpu NtW vJTk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ> jug;gpdupd;
eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk; elj;ij %yk;> mJ xU kiwKfkhd
xg;ge;jkhFk;. ,q;F A vd;gtu; rPUilapy; cs;s $ypahs;.
B ,d; uapy; epiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;ba
ngl;bfis> B-ia Nfl;fhkNyNa vLj;J nry;fpd;wdu;> kw;Wk;
B mt;thW nra;a mDkjpf;fpwhu;; MfNt> B vd;gJ A ,d;
NritfSf;F gzk; nrYj;j xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu; vd;W rl;lk;
Fwpf;fpwJ. ,J xU kiwKfkhd xg;ge;jkhFk;.
3. Mf;fg;G+u;t my;yJ miu xg;ge;jk;: ‘Mf;fG+u;tkhd my;yJ miu
xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ xU jtwhd nrhy;tof;fhFk;. ,e;j tifahd
xg;ge;jq;fspd; fPo; FOthf;fg;gl;l tof;Ffs;> xg;ge;jj;Jld; ­rpwpjsT
my;yJ xg;ge;jj;jpy; ehl;lk; ,y;iy. mj;jifa xg;ge;jk; ve;jnthU
cld;gbf;ifAkpd;wp> ntspg;gilahfNth my;yJ kiwKfkhfNth
jug;gpduplNkh> rl;lj;ij Mjupf;fNth my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l rpwg;G
8 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 8 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


R+o;epiyfspy; xg;ge;jj;ij mq;ff P upf;fNth KbahJ vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

,oe;j ruf;Ffis cupikahsuplk; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;JtJ


fz;Lgpbg;ghsupd; flik my;yJ xU egupd; flid jpUg;gpr;
nrYj;Jtjpy; jtwpy;yhky; nrYj;jyhk;> ve;jnthU rYifiaAk;
Vw;Wf; nfhs;sNth my;yJ xg;Gjy; mspf;fNth KbahJ> Vnddpy; Fwpg;Gfs;
mJ xU xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J ntspNaw;wg;gl KbahJ> Mdhy;
mit gpupT 71 kw;Wk; 72 gpupTfspd;gb kPjKs;s xg;ge;jq;fspd;
fPo; cs;sd. xg;ge;j rl;lk; rupahd xg;ge;jk; vd;W ‘rpy cwTfs;
xg;ge;jj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l rpy xw;Wikfs;’ vd ngauplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
miu-xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ rkkhd nfhs;ifia mbg;gilahf
nfhz;Ls;sJ> ,jpy; xU egu; xg;ge;jk; kw;nwhU epahakw;w mePjpia
jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;glf; $lhJ vd;gjhFk;. xg;ge;jr;
rl;lj;jpd; 68-72 gpupTfs; ‘miu -xg;ge;jq;fs;’ vd;W fUjg;gLk;
tof;Ffis tptupf;fpd;wd.

C. n
 ray;Kiw tpupthf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapyhd xg;ge;jq;fspd;
tiffs;
nray;Kiw tpupthf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapyhd xg;ge;jq;fspy; xU
xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;glyhk; my;yJ epiwNtw;wg;glhky; ,Uf;fyhk;.
1. epiwNtw;wg;gl;l xg;ge;jk;: cld;gbf;iff;F ,U jug;gpdUk;
jq;fs; flikfis epiwNtw;Wk; NghJ xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gLk;
vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ kw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; xU jug;gpduhy; vJTk;
nra;a KbahJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU Gj;jf tpw;gidahsu;
nuhf;fkhf gzk; nrYj;Jk; xU Gj;jfj;ij tpw;Fk; NghJ> mJ
xU epiwNtw;wg;gl;l xg;ge;jkhFk;> Vnddpy; ,U jug;gpdUk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; nra;a Ntz;baijr; nra;jdu;.
2. epiwNtw;wg;gLk; xg;ge;jk;: xg;ge;jj;jpd; cUthf;fk; Neuj;jpy;
KOikahd my;yJ gFjpahfNth> cld;gbf;iff;F ,U
jug;gpdu;fSk; flikg;gl;bUf;ff; $ba xU xg;ge;jkhFk;.
NtWtpjkhf $wpdhy;> xU cld;gbf;iff;F ,U jug;gpdu;fSk;
jq;fs; flikfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;F ,d;Dk; xU xg;ge;jk; my;yJ
,UGwKk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; VjhtJ nra;ag;gl Ntz;bapUf;Fk;
NghJ xU xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. xg;ge;jk; vd;gjd; nghUs; vd;d?
2. xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,uz;L Kf;fpa $Wfs; ahit?
3. eilKiwg;gLj;Jjypd; mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffis
gl;baypLf.
4. miu xg;ge;jk; vd;why; vd;d?
5. xU xg;ge;jk; vg;NghJ epiwNtw;wg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ?

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 9

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 9 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872
1.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;
tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1. ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk; gpupT 2 (h) gb: ‘rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba
Fwpg;Gfs; xU cld;gbf;if xU xg;ge;jkhFk;.’ vdNt> xU xg;ge;jk;
rl;lG+u;t flik cUthf;f Ntz;ba nghUs;> mjhtJ rl;lj;jhy;
mky;gLj;jf;$ba flik MFk;.
2. xU xg;ge;jk; mbg;gilapy; ,uz;L $Wfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ:
(1) cld;gbf;if> kw;Wk; (2) rl;lG+u;t flik> mjhtJ>
rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba flik MFk;.
3.
eilKiwg;gLj;jypd; mbg;gilapy;> xU xg;ge;jk; (i)
nry;YgbahFk; (ii) uj;Jnra;af;$ba (iii) nry;Ygbaw;w (iv)
nray;gLj;jg;glhj (v) rl;l tpNuhj xg;ge;jk; vd ,Uf;fyhk;.
4. ‘Mf;fG+u;tkhd my;yJ miu xg;ge;jk;’ xU
jtwhd nrhy;tof;fhFk;. ,e;j tifahd
xg;ge;jq;fspd; fPo; FOthf;fg;gl;l tof;Ffs;> xg;ge;jj;Jld;
rpwpJ my;yJ ve;j njhlu;Gk; ,y;iy. mj;jifa xg;ge;jk;
ve;jnthU cld;gbf;ifAkpd;wp> ntspg;gilahfNth my;yJ
kiwKfkhfNth jug;gpduplNkh> rl;lj;ij Mjupf;fNth
my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l rpwg;G R+o;epiyfspy; xg;ge;jj;ij
mq;ffP upf;fNth KbahJ. miu-xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ rkkhd nfhs;ifia
mbg;gilahf nfhz;Ls;sJ> ,jpy; xU egu; xg;ge;jk; kw;nwhU
epahakw;w mePjpia jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;glf;
$lhJ vd;gjhFk;. xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; 68-72 gpupTfs; ‘miu
-xg;ge;jq;fs;’ vd;W fUjg;gLk; tof;Ffis tptupf;fpd;wd.
5. ,U jug;gpdu;fSk; jq;fs; flikfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;F ,d;Dk;
xU xg;ge;jk; my;yJ ,UGwKk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; VjhtJ
nra;ag;gl Ntz;bapUf;Fk; NghJ xU xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.

1.4 RUf;fk;
••xU xg;ge;jk; mbg;gilapy; ,uz;L $Wfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ:
(1) cld;gbf;if> kw;Wk; (2) rl;lG+u;t flik> mjhtJ>
rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba flik.
••‘rl;lG+u;tkhd rYifAk;’> ,e;j rYifiag; gw;wp ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd
xg;GifAk;’ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; xU cld;ghL Vw;gLk;.
,e;j rYifAk;> Vw;Gk; xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; Njitfis mjd;
njhlu;gpNyNa G+u;j;jp nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gij Fwpf;fpwJ.
••xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;ij cUthf;f> 1872 Mk;
Mz;bw;fhd xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpw;fhd xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s
jug;gpdu;fs; rl;lG+u;tkhd nghUSf;F cld;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
mtrpakhFk;. ,e;j cld;gbf;if> xU Nkhrbahd my;yJ
10 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 10 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


rl;ltpNuhjkhd my;yJ nghJ nfhs;iff;F vjpuhdjhf ,Uf;ff; ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

$lhJ my;yJ kw;nwhU egupd; nrhj;Jf;fSf;F tpisT


Vw;glhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. (gpupT 23)
••xU nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jj;jpd;; kw;nwhU Kf;fpa mk;rk; mJ
nray;jpwd; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpupT 56 ,d; gb> Fwpg;Gfs;
‘xU nraiy nra;a Kbahj xU cld;ghL> mJ jd;dstpy;
nray;glhJ’ vd $WfpwJ. ,r;rl;lk; jd;dstpy; rhj;jpakpy;iy
vd;why;> ,ay;ghf my;yJ rl;luPjpahf ,e;j cld;gbf;ifia
rl;lg;gb eilKiwg;gLj;j KbahJ.
••xU nry;YgbahFk; xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba
xU cld;gbf;ifahFk;;. xU cld;gbf;if nry;YgbahFk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; midj;J mj;jpahtrpa $WfSk; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ
rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;gLk;.
••cz;ikapy;> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w’ vd;w thu;ji
; japd; nghUs;
‘rl;lj;jpy; gpizf;fg;gltpy;iy’ vd;gjhFk;. mjd;gb> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w
xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ xU gadw;w xg;ge;jk;> ,jpy; ve;j rl;lG+ut ; khd
tpisTfSk; ,y;iy. ve;j xg;ge;jKk; ,y;yhjjhy; mj;jifa
; k;. gpupT 2 (j) : ‘rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;j Kbahj xU
xg;ge;jk; xU G+[a
xg;ge;jk; mky;gLj;jg;glhky; epWj;jg;gLifapy; nry;Ygbaw;wJ’
vd tiuaWf;fpwJ.
••‘rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ’ vd;w thu;j;ijapd; nghUs; ‘rl;lj;jpw;F
KuzhdJ’ kw;Wk; ‘xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gjd; nghUs; ‘rl;lj;jhy;
mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU cld;gbf;if’ vd;gjhFk;. xU ‘rl;ltpNuhj
xg;ge;jj;ij’ gw;wp NgRtjpy; xU Kuz;ghL cs;sJ> Vndd;why;
mJ - rl;lj;jhy; epiwNtw;wf;$ba kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpw;F Kuzhd
xU cld;gbf;if vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
••xU cld;gbf;if Vw;gLtjw;fhd xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Mfpa ,uz;Lk; Ngr;Rthu;ji ; j my;yJ vOjg;gl;l nrhw;fspy;
rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jg;gLk; ,J xU ntspg;gilahd xg;ge;jkhFk;.
••rl;lj;jpd; %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; cld;gbf;if kw;Wk;
rYif Mfpa ,uz;bYk; nrhw;fs; jtpu NtW vJTk;
nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ> jug;gpdupd; eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk;
elj;ij %yk;> mJ xU kiwKfkhd xg;ge;jkhFk;.
••‘Mf;fG+u;tkhd my;yJ miu xg;ge;jk;’ xU jtwhd
nrhy;tof;fhFk;. ,e;j tifahd xg;ge;jq;fspd; fPo;
FOthf;fg;gl;l tof;Ffs;> xg;ge;jj;Jld; rpwpJ my;yJ ve;j
njhlu;Gk; ,y;iy.
••miu-xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ rkkhd nfhs;ifia
mbg;gilahf nfhz;Ls;sJ> ,jpy; xU egu; xg;ge;jk; kw;nwhU
epahakw;w ­mePjpia jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;glf; $lhJ
vd;gjhFk;. xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; 68-72 gpupTfs; ‘miu-xg;ge;jq;fs;’
vd;W fUjg;gLk; tof;Ffis tptupf;fpd;wd.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 ••cld;gbf;iff;Fupa ,U jug;gpdu;fSk; jq;fs; flikfis
epiwNtw;Wtjw;F ,d;Dk; xU xg;ge;jk; my;yJ ,UGwKk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba xd;W cs;sJ vd;gjhy;
xU xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gLk; vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
1.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
••,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872: ,e;j rl;lk; ,e;jpahtpy; xg;ge;jq;fisg;
gw;wpa rl;lj;ijr; Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ. ,J [k;K kw;Wk; fh\;kPu;
khepy jtpu ,e;jpahtpd; midj;J khepyq;fSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.
••,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 (h): ,e;j rl;lj;jpd; gb>rl;lj;jhy;
mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU cld;gbf;if xU xg;ge;jkhFk;.
••nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk;: ,jd;gb> ‘nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk;’
vd;gJ xU gadw;w xg;ge;jk;> ,jpy; ve;j rl;lG+u;tkhd
tpisTfSk; ,y;iy.
••kiwKfkhd xg;ge;jq;fs;: rl;lj;jpd; %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk;
cld;gbf;if kw;Wk; rYif Mfpa ,uz;bYk; nrhw;fs;
jtpu NtW vJTk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ> jug;gpdupd;
eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk; elj;ij %yk;> mJ xU kiwKfkhd
xg;ge;jkhFk;.
••epiwNtw;wg;gl;l xg;ge;jk;: cld;gbf;iff;F ,U jug;gpdUk;
jq;fs; flikfis epiwNtw;Wk; NghJ xg;ge;jk; epiwNtw;wg;gLk;
vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ.

1.6 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;


FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 d; ,ay;igg; gw;wp xU rpwpa Fwpg;ig
vOJq;fs;.
2. ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;ij cUthf;FtJ gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJq;fs;.
3. xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gil mk;rq;fis RUf;fkhf vOJq;fs;.
4. nry;Ygbaw;w xg;ge;jk; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJq;fs;.
5. nray;Kiw tpupthf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapyhd xg;ge;jq;fspd;
tiffs; gw;wp xU RUf;fkhd Fwpg;G vOJq;fs;.

neL tpil tpdhf;fs;


1. ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpy; cs;s xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij
MuhaTk;.
2. xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fisg; gw;wp tpthjpf;fTk;.
3. cUthf;f Kiw mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fspd; tiffis MuhaTk;.
4. xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s rl;lG+u;t cwtpd; gq;F gw;wp tpthjpf;fTk;.
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 12 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


1.7 NkYk; gbf;f ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872

Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ


gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ Fwpg;Gfs;
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 13

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 13 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; myF 2 rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Fwpg;Gfs;
mikg;G
2.0 Kd;Diu
2.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
2.2 rYif kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
2.2.1 rYif (Kd;nkhopT)
2.2.2 nry;YgbahFk; rYif njhlu;ghf rl;l tpjpfs;
2.2.3 ,og;G kw;Wk; rYifia jpUk;gg; ngWjy;
2.2.4 Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
2.2.5 xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G njhlu;ghd rl;l tpjpfs;
2.2.6 rYifiag; gw;wpa jfty;> Vw;G kw;Wk; kWg;Gfs;
2.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
2.4 RUf;fk;
2.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
2.6 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
2.7 NkYk; gbf;f

2.0 Kd;Diu
,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 gpupT 2 (a) kw;Wk; gpupT 2 (b) Mfpatw;wpd;
gb ‘rYif’/‘Kd;nkhopT’ kw;Wk; ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;’ Mfpait
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ. gpupT 2  (b) $WtjhtJ ‘Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l
xU Kd;nkhopT xU thf;FWjpahf khWfpwJ’ vd;W tiuaiw
nra;J> Kd;nkhopT nra;ag;gl;l egu; mtuJ xg;Gjiy $Wfpwhu;
vd;why;> Kd;nkhopT Vw;fg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. ‘Kd;nkhopT’
my;yJ ‘rYif’ cUthf;Fk; egiu ‘thf;FWjpaspj;jtu;’ my;yJ
‘rYif toq;Fgtu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLgtu;> rYif toq;Fk; egu;
‘thq;f Kw;gLgtu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLtJld;> ,e;j tha;g;ig
Vw;Fk; egu; ‘thf;FWjpaspj;jtu;’ my;yJ ‘Vw;Wf;nfhz;ltu;’ vd;Wk;
miof;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;.
rl;lG+u;tkhd tpisTfis Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd rYifia
vjpu;ghu;f;ftpy;iy vd;why;> mJ rl;lj;jpd; ghu;itapy; ,Ue;J rupahd
rYifia ngwtpy;iy vd;W mu;j;jk;. rYifapd; epge;jidfs;
epr;rakw;witahfTk; kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;litahfTk; ,y;yhkypUe;jhy;>
mJ rl;lg;G+u;tkhf toq;fg;gLtjhf ,Uf;fhJ. thq;f Kw;gLgtUf;Fj;
njuptpf;fg;gLk; NghJ kl;LNk xU tha;g;G cgNahfpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j rYif> ‘thq;f Kw;gLgtUf;F’ njuptpf;fg;glhjtiu> Vw;G
kw;Wk; xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;glkhl;lhJ. rYifiag; gupe;Jiuf;fj; jFe;j
Neuj;jpw;Fs; njupag;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;whNyh my;yJ ve;j NeuKk;
gupe;Jiuf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;whNyh> epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; rYif
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toq;fg;glyhk;. VNjDk; xU rYifiag; ngWtjw;F Kd; ve;j rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Neuj;jpYk; xU rYif jpUk;gg; ngwg;glyhk;.
xU rYifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; egu; my;yJ mij
cUthf;fpa eguhy; kl;LNk mtw;iw Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. rYif
toq;FNthupd; mDkjpapd;wp ,ij kw;nwhU eguhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Fwpg;Gfs;
KbahJ. rYif epuhfupf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lhy;> mJ Njhy;tpahf
fUjg;gLfpwJ. epuhfupg;G vd;gJ ntspg;gilahf ,Uf;fyhk;> mjhtJ
Ngrg;gl;l my;yJ vOjg;gl;l nrhw;fsTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. toq;Feu;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ve;j KiwiaAk; gupe;Jiuf;fg;gLtjhy;> mit
rpy tof;fkhd kw;Wk; epahakhd Kiwapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
tof;fkhd topfhl;Ljy;fs; tha; thu;j;ij> gjtp kw;Wk; elj;ij
%yk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
,e;j myF rYif kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; njhlu;ghd gy;NtW
tpjpfis tpthjpg;gij Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,J tha;g;G>
xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; jpUk;gg;ngwy; njhlu;GfisAk; tpsf;FfpwJ.

2.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;;
••Kd;nkhopT kw;Wk; rYifapd; fUj;J kw;Wk; mu;j;jj;ij Gupe;J
nfhs;s KbAk;.
••nry;YgbahFk; rYifiag; gw;wpa rl;l tpjpfis mwpa KbAk;.
••rYifapd; ,og;G> kw;Wk; rYifapd; jpUk;gg; ngWjypy; cs;s
Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;.
••rupahd Vw;G gw;wpa tpjpfisg; Gupe;Jnfhs;s KbAk;.
••rYif> xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; jpUk;gg; ngWjy; Mfpatw;wpd;
jfty;njhlu;Gfis tptupf;f KbAk;.

2.2 rYif kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;


2.2.1 rYif (Kd;nkhopT)
; jfs; ‘Kd;nkhopT’ kw;Wk; ‘rYif’ xNukhjpupahf nghUs;gLfpwJ,
thu;ji
mit xd;Wf;nfhd;W khw;whf gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr;
rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 (a) xU ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; xU ‘Kd;nkhopT’
vd;gJ> ‘xU egu; kw;wtUf;F nra;a tpUk;GtJ my;yJ vijAk;
nra;tjpy; ,Ue;J tpyFtjw;F tpUg;gk; njuptpg;gJ> mj;jifa
nraYf;F kw;wtupd; xg;Gjiy ngWtjw;F xU fUj;ij vLj;Jf;
nfhs;tJ ‘Kd;nkhopT’ vd tiuaWf;fpwJ. ,e;j tiuaiw xU
‘Kd;nkhopT’ ,d; gpd;tUk; %d;W mbg;gilfis ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ.
,it gpd;tUkhW:
(i) vijAk; nra;tjw;F my;yJ jtpu;g;gjw;F xU ntspg;ghlhf mJ
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 15

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 15 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


rYif kw;Wk; (ii)
vijAk; nra;tjw;F my;yJ jtpu;g;gjw;fhd tpUg;gj;jpd;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
ntspg;ghL NtW egUf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. jdf;F xU egu;
%yk; ‘ve;j Kd;nkhopTk; vJTk; ,Uf;f $lhJ.
(iii) VNjDk; xd;iwr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w tpUg;gj;jpd; ntspg;ghL>
Fwpg;Gfs; kw;w egupd; xg;Gjiyg; ngWtjw;F my;yJ jtpu;g;gjw;Fj;
jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nehf;Fld; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
,jdhy; xU rhjhuz tprhuiz ‘cq;fs; Nkhl;lhu; irf;fpis
tpw;f cj;Njrpj;Js;sjh? vd;gJ xU ‘Kd;nkhopT’ my;y. mNj
Nghy; ntWk; Nehf;fk; mwpf;ifapd; %yk; ‘ehd; 14>000 &gha;
ngw KbAk; vd;why; vd; Nkhl;lhu; irf;fps; tpw;f Ntz;Lk;’
vd;w vz;zKk; xU ‘Kd;nkhopT’ my;y. Mdhy; M nrhd;dhy;>
‘14>000 &gha;f;F vd; Nkhl;lhu; irf;fpis thq;FtPu;fs;’
my;yJ ‘ehd; vd; Nkhl;lhu; irf;fpis 14>000 &gha;f;F tpw;f
tpUg;gg;gLfpNwd;’ vd;why; xU Kd;nkhopit> N vd;w xg;Gjy;
ngWk; Nehf;fj;Jld; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
‘Kd;nkhopT’ my;yJ ‘rYifia’ cUthf;Fk; egiu
‘thf;FWjpaspj;jtu;’ my;yJ ‘rYif toq;fpatu;’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLgtu;> rYif nra;ag;gLk; egu; ‘thq;f Kw;gLgtu;’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLtJld;> ,e;j rYifia Vw;Fk; egu; ‘thf;FWjpaspj;jtu;’
my;yJ ‘Vw;Wf;nfhz;ltu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;.

2.2.2 nry;YgbahFk; rYif njhlu;ghf rl;l tpjpfs;


1. xU nry;YgbahFk; rYif gpd;tUk; tpjpfNshL ,zf;fj;jd;ik
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;: xU rYif ‘ntspg;gilahf’ my;yJ
‘kiwKfkhf’ ,Uf;fyhk;: xU rYif thu;ji ; japd; %yNkh
my;yJ nraypd; %yNkh nra;ag;glyhk; thu;ji
; jfshy;> Ngrg;gl;l
my;yJ vOjg;gl;l xU rYif> ‘ntspg;gilahd rYif’ vd;Wk;>
xU egupd; nraypd; %yNkh my;yJ R+o;epiyfspd; %yNkh
Vw;gLk; rYifia ‘kiwKfkhd rYif’ vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.
2. xU rYifiag; nghWj;jtiu rl;l uPjpahd
tpisTfis Vw;gLj;Jk; jd;ik kw;Wk; rl;lG+u;t cwTfis
cUthf;Fk; jpwid nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;: rl;lG+u;tkhd
tpisTfis Vw;gLj;Jk; rYif vjpu;ghu;ff
; g;gltpy;iy vd;why;> mJ
rl;lj;jpd; ghu;itapy; rupahd rYif ,y;iy. xU ez;gUf;F
jd;Dld; rhg;gpLtjw;fhd rYifia toq;Fjy; my;yJ xU
jpiug;glj;ij kidtpf;F xU rYifahf toq;FtJ xU
rupahd rYif ,y;iy ,J Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhYk; $l> xU
fl;Lg;ghl;L cld;gbf;iff;F vOr;rp nfhLf;f KbahJ. Vnddpy;
r%f cld;gbf;iffs; my;yJ cs;ehl;L xOq;Ffspy;> ,e;j
cld;ghL kPwg;gLtjw;fhf rl;l uPjpahd tpisTfis ,e;j
fl;rpfs; filg;gpbg;gjpy;iy vd;gNj Cfpf;fpwJ.
3. rYif tpjpKiwfs; cWjpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> jsu;thf
my;yJ njsptw;wjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: rYifapd; epge;jidfs;
16 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 16 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


epr;rakw;wit kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;litahf ,y;yhtpl;lhy;> mJ rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
rl;lg;G+u;tkhf toq;fg;glhJ. ‘xg;ge;jj;jpd; midj;J nghUs;
epge;jidfSk; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;glhtpl;lhy;> ve;j xU flikAk;
,y;iy.’ vd;gij L.J. nksfk; rupahf ftdpf;fpwhu;. vdNt
tUq;fhyj;jpy; cld;ghL vd;gJ xg;ge;jk; ,y;iy vd;why; Fwpg;Gfs;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; epge;jidfs; ,d;Dk; jPu;f;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ
njupfpwJ.
4. toq;Ftjw;fhd miog;G xU rYif my;y: ‘xU rYifia
ngWtjw;fhd miog;ig’ rpy Neuq;fspy; ePjp nkhopapy;
‘eilKiw miog;G’ vd;W ntspg;gilahff; Fwpg;gplg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.’ xU rYifia ngWtjw;fhd miog;gpd;’ Nghf;fpy;>
miog;gpid mDg;Gk; egu; xU rYifia toq;Ftjpy;iy>
Mdhy; rYif toq;Ftjw;F gpw fl;rpia kl;LNk miof;fpwhu;.
mtUila Nehf;fk;> ,J Nghd;w jfty;fspd;Ngupy;> mtUld;
Ngr;Rthu;ji
; jfis jpwg;gjw;F jahuhf ,Uf;Fk; vtiuAk;>
mtu; ifahs tpUk;Gfpd;wdu; vd;w jftiy fhl;LtNj MFk;.
vdNt> rYifahsu;fSf;F ,j;jifa miog;Gfs; rl;lj;jpd;
ghu;itapypUe;J fpilg;gJ ,y;iy. NkYk; mit Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd;
%yk; cld;gbf;iffs; nra;ag;glhJ. mNj Nghy; Nkw;Nfhs;fs;>
tpiythrpfs;> gz;lq;fspd; fhl;rpg;gLj;jy; ,tw;wpd; tpi-
yfs; xU rYifiag; ngw;Ws;sJ. mjw;F gjpyhf mtu;fs;
rYifiag; ngw miof;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;> mtu;fs; toq;Fk;
miog;Gf;F gjpyhf> xU thbf;ifahsu; rYifia toq;Ffpwhu;
vd;why;> filf;fhuu; me;j rYifia Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjpy;iy.
5. xU rYif ‘Fwpg;gpl;l Kiwapy;’ my;yJ ‘nghJthd Kiwapy;’
,Uf;fyhk;: xU Fwpg;gpl;l egu; my;yJ eguhy; nra;ag;gLk;
NghJ xU rYif ‘Fwpg;gpl;l rYif’ vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
mj;jifa xU rYif ahUf;F toq;fg;gLNkh vd;gJ me;j
eguhy; kl;LNk Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. vdNt> M> 200 f;F
jdJ irf;fpis tpw;gid nra;tjw;F N f;F xU rYifia
toq;FfpwJ> mq;F xU Fwpg;gpl;l rYifahf cs;sJ vdNt
mij N kl;Lk; jdpahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. kw;nwhU xU
‘nghJ rYif’ vd;gJ> nghJthf cyfpy; ngupa my;yJ
nghJtpy; nra;ag;gLk; xd;W> NkYk; Njitahd epge;jidfis
epiwNtw;Wk; eguhy; kl;LNk mit Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;. ,e;j
tp\aj;jpy; Kd;dzp tof;F 'nghJ rYif' vd;W cs;sJ
fhu;ypy; vs fhu;Nghypf; ];Nkhf; ghy; Nfh.
6. xU rYifiag; gw;wp xU jfty; thq;f Kw;gLNthUf;F
njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: thq;f Kw;gLNthUf;Fj; njuptpf;fg;gLk;
NghJ kl;LNk xU rYif cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLk;. thq;f
Kw;gLNthUf;F ,e;j mwptpg;G mwptpf;fg;gLk; tiuapy;> ve;j
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; xg;ge;jKk; ,Uf;fhJ. ,e;j rYifiag; gw;wp
mwpahikapy; vijAk; nra;tJ> mjd; Vw;G vd;W xUNghJk;
fUjg;gl KbahJ. Vnddpy;> ,tw;wpy; xUNghJk; tpopg;Gzu;T
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 17

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 17 5/20/2019 12:57:46 PM


rYif kw;Wk; cld;ghL ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,J ‘Fwpg;gpl;l’ kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
‘nghJthd’ rYiffs; ,uz;bw;Fk; nghUe;JfpwJ.
7. xU rYif Vw;Wf; nfhs;s ,zq;fhj mstpw;F xU
nrhy;iyf; nfhz;bUf;ff;$lhJ: Mifahy;> Vw;G xU Fwpg;gpl;l
Fwpg;Gfs; Njjp tiu njuptpf;fg;gltpy;iynad;why;> ,e;j rYif
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;bUf;fhJ vd;W Fw;wk; nrhy;y KbahJ.
thq;f Kw;gLtu; gjpyspf;ftpy;iy vd;why;> ve;j xg;ge;jKk;
nra;ag;gl;lJ. Vndd;why; ePjpapd; mbg;gilapy; gjpy; mspf;f
Ntz;ba fl;Lg;ghL vJTk; mtu; kPJ Rkj;jg;gltpy;iy.
8. VNjDk; tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; epge;jidfSf;F cl;gl;L
xU rYifiag; ngwyhk;: xU rYifia toq;Fgtu;
ve;jnthU tpjpKiwfisAk; epge;jidfisAk; mspf;fyhk;.
mtu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; Kiwia $l mtu; gupe;Jiuf;fyhk;.
rYifapd; midj;J tpjpKiwfisAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j rYifiag; gw;wpa midj;J tpjpKiwfSk;>
gupe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glhjtiu> ve;j
xg;ge;jKk; nra;ag;glkhl;lhJ.
9. xNu khjpupahd ,uz;L FWf;F rYiffis xg;ge;jk; nra;a
Ntz;lhk;: ,U jug;gpdUk; xNu khjpupahd rYiffis
xUtUf;nfhUtu; toq;Fk;NghJ> xUtUf;nfhUtu; toq;Fk;
rYifiag; gw;wp mwpahky;> ,Uf;Fk; rYiffs; ‘FWf;F
rYiffs;’ MFk;. ‘FWf;F-rYiffs;’ kw;nwhU rYifia
Vw;Wf;nfhs;shJ> vdNt mjpy; KOikahd ve;j xg;ge;jKk;
nra;ag;glkhl;lhJ.

2.2.3 ,og;G kw;Wk; rYifia jpUk;gg; ngWjy;


gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfspdhy; xU rYifia ePf;FtJ (mjhtJ> KbTf;F
tUtJ): jtwhdJ:
1. xU Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ epahakhd Neuj;jpw;F gpwF xU
rYifia Njhy;tp ngwr; nra;jy;: rYifiag; gupe;Jiuf;fj;
jFe;j Neuj;jpw;Fs; njupag;gLj;jhtpl;lhy;> my;yJ ve;j NeuKk;
gupe;Jiuf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why;> epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; rYif
toq;fg;glNtz;Lk; [gpupT 6 (2)]. xt;nthU epiyapYk; cs;s
R+o;epiyf;Nfw;g epahakhd Neuk; mikfpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>
je;jp %yk; mspf;fg;gLk; xU gjpy;> mtru mtrukhf
Njitg;gLfpwJ> NkYk; xU ehs; my;yJ ,uz;L ehs;$l
mtuJ Vw;G gw;wpa jfty; njhlu;G jhkjkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;why;>
,e;j rYifia ftdpf;fg;gLk;.
2. xU rYif> gupe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy; Vw;fg;gLtjpy;iy
my;yJ ve;j gad;KiwapYk; gupe;Jiuf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why;
rpy tof;fkhd kw;Wk; epahakhd epiyikfs;: Mdhy;> gpupT 7-d;
gb> gupe;Jiu nra;ag;gl;l tiff;F Vw;g rYifia Vw;fhtpl;lhy;>
,e;j rYif jhdhfNt jtwtplg;gl;ljhf nrhy;yg;glkhl;lhJ.
18 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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rYif kw;Wk;
xU Fwpg;gpl;l Kiwapy; kl;LNk mtuJ Kd;nkhopT Vw;fg;gl Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Ntz;Lk; vd;w epiyf;F nghUe;JfpwJ. mtu; mt;thW nra;a
jtwpdhy; mit Vw;Wf; nfhz;ljhff; fUJfpwhu;.
3. epuhfupg;G %yk; rYif toq;fg;gLjy;: xU rYif
epuhfupf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lhy;> mJ xU rYif Njhy;tpahFk;. epuhfupg;G Fwpg;Gfs;
vd;gJ ntspg;gilahf ,Uf;fyhk;> mjhtJ Ngrg;gl;l my;yJ
vOjg;gl;l thu;j;ijfshy; VjhtJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xd;wpy;
epuhfupg;G ,Uf;fyhk;. (a) thq;f Kw;gLgNthUf;F xU Kjd;ik
rYifia toq;fg;gLfpwJ. rYif toq;f my;yJ (b) thq;f
Kw;gLgtuhy; xU fl;Lg;ghL epge;jid Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
4. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd;> Fw;wk; my;yJ Nfhgj;jpdhy;
Vw;gLk; ,wg;G my;yJ kdepiyapy; kypT Vw;gLtjd;
%yk; xU rYifia ngWjy;: Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F
Kd;> rYif toq;fpatu; ,we;Jtpl;lhy;> mtUila ,wg;G
cz;ikahdjhf ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd; mtUf;F
kdepiyapy; kypT Vw;gl;lhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd xU rYif
toq;fg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gpuptpd; nkhopapypUe;J> mJ xU
nry;Ygbahd xg;Gik my;yJ kuzj;ijg; gw;wpa
mwpahikapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l xU rupahd Vw;G vd;W
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. vdNt> ,e;j ,wg;G my;yJ
kdepiy kypT cz;ik Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd; Vw;ghd;
ftdj;Jf;F tUk; tiu ,e;j rYifiag; gw;wp KbT nra;a
KbahJ. ,e;j rYifia Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F Kd; Kw;gl;ltupd;
,wg;G my;yJ kdepiy kypT ,e;j rYiff;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp
itf;fpwJ. NkYk; mtupd; thupRfs; mtw;iw (nudhy;l;];
vjpuhd mj;Nju;l;Nlhd;) Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ.
5. jpUk;gg; ngWjy; %yk; rYifapy; ,og;G Vw;gLfpwJ: rYif
toq;fpatu; mijj; jpUk;gg; ngWk;NghJ xU rYif uj;J
nra;ag;gLfpwJ. gpw rYiff;F toq;fpatupd; mwptpg;G
njhlu;ghf ve;jnthU re;ju;gg ; j;jpYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F
Kd;ghf xU rYif uj;J nra;ag;glyhk;. [gpupT. 6 (1)].
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU Vy tpw;gidapy;> A mjpf Vy tpw;gidia
nra;fpwJ. Mdhy; Rj;jpay; tpOk; Kd; me;j Kaw;rpia
jpUk;g ngw;whu;. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd;> ,e;j rYif jpUk;gg;
ngwg;gl;ljhy;> xU KbT nra;ag;gLk; xg;ge;jk; ,Uf;f KbahJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU Vy tpw;gidapy;> A mjpf Vy tpw;gidia
nra;fpwJ. Mdhy; Rj;jpay; ngWtjw;F Kd; me;j Kaw;rpia
jpUk;g ngWfpwhu;. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd;> ,e;j rYif
jpUk;gg; ngwg;gl;ljhy;> xU KbT nra;ag;gLk; xg;ge;jkhf ,Uf;f
KbahJ.
6. Vw;fNtz;ba xU epge;jidia epiwNtw;whj tifapy;
jpUk;gg; ngWjy;: Vw;nfdNt Kd;itj;j xU epge;jidia
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 19

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 19 5/20/2019 12:57:47 PM


rYif kw;Wk; thq;f Kw;gl;ltu; epiwNtw;w Kbahtpl;lhy; ,e;j rYif
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
uj;J nra;ag;gLfpwJ. [gpupT 6 (3)]. A mtuJ ];$l;liu B f;F
4000 &gha;f;F tpw;f xU rYifia toq;Ffpwhu;. yad;];
rq;fj;jpy; Nru Kbahtpl;lhy;> B xU thuj;jpw;Fs; yad;];
Fwpg;Gfs; rq;fj;jpy; ,ize;jhy; ,e;j rYifia ngw KbAk;.
,y;iynad;why; B ,e;j rYifia ngw KbahJ.
7. rl;ltpNuhjk; my;yJ mopg;G %yk; xU rYifia
ngWjy; gpd;tUk; Kiwapy; Fiwf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ: rYif
Fiwg;G cUthf;fg;gl;l gpd;du; mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;stJ
rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ. vdNt> 6>500 &gha;f;F 10 igfs; NfhJik
tpw;gid nra;ag;gl;L> Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd;du;>
NfhJik jdpegu;fshy; tpw;gid nra;ag;gLtij jilnra;Ak;
rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. mNj tpjj;jpy;> rYifapd; nghUisf;
nfhz;l nghUs;> mopf;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;du; toq;fg;gLtJ
fzprkhf FiwghLilajhf ,Ue;jhy;> xU rYif js;Sgb
nra;ag;glyhk;.

2.2.4 Vw;G
Vw;nfdNt ghu;j;jgb xU xg;ge;jk;> xU rYifia Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;
NghJ ntspg;gLfpwJ. gpupT 2 (b) $WtjhtJ ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
xU Kd;nkhopT xU thf;FWjpahy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk;’ vd
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ. mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; NghJ Kd;nkhopT
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. vdNt> ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;’
vd;gJ mtUila xg;Gjypd; thapyhf toq;fg;gl;l tpjpKiwfspd;
ntspg;ghlhFk;.

2.2.5 xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G njhlu;ghd rl;l tpjpfs; rYifiag;


gw;wpa jfty;> Vw;G kw;Wk; kWg;Gfs;
xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G gpd;tUk; tpjpfNshL ,zf;fj;jd;ik
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;:
1. xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G gpd;tUk; tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f
Ntz;Lk;: xU rYifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; eguhy; kl;LNk
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl KbAk;> mjDld; xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak;
Nehf;fj;ij mJ ,wf;Fkjp nra;fpwJ. mij ,d;ndhUtu;
xg;Gf;nfhs;shky; NtW eguhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ. ‘A
cld; xg;ge;jk; nra;a ePq;fs; Kd;nkhope;jhy;> cq;fs; xg;Gjy;
,y;yhkNy B f;F gjpyhf khw;w KbahJ’ vd;W rl;lj;jpd; tpjp
njspthf cs;sJ. xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F toq;fg;gLk; xU
rYifia jdpahfNt mtu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,NjNghy;
(mjhtJ> Mrpupau;fs;) xU tFg;Gf;F toq;fg;gLk; rYif> me;j
tFg;gpd; ve;jnthU cWg;gpdu;fshYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
cyfpd; thapyhf toq;fg;gl;l xU rYifia ,e;j rYifia
gw;wp mwpe;j midtuhYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbfpwJ.
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 20 5/20/2019 12:57:47 PM


2. Vw;G KOikahd kw;Wk; jFjpaw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
[gpupT 7 (1)]: rl;luPjpahf jpwk;glf;$ba tifapy;> ,e;j
rYifiag; gw;wpa midj;J tpjpKiwfisAk; KOikahf
Vw;Wf; nfhs;s jFjpaw;w epiyapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. rYif tpjpKiwfspypUe;J rpwpNjDk; tpyfy; $l Fwpg;Gfs;
Vw;Gfis nry;Ygbahfhky; nra;fpwJ. ,jd; tpisthf> xU
tpyf;fg;gl;l Vw;G vd;gJ rl;lj;jpy; xU vjpu;r; rYifiag;
Nghy; fUjg;gLfpwJ.
3. ,e;j Kd;nkhopT Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba tpjj;ijf;
nfhz;L tUk; tifapy;> xU tof;fkhd> epahakhd
Kiwapy; Vw;G ntspg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. [gpupT 7 (2)]: rYif
toq;fpatupd; gupe;Jiug;gb Vw;Wf;nfhs;s ve;j tifAk;
,y;iy vd;why;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gJ tof;fkhd kw;Wk;
epahakhf gad;Kiwapy; njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tof;fkhd
jfty; njhlu;G Kiwfs; tha;top> kw;Wk; jghy; %yk;>
elj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW Ngrg;gl;l my;yJ vOjg;gl;l rYiffs;
jghy; my;yJ je;jp %yk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtJ xU tpiuT
Vw;G my;yJ kiwKf Vw;G vdg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> rpy
Njitahd eltbf;iffis vLj;Jf; nfhz;L> mwptpf;fg;gl;l
ntFkjpg;gpw;F ,oe;j nghUl;fisf; fz;Lgpbg;gjd; %yNkh
my;yJ rpy ed;ik my;yJ Nritia Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd; %yNkh
nray;gLk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU nghJg; NgUe;J gazpfs;
gbfspy; epd;W gazpg;gJ nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j rl;lk; xU ntspg;gilahd> ‘mikjpia’ Vw;Fk;
Kiw vd;W Fwpg;gpLtjpy;iy vd;gij ftdj;jpy;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. vdNt> xU Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpw;Fs; Vw;G
njuptpf;fg;gltpy;iynad;why;> ,e;j rYif Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;W xU eguhy; $w KbahJ. mNj Nghy;>
ve;j cj;juTk; ngwhky; jdJ nrhe;j xU tu;j;jfu;> xU
fbjk; %yk; nghUl;fis rpy egu; mDg;GfpwJ. ‘ehd; mLj;j
jpq;fl;fpoik cq;fsplk; Nfl;f Kbatpy;iy vd;why;> ePq;fs;
nghUl;fis thq;fptpl;Bu;fs; vd;W epidj;Jf;nfhs;fpNwd;’
vd;w xU xg;ge;jj;ij nfhLf;f KbahJ. ,J Nghd;w tpjp
,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy;> vjpu;kiwahd mj;jid rYiffSf;Fk;
gjpyspf;fhky; ,Ug;gJ epr;rakhf mtu;fSf;F tof;fkpy;yhj
epjp Rikiaf; nfhLf;Fk;.
kd Vw;G vd;gJ tpisT mw;wJ: kduPjpahd Vw;G my;yJ
mikjpahd xg;Gjy; vd;gJ nrhw;fs; my;yJ elj;ijahy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glkhl;lhJ> xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;ghLfs;
ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy ,j;jifa Vw;G Kiw NghJkhdjha;
,Uf;Fk; vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l ,lj;jpy; $l ,J ,Uf;fpwJ.
Vw;G vd;gJ> xg;Gjy; toq;fpatUf;F njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;>
,y;iynadpy; mJ ve;j tpisitAk; Vw;gLj;jhJ.

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 21 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


rYif kw;Wk; 4. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; xg;Gjy; toq;fpatu; %yk; njuptpf;fg;gl
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Ntz;Lk;: xg;Gjy; ngWtjw;F nry;YgbahFk; epiyapy;> mJ
xg;Gjy; toq;fpatuhy; kl;LNk nra;ag;glhky;> toq;fpatuplk;
(my;yJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;) mjpfhupaplk; my;yJ mjpfhuj;Jld;
Fwpg;Gfs; njhlu;G nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
5. xg;Gjy; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;>
my;yJ rYif Klf;fk;/uj;J nra;ag;gLtjw;F Kd;ghf
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: Fwpg;gpl;l fhy vy;iyf;Fs; rl;lg;G+u;tkhf
gaDs;s xg;Gjy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ve;j NeuKk;
fl;lhag;gLj;jg;glhtpl;lhy; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; mDkjp
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> Vnddpy; xU rYifia fhytiuapd;wp
itj;jpUf;f KbahJ. ,e;j rYif jpUk;gg; ngwg;gLtjw;F
Kd;> rYif toq;fpatupd; ,wg;G kw;Wk; kdepiy kypT
milj;jhu;fs; vd;why; mtw;iw gw;wpa jfty;fs; rupahd
fhuzj;Jld; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
6. Vw;G> rYifiag; ngw Ntz;Lk;: rYifiag; ngw;w gpwF
Vw;G mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ rYifiag; ngWtjw;F Kd; Vw;G
mspf;fg;glf;$lhJ. xU epWtdj;jpy;> mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jhj
egUf;F gq;Ffs; toq;fg;gl;ld. gpd;du; mtu; gq;Ffis gw;wpa
Ke;ija xJf;fPL gw;wp mwpahky; mij gad;gLj;jpdhu;.
gad;ghl;Lf;F Ke;ija gq;Ffs; xJf;fPL nra;ag;glkhl;lhJ.
7. epuhfupf;fg;gl;l rYiffs; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;lhy; kl;LNk
Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;: xU Gjpa rYifia ,lk;ngwhtpl;lhy;
epuhfupf;fg;gl;l xU rYif Kiwia kPz;Lk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s
KbahJ.

2.2.6 rYifiag; gw;wpa jfty;> Vw;G kw;Wk; kWg;Gfs;


xg;ge;j jug;gpdiu NeUf;F Neu; re;jpj;J Ngr;Rthu;j;ij elj;Jk;
NghJ> rYif kw;Wk; Vw;G gw;wpa jfty; njhlu;G nfhs;s KbfpwJ.
NkYk; xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jk; eilKiwf;F tUfpwJ. ,e;j
xg;Gjy;> jdJ KOikahd kw;Wk; jFjpaw;wij Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;
tifapy; ,e;j Kd;nkhopT Vw;fg;gLfpwJ. VNjDk; rYif my;yJ
xg;Gjiy uj;J nra;ag;gLk; NghJ tpdh VJk; vOtjpy;iy. Vnddpy;>
mj;jifa re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xU jpl;ltl;lkhd Kd;nkhopT cldbahf
jahupf;fg;gl;L cldbahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
Mdhy;> ,e;j mQ;ry; mYtyfj;jpd; Nritfs;> xg;ge;j jug;gpduhy;
jq;fSf;Fs;Ns njhlu;G nfhs;tjw;F gad;gLj;jg;gLtjhYk;> mit
xd;NwhL xd;W tpyfp ,Ug;gjhYk;> xU rYifAk;/Vw;G js;SgbAk;
nra;ag;gl;l rupahd Neuj;ijf; fz;Lgpbg;gj;J vspjhf ,Ug;gjpy;iy.
,e;j epfo;Tfspy;> 4 kw;Wk; 5 gpupTfspy; tFf;fg;gl;Ls;s gpd;tUk;
tpjpfSf;F nghUe;Jtjhf ,Uf;fpwJ.
1. xU rYifiag; gw;wpa jfty; gupkhw;wk;: xU rYifiag;
gw;wpa jfty;> mJ ahUf;F fpilf;Fk; vd;w mwpit milAk;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 22 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


NghJ> mjhtJ> me;j rYif nfhz;l fbjk;> me;j rYifia rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
ngWgtiu nrd;wilAk; NghJ> mJ KOikailfpwJ.
2. Vw;G gw;wpa jfty;: Vw;G gw;wpa jfty;> MjuthsUf;F vjpuhf>
Vw;ghd; kPJ ,Ug;gJ Nghy ,uz;L mk;rq;fis nfhz;Ls;sJ.
xU Vw;Gf;fhd jfty; gupkhw;wk; (a) Kd;nkhopatUf;F Fwpg;Gfs;
vjpuhf> mtiu Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtupd; mjpfhuj;jpw;F ntspNa
,Ug;gjhy;> mJ mtUf;F mDg;gg;gLk; NghJk;> kw;Wk; (b)
xg;Gf;nfhz;ltUf;F vjpuhf> mJ xU jpl;ltl;lkhd egu;fSf;F
mwpKfkhdhy;> mjhtJ> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; fbjk; Kd;nkhope;jtu;
%yk; ngwg;gLk; NghJk; epiwtilfpwJ.
3. jpUk;gg;ngwg;gl;l jfty;njhlu;G KOikahdJ: (a) mij
cUthf;Fk; egUf;F vjpuhf> ahuhy; jahupf;fg;gLNkh ve;j
egUf;F mJ mDg;gg;gLfpwNjh> mNjNghy;> jpUk;gg;ngwg;gl;l
egupd; mjpfhuj;jpypUe;J ntspNaWtjhy;> mjhtJ> jpUk;gg;
ngWjy; fbjk; mDg;gl;Ls;sJ. kw;Wk; (b) jdJ mwpitg;
nghWj;jtiuapy;> ahuhy; jahupf;fg;gLNkh me;j egUf;F
vjpuhf> mjhtJ jpUk;gg;ngUj;jy; fbjk; mDg;gg;gl;l eguhy;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtJ.
mQ;ry; Nghf;Ftuj;jpd; %yk; Vw;Fk; fbjj;jpd; jhkjk; my;yJ
,og;gpd; tpisT: ,J tiu> mtu; Vw;Giuapy;> Vw;G fbjk;
mDg;gg;gl;ljd; %yk;> me;j fbjk; jhkjkhfNth my;yJ>
xU tpgj;jpd; %yk;> me;j fbjk;> njhiye;jhNyh cz;ikapy;
,e;j fbjk; mtiu nrd;wila KbahJ. Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;
nghWg;Ngw;fpd;w tiu> mtu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf; $ba fbjj;jpw;F
,e;j fl;Lg;ghLk; Njitapy;iy. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf; $ba fbjk;>
me;j xg;ge;jj;ij milAk; tiu> Vw;ghd; Neu;tpy; xg;ge;jk;
Vw;fj;jf;fjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;j
mtu; epu;ge;jpf;ff;$Lk; my;yJ me;j fbjj;ij mtu; jpUk;gg;
ngw Ntz;Lk;. ve;j Neuj;jpYk; mtu; jdJ gjtp Vw;wj;ijj;
njupag;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mtuJ xg;Gjiy uj;J nra;ayhk;.
vdNt> ,e;j fbjj;jpw;F> Nghf;Ftuj;J jhkjk; Vw;gl;lhNyh>
njhiye;J NghdhNyh> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sgtu; ed;ik milthu;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1.
,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpy; tiuaWf;fg;gl;lgb rYif/
Kd;nkhopT vd;why; vd;d?
2. xU ‘Kd;nkhoptpd;’ %d;W mbg;gilf;$Wfis gl;baypLf.
3. ‘Vw;G’ vd;why; vd;d?
4. nry;YgbahFk; Vw;Giuapy; cs;s rpy rl;l tpjpfis
gl;baypLf.
5. xU jpUk;gg; ngWjy; gw;wpa jfty; vg;NghJ KOik
ngWfpwJ?
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 23 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
2.3 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;
tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;

1. ‘Kd;nkhopT’ kw;Wk; ‘rYif’ vd;w nrhw;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W


Fwpg;Gfs; khw;wkpd;wp ,iznghUshf gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;jpa
(a) xU ‘Kd;nkhopit’ xU egu;>
xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 
vijAk; nra;tjpypUe;J tpyfp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w mtuJ
tpUg;gj;ij Fwpf;fpwJ> mj;jifa rl;lj;jpw;F jtpu;g;G ngUk;
nraYf;F kw;nwhU xg;Gjiy ngWk; Nehf;Fld;> mtu; xU
Kd;nkhopT nra;thu;’ vd;W tiuaWf;fpwJ.
2. xU 'Kd;nkhoptpd;" %d;W mbg;gilfs; gpd;tUkhW:
(i) vijahtJ nra;tjw;F my;yJ vijahtJ nra;ahky;
jtpu;g;gjw;F xU ntspg;ghlhf mJ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(ii) vijahtJ nra;tjw;F my;yJ jtpu;g;gjw;fhd tpUg;gj;jpd;
ntspg;ghL NtW egUf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. jdf;F xU
egu; %yk; ‘Kd;nkhopT’ vJTk; ,Uf;f KbahJ.
(iii) VNjDk; xd;iwr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w tpUg;gj;jpd;
ntspg;ghL> kw;w egupd; xg;Gjiyg; ngWtjw;F my;yJ
jtpu;g;gjw;Fj; jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nehf;Fld;
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
3. Vw;nfdNt ghu;j;jgb xU xg;ge;jk;> xU rYifia Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;
NghJ ntspg;gLfpwJ. gpupT 2 (b) $WtjhtJ ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
xU Kd;nkhopT xU thf;FWjpahy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk;’ vd
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ. mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; NghJ Kd;nkhopT
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. vdNt> ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;’
vd;gJ mtUila xg;Gjypd; thapyhf toq;fg;gl;l
tpjpKiwfspd; ntspg;ghlhFk;.
4. xU nry;Ygbahd Vw;G gpd;tUk; tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f
Ntz;Lk;:
(i) xU rYifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; eguhy; kl;LNk
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl KbAk;> mjDld; xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak;
Nehf;fj;ij mJ ,wf;Fkjp nra;fpwJ. mij ,d;ndhUtu;
xg;Gf;nfhs;shky; NtW eguhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ.
(ii) Vw;G KOikahd kw;Wk; jFjpaw;wepiyapy; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk; [gpupT 7 (1)]: rl;luPjpahf jpwk;glf;$ba
tifapy;> ,e;j rYifiag; gw;wpa midj;J
tpjpKiwfisAk; KOikahf Vw;Wf; nfhs;s jFjpaw;w
epiyapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;
(iii) ,e;j Kd;nkhopT Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba tpjj;ijf;
nfhz;L tUk; tifapy;> xU tof;fkhd> epahakhd
Kiwapy; Vw;G ntspg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. [gpupT 7 (2)]:
rYif toq;fpatupd; gupe;Jiug;gb Vw;Wf;nfhs;s ve;j
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tifAk; ,y;iy vd;why;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gJ rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
tof;fkhd kw;Wk; epahakhf gad;Kiwapy; njuptpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
(iv)
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; xg;Gjy; toq;fpatu; %yk;
njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: xg;Gjy; ngWtjw;F nry;YgbahFk; Fwpg;Gfs;
epiyapy;> mJ xg;Gjy; toq;fpatuhy; kl;LNk nra;ag;glhky;>
toq;fpatuplk; (my;yJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;) mjpfhupaplk;
my;yJ mjpfhuj;Jld; njhlu;G nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
(v) xg;Gjy; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;>
my;yJ rYif Klf;fk;/uj;J nra;ag;gLtjw;F Kd;ghf
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: Fwpg;gpl;l fhy vy;iyf;Fs;
rl;lg;G+u;tkhf gaDs;s xg;Gjy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why;
ve;j NeuKk; fl;lhag;gLj;jg;glhtpl;lhy; xU ­ epahakhd
Neuj;jpw;Fs; mDkjp toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> Vnddpy; xU
rYifia fhytiuapd;wp itj;jpUf;f KbahJ.
(vi) Vw;G> ,e;h rYifiag; ngw Ntz;Lk;: rYifiag; ngw;w
gpwF Vw;G mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ rYifiag; ngWtjw;F
Kd; Vw;G mspf;fg;glf;$lhJ.
5. jpUk;gg;ngwg;gl;l jfty;njhlu;G KOikahdJ: (a) mij
cUthf;Fk; egUf;F vjpuhf> ahuhy; jahupf;fg;gLNkh ve;j
egUf;F mJ mDg;gg;gLfpwNjh> mNjNghy;> jpUk;gg;ngwg;gl;l
egupd; mjpfhuj;jpypUe;J ntspNaWtjhy;> mjhtJ> jpUk;gg;
ngw;w fbjk; mQ;ry; nra;ag;gLfpwJ> kw;Wk; (b) jdJ mwpitg;
nghWj;jtiuapy;> ahuhy; jahupf;fg;gLNkh me;j egUf;F
vjpuhf> mjhtJ jpUk;gg;ngWjy; fbjk; mDg;gg;gl;l eguhy;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtJ.

2.4 RUf;fk;
(a) xU egu; ‘Kd;nkhopT
••,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 
jpl;lj;ij’ tiuaiw nra;Ak; NghJ> VjhtJ xU tifapy;
mtu; jd;Dila tpUg;gj;ij ntspg;gLj;jpdhy;> mJ mj;jifa
rl;lj;jpw;F jtpu;g;gpy; ,Ue;J kw;wtupd; xg;Gjiy ngWk;
Nehf;fj;Jld; mtu; xU Kd;nkhopT nra;thu; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
••thu;j;ijfshy;> Ngrg;gl;l my;yJ vOjg;gl;l xU rYif
‘ntspg;gilahd rYif’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ> xU egupd;
elj;ij my;yJ tof;fkhd R+o;epiyfspd; %yk;> ngwg;gl;l
xU rYif ‘kiwKfkhd rYif’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
••xU Fwpg;gpl;l eguhy; nra;ag;gLk; NghJ xU rYif ‘ Fwpg;gpl;l’
rYif vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. mj;jifa xU rYifia> mJ ahUf;F
toq;fg;gLNkh me;j eguhy; kl;LNk mJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
••,U jug;gpdu; xNu khjpupahd rYiffis xUtUf;nfhUtu;
toq;Fk;NghJ> rYifiag; gw;wp xUtUf;nfhUtu; mwpahky;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 25 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


rYif kw;Wk; ,Ug;gJ ‘FWf;F rYiffs;’ vdg;gLfpwJ. ‘FWf;F-rYiffs;’
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
kw;nwhd;W xU tha;g;ig Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj NghJ> mj;jifa
xg;ge;jk; nray;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
••gpupT 7 ,d; gb> tpjpKiwf;Nfw;g rYifia Vw;Wf;
Fwpg;Gfs; nfhs;shtpl;lhy;> rYifapy; ve;j khw;wKk; nra;akhl;lkhl;lhJ.
••xU rYif Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; Kd; ve;j Neuj;jpYk;> jpUk;gg;
ngwg;glyhk;. kw;w jug;gpdUf;F toq;fpa mwptpg;G njhlu;ghf
njhlu;G nfhs;s KbfpwJ. [gpupT 6 (1)].
••rYif cUthf;fg;gl;l gpwF rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ vd;why; mJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;F Kd;ghf me;j rYif ePf;fg;gLfpwJ.
••xU rYifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; eguhy; kl;LNk mtw;iw
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl KbAk;> mjDld; xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak; Nehf;fj;ij
mJ ,wf;Fkjp nra;fpwJ. mij xU egu; xg;Gf;nfhs;shky;
NtW eguhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahJ.
••Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; tof;fkhd eilKiwapd; %yk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lhy;>
,J xU kiwKfkhd Vw;G vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf>
rpy Njitahd eltbf;iffis vLj;Jf; nfhz;L> mwptpf;fg;gl;l
ntFkjpg;gpw;F ,oe;j nghUl;fisf; fz;Lgpbg;gjd; %yNkh
my;yJ rpy ed;ik my;yJ Nritia Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd; %yNkh>
nray;gLk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU nghJg; NgUe;J gazpfs; g
­ bfspy;
epd;W gazpg;gJ nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.
••kduPjpahd Vw;G my;yJ mikjpahd xg;Gjy; vd;gJ
nrhw;fs; my;yJ elj;ijahy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glkhl;lhJ> xU
nry;Ygbahd Vw;ghLfs; ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why; ,j;jifa
Vw;G Kiw NghJkhdjha; ,Uf;fpwJ. Vw;G vd;gJ> xg;Gjy;
toq;fpatUf;F njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> ,y;iynadpy; mJ
ve;j tpisitAk; Vw;gLj;jhJ.
••xg;Gjy; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;>
my;yJ rYif Klf;fk;/uj;J nra;ag;gLtjw;F Kd;ghf
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: Fwpg;gpl;l fhy vy;iyf;Fs; rl;lg;G+u;tkhf
gaDs;s xg;Gjy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ve;j NeuKk;
fl;lhag;gLj;jg;glhtpl;lhy; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; mDkjp
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> Vnddpy; xU rYifia fhytiuapd;wp
itj;jpUf;f KbahJ.
••xg;ge;jf; FOf;fs; NeUf;F Neu; re;jpj;J Ngr;Rthu;j;ij
elj;Jifapy;> cldb njhlu;G kw;Wk; xg;GjYf;fhd
njhlu;G Vw;gLfpwJ. NkYk; rupahd xg;ge;jk; Vw;gLtjhy;>
,e;j KOikahd kw;Wk; jFjpaw;w xg;ge;jk; toq;fpatu;
Kd;nkhopag;gl;l Kd;nkhopit Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwhu;fs;.
••Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd njhlu;G ,uz;L mk;rq;fisf; nfhz;lJ>
mjhtJ> MjuthsUf;F vjpuhfTk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;SgtUf;F
vjpuhfTk; cs;sJ.
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••Vw;G fbjk;> xg;Gjy; toq;fpatu; milAk; tiu> Vw;ghd; rYif kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
Neu;tpy; ,e;j xg;ge;jk; njhlu;e;J ,lk; ngw KbAk;. ,e;j
xg;ge;jj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;j mtu; epu;ge;jpf;ff;$Lk; my;yJ
me;j fbjj;ij mtu; jpUk;gg; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W fbjk;
vOjp nfhs;tjw;F Kd; ve;j Neuj;jpYk; jdJ kWgjtp Fwpj;J Fwpg;Gfs;
njupag;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mtu; jdJ xg;Gjiy uj;J nra;ayhk;.

2.5 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;


••FWf;F rYiffs;: ,U jug;gpdUk; xNu khjpupahd rYiffis
xUtUf;nfhUtu; toq;Fk;NghJ> xUtUf;nfhUtu; toq;Fk;
rYifiag; gw;wp mwpahky;> ,Ug;gJ ‘FWf;F rYiffs;’ MFk;.
••epge;jid Vw;G: xU epge;jid Vw;G> rpy Neuq;fspy; jFjpngw;w
Vw;G vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ> xU egu; xU rYifiag; gw;wp
$Wk; NghJ> mtu; xU rpy khw;wq;fis tpjpKiwfspd;gb
nra;fpwhu;. VNjh xU epge;jid my;yJ epfo;T epfOk; NghJ
rYifiag; gw;wp xg;Gf;nfhs;sj; jahuhf ,Uf;Fk; Ntz;Lk;.
••tpiuT Vw;G: mQ;ry; my;yJ je;jp %yk; Ngrg;gl;l my;yJ
vOjg;gl;l Vw;G Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtJ tpiuT Vw;G vdg;gLfpwJ.
••kiwKfkhd Vw;G: Vw;G tof;fkhd eilKiw %yk;
nfhLf;fg;gl;lhy; mJ xU nksdkhd Vw;G my;yJ
kiwKfkhd Vw;G vdg;gLfpwJ.
••rYifia jpUk;gg; ngWjy;: ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gpupT 5 xU
rYifiag; jpUk;gg; ngWjypd; tpjpKiwfis nfhz;Ls;sJ.

2.6 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;


tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. nry;YgbahFk; rYifapd; rl;l tpjpfs; gw;wp rpW Fwpg;G tiuf.
2. FWf;F rYiffs; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJf.
3. xU rYifia Fiwg;G> nry;Ygbahfhj epiyapy; khWk;
R+o;epiyia RUf;fkhf vOJf.
4. Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; fhy tuk;Gf;fhd Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; gw;wp
RUf;fkhf vOJf.
5. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; gw;wpa jfty; njhlu;gpd; mk;rq;fis RUf;fkhf
vOJf.

neL tpil tpdhf;fs;


1. ‘rl;lG+u;tkhd tpisTfis Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd rYif
vjpu;ghu;f;ftpy;iy vd;why;> mJ rupahd rYifahf ,Uf;fhJ.’
,e;j mwpf;ifia nghUj;jkhd ctikfSld; epahag;gLj;Jf.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 27 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


rYif kw;Wk; 2. rupahd Vw;G njhlu;ghf rpy rl;l tpjpfis tpthjpf;fTk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
3. rYif> xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; jpUk;gg; ngWjy; Mfpatw;wpd; tpupthd
jfty;fspd;gb Ma;T nra;f.

Fwpg;Gfs; 2.7 NkYk; gbf;f


Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

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myF 3 guprPyid
guprPyid

mikg;G
3.0 Kd;Diu Fwpg;Gfs;
3.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
3.2 guprPyid: tiuaiwfs;> tiffs; kw;Wk; Kf;fpaj;Jtq;fs;
3.2.1 nry;Ygbahd guprPyidapd; mtrpaq;fs;
3.2.2 xg;ge;jq;fs; kw;Wk; tpjp tpyf;Ffs;
3.3 jpwd; kw;Wk; xg;Gjy;
3.3.1 xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; ,ytr xg;Gjy;
3.4 nghUspd; rl;lG+u;t jd;ik
3.4.1 jpl;ltl;lkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;l ntw;wpl xg;ge;jq;fs;
3.5 xg;ge;j ntspNaw;wk;
3.6 xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; kw;Wk; mjd; jPu;Tfs;
3.7 Njhw;w xg;ge;jq;fs;
3.7.1 Njhw;w xg;ge;j flikfs;
3.8 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
3.9 RUf;fk;
3.10 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
3.11 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
3.12 NkYk; gbf;f

3.0 Kd;Diu
,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpy;> xU kjpg;G kw;nwhU kjpg;Gf;fhd gupkhw;wkhf
fUjg;gLfpwJ. ,J rl;lG+u;tkhf mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU xg;ge;jj;jpw;F
,Uf;f Ntz;ba Kf;fpa $WghLfspy; xd;whFk;. xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd;
gpupT 10 ,d; fPo>; xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;ij mikf;f kw;Wk;
Njitg;ghLfSf;fpilNa rl;lg;gbahd guprPyid Nru;ff ; g;gl;Ls;sJ.
guprPyid vd;gJ> xU thf;FWjpapypUe;J VjhtJ xU jug;gpduhy;
MjhakiltNjh my;yJ kw;nwhd;W ,oe;j VNjh xU thf;FWjpahFk;.
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; xU fl;rpahy; nra;ag;gLk; kw;w fl;rpapdUf;F cupa
mD$yk; cz;L. gpupT 2(d)-y; cs;s guprPyidapd; ,yf;fzj;jpy;
rupahd guprPyidapd; kw;nwhU mj;jpahtrpakhd Njit vd;dntd;why;>
guprPyid vd;gJ thf;FWjpapypUe;J kl;Lk; efu;tjpy;iy. Mdhy;
%d;whtJ eguplkpUe;J njhluf;$Lk;.
,e;j myF guprPyidapd; mj;jpahtrpaq;fis gFg;gha;T
nra;tNjhL> ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk;> 1872 ,y; gy;NtW xg;ge;jq;fis
tpsf;FfpwJ.

3.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;>
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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guprPyid ••Kf;fpa $Wfs; kw;Wk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;ba
mj;jpahtrpa $Wfs; Mfpatw;iw Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; rpwg;gk;rj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.
••nghUspd; jpwd;, xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; rl;lG+u;t jd;ikia Gupe;J
Fwpg;Gfs; nfhs;s KbAk;.
••xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; gw;wp mwpa KbAk;.
••xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; flikfis Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

3.2 guprPyid: tiuaiwfs;> tiffs; kw;Wk;


Kf;fpaj;Jtq;fs;
,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2  (d) gpd;tUkhW guprPypf;fg;gLfpwJ:
thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; tpUg;gj;jpd; NghJ> thf;FWjpaspg;gjpy; ,Ue;J tpyfpNah,
NtW ve;j egu; nra;jhYk; nra;ahtpl;lhYk;> my;yJ nra;tjpypUe;J
tpyfpNah> nra;tjw;F my;yJ nra;ahky; ,Ug;gij cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ.
mj;jifa rl;lk; thf;FWjpf;F fUj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
NkNy cs;s tiuaiwapd; xU gFg;gha;T gpd;tUkhW ehd;F
mk;rq;fisf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;Ls;sJ:
(a) thf;FWjpia fUj;jpy; nfhz;L nray;gLk; nrayw;w> cWjpaw;w
my;yJ thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;Wgtupd; tpUg;gg;gb nra;ag;gl
Ntz;Lk;;
(b) thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; my;yJ NtnwhU eguhy; ,J nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;;
(c)
,J Vw;fdNt nray;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;fyhk;, nra;ag;gLk;
nray;Kiwahf ,Uf;fyhk; my;yJ NkYk; nray;glyhk;.
(d) xU kjpg;ig ,izf;Fk; VjhtJ xd;W ,r;rl;ljpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

3.2.1 nry;Ygbahd guprPyidapd; mtrpaq;fs;;


guprPyid tiuaiwapd; ehd;F $W gFjpfs; rupahd guprPyidapd;
mbg;gil $Wfshf fUjg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j mbg;gilf;$Wfs; gw;wp
ehk; ,g;NghJ tpupthff; fhz;Nghk;. ,it gpd;tUkhW
1. guprPyidapy; thf;FWjpaspg;gtupd; tpUg;gj;ij
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;: rl;l uPjpahd guprPyidia
cUthf;Fk; nghUl;L> me;j thf;FWjpapd; kPJ guprPyid nra;Ak;
rl;lk; my;yJ mij epiwNtw;whky; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW
nra;ag;gLk; nray;fs;> jhkhfNt Kd;te;J nra;Ak; Nritfs;
my;yJ %d;whk; jug;gpdu; tpUg;gj;jpd; Ngupy;> xg;ge;jj;ij
Mjupg;gjw;fhf cupa guprPyidf;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;glhJ.
,e;j ju;f;fj;ij xU egu; ghjpf;ff;$ba ftiy kw;Wk;
,og;gpy; fhzyhk;. mtu; Njitg;glhj NritfSf;F gzk;
nrYj;jg;glhj fl;lhaj;jpw;F cl;gLj;jyhk;.
2. guprPyid thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; my;yJ NtW
egu;fsplkpUe;J njhluyhk;: gpupT 2 
(d) guprPyid vd;w
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 30 5/20/2019 12:57:48 PM


tiuaiwf;Fs; mlq;fpaJ Nghy> rupahd guprPyidapd; ,uz;lhtJ guprPyid

mj;jpahtrpakhdJ> ,e;jg; guprPyid thf;FWjpaspg;gtuplkpUe;J


kl;Lk; efu;tjpy;iy> %d;whk; eguplkpUe;Jk; njhlu;fpwJ. vdNt>
thf;FWjpaspf;Fk; tiu> ,J nghUj;jkw;wJ. ,J
thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; my;yJ NtW ve;j eguplkpUe;Jk; njhluyhk;. Fwpg;Gfs;
mjhtJ> guprPyidf;F xU me;epad; $l xg;ge;jk; nra;a KbAk;.
mtu; xg;ge;jk; nra;a xU jug;G cs;sJ. ,J rpy Neuq;fspy;
‘Mf;fG+u;tkhd guprPyid Nfhl;ghL’ vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.
xU xg;ge;jj;jpw;F xU me;epau; tof;Fj; njhLf;f KbahJ: xU
egu; guprPyizapy; xU me;epauhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;, mtu;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; me;epauhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. Vndd;why; xg;ge;jj;jpy;
,Ue;J vLf;fg;gl;l ve;jnthU cupikiaAk; nray;gLj;Jtjw;F
‘xg;ge;jj;jpd; jdpj;Jtk;’ mtrpak;. xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilf;
Nfhl;ghlhf xU me;epad; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; tof;F njhLf;f
KbahJ. jug;gpd; xU egu; kl;LNk xg;ge;jj;jpd; kPJ tof;F
njhlf;f KbAk;. ,t;thwhf> B> A ,d; flDf;fhd A ,d; flid
nrYj;j A f;F B ,d; cld;gbf;if> A mlkhdq;fs; mtuJ
nrhj;Jf;fs; A, B Mfpatw;Wf;F ,ilNaahd cld;gbf;iff;F
ve;jnthU cupikahsUk; ,y;iy vd;w thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;w
B f;F vjpuhf tof;F jhf;fy; nra;a KbahJ. (<];tuk;gps;is
nrhd;dpthNtUf;F vjpuhf).
3. guprPyid fhyk;> epfo;fhyk; my;yJ vjpu;fhykhf
,Uf;fyhk;: thu;ji; jfs; nra;atpy;iy, iftpltpy;iy,
nra;tjpypUe;J tpyfpNah, nra;tJ my;yJ nra;tijj;
jtpu;gij cWjpaspf;fpwJ. ,e;j guprPyidapd; tiuaiwapd;
gb> fle;j fhyj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ nra;a Kbahj>
epfo;fhyj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ nra;a Kbahj>
vjpu;fhyj;jpy; nra;akhl;Nlhk; vd cWjpaspf;fg;gl;l my;yJ
epfohj VNjDk; xd;whf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;gJ njspthf
Fwpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. RUf;fkhf nrhy;y Ntz;Lkhdhy;> fle;j
fhyk;> epfo;fhyk; my;yJ vjpu;fhyr; rl;lk; my;yJ jtpu;jj ; y;
Mfpait mlq;fpapUf;fyhk;.
4. guprPyidf;fhf VNjh xU kjpg;G ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: rupahd
guprPyidf;fhf ehd;fhtJ kw;Wk; filrp mj;jpahtrpakhdJ>
rl;lk; xU kjpg;ig ,izf;Fk; ‘VjhtJ xd;whf’ ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;. xU xg;ge;jk; nry;YgbahFk; vd;w
thf;FWjpf;F> guprPyid NghJkhdjy;y. rl;lj;ij kl;LNk
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mJ NghJkhd msTf;F ,y;iy
vd;W typAWj;JfpwJ. jkJ nrhe;j xg;ge;jj;ij ,ytrkhfg;
ngw mJ kf;fis Rje;jpukhf tpl;LtpLfpwJ.

3.2.2 xg;ge;jq;fs; kw;Wk; tpjptpyf;Ffs;


xg;ge;jk; kw;Wk; tpjptpyf;Ffs; Mfpatw;wpd; kjpg;G> rupahd
xg;ge;jj;jpd; mj;jpahtrpa cWg;Gfspy; xd;whf ,Uf;fpwJ. nghJ
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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guprPyid tpjp vd;gJ ‘guprPyidaw;wjhf ,y;yhky; nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jk;
ntw;wplkhFk;’. Mdhy;, tpjpKiwf;F xU rpy tpjptpyf;Ffs; cs;sd.
mq;F fzf;fpy;yhky; xU xg;ge;jk; rupahfTk; nry;YgbahfTk;
,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j tpjptpyf;Ffs; gpd;tUkhW:
Fwpg;Gfs; 1. ,aw;if md;G kw;Wk; ghrj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; nra;ag;gl;l
xg;ge;jk; [gpupT. 25 (1)]: guprPyidapd;wp nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jk;
eilKiwg;gLj;jf; $baJ vd;why;> mJ (i) vOj;Jfspy;
ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk;. (ii) Mtzq;fisg; gjpT nra;tjw;F mkypy;
,Uf;Fk; fhyj;jpw;fhd rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gjpT nra;ag;gl;Lk;.
(iii) ,aw;ifahd md;G kw;Wk; ghrj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;
nra;ag;gl;Lk;. (iv) xUtUf;nfhUtu; neUq;fpa njhlu;gpy; epw;Fk;
jug;Gf;fpilapy; nra;ag;gLk;. vdNt> ehd;F mbg;gilj;
NjitfSk; guprPypf;fg;glhky; xU xg;ge;jj;ij mky;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk;.
2. fle;j fhy jd;dhu;t Nritia <L nra;a xg;ge;jk; [gpupT
25 (2)]: guprPyidapd;wp mspj;j thf;FWjp nry;YgbahFk;.
xU egu; Vw;fdNt KOikahfNth my;yJ gFjpahfNth>
jd;dhu;tj;Jld; VNjDk; xd;iwr; nra;a KbAk; my;yJ me;j
thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; rl;lG+u;tkw;w xd;iwr; nra;a KbAk;.
3. fhy jil nra;ag;gl;l fld; xg;ge;jk; [gpupT 25 (3)]: ,jpy;
xU xg;ge;jk; cs;sJ. mJ vOj;J %yk; my;yJ mtuJ
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Kftu; %yk; ifnahg;gkpl;L ,Uf;Fk;.
tuk;gpw;Fl;gLk; rl;lj;jhy; jil nra;ag;gl;l flid KOtJkhf
my;yJ gFjpahf nrYj;Jtjw;F> ve;j xU guprPyidahy;
Mjupf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;whYk;> xg;ge;jk; nry;YgbahFk;.
xU fhy jil nra;ag;gl;l flid kPl;f KbahJ. vdNt,
mj;jifa flid jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd cWjpnkhop
guprPyidapd;wp cs;sJ. vdNt, jw;Nghija tpjptpyf;F
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpwJ.
4. epiwT gupR: xU gupR nry;YgbahFk; nghUl;L, guprPyid
Njitapy;iy. ed;nfhil mspg;gtu; kw;Wk; ngWgtu;
,ilapy;> cz;ikapy; ve;jnthU guprPyid ,y;yhkYk; gupR
nry;YgbahFk; [gpupT 25-f;fhd tpsf;fk;] ,e;j tpjptpyf;Ffis
<u;g;gjw;fhf> ed;nfhil mspg;gtu; kw;Wk; ngWgtu; ,ilapy;>
,aw;if md;G kw;Wk; ghrk; my;yJ neUq;fpa cwT Mfpait
,Uf;ff; $lhJ. vdpDk;> gupR epiwT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
5. epWtdk; xg;ge;jk;: xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; 185 gpupT xU epWtdj;ij
cUthf;f ve;jnthU fUj;Jk; Njitapy;iy vd;W $WfpwJ.
6. thf;FWjpapd; nray;jpwd; %yk; kW ,af;fk;: xU flid
rkurj;jpw;F nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ vd;d nra;a
Ntz;Lk; vd;gij tpl Fiwthf xg;Gf; nfhs;tjhy;> ve;j xU
guprPyidAk; Njitapy;iy. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;>
xU fld; nfhLg;gtu; mtuJ $w;wpd; xU gFjpia tpl;Lf;
32 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 32 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


nfhLf;f xg;Gf;nfhs;syhk;. mNj Nghy;> xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; guprPyid

nray;ghl;Lf;fhd Neuj;ij ePl;bg;gjw;fhd xU xg;ge;jj;ij


guprPyidf;F (gpupT 63) Mjupf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy.
7. mwf;fl;lis gq;fspg;G: cWjpaspf;fg;gl;l re;jh kPjhd
ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jhy;> mwf;fl;lisf;F gq;fspf;Fk; thf;FWjp> xU Fwpg;Gfs;
thf;FWjpahf ,Ue;jhYk;> mJ eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
nghUspd; tsu;rr ; papy; jpl;ltl;lkhd eltbf;iffis vLj;J>
mJ nrYj;jpa re;jh njhiff;F kpfhky;> vt;tsT n ­jhifia
nrytpLfpwJ vd;gijAk; thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhu;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. guprPyid vd;w nrhy;Yf;F nghUs; vd;d?
2. rupahd ftdj;jpd; mbg;gilf;$Wfs; ahit?
3. xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; nry;YgbahFk; epiwT nra;ag;gl;l gupR
vt;thW mspf;fg;gLfpwJ?

3.3 jpwd; kw;Wk; xg;Gjy;


gpupT 11 $Wifapy;> rl;lj;ij nghWj;jtiuapy; xt;nthU egUk;
ngUk;ghd;ik taijf; nfhz;ltu; ahu; vd;gijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j
jFjpAs;stu;. NkYk;, mtu; ve;j tp\aj;ijr; rl;lg;G+u;tkhff;
filgpbj;jhYk;> ve;j tp\aj;ijr; rhu;e;jtuhf ,Ue;jhYk;>
jFjpaw;wtu; Mtu;. ,t;thwhf> gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfspy; xU egu;
xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjpaw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;fpwhu; vd;W ,e;jg; gpupT
mwptpf;fpwJ:
1. mtu; rpWghd;ikapduhf ,Ue;jhy;> mtu; rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;L,
2. mtu; kdepk;kjpah ,Ue;jhy;> kw;Wk;
3. mtu; ve;jnthU rl;lj;jhYk; xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,Ue;J jFjpaw;wtu;
vdpy;> mtUf;F cl;gl;ltuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

1. ,isa kw;Wk; rpwhu;fspd; xg;ge;jq;fs;


,e;jpa ngUk;ghd;ik rl;lk; 1875 gpupT 3-d; gb> 1999 vd;w ngUk;ghd;ik
(jpUj;jk;) rl;lk;> ,e;jpahtpy; 18 tajpw;F cl;gl;l FbNawpa xU
egUf;F xU rpW gFjp vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. mjd;gb, 18 taij
epiwT nra;j xt;nthU egUk; ngupatu; Mtu;. rl;lj;jpd; fPo;
rpWghd;ikapdupd; cld;gbf;if fPo;fz;lthW tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;.
••rpWghd;ikapdupd; xU xg;ge;jk; mtUf;F vjpuhf Kw;wpYk;
epue;jukw;wJ kw;Wk; nrayw;wjhf cs;sJ.
••ed;ik gaf;Fk; cld;gbf;iffs; nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jq;fs;
MFk;.
••ngUk;ghd;ik taij miltjw;F ve;j cWjpAk; ,y;iy.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 33

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 33 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid ••Kuz;jd;ik tpjp xU rpW gFjpf;F nghUe;jhJ.
••rpWghd;ikapdUf;F nghWg;Gfs; Njitg;gLfpwJ.
••Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwd;: Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwd; vd;gJ
xg;ge;jj;jpd; cz;ikahd cld;gbf;ifia xg;Gf; nfhz;lJ
Fwpg;Gfs;
vd;gjhFk;. rpWghd;ikapdu;fspd; cld;gbf;if Kw;wpYkhf
epue;jukw;wjhf ,Ug;gjhy;> mj;jifa xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; ‘Fwpg;gpl;l
nray;jpl;lj;ij’ ePjpkd;wk; Neubahf ,af;f KbahJ.
••rpwpa gq;Fjhuu;: xg;ge;jk; nra;tjw;F jFjpaw;w epiyapy;
,Ug;gjhy; $l;lhz;ik epWtdj;jpy; gq;Fjhuuhf ,Uf;f KbahJ.
Mdhy;, ,e;jpa $l;lhz;ikr; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 30d; fPo>; mtu;
gpw gq;Fjhuu;fSld; jdJ rl;lG+u;tkhd ­ ghJfhtyd; %yk;
epiwNtw;wg;gLk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; midj;J gq;Fjhuu;fspd;
xg;GjYld; ‘$l;lhz;ikapd; ed;ikia’ ngw;Wf; nfhs;s KbAk;.
••rpWghd;ikapdu; xU Kftuhf ,Uf;fyhk; (gpupT 184).
••xU rpWik> xU fiug;ghd; kPJ jPu;g;G toq;f KbahJ. Vnddpy;>
mtu; fld;fis milf;f KbahJ.
••rpWghd;ikapdu; kw;Wk; Kjpu;e;Njhu; $l;lhf elj;jpa xg;ge;jk;:
xU rpWghd;ikapdu; kw;Wk; Kjpu;e;Njhu; $l;lhf kw;nwhU egUld;
xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk; NghJ> rpwpatu;fSf;F ve;j nghWg;Gk;
,y;iy. Mdhy; Kjpu;e;jtu;fSf;F vjpuhf xl;L nkhj;jkhf
xg;ge;jk; mky;gLj;j KbAk;. ([khdh gha; vjpuhf tre;jh uht;).
••epr;rak; rpWghd;ikapduhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: xU taJ Kjpu;e;Njhu;>
xU rpW tajpduhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w xg;ge;jj;jpy; xU
taJ Kjpu;e;jtu; ,y;iy vd;whYk;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; mtu;
nghWg;Ngw;fpd;whu;. (rpWghd;ikapdu; kw;Wk; %d;whk; jug;gpdUf;F
,ilNa Neub xg;ge;jk; cs;sJ) (fh\pgh vjpuhf \pupgj;).
••xU rpWghd;ikapdupd; ngw;Nwhu; epiy: xU rpWghd;ikapdupd;
ngw;Nwhu;> ,e;j xg;ge;jk; mtrpakh my;yJ ,y;iyah vd;gJ
gw;wp xU rpwpa ­mstpyhd cld;gbf;iff;F nghWg;ghtjpy;iy.
ngw;Nwhu;> Kftuhf xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak; NghJ kl;LNk>
nghWg;Ngw;f KbAk;.
••xU rpWghd;ikapdu;> xg;ge;jj;jpw;F jFjpaw;wtuhf ,Ug;gjhy;>
xU epWtdj;jpd; gq;Fjhuuhf ,Uf;f KbahJ.
••Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;F rpWghd;ikapdu; nghWg;G.

2. jplkw;w kdepiy egu;fs;:


Kd;du; Fwpg;gpl;lgb> xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 11 ,d; gb> xU rupahd
xg;ge;jj;jpw;F xt;nthU jug;gpdUk; ‘njspe;j kdJld;’ ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
‘jplkdepiy’ vd;why; vd;d? xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 12 gpd;tUkhW
‘jplkdepiyia’ tiuaWf;fpwJ: xU egu; xU xg;ge;jk; nra;tjd; nghUl;L
34 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 34 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


xU ey;y kdepiyAld; ,Ug;ghu;. mtu; mij nra;Ak; rkaj;jpy;> mij guprPyid

Gupe;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> mtu; eyd;fisg; gw;wpa mjd; tpisTfSf;F xU


gFj;jwpthu;ej
; jPug
; i
; g cUthf;Ftjw;Fk; jFjpAilatu;.
vdNt> ,e;j gpuptpd; gb> xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk; egu; jhd;
vd;d nra;fpwhu; vd;gij Gupe;J nfhs;Sk; eguhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;Gfs;
mtu; vd;d nra;ag; Nghfpwhu; vd;gJ mtUf;F Mu;tkhf ,Uf;fpwjh
,y;iyah vd;gjw;F xU gFj;jwpTj; jPu;g;ig cUthf;f KbAk;. me;j
gpupT NkYk; $WfpwJ:
(i) nghJthf jplkw;w kdepiy cila xU egu;> vg;NghjhtJ>
njspe;j kdJld;> mjhtJ ey;y kdepiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ
xU xg;ge;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jyhk;. vdNt, xU jplkw;w kdepiyapy;
,Uf;Fk; Nehahsp ,e;j ,ilntspfspy; xg;ge;jk; nra;ayhk;.
(ii) nghJthf, jplkdepiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; xU egu;> vg;NghjhtJ>
njsptw;W ,Ue;jhy; xg;ge;jj;ij cUthf;f KbahJ. vdNt>
ey;y kdepiyAila xU egu; fha;rr ; ypdhNyh my;yJ kJ
mUe;jpapUe;jhNyh xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpfis Gupe;J nfhs;s KbahJ.
jd; eyDf;fhf xU gFj;jwpTj; jPug ; i
; g cUthf;f KbahJ.
mjdhy;, mj;jifa epiyapy; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioa KbahJ.
jplkw;wkdepiy cila egu;fshy; nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fspd;
tpisTfs;: jplkw;wkdepiy nfhz;l xU egupd; xg;ge;jk;>
rpWghd;ikapdupd; mNj epiyg;ghl;bd; kPJ elj;jg;gLfpwJ. vdNt,
xU jplkw;w kdepiy nfhz;l xU egupd; xg;ge;jk; Kw;wpYk;
vjpu;kiwahfTk;> jpwikaw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy;, mtu;
fPo;fz;l ed;ikfis ngw KbAk; ([{fs; fpN\hu; vs Nrl;L). vdpDk;>
,e;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 68 ,d; fPo;> xU egupd; nrhj;Jilik> mtUf;F
my;yJ mtUf;F rl;lG+u;tkhf fl;Lg;gl;l vtUf;Fk; my;yJ mtUf;F
toq;fg;gl;l NjitfSf;Nfh vg;NghJk; nghWg;Ngw;Fk;.

3. jFjpaw;w egu;fs;:
%d;whk; tif jFjpaw;w egu;fs;> gpupT 11-f;F cl;gl;L> ‘ve;j rl;lj;jpd;
%yKk; xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjpaw;W ,Uf;fpd;wdu;’. ,jdhy;:
(a) md;dpa vjpupfs;: ,e;jpahtpy; trpf;fpd;w xU me;epau;
(ntspehl;bd; Fbkfd;) rkhjhd fhyj;jpd; NghJ, ,e;jpahtpd;
Fbkf;fSld; xg;ge;jq;fspy; Eioayhk;. me;j tifapy;
murhq;fj;jhy; itf;fg;gl;l ve;jnthU fl;Lg;ghLfSf;Fk;
cl;gl Ntz;Lk;. jdJ ehl;bw;Fk; ,e;jpahtpw;Fk;
,ilNaahd Nghu; mwptpg;gpy;> mtu; xU may;ehl;L vjpupahfp>
xg;ge;jq;fspy; Eioa KbahJ. ‘md;dpa ez;gd; xg;ge;jk; nra;a
KbAk;. Mdhy;, xU md;dpa vjpup xg;ge;jk; nra;a KbahJ’.
Nghu; epWj;jj;jpd; gpufldj;jpw;F Kd; Eioe;j xg;ge;jq;fs;>
Nghupd; NghJ Nkw;nfhs;s KbahJ. Nghu; Kbe;j gpd;du;, mit
GJg;gpf;fg;glyhk;. mit Vw;fdNt, fhy-jil nra;ag;gl;ljy;y
vd;W mtu;fs; ftdj;jpy; nfhz;Ls;sdu;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 35

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 35 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid (b) ntspehl;L ,iwahz;ik kw;Wk; J}Jtu;fs;: ntspehl;L
,iwahz;ikfSld; xg;ge;jq;fspy; Eioifapy; vr;rupf;ifahf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy;, xg;ge;jk; nray;gLj;Jk; NghJ mtu;fs;
kPJ kw;wtu;fs; tof;F njhlu KbAk; vd;whYk; kj;jpa muR
Fwpg;Gfs; Kd; mDkjp ngwhky; tof;F njhlu KbahJ. ,t;thW, mtu;fs;
xU rYif ngw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;fpwhu;fs; kw;Wk; tof;fkhf
xg;ge;jj;jpw;F jFjpaw;wtu;fs; vd;W fUjg;gLfpwhu;fs;.
(c) Fw;wthsp: xUtu; Fw;wthsp vdf; fz;lwpag;gl;L rpiwapy;
milf;fg;gLfpwhu;. rpiwr;rhiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> xU
Fw;wthsp jFjpaw;wtu;: (a) xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fs; Eioe;J> kw;Wk;
(b) jz;lidf;F Kd; nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fspy; tof;F njhlu
Ntz;Lk;. jz;lid Kbtile;j epiyapy;> mtu; xU tof;if
epWTtjw;F jdpAupik ngw;W cs;shu;. ,J tuk;G kPwy;
rl;lj;jpd; fhyg;gFjpapy; jilapd;wp eilngWfpwJ.
(d) jpUkzkhd ngz;fs;: jpUkzkhd ngz;fs; jq;fs;
jdpj;Jtkhd gz;Gfs; (];buPjd;) %yk; xg;ge;jq;fspy;
Eioa jFjpAilatu;fshf ,Uf;fpwhu;fs;. mtu;fs; fztupd;
nrhj;Jf;fhd xg;ge;jq;fspy; Eioa KbahJ. xU jpUkzkhd
ngz; jd; fztupd; xU Kftuhf nray;gl KbAk;> Njit
Vw;gl;lhy; mtSf;F fztupd; nrhj;ij toq;f Ntz;Lk;.
‘ntspNaw;wg;gLtjw;F’ Kd;ghf mtu; rpy ­
jFjpfshy;
ghjpf;fg;gLfpwhu;> v.fh. mtu; xU ePjpgjp my;yJ xU epWtdj;jpd;
,af;FeuhfNth my;yJ cs;Shu; mq;fj;jpduhfNth ,Uf;f
KbahJ. Mdhy; mtuJ nrhj;Jf;fSf;F xg;ge;jk; mspg;gjw;fhd
jpwidf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhu;. ‘ntspNaw;w cj;juT’ te;j gpwF>
mtu; xU rhjhuz Fbkfd; NghyNt ,Uf;fpwhu;.
(e) jpthy;: xU jzpf;if nra;ag;gLk; jpthyhdJ (Fwpg;gpl;l
‘xOq;FKiw cj;juT’ Kd;du;) rpy tifahd xg;ge;jq;fspy;
Eiotjw;F jFjpAilaJ. Copauhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ fldhf
nrhj;Jf;fis mtuhy; thq;f KbAk;. Mdhy;, mtu; jdJ
nrhj;Jf;fis tpw;f KbahJ.
(f) xU $l;Lr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ,ize;j $l;L epWtdk; kw;Wk; $l;L
fofk;: xU epWtdk;/fofk; nraw;if egu; %yk; rl;lj;ij
cUthf;FfpwJ. ,J mjd; rq;fj;jpd; ifnaOj;jplhj my;yJ
mjd; rpwg;G rl;lj;jpd; tpjpKiwfshy; toq;fg;gl;l mjpfhuq;fSf;F
ntspNa xg;ge;jq;fisr; nra;a KbahJ. kPzL ; k;> xU nraw;if
egu; (kw;Wk; ,ay;ghd egu; my;y) fz;bg;ghf jdpg;gl;l ,ay;Gila
xg;ge;jq;fspy; Eioa KbahJ. v.fh. jpUkzk;.

3.3.1 xg;Gjy; kw;Wk; ,ytr xg;Gjy;


gpupT 10 ,d; gb> xU cld;ghl;bd; midj;J jug;GfspYk; ‘,ytr
xg;Gjy;’ vd;gJ xU rupahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gil mk;rq;fspy;
xd;whFk;.
36 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 36 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; 13 Mk; gpupT> ‘xg;Gjy;’ vd;w thu;j;ijia guprPyid

tiuaWf;fpwJ. ‘mNj mu;j;jj;jpy; mNj tp\aj;ij xg;Gf; nfhz;lhy;>


,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l egu;fs; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gLthu;fs;
vd;W njuptpj;jdu;’. vdNt> xg;Gjypy; kdq;fspd; milahsk; my;yJ
xUkpj;j czu;T cs;sJ. mjhtJ mNj tp\aj;ij xNu mu;j;jj;jpy; Fwpg;Gfs;
xj;Jf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ ve;j fhuzj;jpw;fhfTk;> xg;ge;j jug;Gfs;
kj;jpapy; xUkpj;j fUj;J ,y;iy vd;why;> ,J cz;ikahd xg;Gjy;
,y;iy. vdNt, ,J rupahd xg;ge;jk; ,y;iy.
gpupT 14> ,J xg;Gjy; Vw;glhj NghJ ,ytrkhff; $wg;gLfpwJ
vd;W njuptpf;fpwJ.
1. fl;lhak;> gpupT 15 ,y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ my;yJ
2. gFjp 16 ,y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sgb nry;thf;iff; Fiwf;f
Ntz;Lk; my;yJ
3. jtwhd tpsf;fk;> gpupT 18 ,y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
4. Nkhrb> gpupT 17 ,y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
5. jtWfs;> gpupT 20> 21 kw;Wk; 22 d; tpjpfSf;F cl;gl;lJ.
xU cld;gbf;iff;F xg;Gjy; nfhLf;fg;gl;lhy;> tw;GWj;jy;>
jtwhd nry;thf;F> jtwhd tpsf;fk; my;yJ Nkhrb Nghd;wit ‘,ytr
xg;Gjy;’ ,y;iy. ,e;j cld;gbf;ifapd; ,j;jifa fhuzj;jpdhy;>
jug;gpdupd; tpUg;gj;jpd; Ngupy; xg;ge;jk; jtwhdJ. (gpupT 19 kw;Wk;
19A). Mdhy; cld;gbf;if cz;ikapNyNa Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j
tp\aj;jpy;> ‘,Ujug;G jtW’ Vw;Gilajhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> xg;ge;jk;
jtwhdJ. (gpupT. 20). mj;jifa xU tof;fpy; ‘ve;j mDkjpAk;’
,y;iy.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


4. xU egu; xg;ge;jj;jpw;F jFjpaw;wtuhf cs;s R+o;epiyfspy;
rpytw;iw gl;baypLf.
5. ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; ve;j gFjp ‘,ytr xg;Gjy;’ vd;gij
tiuaWf;fpwJ?

3.4 nghUspd; rl;lG+u;t jd;ik


rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf; $lhJ vd;w xg;ge;jk; ntw;wplkhdJ vd;W
$wg;gLfpwJ. vdNt> xU ntw;wplkhd xg;ge;jk; ve;j rl;lG+u;t
tpisTfisAk; nfhLf;ftpy;iy. rl;lj;jpd; ghu;itapy;> mj;jifa
cld;ghL Muk;gj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj ,y;iy. ePq;fs; Vw;fdNt Ke;ija
mj;jpahaq;fspy; gpd;tUk; tiffis gbj;jPu;fs;. vdNt, mtw;iw
kPz;Lk; ,q;Nf tpthjpf;f Ntz;bajpy;iy.
1. rpWghd;ikapdu; my;yJ njsptw;w kdepiyAila egu;fspd;
xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 11).
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 37

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 37 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid 2. cz;ikf;Fg; gjpyhf xU ,Ujug;G jtWjyhf nra;ag;gl;l
xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 20)
3. guprPyid my;yJ nghUs; njhlu;ghd rl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhd
xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 23)
Fwpg;Gfs;
4. guprPyidapd;wp nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 25)

3.4.1 jpl;ltl;lkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;l ntw;wpl xg;ge;jq;fs;


gpupT 10y; mwptpf;fg;gl;l xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; filrp
mj;jpahtrpakhdJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb, ‘ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;gl
Ntz;ba’ xd;whf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ vd;gjhFk;. ,t;tpjj;jpy;
‘ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;gl;l’ ntw;wplkhd cld;ghLfs; gw;wp
xU Nfs;tp vOfpwJ. ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpy; cs;s ntw;wplj;ij
‘jpl;ltl;lkhf gpufldk;’ nra;J fPo;f;fz;l xg;ge;jq;fs; te;Js;sd:
1. jpUkz fl;Lg;ghL xg;ge;jq;fs;; (gpupT 26)
2. tu;j;jfj;ij jil nra;tjw;fhd xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 27)
3. rl;l eltbf;iffis fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 28)
4. xg;ge;jq;fspd; mu;j;jk; epr;rakw;wJ (gpupT 29)
5. ge;jak; %yk; nra;ag;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 30)
6. rhj;jpakpy;yhj rk;gtq;fspd; kPjhd xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 36)
7. ,ayhj nray;fis nra;a xg;ge;jq;fs; (gpupT 56)
kpf Muk;gj;jpy;> rl;lq;fs; ,e;j xg;ge;jq;fis rl;ltpNuhjkhdit
vd;W mwptpf;fpd;wd. vdNt, mj;jifa cld;gbf;iffSf;fhd
guptu;jj
; idfs; nghUj;jkw;wit ,y;iy vd rl;lg;G+ut ; khf mwptpf;fyhk;.
cz;ikapy;> ,e;j cld;gbf;if rl;ltpNuhjkhd my;yJ rl;ltpNuhj
cld;gbf;iffspy; <LgLk; Ke;ija myFf;F tpthjpf;fg;gltpy;iy
vd;gjhy;> xg;ge;jq;fs; rl;lg;G+ut
; khf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;j xg;ge;jq;fs;
‘rl;ltpNuhjkhd xg;ge;jq;fshf’ cs;sd. rl;ltpNuhj cld;gbf;iffspd;
tp\aj;jpy;> mtu;fSf;F guptu;jj ; idfis toq;FtJ rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ
kw;Wk; mjdhy; ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy vd;gijAk; epidT $wyhk;. tpupthf
,e;j ntw;wpl xg;ge;jq;fis gw;wp ghu;ff ; yhk;. ,it gpd;tUkhW:
1. jpUkz fl;Lg;ghL xg;ge;jq;fs;: xt;nthU jdpegUk;
jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk; Rje;jpuj;ij mDgtpf;fpwhu;. xg;ge;j
rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 26 d; gb> xU rpWghd;ikapdiu jtpu NtW ve;j
egupd; jpUkzKk; jil nra;ag;gLfpw xt;nthU cld;ghLk;
jtwhdJ MFk;. fl;Lg;ghLfs; nghJthf my;yJ gFjpahf
,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;, xg;ge;jk; ntw;wplkhdJ. vdNt, xU
Fwpg;gpl;l egiu my;yJ xU egupd; tu;f;fj;ij> xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpw;F jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s $lhJ vd;w xU
cld;ghL cs;sJ. Mdhy;, ,J epue;jukpy;iy. ,Ug;gpDk;>
rpWghd;ikapdupd; jpUkzj;ij fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xU cld;gbf;if
gpuptpd; fPo; ,J nry;YgbahFk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l egiu jpUkzk;
38 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 38 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


nra;J nfhs;Sk; xU thf;FWjp> ve;jtpjkhd jpUkzj;ijAk; guprPyid

Fwpf;fhJ vd;gNjhL> xU rupahd xg;ge;jk; vd;gijAk;


ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
2. tu;j;jfj;ij fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xg;ge;jq;fs;: ,e;jpahtpd;
murpayikg;G xt;nthU FbkfDf;Fk; tu;j;jfk; kw;Wk; tu;j;jf Fwpg;Gfs;
Rje;jpuj;jpw;F cj;juthjk; mspf;fpwJ. Mifahy;, gpupT 27
ve;jnthU rl;lG+u;tkhd njhopiy> tu;j;jfj;ij my;yJ
tpahghuj;ij Nkw;nfhs;tjd; %yk; jilnra;Ak; ve;j
cld;ghLk;> me;j msTf;F Kuzhf cs;sJ vd;W mwptpf;fpwJ.
vdNt> jd;Dila njhopy; jpwik my;yJ jpwikia ,of;Fk;
ve;jnthU egUk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; %ykhf jd;idj; jw;fhj;Jf;
nfhs;s Rje;jpukhf ,Uf;fpwhu;.
rl;lg;G+u;tkhf toq;fg;gl;l rpy tpjptpyf;FfSf;F vg;NghJk;
cld;gbf;if tpjpf;fg;gLtJ rl;lG+u;tkhdjh my;yJ ,y;iyah
vd;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ. ,J epahakhdjh my;yJ ,y;iyah
vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
Mdhy;, tzpfj;jpd; kPjhd eltbf;ifapid Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F
mtrpakhd eltbf;if Rje;jpuj;ij ntWkNd
kl;Lg;gLj;Jk; cld;gbf;iffs;> jkJ nrhe;j tpUg;gj;jpd;gbNa
jkJ njhopiy xOq;FgLj;Jk; tu;j;jfu; xUtupd; cupikia
vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fk; nfhz;ljy;y.
3. rl;l eltbf;iffis fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xg;ge;jq;fs;: ,e;jpa
xg;ge;jj;jpd; (jpUj;jk;) rl;lk;> 1996> jpUj;jg;gl;l gFjp 28>
fPo;f;fz;l %d;W xg;ge;jq;fs; uj;J nra;ag;gLtjhf mwptpf;fpwJ:
(a) xU xg;ge;jj;ij vLf;Fk; ve;jnthU cupikiaAk;
nghUl;gLj;jhky;> xU rl;lG+u;tkhd rl;l eltbf;iffis
xU jug;G vLg;gjw;fhd xg;ge;jk;.
(b)
tuk;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; mDkjpf;fg;gLk;
fhyg;gFjpapd; NghJ> jdJ xg;ge;j cupikfis
mky;gLj;jf;$ba Neuj;ij fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xU xg;ge;jk;.
(c) xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,Ue;J vOk; cupikfs; ve;j xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; nfhz;L tug;gltpy;iy vd;why;>
tiuaiw rl;lk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l Neuk; fUj;jpy; ,y;yhky;>
xU xg;ge;jk; %yk; Vw;gLk; cupik. ,e;j rl;lj;jpy;
toq;fg;gl;Ls;s epge;jidfisf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
4. epr;rakw;w cld;gbf;iffs;: ‘xg;ge;jq;fs;> ,jd;
mu;j;jk; epr;rakw;wJ my;yJ cWjp nra;ag;glf;$ba jpwd;>
ntw;wplkpy;iy’ (gpupT 29). gpupT 29 %yk;> rl;lk; xU
cld;gbf;iff;Fupa jug;Gfs; cld;ghl;bd; fPo;
mtu;fspd; gu];gu cupikfs; kw;Wk; flikfspd; Jy;ypakhd
jd;ik kw;Wk; Nehf;fk; Fwpj;J mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
vdNt> jug;Gfs; gad;gLj;Jk; nrhw;fs; njsptw;w my;yJ
fhytiuaw;wjhf ,Ue;jhy;> rl;lj;ij mky;gLj;j KbahJ.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 39

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 39 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid NkYk;> Kd;nkhopag;gl;l cld;gbf;ifapd; vy;yh epge;jidfSk;
ntspg;gilahfNth kiwKfkhfNth Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glhtpl;lhy;>
vjpu;fhyj;jpy; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnaOj;jpl ‘xU xg;ge;jk;;’
epr;rakw;wjhfNt cs;sJ. vdNt> mLj;j tUlj;jpy; xU
Fwpg;Gfs; Copaiu <LgLj;JtJ xg;ge;jk; MFk;.
5. ge;ja xg;ge;jq;fs;: ge;jak; vd;why; vd;d? 'ge;jak;' vd;w
nrhy;Yf;F 'gzak;' vd;W nghUs;: xU re;Njfj;jpw;Fupa
tplaj;jpd; tpisthf ,oe;j my;yJ ntd;wjhff; $wg;gl;l xd;W>
cld;gbf;if xg;ge;jq;fs; rhjhuz ge;ja cld;gbf;iffNs
jtpu Ntnwhd;Wkpy;iy.
jhf;fu; vjpuhf `hu;b> L.J. fhl;ld;> ge;jaj;ij gpd;tUkhW
tptupj;jhu;: xU jug;gpdu; ntw;wp ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;>
kw;nwhd;W> me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; Neuj;jpy; xU vjpu;fhy epfo;it
,of;f NeupLk;. mtu; xU top Kiwapy; Njhw;Wg;Nghdhy;> mJ
xU epr;rakw;w jd;ik MFk;. Mdhy;, mtu; NtW topfspy;
ntw;wp ngWthu;.
xU ge;jaj;jpd; mj;jpahtrpa mk;rq;fs;: xU ge;ja xg;ge;jaj;jpd;
mj;jpahtrpaq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
(a) gzk; my;yJ gzj;jpd; kjpg;igf; nfhLg;gjw;fhd xU
cWjpnkhop ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(b) epfo;T ele;jhYk; my;yJ epfotpy;iy vd;whYk; xg;ge;jk;
xU epge;jidahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(c) ,e;j epfo;T epr;rakw;w xd;whf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU
jug;gpdupy; xUtu; ,e;j epfo;it jdJ nrhe;jf; iffspy;
nfhz;bUe;jhy; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy; vd;gJ ge;jak; my;y.
(d) xt;nthU jug;Gk; xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; ntw;wp my;yJ
Njhy;tp ngw Ntz;Lk;. xU jug;G ntw;wpngwyhk;> Njhy;tp
NeuhJ> Mdhy; xU jug;G ntw;wp kl;Lk; ngw KbAk;
Njhy;tp mila KbahJ my;yJ Njhy;tp kl;LNk ngw
KbAk; ntw;wp ngw KbahJ my;yJ ntw;wpNah my;yJ
Njhy;tpNah mila Kbahtpl;lhy; me;j xg;ge;jk; xU
ge;jak; ,y;iy.
(e) ,e;j epfo;tpy; ve;j xU jug;Gk; xU jdpAupk Mu;tj;ij
nfhz;bUf;f $lhJ. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s jug;Gfs;
kl;LNk Mu;tj;ijf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
ge;jak; %yk; xg;ge;jq;fs; nry;Ygbahfhky; cs;sd:
gpupT 30 d; fPo;> ‘ge;jak; %yk; xg;ge;jk; nry;Ygbahfhky;
,Uf;fpwJ. ve;jnthU ntw;wpAk; ngwhjjhff;
$wg;gLk; vijAk; kPl;nlLf;f ve;jnthU tof;FfSk;
vLf;fg;glkhl;lhJ. ve;jnthU tpisahl;bw;Fk;
my;yJ NtW ve;jf; epfo;r;rpf;Fk; epr;rakw;w epfo;it
gpd;gw;Wtjw;F ve;jnthU egUk; nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk;.
40 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 40 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


,e;jg; gpupT Fjpiug; ge;jajpy; rpy gupRfis guprPyid

toq;Ftjw;F tpjptpyf;F mspf;fpwJ. rl;ltpNuhjkhd


re;jh nrYj;Jjy; my;yJ gq;fspg;G> cld;gbf;ifapd;
%yk; re;jh nrYj;jy; my;yJ gq;fspg;ig ,e;j gpupT
mDkjpf;fhJ. jahupf;fg;gl;l Nfhg;ig> gupR my;yJ Fwpg;Gfs;
nkhj;j njhifahfNth my;yJ Ie;E}W &ghNah my;yJ
mjw;F NkyhfNth Fjpiu ge;jaj;jpy; ntw;wp ngw;wtu;
my;yJ ntd;wtUf;F toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
kfhuh\;buk; kw;Wk; F[uhj; khepyq;fspy; ge;ja
xg;ge;jq;fs; vd;gJ xU cs;Shu; rl;lj;jpd; %yk;> mJ
nry;YgbahfhjJ kl;Lky;y rl;ltpNuhjkhdJk; $l
vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;baJ mtrpak;. ,e;j
khepyq;fspy; tpisthf> xg;ge;j cld;gbf;iffSf;fhd
,iz eltbf;iffs; rl;lj;jpy; fsq;fk; Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ>
vdNt ,J nry;YgbahfhJ.
6. rhj;jpakpy;yhj epfo;Tfs; Fwpj;j xg;ge;jq;fs;: xU
rhj;jpakpy;yhj epfo;T ele;jhy;> vijAk; nra;a my;yJ
nra;a Kbahj xg;ge;jq;fs; nry;Ygbahfhky; ,Uf;Fk;. epfo;T
rhj;jpakhfpwjh ,y;iyah vd;gJ Fwpj;j Neuj;jpy; xg;ge;j
jug;gpdUf;F ­njupahJ. (gpupT 36)
7. rhj;jpakpy;yhj rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wtjw;fhd xg;ge;jq;fs;:
‘jd;dstpy; rhj;jpakpy;yhj xU rl;lj;ij ,aw;Wtjw;fhd
xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ nry;YgbahfhJ. (gpupT 56 gj;jp 1)
8. kWrPuikg;G ,y;iy: xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; ‘kWrPuikg;G’ vd;gJ
‘jpUg;gk;’ my;yJ ‘kPl;G’ vd;W nghUs;gLk;. gpupT 65 ,d; gb>
ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg;gl;l nry;Ygbahfhj xg;ge;jq;fspd;
Kiwapy; ngwg;gl;l ed;ikapd; kWrPuikg;ig mDkjpf;f
KbahJ.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


6. nry;Ygbahfhj xg;ge;jk; vd;why; vd;d?
7. ve;j epge;jidapd; fPo; ‘vjpu;fhyj;jpy; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy;
EioaNtz;Lk;’ vd;W $Wf?

3.5 xg;ge;j ntspNaw;wk;


xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; vOk; cupikfs; kw;Wk; flikfs;
ePf;fg;gl;lhy;> xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLtjhf my;yJ
epWj;jg;gLtjhf $wg;gLfpwJ. xU xg;ge;jk; gpd;tUk; VNjDk; xU
topfspy; tpLtpf;fg;glyhk;:
1. nray;jpwd; %yk;: cz;ikahd my;yJ Kaw;rp.
2. gu];gu xg;Gjy; my;yJ cld;gbf;if %yk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 41

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 41 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid 3. mLj;jLj;j my;yJ Nkw;ghu;itaw;w jd;ik my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjk;
%yk;.
4. Neukpd;ik %yk;.
5. rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjd; %yk;.
Fwpg;Gfs;
6. xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjd; %yk;.

1. nray;jpwd; %yk; ntspNaw;wk;


xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwd; vd;gJ xU Vyf;Fj;jifapy; ,Ue;J
ntspNaWk; Kjd;ikahd kw;Wk; tof;fkhd Kiw MFk;. nray;jpwd;:
(1) cz;ikahd nray;jpwd;; my;yJ (2) nray;jpwd; Kaw;rp my;yJ
Vyf;Fj;jif.
1. cz;ikahd nray;jpwd;: xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xt;nthU jug;Gk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; vOk; flikfis epiwNtw;Wk;NghJ>
xg;ge;jj;jpd; cz;ikahd nray;jpwd; kw;Wk; xg;ge;jk; KbTf;F
tUk; my;yJ ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gl;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy;
xU jug;gpdu; kl;LNk jdJ thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;wpdhy;> mtu;
kl;Lk; tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;. ,g;gb xU jug;gpdu; mj;JkPWk;NghJ
kw;w jug;gpdu; me;j jug;Gf;F vjpuhf eltbf;if vLf;Fk;
cupik ngw;Ws;sdu;.
2. nray;jpwd; Kaw;rp my;yJ Vyf;Fj;jif: xg;ge;jf;fhuu;
cld;ghl;bd; fPo; jdJ flikfis epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;Sk;
NghJ> Mdhy; mt;thW nra;a ,ayhJ> mjdhy; thf;FWjp
nray;jpwid Vw;fhJ vd;gjhy;> ,J ‘Kaw;rpj;j nray;jpwd;’
my;yJ ‘Vyf;Fj;jif’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. vdNt
‘Vyf;Fj;jif’ cz;ikahd nray;jpwd; my;y> Mdhy;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; cs;s flikia nra;a xU ‘rYif’ kl;LNk
cs;sJ. nray;jpwdpd; xU rupahd xg;ge;jg;Gs;sp nray;jpwDf;F
rkkhdJ.
(a) nry;Ygbahd xU Vyf;Fj;jif: nry;Ygbahd Vyf;Fj;jif
my;yJ nray;jpwd; rYif gpd;tUk; epge;jidfis
epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;. mit: epge;jidaw;wjhf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;> rupahd Neuj;jpYk; ,lj;jpYk; nra;agl Ntz;Lk;>
KO flikAk; ngw;wpUf;f ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> nghUs;fis
gupNrhjpg;gjw;fhd xU epahakhd tha;g;igf; nfhLf;f
Ntz;Lk;> nghUj;jkhd eguhy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;> kw;Wk;
rupahd msTld; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(b) xU nry;Ygbahd Vyf;Fj;jifia Vw;f kWg;gjd; tpisT:
rupahf nra;ag;gl;l ‘nray;jpwid’ Vw;f kWg;gjd; tpisT>
,e;j xg;ge;jk;> xg;ge;jf;fhuuhy; epfo;jj
; g;gl;ljhf fUjg;gLk;.
mjhtJ xg;ge;jj;ff ; huu; kw;Wk; thf;FWjpaspg;gtu; xg;ge;jj;ij
kPWtjhf tof;fhl KbAk;. vdNt> xU nry;Ygbahd
Vyf;Fj;jif> xg;ge;jj;ij ntspNaw;wk; nra;fpwJ. (gpupT 38).
42 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 42 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


tpjptpyf;F: ,Ug;gpDk;> gzj;ijr; nrYj;jp xg;ge;jj;ij guprPyid

ntspNaw;w KbahJ. mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;l Njjpapy; ,Ue;J tl;b


,y;yhky;> Vyf;Fj;jif mjid kWj;j gpd;dUk;> gzk; nrYj;j
Ntz;b tUk;> Vyj;njhif ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;> ghJfhg;gpw;fhd nryTk;
$l ,e;j tof;fpy; ,Ue;J kPz;L tuyhk;. ([fj; jupdp vjpuhf egh Fwpg;Gfs;
Nfhghy;)

2. gu];gu xg;Gjy; my;yJ cld;gbf;if %yk; ntspNaw;wk;


xU cld;gbf;ifapd; %yk; xU xg;ge;jk; cUthf;fg;gLtjhy;> mJ
mNj jug;Gf;F ,ilapy; kw;nwhU cld;gbf;ifahy; tpLtpf;fg;glyhk;.
gpupT 62 kw;Wk; 63 Mfpait ,e;j tp\aj;jpy; cld;gLfpd;wd kw;Wk;
gu];gu cld;gbf;if %yk; xU xg;ge;jj;ij ntspNaw;wk; nra;a
gpd;tUk; topKiwfis toq;Ffpd;wd:
1. Gjpa xg;ge;jk;: xU Gjpa xg;ge;jk; Vw;fdNt ,Uf;Fk;
xg;ge;jj;jpw;F gjpyhf> mNj jug;gplkpUe;Njh my;yJ ntt;NtW
jug;gplkpUe;Njh> Gjpa cld;gbf;if khw;wg;gl;lNghJ>
Gjpa xg;ge;jk; gioa xg;ge;jj;jpd; ntspg;ghlhf ,Uf;Fk;.
jug;Gfs; khwhky; ,Ue;jhy;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpKiw (mjhtJ>
xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yjd tpjpKiwfs;) Gjpa khw;W xg;ge;jj;jpy;
fzprkhf khw;wpaikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; rpy tpjpfspd;
khWghL> jug;Gfs; xNu khjpupahf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ> ‘Gjpa xg;ge;jk;’
my;yJ ‘khw;wk;’ Njitapy;iy.xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s jug;Gfs;
Gjpa xg;ge;jf;F cld;gLk;NghJ> mry; xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk;
nra;ag;gl Ntz;bajpy;iy.
2. jpUj;jpaikj;jy;: xU xg;ge;jj;ij khw;wpaikj;jy; vd;gJ xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; nghUs; tpjpfspy; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l
Kiwfspy; khw;wk; Vw;gLtjhFk;. vOj;Jg;G+u;t xg;ge;jj;jpy;
xU %yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jhy;> gu];gu xg;GjYld;> mry;
xg;ge;jk; jpUj;jpaikj;J mjd; khw;wg;gl;l tbtj;jpy; xU
Gjpa xg;ge;jk; mjd; ,lj;ijg; ngWfpwJ. xU %yg;nghUs;
jpUj;jpaikj;jy; vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; rl;lG+u;t tpisit
mjhtJ gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba njhifapy; khw;wk;
my;yJ tl;b tpfpjj;jpy; khw;wk; Mfpatw;iw mstpLfpwJ.
gadpy;yhj khw;wq;fs;> v.fh.> Gs;sptptuq;fspy; xU vOj;ju;
gpio my;yJ xU ngaupd; cr;rupg;G Mfpatw;iw rupnra;jy;>
xg;ge;jj;jpd; nry;Ygbapy; ve;j tpisitAk; nfhz;bUf;fhJ
kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g mu;j;jj;jpy; khw;wk; Vw;glhJ.
3. kPl;fg;gLjy;: xU xg;ge;jk;> nray;jpwd; Njjpf;F Kd;> mJ
,dp mtu;fis fl;Lg;gLj;jf;$lhJ vd;W cupikahsu;fSf;F
,ilNa xg;ge;jk; %yk;> cld;gbf;if nra;ag;glyhk;.
mj;jifa cld;ghL ‘kPl;fg;gLjy;’ my;yJ xg;ge;jj;ij
,uj;J nra;jy; vd;W cs;sJ. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; me;je;j
jug;gpduhy; iftplg;gLk; gu];gu thf;FWjpfSf;fhd guprPyid
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 43

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 43 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid MFk;. xg;ge;jj;ij uj;J nra;tjw;fhf xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J vOk;
mtw;wpd; flikfspypUe;J cilikfis tpLtpg;gjw;fhd
xg;ge;jk; ntspaplg;gLfpwJ. gpupT 28 
d; gb ntw;wp ngwhj
rl;l xg;ge;jq;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; xg;ge;jq;fspy; ,Ue;J
Fwpg;Gfs; ,j;jifa cld;ghLfs; NtWgLfpd;wd. xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjw;F
rl;lg;G+u;tkhf eltbf;if vLf;f cupikahsu;fSf;F rl;lk;
fl;lhag;gLj;j KbahJ> vdNt KO nray;jpwDf;Fk;
my;yJ xg;ge;jj;Jf;F ,izahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU gFjpapd;
nray;jpwid my;yJ xg;ge;jj;ij epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf mtu;fs;
xg;Gf;nfhz;lhy;> mJ Kw;wpYk; rupahdNj.
4. kW ,af;fk;: ‘cWjpnkhop Vw;fg;gl;lij tpl Fiwe;j njhifNah
my;yJ thf;FWjpf;F Vw;wijtpl Fiwthd njhifia Vw;gJ’
vd;w Kiwapy; kPzL ; k; gzp tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;. gpupT 63 y;
nray;jpwd; kW,af;fk; kw;Wk; xU thf;FWjp KOikahfNth
my;yJ ghjpahfNth my;yJ xU gFjp> mtUf;F mspj;j
thf;FWjpapd; nray;jpwd;> kw;Wk; mt;thW nra;tjw;fhd
cWjpnkhop vJTk; ,y;iy vd;whYk; mJ fl;LgLj;jg;glyhk;
vd;W tpsf;FfpwJ. xU thf;FWjpapd; nray;jpwDf;fhd Neuj;ij
ePlb
; g;gjw;fhd xU cld;gbf;ifAk;> mJ xU gFjpasT
nray;jpwd; kW,af;fk; vd;gij Mjupg;gJ gw;wpAk; ftdj;jpy;
nfhs;sj; Njitapy;iy vd;W me;j gpupT NkYk; njuptpf;fpwJ.
5. js;Sgb: js;Sgb vd;why;> xU cupikahsUf;F xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; ngWk; cupikia Ntz;Lnkd;Nw
iftpLtNjh my;yJ tpl;Lf; nfhLg;gNjh> me;j xg;ge;jj;Jf;F
kw;nwhU jug;G mtuJ flikapypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
fLikahf NgRtjhy; js;Sgbf;fhd cld;ghL Njit ,y;iy.
Mdhy; mJ ‘gu];gu rk;kjj;jpd;’ fPo; ntspNaw;Wk; Kiw vd;W
ehk; tpthjpj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gjhy;> kw;nwhU jug;gpdu; mjw;F
,irT njuptpf;Fk; vd;W ehk; ek;GfpNwhk;.

3. g
pd;tUfpw my;yJ Nkw;ghu;itaw;w jd;ik my;yJ
rl;ltpNuhjj;jpd; %yk; ntspNaw;WtJ

i. xg;ge;j Neuj;jpy; rhj;jpakw;wJ: ntspg;gilahd rhj;jpakpy;yhj


xd;iw epfo;j;Jtjw;fhf cs;splg;gl;l xU xg;ge;jj;ij
ntspNaw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy. v.fh.> ke;jpuk;
%yk; Gijaiy fz;Lgpbf;f xU cld;gbf;if> Vndd;why;
mj;jifa tof;fpy; Kwpj;Jf; nfhs;s ve;j xg;ge;jKk;
,y;iy ,J gpupT 56> ghuh I ,d; mbg;gilapy; xU xg;ge;jk;
ntw;wplkhf cs;sJ. ‘xU nraiy nra;tjw;F xU cld;ghL
,ayhJ.’ gpupT ,e;j gj;jpapy; ,ay;ghfNth my;yJ mjd;
,aw;ifNah ,y;yhky; ,aq;Ftijf; ftdpf;fTk;> xg;ge;jk;
nra;ag;gl;l Neuj;jpy; ,U jug;gpdUf;Fk; njupe;jpUf;ff;$lhJ
vd;gij ftdpf;fTk;.
44 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 44 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


ii. njhlu;e;J ,ayhik: cz;ikapy; ,e;j xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;l guprPyid
gpwF rhj;jpakw;wJ Nkw;ghu;itf;F cl;gl;lJ> ,J xg;ge;jq;fspd;
ntspNaw;wj;ij Ma;T nra;tjw;fhd nghUs; MFk;. ,e;j
njhlu;gpy;> gpupT 56> ghuh 2> mwptpf;fpwJ: ‘xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;l
gpwF> xU nray; nra;a Kbahjjhy;> rpy epfo;Tfspd; Fwpg;Gfs;
fhuzkhf tpsk;gujhuu; jLf;fKbahj rl;lj;ij ,ayhkNyh
my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjkhfNth nra;Ak;NghJ rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ
ntw;wplkhfptpLk;’. ,it rpy epge;jidfSf;F cl;gl;lit.
iii. Nkw;ghu;it mw;w jd;ikapd; Nfhl;ghL nghUe;Jk; tof;Ffs;:
fPo;f;fhZk; tof;Ffspy; Nkw;ghu;itaw;w jd;ikapd;
mbg;gilapy; xU xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLk;:
1. jiyg;gpd; nghUis mopj;jy;
2. ,Wjp Nehf;fj;jpw;fhd Njhy;tp.
3. ,wg;G my;yJ nrayw;wtupd; jdpg;gl;l ,ayhik.
4. rl;lj;jpd; khw;wk;.
5. Nghu; ntbg;G.
iv. rhj;jpakw;w jw;nray; %yk; %lg;glhj tof;Ffs;:
‘xU nraiy nra;tjw;F cld;gLfpwhu;> mij nra;ahky;

,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ Nrjq;fisf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;’
vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; nghJ tpjp. vdNt> nray;jpwd; Kw;wpYk;
rhj;jpakpy;yhjtiu (NkNy tpthjpf;fg;gl;lgb)> xU egu; mtu;
Nkw;nfhz;l ve;jf; flikiaAk; nra;a flikg;gl;bUf;fpwhu;>
NkYk; nray;jpwd; vjpu;ghuhky; Rikahfptpl;lJ vd;w ntWk;
cz;ikapdhy; mJ kd;dpf;f KbahjJ vd;W $wptpl KbahJ.
kpfTk; fbdkhdNjh my;yJ nrytpNyh nray;jpwDf;F
rhj;jpakpy;yhj rpy tof;Ffs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. fbdkhd nray;jpwd;
2. tpahghu rhj;jpag;ghL
3. xU %d;whk; egupd; ,ay;G epiy fhuzkhf ,Uj;jy;
4. Ntiy epWj;jq;fs; kw;Wk; %bitj;jy;
5. xU nghUspd; Njhy;tp

4. Neukpd;ik %yk; ntspNaw;wk;


xU xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; vd;gJ tuk;Gf;fhyk; vd;W miof;fg;gLk;
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; rl;l eltbf;iffis vLf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynad;why; ePjpkd;wk; xU rl;l kd;wj;jpy; tof;Fj;
njhlu;e;Jk;> xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gl;LtplTk; jil
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ vd;W rl;lk; tiuaiwia tFf;fpd;wJ. ,t;thwhf>
rpy R+o;epiyfspy; mt;tg;NghJ Vw;gLk; ,og;Gk; xU xg;ge;jj;ij
Vw;gLj;jyhk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> vspa xg;ge;jq;fSf;fhd tiuaiwf;
fhyk; %d;W Mz;LfshFk; tuk;Gf;$W rl;lj;jpd; fPo;> fld;fhuuhy;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 45

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 45 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid ,ay;Gepiyahf %d;W Mz;LfSf;Fs; mtUf;F vjpuhf kPl;G tof;F
jhf;fy; nra;atpy;iy vd;why;> fld; fhyk; %d;whz;Lfs; fhyhtjp
Mfp> fld; nfhLj;jtu;fs; rl;lg;gb mtuJ jPu;T gwpNghFk;. ,J
eilKiwapy; xg;ge;jg;Gs;spapy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;wj;ij Fwpf;fpwJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
5. rl;lj;jpd; %yk; ntspNaw;wk;
gpd;tUk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy; rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjd; %yk; xg;ge;jk;
KbtilfpwJ:
(a) ,wg;G
(b) nehbg;G epiy
(c) ,izj;jy;
(d) mq;fPfupf;fg;glhj nghUs; khw;wk;

6. xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajhy; ntspNaw;wk;


xU cupikahsu; xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; vd;gJ xU xg;ge;jj;ij
ntspNaw;Wk; Kiw MFk;. Vnddpy; ‘mj;JkPwy;’ vd;gJ xt;nthU
jug;gpdupd; xU xg;ge;jj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gLk; flg;ghLfis KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;LtUfpwJ. ghjpf;fg;gl;l cupikahsu;> mjhtJ> rl;lj;jpd; gb
xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajw;fhf Nrjj;jpw;F me;j cupikahsu; jtW nra;a
KbahJ. Mdhy;> me;j xg;ge;jk; mg;gbNa epWj;jg;gl;LtpLk;. ePq;fs;
gbj;j kw;Wk; gbf;f NghFk; gpupTfs; rl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
rpy tptukhd epge;jidfSf;F cl;gl;lit vd;gij epidtpy;
nfhs;Sq;fs;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


8. xU xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;glf;$ba gy;NtW ­topfis
gl;bayplTk;.
9. xg;ge;jj;jpd; cz;ikahd nray;jpwd; vd;d?

3.6 xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; kw;Wk; mjd; jPu;Tfs;


ePq;fs; mwpe;jgb xg;ge;j kPwy; ,U tifg;gLk;: (1) Kd;$l;b kPwy;
kw;Wk; (2) cz;ikahd kPwy;.
1. Kd;$l;b kPwy;: xg;ge;jj;ij Kd;$l;bNa kPWjy; vd;gJ>
nray;jpwDf;F epu;zapf;fg;gl;l Neuk; tUtjw;F Kd;Ng>
xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; MFk;. ,J ,U topfspy; eilngWk;:
(a) Ngrg;gLk; my;yJ vOjg;gl;l nrhw;fshy; jpl;ltl;lkhf
(b) jug;gpdu; xUtuJ elj;ij %yk; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ.
xg;ge;jr; rl;lk; gpupT 39 y; xg;ge;j kPwy; Fwpj;J xg;ge;jq;fs;
nra;J nfhs;tJ gw;wp gpd;tUkhW: 'xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; xU
46 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 46 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


jug;gpdu; jd; thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;whky;> jd; thf;FWjpapy; guprPyid

,Ue;J jd;id Klf;fpf; nfhs;Sk; NghJ> ,e;j xg;ge;jj;Jf;F


xU Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;f KbAk;. Mdhy;, thu;j;ijfspy;
my;yJ elj;ij %yk; mtu; kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lhyd;wp,
mjd; njhlu;r;rpapy; tpLjiy' ,Uf;Fk;. Fwpg;Gfs;
2. cz;ikahd kPwy;: cz;ikahd kPwy; xU xg;ge;jj;ij
$l ntspNaw;wyhk;. xU cupikahsu; xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk;
nray;jpwDf;fhf epu;zapf;fg;gl;l Njjpapy; jdJ flikia
nra;aj; jtWk; NghJ epfo;fpwJ. cjhuzkhf> epakpf;fg;gl;l
ehspy;> tpw;gidahsu; nghUl;fis toq;f khl;lhu; my;yJ
thq;Fgtu; tpepNahfj;ij Vw;f kWf;fpwhu;. nray;jpwDf;fhd
Neuk; ,d;Dk; te;J Nrutpy;iy vd;gjhy;> nray;ghl;by; ,y;yhj
fhuzj;jhy;> xg;ge;jj;ij kPwhky; ,Uf;f KbahJ vd;gij
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjw;fhf xg;ge;jj;ij
ifahStjw;F xg;ge;jj;ij elj;Jtjw;F Kd;Dupik ,y;yhj
fl;rpAk;> xg;ge;jj;ij kPWk; Nrjj;jpw;F jtwhd ghijapy; fl;rp
kPJ tof;Fj; njhlu Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj cz;ikahd kPwy;.

xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajhy; Vw;gLk; jPu;Tfs;


xU xg;ge;jj;ij kPWk;Nghnjy;yhk;> tpisT Vw;gLj;jpa jug;gpdu;
Fw;wk; nra;j jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhf VNjDk; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l jPu;TfisAk; ngw cupik ngWfpwJ:
1. xg;ge;jj;ij ,uj;J nra;jy;
2. ,og;gPl;bw;fhd tof;F
3. gzpf;Fj; jf;f njhif kPJ tof;F
4. xg;ge;jj;jpd; Fwpg;ghd nray;ghl;Lf;fhd tof;F
5. xU cj;juTf;fhd tof;F
NkNy $wg;gl;l filrp ,uz;L jPu;TfisAk; nghWj;j tiu>
,r;rl;lk;> 1963 y; Fwpg;gpl;l epthuz rl;lj;jhy; xOq;FgLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

1. xg;ge;jj;ij ,uj;J nra;jy;


xU jug;gpduhy; xg;ge;jk; kPwg;gLk;NghJ> kw;nwhU jug;gpdu;
xg;ge;jj;ij ,uj;J nra;J> xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; mtuJ flikfisr;
nra;a Ntz;bajpy;iy. Fw;wk; nra;j jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhf ve;j
rl;lG+u;t eltbf;ifiaAk; vLf;ff;$lhJ vd;W KbntLj;jhy;
tPl;by; mikjpahf mku;e;Jtplyhk;. Mdhy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdu;>
xg;ge;jj;ij kPwpajw;fhf Fw;wk; Gupe;j jug;gpdiu fhg;ghw;Wtjw;F
tif nra;Ak; gl;rj;jpy;> xg;ge;jj;ij ,uj;J nra;a mtu; tof;F
jhf;fy; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ePjpkd;wk; ,uj;J nra;Ak;NghJ> ghjpf;fg;gl;l
jug;gpdu;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; cs;s mtuJ flikfs; midj;jpYkpUe;J
tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;; xg;ge;jj;jpd; mkyhf;fk; (gpupT 75) %yk; ve;j
,og;gPLfisAk; <L nra;a cupikAilatuhfpwhu;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 47

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 47 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid vdNt> ‘xg;ge;jj;ij kPl;Lf; nfhs;SkhW’ ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F
tpz;zg;gk; nra;tJ> kPwy; my;yJ NtW VNjDk; jPu;itg; ngWtjw;F
,og;gPL tpistpg;gjw;fhd mtrpakhFk;. eilKiwapy;> ‘kPl;Fk;
nghUl;L’ xU tof;F ‘,og;gPl;bw;F nghUj;jkhf’> cs;sJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
2. ,og;gPl;bw;fhd tof;F
xg;ge;j kPwy;fspdhy; Vw;gl;l ,og;G my;yJ e\;lj;jpw;fhf ghjpf;fg;gl;l
jug;gpdUf;F toq;fg;gLk; xU gz ,og;gl P i
; l <Lnra;tJ MFk;.
,og;gLP fSf;fhd mbg;gil nfhs;if jz;lidNa md;wp ,og;gL P my;y.
guprPyidapd; %yk; ghjpg;G Vw;gLj;jpdhy;> e\;lkile;j jug;gpdiu
gjtpapy; ,Uf;f itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Nehf;fk; nray;jpwd;>
kPwy; ,y;iy> kw;Wk; jtwhd fl;rpia jz;bf;f $lhJ vd;gjhFk;. xU
nghJ tpjp vd;w Kiwapy;> ‘,og;gpypUe;J ,aw;ifahf vOk; el;lj;jpw;F
<L nra;a Ntz;Lk;.’ ‘cz;ikahd ,og;G ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why;>
ve;j ,og;gLP fSk; toq;fg;gl KbahJ.’
ehd;F tifahd ,og;gPLfs; cs;sd. ,it:
••rhjhuz (gpupT 73)
••rpwg;Gw ,og;gPLfs; (gpupT 73)
••Kd;Djhuzkhd> jz;lid my;yJ gopthq;Fk; ,og;Gfs;
••ngausTf;F ,og;G
fiyf;fg;gl;l ,og;gPLfs; kw;Wk; mguhjk;: ,uz;L tpjpKiwfspd;gb
ehk; vijf; Fwpg;gpLfpNwhk; vd;gij Kjypy; mwpe;J nfhs;Nthk;.
‘fiyf;fg;gl;l ,og;gPLfs;’ vd;gJ Kd;$l;bNa epu;zapf;fg;gLk;
njhifahFk;. ,J kPwypy; ,Ue;J tpisTf;F tUk; rhj;jpakhd
,og;gpd; epahakhd kw;Wk; cz;ikahd Kd; kjpg;gPL MFk;.
,e;jpa rl;lj;jpd;gb> gpupT 74> ‘jz;lid’ kw;Wk; ‘mguhjk;’
,uz;Lf;Fk; cs;s NtWghl;il tpyf;Fk;. ,e;j gpupT ePjpkd;wq;fs;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s $l;Lj; njhifia kPWtjw;F
,og;gPlhf nrYj;jg;gLk; ,og;gPLfs; my;yJ mguhjq;fs; mjhtJ>
mj;JkPwYf;fhf toq;fg;gLk; njhif vd;W $wg;gLfpd;wd.
khwhf> ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; ngauplg;gl;Ls;s njhiff;F kpfhky;
cz;ikahd ,og;ig <Lnra;Ak; tifapy; epahakhd ,og;gPL toq;f
ePjpkd;wq;fSf;F mDkjp Njit.
tpjptpyf;F: ,Ug;gpDk;> NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l tpjpf;F gpupT 74 y;
toq;fpa xU tpjptpyf;F cs;sJ. ve;jnthU egUk; ve;jnthU
gpiz gj;jpuNkh> mq;fPfhuNkh my;yJ NtW ve;j fUtpahfNth
my;yJ ve;j rl;lj;jpd; fPo; my;yJ murhq;fj;jpd; fl;lisfspd;
fPo; ve;jnthU nghJ flik my;yJ nray;jpl;lj;jpw;fhd ve;jnthU
gpizg;Gk; mj;jifa fUtpapd; epge;jid kPwy; njhlu;ghf mjpy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;Fk; nkhj;j njhifia nrYj;j mtu; nghWg;ghdtu;.
Vw;w nryT: ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdu;> Nrjhuq;fis jtpu;j;J> me;j
Miz ngWtjw;fhd nryTfis> jtwpioj;j jug;gpduplk; ,Ue;J
48 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 48 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;w cupikAs;sJ. ,og;gPLfSf;F Vw;w nryT> guprPyid

ePjpkd;wj;jpd; tpUg;gg;gb cs;sJ.

3. gzpf;Fj; jf;f njhif kPJ tof;F


Fw;wthspfSf;F vjpuhf e\;lkile;j xU jug;gpdUf;F xg;ge;jk; Fwpg;Gfs;
kPwg;gLtjw;fhd %d;whtJ jPu;T Fthz;lk; nkupl; kPJ tof;Fj;
jhf;fy; nra;tjhFk;. Fthz;lk; nkupl; vd;w nrhw;nwhliuf; Fwpf;Fk;
nghUs; ‘rk;ghjpf;Fk; msT’ my;yJ ‘Ntiy nra;ag;gLk; msT’
vd;W mu;j;jk;. Fthz;lk; Nru;g;gjd; kPJ tof;F njhLf;Fk; cupik
tof;fkhf xU jug;gpdupd; xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU gFjpapd; nray;jpwd;
my;yJ xg;ge;jk; ntw;wpaile;jhNyh my;yJ ntw;wplkhfNth ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.

4. xg;ge;jj;jpd; Fwpg;ghd nray;ghl;Lf;fhd tof;F


Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwd; vd;gJ xg;Gf;nfhz;lgb xg;ge;jj;ij
epiwNtw;wf; $ba cz;ikahd nghUs;. rpy R+o;epiyfspy;> xU
ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdu; Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwDf;F Vw;w tifapy; tof;F
jhf;fy; nra;ayhk;> mjhtJ> mtu; nra;j thf;FWjpia cz;ikapy;
epiwNtw;WkhW ePjpkd;wk; gpwg;gpj;j Mizapid jhf;fy; nra;ayhk;.
Fwpg;gpl;l tpsf;fj;jpw;fhd xU Miz xt;nthU tpsf;fj;jpd;
xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fk; toq;fg;gltpy;iy. ,J epahakhdJ kw;Wk;
rkkhdjhFk;> mjhtJ rl;l uPjpahd jPuT ; NghJkhdjhf ,y;yhj
FiwghLs;s ,lj;jpy; kl;Lk; jhd; ePjpkd;wq;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwDf;F
xU Mizia toq;Ffpd;wd. ,J nghJthf epyk;> fl;llq;fs;>
mupa fl;Liufs; kw;Wk; jdpr;rpwg;ghd gz;lq;fSld; njhlu;Gila
xg;ge;jq;fspy;> FLk;g rq;fk; fhuzkhf jug;gpdUf;F rpy tpNr\
kjpg;ig mspf;ff;$bajhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j xg;ge;jq;fs; midj;jpYk;>
epjpa ,og;gLP vd;gJ NghJkhd epthuzk; my;y> Vnddpy; e\;lkile;j
jug;gpdu; re;ijapy; rupahd gjpyPli
; l ngw KbahJ.
xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpjpKiwfspy; rpy Fwpg;gpl;l tp\aq;fspy;
Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwd; toq;fg;gltpy;iy:

5. xU cj;juTf;fhd tof;F
xU Fwpg;gpl;l nraiy nra;tjpypUe;J xU egiu fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
ePjpkd;wk;> ‘jil cj;juT’ MFk;. ,J xg;ge;jj;jpd; vjpu;kiw
tpjpKiwfspd; Fwpg;gpl;l nray;jpwid ghJfhf;Fk; xU tif
MFk;. mij NtWtpjkhf $wpdhy;> mq;F xU jug;gpdu; xg;ge;jj;jpd;
vjpu;kiwf; fhyj;ij kPWtjhFk;. (mjhtJ> mtu; nra;a Ntz;lhk;
vd;W cWjpaspj;j xd;iw mtu; nra;fpwhu;)> ePjpkd;wk; xU
jilAj;juit gpwg;gpj;jjd; %yk;> mtu; nra;a Ntz;lhk; vd;W
thf;FWjp mspj;jpUf;fyhk;. ,t;thW ‘jil’ vd;gJ jLg;G epthuzpahf
cs;sJ. Nrjq;fs; xU NghJkhd epthuzk; ,Uf;fhJ> mq;F 'xg;ge;j
Kd;fzpg;G kPwy;' tof;Ffspy; ,J Fwpg;ghf nghUj;jkhdJ MFk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 49

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 49 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid
cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf
10. Kd;$l;bNa kPWjy; vd;why; vd;d?
11. Fthz;lk; nkupl; kPJ ahu; tof;F jhf;fy; nra;ayhk;?
Fwpg;Gfs;
3.7 Njhw;w-xg;ge;jq;fs;
xU xg;ge;jk; rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;jf;$ba xU xg;ge;jj;jpd;
tpisTjhd; vd;gij ePq;fs; Vw;fdNt mwptPu;fs;. Mdhy; rpy
re;ju;g;gq;fspy; ve;jtpjkhd xg;GjYk;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;sKbahj> ve;jtpj
cld;ghLfSk; ,y;iy> cz;ikapy;> fl;rpfspd; elj;ij kw;Wk;
cwTfspypUe;J xU xg;ge;jk; kw;Wk; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpy; Eiotjw;F
fl;rpfspd; xU gFjpahf ve;j Nehf;fKk; ,y;iy xU fl;rpapd; kPJ
flikg;gl;bUf;Fk; xU thf;FWjp kw;Wk; kw;wtUf;F Mjuthf xU
cupikiaf; nfhLg;gJ MFk;. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;>
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l R+o;epiyfspy; xg;ge;jj;jhy; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ltu;fis
fl;Lg;ghLfs; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; Rkj;jg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; fl;rpfs;
xUNghJk; xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioe;jjpy;iy. rl;lj;jhy; Rkj;jg;gl;l
flg;ghLfs;> Mq;fpyr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;jq;fs;’ my;yJ
‘fl;Lkhd xg;ge;jq;fs;’ ,e;jpa rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jq;fshy;
cUthf;fg;gLk; rpy xw;Wikfs; Nghd;wit ,Ue;jd. mj;jifa
xg;ge;jk; xU xg;ge;jj;ijg; nghWj;j tiu my;yJ tpisitg;
nghWj;Js;sJ vd;gjhy;> ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;jk;’ guprPypf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ.
Mdhy; mjd; gilg;G Kiw njhlu;ghf xU xg;ge;jj;Jld; mJ
rpwpjsT my;yJ mjw;F Nky; ehl;lk; nfhs;stpy;iy.

3.7.1 Njhw;w xg;ge;j flikfs;


68 Kjy; 72 tiuapyhd gpupTfspd; fPo; ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;j flikfs;’
gw;wp tpthjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,it:
1. xg;ge;jk; nra;a KbahjtUf;F my;yJ mtupd; fzf;fpy;
toq;fg;gl;l mtrpaj;jpw;fhd Nfhupf;if (gpupT 68)
2. NtnwhUtuplk; gzk; nrYj;JgtUf;F mtu; tpUg;gg; gzj;jpdhy;
<L nra;jy;> (gpupT 69)
3. mtrpakw;w rl;lk; %yk; Mjhak; mDgtpf;Fk; egupd; flik
(gpupT 70)
4. nghUl;fis fz;Lgpbg;gjw;fhd nghWg;G (gpupT 71)
5. gzk; nrYj;jg;gl;l egupd; nghWg;G> my;yJ tw;GWj;jypd; fPo;
toq;fg;gl;ltupd; nghWg;G

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


12. ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;jk;’ vd;why; vd;d?
13. ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;j flikfs;’ rpytw;iw gl;baypLf.
50 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 50 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


3.8 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Nrhjpj;jwpAk; guprPyid

tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1.
,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 (d) gpd;tUkhW
guprPypf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ: tpsk;gujhuu; tpUg;gj;jpd; NghJ> Fwpg;Gfs;
thf;FWjpNah my;yJ NtW ve;j egu; nra;jhYk; nra;ahtpl;lhYk;>
nra;tjpypUe;J tpyfpNah> mj;jifa nray; thf;fspg;gijj;
jtpu;j;jy;> my;yJ cWjpnkhop vd;gJ thf;FWjpf;F xU
guprPyid vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
2. gpd;tUk; tifapy; rupahd guprPyidapy; cs;s Njitfs;
gpd;tUkhW:
i. guprPyidapd; tpUg;gj;ij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
ii. thf;FWjp my;yJ NtW ve;j eguplkpUe;Jk; guprPypf;fyhk;
iii. guprPyid fhyk;> epfo;fhyk; my;yJ vjpu;fhykhf ,Uf;fyhk;
iv. guprPyidf;Fg; ‘VNjh kjpg;G’ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
3. G+u;j;jp nra;ag;gl;l gupR (mJ xU xg;ge;jk; my;y) nry;YgbahFk;
nghUl;L guprPyid Njitapy;iy. ,e;j tpjptpyf;F <u;g;gjw;fhf>
ed;nfhil kw;Wk; nra;gtu;fspilNa ,aw;if md;G kw;Wk;
neUq;fpa cwT Mfpait ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. vdpDk;> gupR
KOikahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
4. gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfspy; xg;ge;j nra;a xUtu; jFjpaw;w
­epiyapy; cs;shu;:
i. mtu; ve;j tp\aj;jpy; rl;lj;ij mbg;gilahff;
nfhz;ltuhf ,Ue;jhYk;>
ii. mtu; kd epk;kjpapy;yhjtuhf ,Ue;jhy;> kw;Wk;
iii.
mtu; ve;jnthU rl;lj;jpYk; xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,Ue;J
jFjpaw;wtuhf ,Ue;jhy; mtu; ve;j tp\aj;jpy; cl;gl;ltuhf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
5. ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpy; 10 tJ gpupT ‘,ytr xg;Gjy;’ vd;w
nrhy;iy tiuaWf;fpwJ.
6. [gpupT 2 (g)] y; ‘rl;lj;jhy; mky;gLj;j Kbahj cld;ghL
ntw;wplkhff; $wg;gLfpwJ’. ,jdhy; xU ntw;wpl xg;ge;jk; ve;j
rl;l tpisTfisAk; Vw;gLj;jhJ kw;Wk; njhlf;fj;jpypUe;Nj
ntw;wplkhfNt cs;sJ. rl;lj;jpd; fz;zpy; ,j;jifa
cld;ghL mjd; Muk;gj;jpypUe;Nj ve;j xg;ge;jj;ijAk;
nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy.
7. ‘vjpu;fhyj;jpy; xU cld;ghl;Lf;Fs; EiotJ’ vd;w fUj;J
Kd;nkhopag;gl;l xg;ge;jj;jpd; epge;jidfs; midj;Jk;
ntspg;gilahf my;yJ cl;Fwpg;ghf xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;glhjtiu
epr;rakw;w jd;ikia nfhz;Ls;sJ.
8. gpd;tUk; topfspy; VNjDk; xU xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wg;glyhk;:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 51

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 51 5/20/2019 12:57:49 PM


guprPyid i. nray;jpwd; %yk;: cz;ikahd my;yJ Kaw;rp.
ii. gu];gu xg;Gjy; my;yJ xg;ge;jk; %yk;.
iii. gpd;tUfpw my;yJ Nkw;ghu;itaw;w my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjk;
%yk;.
Fwpg;Gfs;
iv. Neukpd;ik
v. rl;lj;jpd; %yk;
vi. xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjd; %yk;.
9. xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xt;nthU jug;gpdUk;> Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs;
kw;Wk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy;> xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; vOk; jdJ
flikia epiwNtw;Wk; NghJ> mJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; cz;ikahd
nray;ghl;bw;Fk;> xg;ge;jk; xU KbTf;F tUk; my;yJ
ntspNawptpLk;. Mdhy; xU jug;gpdu; kl;LNk jdJ thf;FWjpia
epiwNtw;wpdhy; mtu; kl;Lk; tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;. ,g;gb xU
jug;gpdu; mj;JkPwpdhy; Fw;wk; Gupe;j kw;w jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhf
eltbf;if cupik vLf;fg;gLk;.
10. xg;ge;j kPwiy Kd;$l;bNa kPWjy; vd;gJ> nray;jpwDf;F
epu;zapf;fg;gl;l Neuk; tUtjw;F Kd;Ng> xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; MFk;.
xU Kd;$l;bNa xg;ge;jj;jpd; kPwy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> thf;FWjp
nray;jpwd; my;yJ $Ljy; nray;jpwd; ,Ue;J jtpu;ff ; g;gLfpwJ.
11. Fthz;lk; nkupl; vd;w nrhw;nwhliuf; Fwpf;Fk; nghUs;
‘rk;ghjpf;Fk; msTf;F’ my;yJ ‘Ntiy nra;ag;gLk;
msTf;F’ vd;W mu;j;jk;. Fthz;lk; Nru;g;gjd; kPJ tof;F
njhLf;Fk; cupik tof;fkhf xU jug;gpdupd; xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU
gFjpapd; nray;jpwd; my;yJ xg;ge;jk; ntw;wpaile;jhNyh
my;yJ ntw;wplkhfNth ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
12. rpy Fwpg;gpl;l R+o;epiyfspy; xg;ge;jj;jhy; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ltu;fis
fl;Lg;ghl;L rl;lj;jpd; %yk; Rkj;jg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; fl;rpfs;
xUNghJk; xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioe;jjpy;iy. rl;lj;jhy; Rkj;jg;gl;l
flg;ghLfs;> Mq;fpyr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;jq;fs;’ my;yJ
‘fl;Lkhd xg;ge;jq;fs;’ ,e;jpa rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jq;fshy;
cUthf;fg;gLk; rpy xw;Wikfs; Nghd;wit ,Ue;jd. mj;jifa
xg;ge;jk; xU xg;ge;jj;ijg; nghWj;j tiu my;yJ tpisitg;
nghWj;Js;sJ vd;gjhy;> ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;jk;’ guprPypf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ.
Mdhy; mjd; gilg;G Kiw njhlu;ghf xU xg;ge;jj;Jld; mJ
rpwpjsT my;yJ mjw;F Nky; ehl;lk; nfhs;stpy;iy.
13. 68 Kjy; 72 tiuapyhd gpupTfspd; fPo; ‘Fth]p-xg;ge;j
flikfs;’:
i. xg;ge;jk; nra;a KbahjtUf;F my;yJ mtupd; fzf;fpy;
toq;fg;gl;l mtrpaj;jpw;fhd Nfhupf;if (gpupT 68)
ii. NtnwhUtuplk; gzk; nrYj;JgtUf;F mtu; tpUg;gg;
gzj;jpdhy; <L nra;jy;> (gpupT 69)
52 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 52 5/20/2019 12:57:50 PM


iii. mtrpakw;w rl;lk; %yk; Mjhak; ngUk; egupd; flik guprPyid

(gpupT 70)
iv. nghUl;fis fz;Lgpbg;gjw;fhd nghWg;G (gpupT 71)
v. gzk; nrYj;jg;gl;l egupd; nghWg;G> my;yJ tw;GWj;jypd;
Fwpg;Gfs;
fPo; toq;fg;gl;ltupd; nghWg;G

3.9 RUf;fk;
••,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 2 (d) gpd;tUkhW guprPypf;fg;gl;L
tUfpwJ: tpsk;gujhuu; tpUg;gj;jpd; NghJ> thf;FWjpNah my;yJ
NtW ve;j egu; nra;jhYk; nra;ahtpl;lhYk;> nra;tjpypUe;J
tpyfpNah> mj;jifa nray; my;yJ thf;fspg;gijj; jtpu;j;jy;>
my;yJ cWjpnkhop vd;gJ thf;FWjpf;F xU guprPyid vd;W
miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
•• xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; nry;YgbahFk; vd;w thf;FWjpf;F> guprPyid
NghJkhdjhf mikf;ftpy;iy. rl;lk; kl;LNk ftdj;jpy;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;> mJ NghJkhd msTf;F ,y;iy vd;W
typAWj;JfpwJ. jkJ nrhe;j ghuq;fis Rygkhf ngw mJ
kf;fis Rje;jpukhf tpl;LtpLfpwJ.
••11 Mk; gpupT> ‘xt;nthU egUk; jhk; Ma;Tf;Fl;gLeuhf ,Uf;Fk;
rl;lj;jpd; gb ngUk;ghd;ikapdupd; taJ tuk;gpd;gb xg;ge;jk;
nra;a jFjpAilatu;fshf cs;sdu; kw;Wk; mtu; ve;j tpjp-
Kiwapd; mbg;gilapy; vg;gb ,Ue;jhYk; mij xg;ge;jk;
nra;tjpy; ,Ue;J jFjpaw;wtu; my;y’ vd;W $WfpwJ.
••xg;ge;jj; rl;lj;jpy; 13-,d; gpuptpy; ‘xg;Gjy;’ vd;w nrhy;iy
tiuaiw nra;J ‘,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l egu;fs;
xNu nghUspy; ,Nj tp\aj;ij xg;Gf; nfhs;Sk; NghJ vd;W
nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
••‘xU xg;ge;jk;> Njitaw;w nry;thf;fpdhy; J}z;lg;gLtjhf
$wg;gLfpwJ. (I) jug;gpdu;fSf;fpilNa cs;s cwTfs;
kw;wtu;fspd; tpUg;gj;ij Mjpf;fk; nrYj;Jk; xU epiyapy;
cs;sJ kw;Wk; (ii) mtu; kw;wtiu xU epahakw;w Mjhaj;ijg;
ngWk; epiyg;ghl;ilg; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;.’
••xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; xt;nthU fl;rpAk;> Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs;
tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Kiwapy; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; vOk; jdJ
flikia epiwNtw;Wk; NghJ> mJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; cz;ikahd
nray;ghl;bw;Fk; xg;ge;jk; xU KbTf;F tUk; my;yJ
ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gl;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy; xU jug;gpdu;
kl;LNk jdJ thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;wpdhy;> mtu; kl;Lk;
tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;. ,g;gb xU jug;gpdu; mj;JkPwpdhy; Fw;wk;
Gupe;j kw;w jug;gpdUf;F vjpuhf eltbf;if cupik ngWfpwJ.
••xU xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; vd;why;> tuk;Gf;fhyk; vd;W
miof;fg;gLk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; rl;l eltbf;if
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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guprPyid vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> ,y;iynad;why;> thf;FWjp rl;lj;jpd;
ePjpkd;wk; xU rl;l kd;wj;jpy; tof;Fj; njhlug;gLtijj;
jilnra;fpwJ kw;Wk; xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
••xU fl;rpahy; xg;ge;jj;ij kPWjy; vd;gJ xU xg;ge;jj;ij
Fwpg;Gfs; ntspNaw;Wk; Kiw MFk;. Vnddpy; ‘kPwy;’ vd;gJ xt;nthU
fl;rpfspd; xg;ge;jj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gLk; fl;Lg;ghLfis
KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUfpwJ.
••xg;ge;j kPwy;fspdhy; Vw;gl;l ,og;G my;yJ e\;lj;jhy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdUf;F toq;fg;gLk; xU gz ,og;gPl;il
<Lnra;tJ MFk;. ,og;gPLfSf;fhd mbg;gil nfhs;if
jz;lidNa md;wp ,og;gPL my;y.
••Fthz;lk; nkupl; vd;w nrhw;nwhliuf; Fwpf;Fk; nghUs; ‘rk;ghjpf;Fk;
msTf;F’ my;yJ ‘Ntiy nra;ag;gLk; msTf;F’ vd;W mu;jj ; k;.
Fthz;lk; Nru;gg ; jd; kPJ tof;F njhLf;Fk; cupik tof;fkhf xU
jug;gpdupd; xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU ­gFjpapd; nray;jpwd; my;yJ xg;ge;jk;
ntw;wpaile;jhNyh my;yJ ntw;wplkhfNth ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
••‘xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioa jFjpaw;w xUtu;> my;yJ mtu;
rl;lG+u;tkhdtuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;> NtW eguhy;
tho;f;iff;F nghUe;jf;$ba jdJ epge;jidf;F Vw;wtifapy;>
mj;jifa tpepNahfq;fis toq;fpa egu; nrhj;jpypUe;J jpUk;g
ngw cupikAs;sJ.

3.10 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;


•• mrhjhuzj;ij Nkw;ghu;it nra;jy;: ,J xU xg;ge;jj;ij cUthf;fpa
gpwF epfof;$ba rj;jpak;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;j tpsk;gujhuupd;
nray;jpwd; fhuzkhf ,Uf;Fk; Neuj;jpy; ,J vOfpwJ.
••uj;J nra;jy;: xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpy;> fl;rpfSf;F ,ilapyhd
xg;ge;jj;ij uj;J nra;tJ vd xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. xU
nfhLf;fy; thq;fypy; ,Ue;J mfw;wy; vd;gJ Kbe;j tiu
fl;rpfis nfhz;L te;J mtu;fs; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk;
Kd;G ,Ue;j epiyf;F jpUk;Gtjw;F nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
••Fthz;lk; nkupl;: vd;w nrhw;nwhlu; yj;jPdpypUe;J cUthdJ
,jd; nghUs; ‘rk;ghjpf;Fk; msTf;F’. xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd;
R+oypy; mJ ‘Nritfspd; epahakhd kjpg;G’ tupirapy; xd;W.
mnkupf;fhtpy;> Fthz;lk; Nru;g;gjw;fhd $Wfs; khepyj;jpy;
nghJthd rl;lj;jhy; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

3.11 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;


FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. guprPyidfspd; gy;NtW $Wfis rpW Fwpg;G tiuf.
2. jq;fs; cupikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd rpW xg;ge;jq;fs; gw;wp
54 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
RUf;fkhf vOJf.

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 54 5/20/2019 12:57:50 PM


3. fhy ,og;gpdhy; Vw;gLk; ntspNaw;wk; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJf. guprPyid

4. xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s cz;ik kPwy; gw;wp RUf;fkhf Fwpg;G


tiuf.
5. Fth]p-xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij RUf;fkhf vOJf.
Fwpg;Gfs;
neL tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. ‘rl;lk; xU kjpg;ig ,izf;Fk;’ VjhtJ xU tifapy; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j mwpf;ifia epahag;gLj;jTk;.
2. xU xg;ge;jj;ij ntspNaw;w my;yJ epWj;jf;$ba gy;NtW
topfis Ma;f.
3. xg;ge;j kPwy; Vw;gLk; NghJ gy;NtW jPu;T eltbf;iffis
tpupthf tpthjpf;fTk;.

3.12 NkYk; gbf;f


Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;
myF 4 jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;
mikg;G
Fwpg;Gfs; 4.0 Kd;Diu
4.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
4.2 fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; cj;juthjk;> cupikfs; kw;Wk;
ntspNaw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;Jf;fhd xg;ge;jk;
4.2.1 ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jq;fs;
4.2.2 cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jq;fs;
4.2.3 fldpypUe;J cj;jputhjk; ntspNaw;wy;;
4.3 gpizak; kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
4.3.1 gpizaj;jpd; tifg;ghLfs;
4.3.2 gpizak; mspg;gtu; kw;Wk; gpizak; ngWgtu;
flikfs; kw;Wk; cupikfs;
4.3.3 gpiznaLg;G epWj;jk;
4.4 Kfthz;ik rl;lk;
4.4.1 nghJ xOq;FKiw Kfthz;ik
4.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
4.6 RUf;fk;
4.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
4.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
4.9 NkYk; gbf;f

4.0 Kd;Diu
fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; cj;juthjk; ,uz;Lk; ntt;Ntwhdit vd;whYk;
mit ngUk;ghYk; xNu khjpupj; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. xU cj;juthjj;jpy;>
fldhsu; fldhspapd; flikia epiwNtw;wj; jtwptpl;lhy; kl;LNk
fld; ngWfpwJ> kWGwj;jpy;> xU ,yhgj;ij fUj;jpy; nfhs;Sk;NghJ>
xU Kd;Dupikf;F khwhf epfo;it epfo;j;Jtjd; mbg;gilapy; xU
Neubahd kw;Wk; Kjd;ik flikahFk;. ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; cz;ikapy;
‘fl;Lg;ghl;L xg;ge;jq;fspd; nghJ tu;f;fj;jpd;’ xU gFjpahFk;.
vjpu;ghu;j;j ,og;Gf;F vjpuhf thf;FWjpfis ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L
mJ EiofpwJ. cj;jputhjj;ij nfhLf;Fk; egu;> ‘cWjpahsu;’ vd;W
miof;fpd;whu;; ahUila ,ay;Gepiy cj;juthjkhf toq;fg;gLfpwJ
vd;w egUf;F> ‘Kjd;ik fldhsu;;’ vd;W ngau;. cj;juthjk; jug;gLk;
egUf;F ‘fldhsu;;’ vd;W ngau;. ,e;j cj;juthjk; tha;nkhop
my;yJ vOjg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fld; my;yJ
guptu;j;jidf;fhd xU ‘rhjhuz cj;juthjk;’> mJ nray;gl;lTld;
jpUk;gg; ngwg;gl KbahJ. Mdhy; xU ‘njhlu;r;rpahd cj;juthjk’
ve;j Neuj;jpYk;> tUq;fhy guptu;j;jidfis gw;wp> fld;fhuUf;fhf
mwptpg;G toq;Ftjd; %yk; jpUk;gg; ngwg;glyhk;. gy R+o;epiyfspy;
vjpu;fhy guptu;j;jidfspy; mJ jpUk;gg; ngwg;glyhk;.
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xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 148 gpiz kw;Wk; mjd; mj;jpahtrpa jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

mk;rq;fis toq;FfpwJ. cupkk; xg;ge;jj;jpy;> ruf;F cupikjhuUf;F


tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gltpy;iy> gpiz vLg;gpy;> nghUl;fs; xg;gilAWeu;fF ;
tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. gpiz vLg;G xg;ge;jk;> gy;NtW R+o;epiyfspy;
epWj;jg;glyhk;. epWtdk; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo>; Kftu; Kjd;ik (mtuJ Fwpg;Gfs;
Kjyhsp) kw;Wk; %d;whk; jug;gpw;Fk; ,ilNa xg;ge;jj;ij jdpahu;kakhf;f
mq;ffP huk; ngw;wtu;. xU Kftupd; Kf;fpakhf nray;ghL> Kjd;ik
kw;Wk; %d;whk; jug;gpdUf;fpilNa xg;ge;j cwTfis mbg;gilahf
nfhz;lJ MFk;. vdNt> xU Kftu; ntWkNd ,izf;Fk; ,izg;G
xU tifapy;> rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs; MFk;.
,e;j myF> rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fisj; jukw;w kw;Wk; cj;juthjk;
Nghd;wtw;iw Ma;T nra;J> ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpy; gpiz kw;Wk;
Kfikj; jpl;l nray;ghl;il tpsf;FfpwJ.

4.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myF topahf nrd;w gpwF> ePq;fs; gpd;tUtdtw;iw nra;a
KbAk;:
••,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;ij Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;
••cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jj;ij tptupf;fTk;
••cupikfs; kw;Wk; cj;juthjj;ij ntspNaw;Wjy;
••gpiz vLg;igAk; cWjpnkhopiaAk; mwpaTk;
••‘gpizak;’ kw;Wk; ‘cupkk;’ ,tw;wpf;F ,ilNa tpj;jpahrj;ij
Gupe;Jnfhs;Sjy;
••gpiz kw;Wk; gpizahsupd; flikfs; kw;Wk; cupikfs; gw;wp
tpsf;fTk;
••Kftupd; nghJthd tpjpfis mwpe;Jnfhs;Sjy;

4.2 fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; cj;juthjk;> cupikfs; kw;Wk;


ntspNaw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;Jf;fhd xg;ge;jk;

md;whl tho;f;ifapy;> ,og;gPl;il nrYj;Jtjw;F ,og;gPl;L fhg;GWjp


gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. rpwe;j cjhuzk; ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; xU fhg;gPl;Lf;
nfhs;ifahf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij tpsf;f Ntz;Lk; fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jk;
thq;Fk; xUtu; cz;ikapy; Nrjj;jpw;F vjpuhd jdJ nrhj;Jf;fis
fhg;GWjp nra;fpwhu;. mtuJ nrhj;Jfs; Nrjkile;jpUe;jhy;> mtUf;F
nrYj;j Ntz;ba fhg;gPl;Ljhuiu mZFtjw;F cupikAs;sJ.
‘fhg;GWjp’ kw;Wk; ‘cj;juthjk;’ xNu mu;j;jk; nfhz;lit my;y.
vd;gij ePq;fs; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;lhk;. xU cj;juthjj;jpy;>
fld;fhud; jd; flikia epiwNtw;wj; jtwpdhy; kl;LNk nghWg;G
vOfpwJ. Vnddpy; nghWg;Gzu;T vd;gJ NtW egupd; flikg;ghL>
my;yJ mtu; ,ay;Gepiyahf ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ flDf;fhf
fUjg;gLfpwJ. kWGwk;> xU nghWg;G fhuzkhf> xUtu; Kd;dpay;ghf
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; my;yhky; xU epfo;tpd; mbg;gilapy; Neubahd kw;Wk; Kjd;ikahd
flg;ghL xd;iw Vw;fpwhu;. ,e;j ,uz;L xg;ge;jq;fSk; ,q;Nf
tptupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

Fwpg;Gfs; 4.2.1 ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jq;fs;


xU jug;gpdu;> xU jug;gpdiu my;yJ NtW ve;j egupd; elj;ijahy;>
jdf;F Vw;gLk; ,og;gpypUe;J kw;wtiu fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;s thf;FWjp
mspj;j xg;ge;jk; (gpupT 124) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ cz;ikapy; ‘fl;Lg;ghl;L xg;ge;jq;fs;’
nghJtu;f;fj;jpd; xU gFjpahFk;. vjpu;ghu;j;j ,og;Gf;F vjpuhf
thf;FWjpfis ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L mJ EiofpwJ. ,og;gPl;Lj;
njhifapd; KO xg;ge;jKk; ve;jtpjkhd ,og;gPl;Lj; jd;ikiaAk;
nfhz;bUf;Fk;.
,og;gpid ey;y tpjkhf khw;Wtu; ,og;gPl;L fhg;GuPjpahsu;
(thf;FWjpahsu;) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu.; NkYk; ve;j kdpjdJ ,og;G
ey;y tpjkhf khw;wg;gLfpwJ mJ fhg;Gupahf;fk; my;yJ fhg;GWjp
itj;jy; (thf;FWjp) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
xU tifahd xg;ge;jj;jpd;gb> xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpd;
midj;J mj;jpahtrpa $WfisAk; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;; kw;Wk;
cj;juthjj;jpd; fPo; nfhLf;fg;gl;l my;yJ xU rl;ltpNuhj nghUSf;fhf
xU fl;Lg;gLk; nray;gLj;j KbahJ. NkYk;> ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk;
ntspg;gilahfNth kiwKfkhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>
Kftu; xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s gpujhd KftUf;F xU xg;ge;jk; nra;a
Ntz;Lk; vd;w cl;Fwpg;ghd thf;FWjp mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. mNjNghy;>
gq;Ffis khw;Wk; NghJ gupkhw;wj;ij gjpT nra;tjw;F Kd;> vjpu;fhy
miog;Gfs;, vjpuhf gupkhw;wj;jpd; ,og;gPlhf tuT itf;fg;gLk;.

4.2.2 cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jq;fs;


‘cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jk; thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd
xg;ge;jkhFk;> my;yJ mtuJ ,ay;Gepiyapy; %d;whk; egupd;
nghWg;Gfis (gpupT 126) tprhupf;f Ntz;Lk;’ cj;juthjj;jpd; xU
xg;ge;jk; fldhfNth my;yJ Ntiytha;g;G my;yJ Ntiytha;g;G
ngwNth my;yJ nghUl;fis thq;fNth xU egUf;F cjTfpwJ.
cj;juthjk; jUk; egu; ‘cWjpahsu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;;
ahUila ,ay;Gepiy cj;juthjkhf toq;fg;gLfpwJ vd;w egUf;F
‘Kjd;ik fldhsp’ vd;Wk;> cj;juthjk; jug;gLk; egUf;F ‘fldhsu;’
vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLtu;. ,e;j cj;juthjk; tha;nkhop my;yJ
vOjg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhk;.
cj;jputhjj;jpd; kW guprPyid: kw;w xg;ge;jj;ijg; NghyNt
cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jKk; xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilf;
$Wfs; midj;ijAk; jpUg;jpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; v.fh. cz;ikahd
xg;Gjy;> nghUspd; rl;lG+u;t jd;ik> fl;rpfspd; jFjpj;jd;ik
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Nghd;wtw;iwAk; XusT ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; cWjp jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

kw;Wk; fldspg;gtUf;F ,ilNa Neubahd ftdkpd;ik ,Uf;f


Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy> kw;Wk; Kjd;ik fld;fhuuhy; ngwg;gl;l
guprPyidf;Fg; NghJkhdJ. gpupT 127 ntspg;gilahf ,e;j tpisit
toq;FfpwJ kw;Wk; gpujhd fldhspapd; eyDf;fhf nra;ag;gLk; Fwpg;Gfs;
vJTk;> my;yJ ve;j thf;FWjpAk;> cj;juthjj;ij toq;Ftjw;F
NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;fyhk;.

4.2.3 fldpypUe;J cj;jputhjj;ij ntspNaw;Wjy;


gpd;tUk; R+oe
; piyfspy; VjhtJ xU cj;juthjj;jpd; fPo; xU flikg;ghl;bd;
fPo; xU nghWg;G mtUf;F toq;fg;gLk;:
1. jpUk;gg;ngwy; mwpf;if (gpupT 130): xU Fwpg;gpl;l fld; my;yJ
guptu;j;jidf;fhd xU ‘rhjhuz cj;juthjk;’ nray;gLifapy;
jpUk;gg;ngw KbahJ. Mdhy; xU’njhlu;r;rpahd cj;juthjk;’
ve;j Neuj;jpYk;> vjpu;fhy guptu;j;jidfis gw;wp> fldhsUf;F
mwptpg;G nfhLg;gjd; %yk; jpUk;gg; ngwg;glyhk;. ,t;thwhf>
,j;jifa epiyapy;> cj;juthjj;jpd; nghWg;G> tUq;fhy
nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fisg; nghWj;j tiu xU KbTf;F tUfpwJ.
Vnddpy;> me;j mwpf;if> jpUk;gg; ngWjy; gw;wpa mwptpg;ig
ntspapl;l gpd;du;> Kjd;ik fldhsu;fshy; nrYj;jg;glyhk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> mwptpg;Gf;F Kd;du; Eioe;j guptu;j;jidfSf;F
cj;juthjKk; njhlu;e;J ,Uf;Fk;.
2. cj;juthjj;jpd; ,wg;G (gpupT 131): xU ‘njhlu;r;rpahd
cj;juthjj;ij’ fUj;jpy; nfhz;lhy;> mtuJ kuzj;jpw;Fg;
gpd;du;> mjd; flikf;Fg; gpwFk; xU xg;ge;jKk; ,y;yhjpUe;jhy;>
mtupd; ,wg;G mtuplk; ,Ue;J fldhfg; ngWfpwJ. mtu; gpwF
ve;jnthU guptu;j;jidf;Fk; flid nrYj;j KbahJ.
3. xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; khWghL (gpupT 133): ‘gpujhd
fldhsp kw;Wk; fld; toq;FgtUf;F ,ilapyhd xg;ge;jj;jpd;
mbg;gilapy;> rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fs; ,y;yhky; nra;ag;gl;l ,e;j khW-
ghL> khWghLfSf;Fg; gpd; gupkhw;wq;fSf;fhd cj;juthjj;ij
cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ.’ ,t;thwhf> xU cWjpahd nghWg;gpypUe;J
tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwJ> mtUila xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhky;> fld;
ngWgtu;> Kjd;ik fldhsUld; mtuJ xg;ge;jj;jpd;
tpjpKiwfspy; ve;j khw;wj;ijAk; nra;fpwhu; (khWghL cs;sjh
my;yJ GJikahf Mf;fg;gl;ljh my;yJ nghUj;jkhf epiyia
ghjpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;W nghUs;) mtu; xg;ge;jj;ij
Nkw;nfhz;ljd; fhuzkhfj;jhd; cWjpahf nghWg;Ngw;fg;gLfpwJ.
4. gpujhd fldhspia tpLtpj;jy; my;yJ ntspNaw;Wjy;
(gpupT 134): ,e;j gpupT fld;gj;jpuj;jpypUe;J cj;juthjj;ij
ntspg;gLj;Jk; ,uz;L topfis toq;FfpwJ:
(a) fld; kw;Wk; gpujhd fldhspf;F ,ilNaahd ve;jnthU
xg;ge;jKk; cWjp nra;ag;gLfpwJ> ,jd; %yk; gpujhd
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 59

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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; fldhsp ntspaplg;gLfpwJ. Kf;fpa fldhsupd; ve;j
ntspaPLk; cWjp nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
(b) ,jd; Kf;fpa tpisT gpujhd fldhspia ve;j eltbf;ifNah
my;yJ jtizfshNyh ntspNaw;WtjhFk;.
Fwpg;Gfs; 5. xU xg;Gjy; ,y;yhky; Kjd;ik fldhsp %yk; fld; Vw;ghL
(gpupT 135): fld;fhuupd; xg;Gjy; ,y;yhky;> fld; nfhLg;gtu;
ve;j xU Vw;ghl;ilAk;> my;yJ mtUf;F Neuk; nfhLf;fNth
my;yJ mtUf;F mtfhrk; mspg;gNjh> Fw;wthspahf;FtjhfNth
my;yJ cWjpnkhopNah ,y;yhj xU Vw;ghl;il nra;fpwhu;.
xU cj;juthjk; cWjp nra;ag;gltpy;iy; gpujhd fldhspf;F
nfhLf;Fk; xg;ge;jk;> %d;whk; eguhd ­fldhspahy; nra;ag;gLfpwJ>
(gpupT 136). gpujhd fldhspfSf;F cj;juthjj;ij tpLtpg;gjpy;iy.
6. fldhspapd; nray; my;yJ jtpu;f;fKbahj FiwghL>
ek;gfj;jd;ikapd; ,Wjp jPu;T (gpupT 139): fldspg;gtupd; cupikf-
Sld; nghUe;jhj ve;j eltbf;ifiaAk; fld; toq;Fgtu;
nra;jhy;> my;yJ mtuJ flikia nra;a Ntz;ba ve;jnthU
eltbf;ifAk; nra;ahky; tpLtjhy;> gpujhd fldhspf;F
vjpuhf jd;idj; jhNd Vw;gLj;jpnfhs;tjd; %yk;> cj;juthjk;
ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ‘RUf;fkhf $Wtjdhy;> ,e;j
cupikf;F ghJfhg;gspg;gjw;F mtrpakhd xt;nthU
rl;lj;ijAk; nra;a Ntz;baJ fld;fhuj;jpd; flikahFk;>
,e;j flikapy; mtu; Njhy;tpaile;jhy;> epr;rak; ntspNaw;wk;
nra;ag;gLk;.
7. ghJfhg;G ,og;G (gpupT 141): fldhsu; xg;Gf; nfhs;shky;>
cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;Gjy; ,y;yhkNyNa> ,og;gl
P L
; j;
njhifia ,oe;jhy;> cj;juthj xg;ge;jj;jpd; NghJ> mtUf;F
ghJfhg;G toq;fg;gLk; ve;jnthU ghJfhg;gpw;Fk;> ghJfhg;gpd; kjpg;gpd;
msTf;F fldspg;gpypUe;J tpyf;F mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F ‘,og;G’
vd;gJ ftdf;FiwT my;yJ myl;rpak; vd;gjd; nghUshFk;.
8. cj;jputhj xg;ge;jj;jpd; fhyhtjp: cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jk;
(fldspg;gtUf;Fk;> cWjpgLj;jYf;Fk; ,ilNa) nry;Ygbahfhj
NghJ> xU cj;jputhj nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;J tpyf;fg;gLk;. gpd;tUk;
re;ju;g;gq;fspy; cj;juthj xg;ge;jk; jtwhdJ:
(i) guptu;jj ; idapd; nghUs; gFjpia jtwhf my;yJ Nkhrb
my;yJ nksdkhf;Fjy; %yk; ngwg;gl;l cj;jputhjj;jpd;
guptu;jj; id my;yJ fldspg;gtupd; mwpT kw;Wk; xg;Gjy;
(gpupT 142 kw;Wk; 143) fldspg;gtupd; xg;Gjy; ,y;yhky; fldh-
spfshy; jtwhf my;yJ kiwf;fg;gLk;NghJ> ,e;j gpupTfspd;
fPo; cj;juthjkhdJ nry;YgbahFk; vd;gij ftdpf;fTk;.
(ii) kw;nwhU egu; Nrutpy;iynadpy; NtW xU egu;
,ize;jpUg;gij cWjp nra;ahjtiu cj;juthjkspg;gtu;
xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnahg;gkplhj xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; kPJ xU
cj;juthjj;ij mspf;fpwhu;.
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(iii) ,J xU nry;Ygbahd xg;ge;jj;jpy; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

Nkw;gl;l mj;jpahtrpakhd $Wfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ>


mjhtJ> xg;ge;jk; my;yJ nghUs; my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ
MFk;.
Fwpg;Gfs;
cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf
1. ‘,yhg xg;ge;jk;’ vd;why; vd;d?
2. ‘cj;juthjk; xg;ge;jk;’ vd;why; vd;d?

4.3 gpizak; kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;


,g;gpuptpy;> gpiz kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop gw;wpa fUj;JUit ePq;fs;
gbg;gPu;fs;.
xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 148 ,d; gb> ‘xU gpiz vd;gJ xU egUf;F
xU egu; xU rpy Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf nghUl;fis toq;FtJ vd;gJ xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> me;j Nehf;fj;ij epiwNtw;Wk; NghJ>
jpUg;gpaDg;gg;gLk; egupd; topfhl;Ljypd; gb jpUk;g my;yJ NtW
,lj;jpw;F mDg;gg;gl Ntz;Lk;.’ ,g;gpuptpy;> gpiz kw;Wk; cWjpnkhop
gw;wpa fUj;JUit ePq;fs; gbg;gPu;fs;.
nghUl;fis tpepNahfpg;gtu; egu; ‘gpiz’ vd;W miof;fg;gLthu;>
mtu;fs; ahUf;F toq;fg;gLfpwhu;fNsh mtu;fs; ‘gpizau;’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLfpd;wdu;> kw;Wk; guptu;j;jid ‘gpiz vL’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
xU ‘gpiznaLg;G’ vd;gJ> ngWgtu;fspd; epge;jidapd;
mbg;gilapy; ruf;Ffis tpepNahfk; nra;J ,Wjpapy; mtw;iw
gpizaj;jpd; kPJ nfhz;L nrd;W my;yJ gpizaj;jpd; topfSf;F
Vw;g mtw;iw mg;Gwg;gLj;jyhk;. nghUl;fs;> miwfyd;fs; my;yJ
xU Row;rpia thliff;F vLj;jy;> xU ijay; my;yJ tz;bia
toq;Fjy;> ghJfhg;ghd tpepNahfj;Jf;F ruf;Ffis thq;Fjy; kw;Wk;
gOJghu;j;jy; Nghd;w nghUl;fis thq;Fjy; gpiz vLg;Gf;fhd
nghJthd cjhuzq;fs; MFk;.

4.3.1 gpizaj;jpd; tifg;ghLfs;


gpizak; (i) ed;ik> kw;Wk; (ii) fl;rpfSf;F ntFkjp Mfpatw;wpd;
mbg;gilapy; ,Ue;J tifg;gLj;jg;glyhk;.
••gaDs;s fz;Nzhl;lk;: gpizg;gpd; ed;ikfis %d;W
­tiffshf gpupf;fyhk;
(i) gpizaj;jpy; gpuj;Naf Mjhaj;jpw;fhf gpiz toq;Fjy;>
v.fh. gpiz my;yJ gzk; nrYj;jNtz;ba ve;j ,og;gPLk;
,y;yhky; gpizaj;jpd; ghJfhg;ghd ,lq;fspy; ruf;Ffis
tpl;LtpLfpd;wdu;.

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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; (ii) gpizaj;jpd; gpuj;Naf Mjhaj;jpw;fhf gpiz toq;Fjy;>
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> rpy fld;fSf;fhd jpl;lq;fs;. vdNt>
Nju;T miwapy; A ,d; eP&w;Wg; Ngdhitg; gad;gLj;Jtjhy;>
v.fh. xNu xU ed;ikf;fhf> gpizia nfhz;Ls;sJ.
Fwpg;Gfs; (iii) gOJ> thlif> Kjypad xg;ge;jq;fs; gpiz kw;Wk;
gpizahsupd; ed;ikf;fhd gpiznaLg;G kpfTk; nghJthd
tifahFk;. ,e;j tFg;gpy; cs;s tPo;r;rp> gpizay;> Nrit
kw;Wk; rpwg;G xg;ge;jq;fspd; Mjhaj;ijg; ngWk;> tifapy;
gpiz rYiffs;> fl;lzq;fs; fpilj;jjd; %yk; gpiz
eyd;fs; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
••‘ntFkjp’ ghu;itapy; ,Ue;J: ‘ntFkjp’ mbg;gilapy;
gpizaq;fs; tifg;gLj;jg;glyhk;:
(i) ed;nfhil gpizak;: gpiz my;yJ gpizaj;jpw;F ve;j
CjpaKk; fpilahJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU ez;gUf;F xU
Gj;jfj;ij fldhfg; ngw Ntz;Lk;> ve;j fl;lzKk; ,d;wp>
ghJfhg;ghd> xU Gj;jfj;jpw;fhf nghUl;fis itg;gNj
MFk;.
(ii) ed;nfhil my;yhj gpizak;: ,J ‘ntFkjp gpiz’ vd;Wk;
miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F> gpiz vd;gJ xU Cjpaj; jFjp
MFk;. v.fh Nkhl;lhu; fhu; thliff;F tpl;L> Jzpia
ijf;fTk;.

4.3.2 gpizak; mspg;gtu; kw;Wk; gpizak; ngWgtu; flikfs;


kw;Wk; cupikfs;
A. gpizaj;jpd; flikfs;
nghUl;fs; toq;fg;gLk; egUf;F xU gpiz vd;W ngau;. mtuJ
flikfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. mtUf;F toq;fg;gl;l nghUl;fspd; epahakhd guhkupg;G vLf;f
Ntz;ba flik: gpupT 151 ,e;j flikia nra;fpwJ "gpiz vLg;G
vy;yh re;ju;g;gq;fspYk;> xU rhjhuz Gj;jprhypahf ,Uf;Fk;
xU kdpjd;> mNj R+o;epiyfspd; fPo;> jd;Dila nrhe;jg;
nghUl;fs;> juk; kw;Wk; kjpg;G nfhz;l ruf;Ffisg; NghyNt>
mNj Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy;> jd;Dila nrhe;j nghUl;fis
vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;". NtWtpjkhff; $wpdhy;> gpiz nghUs;fis
epahakhf ftdpj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ ruhrup tpNtfKs;s
kdpju; ,Nj Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy; jdJ nrhe;j nghUl;fisf;
ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;s vjpu;ghu;f;fyhk;. gpiz vd;gJ mtUf;F
gpiz nra;ag;gl;l nghUl;fspd; fhg;GWjp my;y. epahakhd
ftdpg;G ,Ue;jNghjpYk;> ruf;Ffs; ,of;fg;gl;Ltpl;ld my;yJ
mopf;fg;gl;ld my;yJ rPuope;Jtpl;ld> mtw;wpd; gFjpapd;
ve;jtpj jaf;fKk; ,y;iy. nghUl;fSf;F ve;j Nrjj;jpw;Fk;
mtu; nghWg;gy;y.
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2. jdf;F xg;gilf;fg;gl;l nghUl;fis jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

mq;fPfhukpd;wp gad;gLj;j Ntz;ba flik (gpupT 154): gpizaj;jpd;


tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f ruf;Ffis fz;bg;ghfg;
gad;gLj;JtJ gpizaupd; flikahFk;. mtu; ruf;Ffis
mq;fPfupf;fg;glhj tifapy; gad;gLj;jhtpl;lhy;> mtu; Fwpg;Gfs;
gpizaj;jpw;F ,og;gPL toq;f> my;yJ mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;Jk;
NghJ my;yJ me;j ruf;FfSf;F vOk; VNjDk; Nrjj;Jf;F
cs;shfpwhu;. ,e;j nghWg;G KOikahdJ. gpiz vLg;gpy; ve;j
xU ftdf;FiwTk; ,y;iy> my;yJ xU flTspd; nraiy
my;yJ jtpu;f;f Kbahj tpgj;jpd; tpisthf Vw;gLk; ghjpg;G
vd;W $l mjpy; vOfpwJ. ,ijj;jtpu> gpupT 153 d;gb> gpiz
vLg;Nghu; mq;fPfupf;fg;glhj ruf;Ffis gad;gLj;jhtpl;lhy;
gpizaj;ijAk; epWj;j KbAk;.
3. ruf;F nghUl;fs; gpizf;fg;glhj flik> jdJ nrhe;j
nghUl;fSld; (gpupT 155): gpizahsupd; mDkjp ,y;yhky;>
mtu; jdJ nrhe;j ruf;Ffis gpizag; nghUs;fSld; fyf;ff;
$lhJ vd;gJk; xU gpizaj;jpd; flikahFk;. nghUl;fs;
thq;Fgtupd; xg;GjYld; fye;jhy;> flikf;F ve;jtpjkhd
kPwYk; ,y;iy> gpiz vLg;gJk;> me;je;j gq;Ffspd; tpfpjj;jpd;
cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mdhy; gpiz> gpizahsupd; xg;Gjy;
,y;yhky;> gpizaj;jpd; ,Ug;Gld; jdJ nrhe;j ruf;Ffis>
Ntz;Lnkd;Nw fyg;gJ my;yJ jw;nrayhf ,Ue;jhYk;>
gpd;tUk; tpjpfs; nghUe;JfpwJ:
(a)
ruf;Ffs; gpupf;fg;glf;$ba my;yJ gpupf;fg;glKbahj
,lq;fspy;> nghUl;fspd; nrhj;J KiwNa fl;rpfspy;
cs;sJ. Mdhy; gpiz gpuptpidapd; nryTfisAk;>
fyitapypUe;J vOk; ve;j Nrjj;ijAk; (gpupT 156) jhq;fpf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
(b) nghUl;fspd; fyitia gpupf;f KbahJ ,q;Nf> gpizahsu;
jdJ ,og;gpw;fhd gpizapid (gpupT 157) <Lfl;l Ntz;Lk;.
4. ruf;Ffisj; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd flikfs;: gpupT 160
,e;j tpjpfis fPo;f;fhZk; tifapy; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ:
‘gpizahsu;fspd; cj;juTfspd;gb> mtu;fs; gpizahf ,Ue;j
fhyk; tof;fw;Wg; NghdJ my;yJ mtu;fs; gpizf;fg;gl;Ls;s
Nehf;fk; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lTld;> Njit ,y;yhky;> gpizapd;
jpirfspy; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;JtJ my;yJ toq;Ftjw;fhd
gpizapd; flik ,JthFk;.’ gy ,iz gpizaq;fs;
,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpy;> gpizaj;jpd; nghUl;fs; VNjDk; xU ,iz
cupikahsupd; (gpupT 165) f;F ruf;Ffis jpUg;gp mspf;fyhk;.
­
Kiwahd Neuj;jpy; ruf;Ffis jpUk;gg; ngWtjw;F gpiz
Njhy;tpAw;why;> me;j Neuj;jpy; ,Ue;J nghUl;fs; ,og;G>
mopj;jy; my;yJ rPuopT Mfpatw;wpw;fhd gpiztpw;F mtu;
nghWg;Ngw;fpwhu; (gpupT 161).
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; 5. nghUl;fSf;F ve;jnthU tpyfYk; toq;Ftjw;fhd flik (gpupT
163): khwhf> xU xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhtpl;lhy;> gpiz vLf;fg;gl;l
ve;jnthU ,aw;if mjpfupg;G my;yJ ,yhgk; <l;lg;gl;l
nghUl;fspypUe;J ngWk; yhgj;jpw;Fk; gpizak; flikahFk;.
Fwpg;Gfs;
B. gpiz vLg;Nghu; flikfs;
xU gpiz vd;gJ nghUl;fis toq;Fk; egu;. mtuJ flikfs;
gpd;tUkhW:
1. nghUs;fspd; Fiwfis ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd flik: ,e;jg;
gpupT> xU gpiz my;yJ gpiza gupRf;fhf xU NtWghl;il
fPo;f;fz;lthW toq;FfpwJ:
(a) xU ifnahg;gkplhj gpizapid gpizahsUf;F toq;fpAs;s
midj;J jtWfisAk; gpizahf mwptpf;f Ntz;baJ mtrpak;>
mtw;wpy; mtu; mwpe;jpUg;gJld;> mtw;iw gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;
mrhjhuz mghaq;fSf;F gpizia mk;gyg;gLj;JtJ> kw;Wk;
mtu; Njhy;tpAw;why;> jtWfis Neubahf njuptpj;jpUf;fyhk;
vd;gjhy;> mj;jifa Nrjq;fis gpizahsUf;F nrYj;j mtu;
nghWg;Ngw;fpwhu;. xU jd;dpay;ghf nray;gl;l gpizahsuhy;
vOk; Nrjq;fSf;F mtu; nghWg;G ,y;iy.
(b) xU gpiz my;yJ ntFkjp vd;gJ nghUl;fspy; cs;s
midj;J FiwghLfs; gw;wp mtu; mwpe;Js;shuh my;yJ>
mtu; gpizaj;jpw;F mtw;iw ntspg;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;why;>
xU ed;nfhil gpiziag; Nghyy;yhky;> FiwghLfs; gw;wpa
mwpahikapNyNa mtUf;F ghJfhg;gpy;iy.
2. Njitahd nryTfis jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j Ntz;ba flik (gpupT
158): gpizaj;jpd; epge;jidfspd; %yk;> ruf;FfSf;F gpiz
my;yJ gpiz toq;fSf;fhd gpizag; nghUl;fis mtu;fs; kPJ
itf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ mtw;iw vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;Lk; my;yJ
mtu;fs; kPJ Ntiy nra;a Ntz;Lk;> gpizaj;jpd; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
gpiz vLg;Gf;F Njitahd midj;J ­ nryTfisAk; jpUg;gpf;
nfhLf;f Ntz;baJ gpizaj;jpd; flikahFk;. ,t;thwhf>
ghJfhg;ghd fhtYf;F ntFkjp ,y;yhky; xU Fjpiu gpiz
,lg;gl;lhy;> Fjpiuf;F tof;fkhf cztspf;Fk; nryTfSf;Fk;>
kUj;Jtr; nryTfSf;Fk;> VNjDk; xU tifapy; gpizaj;jpw;F
gzk; nfhLg;gJ gpizaj;jpd; flikahFk;.
3. ve;j xU ‘mrhjhuz’ nrytpdj;ijAk;> nrytw;w
gpizaj;jpd; Ngupy; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j Ntz;ba flik: gpiz
vLg;G t
­pjpfspd; fPo;> gpiz vd;gJ mtuJ NritfSf;fhd
Cjpaj;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjhFk;. mJ gpiz vLg;gpy; ,Ue;J
xU mrhjhuz nryTfis> gpizahsu; nray;fs; njhlu;ghf>
VNjDk; ,Ue;jhy;> mrhjhuzkhd nrytpdq;fis jhq;f
Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa gpiz vLg;gpy;> gpiz vd;gJ rhjhuz
my;yJ tof;fkhd nryTfis jhq;fhJ. ,t;thwhf> xU
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Fjpiuf;F ghJfhg;ghf fhtYf;F gpiz nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjhL> jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

gpiz vLg;G xU ehisf;F 80 ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W cs;sJ. ,e;j


gpiz vLg;G> Fjpiuf;F cztspf;Fk; rhjhuz nryTfSf;Fg;
nghWg;Ngw;fhJ. Mdhy; gpizahsupd; ghJfhg;gpd; NghJ> mtuJ
gq;fpw;F vt;tpj ftdf;FiwTk; ,y;yhky; Fjpiu Neha;tha;g;gl;L Fwpg;Gfs;
tpOe;JtpLfpwJ. gpiz vLg;Nghu;> xg;gilapWeUf;F> Fjpiuf;F
rpfpr;iraspf;f> ,it mrhjhuz nryTfNshL njhlu;Gila
kUj;Jtr; nryTfis jpUg;gpf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
4. gpiz ,og;gPlopf;f Ntz;ba flik (gpupT 164): FiwghLs;s
jiyg;gpd; fhuzkhf> gpiz vLg;gtu; nghUl;fs; thq;Ftjw;F
cupik ,y;iy vd;w fhuzj;jhy;> gpiz vLg;ghy; Vw;gl;l ve;j
,og;Gf;Fk; gpiz toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
5. ruf;Ffis jpUk;gg; ngw flik: gpiz vLg;Gf; fhyk; Kbe;j
gpd;du;> mtw;iw jpUk;gg; ngWtJ my;yJ gpiz vLg;gjd;
Nehf;fk; epiwNtwpa NghJ mJ gpizaj;jpd; flikahFk;.
gpiz vLg;G rupahd Neuj;jpy; toq;fg;gLk; NghJ> ruf;Ffis
tpepNahfpf;f kWj;jhy;> gpiz vLg;Gf;F Njitahd midj;J
nryTfSf;Fk;> ghJfhg;ghd fhtYf;F ,og;gPL Nfhu KbAk;.

C. gpiz vLg;gtupd; cupikfs;:


1. gpiz vLg;gpd; flikfs;: gpizaj;jpd; flikfs;> gpiz
vLg;Nghu; cupikahFk;. MfNt> gpiz vLg;gjd; %yk;> NkNy
cs;s gpiz vLg;ghd; flikfisr; nray;gLj;jyhk;.
2. gy $l;Lg; gpiz vLg;ghsu;fs; xUtUf;F nghUl;fis
toq;Fk; cupik (gpupT 165): gy ,iz cilikahsu;fshy;
ruf;Ffs; gpiz vLf;fg;gl;bUe;j ,lq;fspy;> gpiz vLg;Gf;F
mtu;fis tpLtpj;jy; my;yJ xU $l;L cupikahsu;> midj;J
xg;Gjypd;wp xU ,iz cupikahsUf;F> my;yJ mjw;F khwhf
ve;j cld;gbf;ifAk; ,y;yhj epiyapy;> mtw;iw toq;f
cupik cs;sJ.
3. ruf;Ffs;> ey;y ek;gpf;ifapy;> ngauplg;glhj gpizag;
nghUl;fis toq;Fk; cupik (gpupT 166): cz;ikahd
cilikahsuplk; ve;jf; flikg; nghWg;Gk; ,y;yhky;> ey;y
ek;gpf;ifapy;> mjhtJ jiyg;gpd;wp gpizag; nghUl;fis
toq;Fk; cupik gpiz vLg;gjw;F cz;L.
4. kPs; cupik: rpy fld; my;yJ $w;W tiuapy; kw;nwhU
nrhj;J my;yJ nrhj;Jf;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; cupikia
jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;tJ kPs; cupik vdg;gLfpwJ. cupik
cilikf;FupaJ kw;Wk; ruf;Ffis ,oe;jTld; tpiutpy;
,of;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J ‘kPs; cilik’ vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
kPs; ,uz;L tifg;gLk; — ‘Fwpg;ghf’ kw;Wk; ‘nghJ’.
‘Fwpg;gpl;l cupik’ vd;gJ> ,e;jf; Fw;wr;rhl;L njhlu;ghf
Fwpg;gpl;l nrhj;Jf;fis kl;LNk jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; cupik
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; vd;gjhFk;. ‘nghJ cupik’ vd;why; fl;rpf;F vjpuhf itj;jpUg;gtupd;
midj;J Nfhupf;iffSk; jpUg;jp nra;ag;gLk; tiu gpw fl;rpfspd;
midj;J nghUl;fisAk; jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; cupikiaf;
Fwpf;fpwJ. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; nrhd;dhy;> fzf;fpd; nghJthd
Fwpg;Gfs; ,Ug;Gf;fhd xU ghJfhg;ghf kw;nwhU nghUl;fisj; jf;fitj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;fhd cupik ,Jjhd;.
gpizaj;jpd; nghJ cupik: nghJthd nghJ cupik vd;gJ xU
nghJr; Nrkpg;gf fzf;fpw;fhd xU ghJfhg;ghf kw;nwhU nghUl;fisj;
jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; cupik. vspa thu;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjhdhy;>
,e;j cupik> me;j nghUl;fs; my;yJ NtW VNjDk; nghUl;fis
nghWj;jkl;by;> VNjDk; xU njhiff;fhf kw;nwhd;Wf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd
nghUl;fis itj;jpUg;gij xU egUf;F mspf;fpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>
xU tq;fpahsu; kw;Wk; fld; ngWgtupd; ,U gj;jpuq;fspy; ,uz;L fld;
gj;jpuq;fs;> ,e;jf; fld;fspy; xd;iw vLj;jpUe;jhy;> tq;fpahsu; ,U
gj;jpuq;fisAk; mtu; kw;w fld; nrYj;Jk; tiu jLj;J epWj;jyhk;.

D. gpiz vLg;Nghu; cupikfs;:


1. gpizg;gpd; flikfis mky;gLj;Jjy;: gpiz vLg;Nghu;
flikfs;> gpizaj;jpd; cupikfs; MFk;. gpizaj;jpd; vy;yh
flikfisAk; (Vw;fdNt tpthjpf;fg;gl;l) jdJ cupikfs;
vd;W gpiz %yk; eilKiwg;gLj;j KbAk;. gpizag; gpiz
vLg;gjw;F gpiz vLg;NghUf;F vjpuhf gpd;tUk; cupikfs;
cs;sd: (Kd;du; tpthjpf;fg;gl;l gpiz vLg;gtupd; flikfspd;
mbg;gilapy;):
(i) gpiz vLg;ghsu; ftdf;Fiwthy; gpiz ngw;w nghUl;fSf;F
Vw;gl;l ,og;Gf;fhd Nrjhuq;fis cupikNfhUk; cupik
(gpupT 151).
(ii) mDkjpaw;w nghUl;fspd; gad;ghL my;yJ mq;fPfupf;fg;glhj
gad;ghl;bypUe;J vOk; VNjDk; Nrjj;jpw;F ,og;gPL NfhUk;
cupik (gpupT 154).
(iii) jdJ nrhe;jg; nghUl;fNshL gpiz toq;fg;glhj nghUl;fs;
fyg;gjhy; Vw;gLk; VNjDk; ,og;Gf;fhf ,og;gPL NfhUk;
cupik (gpupT 155 kw;Wk; 56).
(iv)
nghUl;fis jpUk;g NfhUtjw;fhf> mtu;fs; gpiz
nra;ag;gl;l Neuk; fhyhtjpahfptpl;lJ> my;yJ mtu;fs;
gpiz nra;ag;gl;l Nehf;fk; epiwNtwpAs;sJ (gpupT 160).
(v) ve;j ,aw;if njhlu;ghd nghUs; gpiz nghUl;fs; kPJ
cupik NfhUk; cupik (gpupT 163).
2. xg;gilg;ghsu; ruf;Ffis jtwhd Kiwapy; gad;gLj;jpdhy;
gpizg;ig epWj;Jtjw;fhd cupik (gpupT 153): gpizaj;ij
epWj;Jtjw;F gpiz vLg;G cupik cs;sJ. xg;gilg;ghsu;
ve;j xU nray;> gpiz vLg;Gld; Kuz;gl;lhYk;> gpizaj;jpd;
66 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 66 5/20/2019 12:57:51 PM


tpjpKiwfSf;F Kuzhf cs;s ve;j xU eltbf;ifAk; jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

fhyhtjpahfptpl;lhYk; my;yJ gpiz vLg;G Nehf;fk;


epiwNtwtpy;iy vd;whYk;> gpizaj;ij epWj;j cupikAz;L.
3. ve;j Neuj;jpYk; ruf;Ffis jpUk;g Nfhu cupik cs;sJ (gpupT.
159): nghUl;fis ntFkjp ,y;yhky; toq;fpa NghJ (mjhtJ> Fwpg;Gfs;
,ytrkhf)> mtu; tpUk;Gk; Nghnjy;yhk;> mtu; xU Fwpg;gpl;l
Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf my;yJ Neuj;jpw;fhf nfhLj;j NghJk;> jtwhd
gad;ghl;bw;fhf xg;gilg;ghsu; fpilahJ. Mdhy;, nghUl;fspd;
Kd;$l;ba tUkhdk;> mj;jifa nghUl;fisg; cgNahfpg;gjpy;
,Ue;J ngwNtz;ba Mjhaj;jpy;> gpiz ,og;ig Vw;gLj;JfpwJ
vd;why;> ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifapidg; ngWk; Mjhaj;ij kPl;Lf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

4.3.3 gpiznaLg;G epWj;jk;


gpiznaLg;G xg;ge;jk; gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfspy; KbtilfpwJ:
1. gpiznaLg;G xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;fhf ,Ue;jhy;> Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyk; Kbtile;jTld; gpiznaLg;G KbtilfpwJ.
2. gpiznaLg;G vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf ,Ue;jhy;>
Nehf;fk; epiwNtwpaTld; gpiznaLg;G KbtilfpwJ.
3. gpiz vLg;Gld; Kuz;gl;Ls;s ruf;FfSld; gpiz vLg;gjd;
mbg;gilapy;> gpizaj;jpd; kPJ VNjDk; eltbf;if vLj;jhy;>
gpiz vLg;ghy; my;yJ gpiz vLg;G fhyk; fhyhtjpahfptpl;lhYk;
my;yJ gpiz vLg;G Nehf;fk; epiwNtwtpy;iy vd;whYk;
gpizaj;jpd; %yk; gpiz ePf;fg;glyhk; (gpupT 153).
4. ve;j Neuj;jpYk;> Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpw;F Kd;dhYk; my;yJ
Nehf;fj;ij miltjw;F Kd;du;> gpiz vLg;gpd; %yk;> ,og;gpw;F
mjpfkhd ,og;G Vw;glyhk; vd;w epge;jidapd; Ngupy;> vg;NghJ
Ntz;LkhdhYk; gpiz vLg;gtu; xU gpizapid epWj;jyhk;.
,og;gPL toq;fg;gl;l Mjhaj;ij kPWfpd;w msTf;F gpizg;ig
nraypof;f nra;Ak; (gpupT 159).
5. gpiz vLg;G vd;gJ gpizaj;jpd; my;yJ gpiz vLg;ghy;
Vw;gLk; ,wg;gpdhy; epWj;jg;gLfpwJ. (gpupT 162).

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


3. ePq;fs; gpizak; %yk; vd;d nrhy;fpwPu;fs;?
4. ‘gpizak;’ kw;Wk; ‘cupkk;’ Mfpatw;wpw;F cs;s tpj;jpahrk;
vd;d?

4.4 Kfthz;ik rl;lk;


xg;ge;j tpjpfspd; gpupT 182 ,y; gpd;tUkhW tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; ‘xU Kftu; > NtW VjhtJ xU nraiy nra; a my; y J %d; w hk;
egu; fspd; nfhLf; f y; thq; f ypy; ,d; n dhUtiu gpujpepjpj; J tk;
nra; A k; xU egu; . mj; j ifa nray; ahUf; F toq; f g; g l; lNjh>
my; y J gpujpepjpj; Jtk; nra; a g; gLgtUf; F> Kjy; tu; vd
Fwpg;Gfs; miof; fg; gLfpwhu; . ’
Kftu; xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; KftuhdJ> Kjd;ik (mtiu
gzpaku;j;Jgtu;) kw;Wk; %d;whk; jug;gpdUf;F ,ilNa cs;s
xg;ge;jj;ij jdpahu; kakhf;Ftjw;F mq;fPfhuk; mspj;jpUg;gijf;
fhzyhk;. xU Kftupd; nray;ghL Kf;fpakhf> Kjd;ik kw;Wk;
%d;whk; jug;gpdUf;fpilNa xg;ge;j cwTfis nfhz;L tUfpwJ.
vdNt xU tifapy;> xU Kftu; vd;gJ xU ,izg;G kl;LNk.
xU %d;whk; jug;gpdUld; Kjy;tupd; rhu;gpy; xg;ge;jk; xd;wpy;
Eioe;jTld;> Kftu; ntspNaWk;NghJ> xg;ge;jj;jpw;F xU
cupikahsu; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> xg;ge;jk; Kjd;ik kw;Wk;
%d;whk; jug;gpdiu mtu;fs; jq;fisj; jhq;fNs cUthf;fpaJ
Nghy; gpizf;fpwJ.

4.4.1 nghJ xOq;FKiw Kfthz;ik


Kfthz;ikAld; ,uz;L Kf;fpakhd nghJ tpjpfs; cs;sd. mjhtJ>
1. xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjp tha;e;jtuhf ,Ue;jhYk;> jdpg;gl;l
jpwik kw;Wk; jFjpfisj; jtpu NtW xU Kftu; %yk;
mtu; nra;ag;glyhk;. cz;ikapy;> nra;a Ntz;ba gzpfs;
ntspg;gilahf jdpg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;. ve;j KftiuAk;
Ntiy nra;a KbahJ. cjhuzkhf> xU egu; xU Kftu; %yk;
jpUkzk; nra;a KbahJ. xU Kftu; %yk; xU glj;ij
tiutjw;F KbahJ kw;Wk; gy.
2. ‘kw;nwhUtd; jd; topNa nra;fpwhd;?’ NtW thu;j;ijfspy;
$Wtjhdhy;> ‘midj;J rl;l Nehf;fq;fSf;fhfTk;> Kjy;tupd;
nray;fSf;fhfTk; Kftu; nray;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.’
Kfthz;ikapd; rpy mk;rq;fis Gupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,it:

i. ahu; xU Kftiu gzpaku;j;jyhk;?


gpupT 183-,d; gb> ‘mtu; Ma; T f; F l; gLeuhf ,Uf; Fk; rl; lj; j pd;
gb ngUk; ghd; i k taijf; nfhz; l ve; j xU egUk; > xU
Kftiu epakpf; f yhk; . ’ xg; ge; j k; nra; a jFjp tha; e ; j ve; j nthU
egUk; xU KftiuAk; xU rpWghd; i kiaAk; epakpf; f yhk; . xU
igj; jpaf; f huu; my; y J xU Fbfhud; xU Kftiug; gad; g Lj; j
KbahJ.

ii. ahu; Kftuhf ,Uf;fyhk;?


gpupT 184 ,e;j tp\aj;jpy; ‘Kjd;ik kw;Wk; %d;whk; egu;fSf;F
,ilNa ve;j egUk; xU Kftuhf khwyhk;’ vd;W fPNo cs;sJ.
68 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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,jdhy;> xU rpW my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l kdk; nfhz;l xUtu; $l jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

Kftuhf epakpf;fg;glyhk;. Vnddpy;> Kftupd; nray;> Kf;fpakhd


nray; vd;gjhy;> xU rpwpa Kftupd; nray;fSf;F %d;whk;
jug;gpdUf;F nghWg;G cs;sJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
iii. guprPyid mtrpakpy;iy
‘xU Kfthz;ikia cUthf;f ve;j guprPyidAk; mtrpaKk;
,y;iy’ (gpupT 185). Kftuhy; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;W Kjy;tu; xg;Gf;nfhz;Ls;shu; vd;w cz;ik> epWtdj;jpd;
xg;ge;jj;ij Mjupg;gjw;F> mjhtJ> me;j jpwd; cs;s Kftuhy;
nra;ag;gLk; thf;FWjpia Mjupg;gjw;F> xU Nghjpa ‘jPq;F
tpistpf;Fk;’ vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


5. tpjpKiwfs; ‘Kftu;’ kw;Wk; ‘Kjd;ik’ vd;gjd; mu;jj
; k; vd;d?
6. Kftuhf ahiu gzpaku;j;jyhk;?

4.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;


tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1. xU jug;gpdu;> my;yJ NtW ve;j egupd; elj;ijahy;> jdf;F
Vw;gLk; ,og;gpypUe;J kw;wtiu fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;s thf;FWjp
mspj;j xg;ge;jk; ‘e\;l<L’ (gpupT 124) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; cz;ikapy; ‘fl;Lg;ghl;L xg;ge;jq;fspd;
nghJ tFg;gpd;’ xU gFjpahFk;. vjpu;ghu;j;j ,og;Gf;F vjpuhf
thf;FWjpfis ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L mJ EiofpwJ.
2 cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jk; thf;FWjpfis epiwNtw;w
xg;ge;jk; my;yJ mtuJ ,ay;Gepiyapy; %d;whk; egupd;
nghWg;ig tpLtpj;jy; (gpupT 126). cj;juthjj;jpd; xU xg;ge;jk;
fldhfNth my;yJ Ntiytha;g;G ngwNth my;yJ nghUl;fis
thq;fNth xU egUf;F cjTfpwJ.
3. xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 148-d; gb> ‘xU gpiznaLg;G vd;gJ
xU Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xUtuplk; kw;nwhU Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
tpepNahfpf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> me;j
Nehf;fk; epiwNtWk; NghJ> jpUg;gp mspf;fg;gLk; my;yJ
NtW egupd; topfhl;Ljy;gb mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gLk;. nghUl;fis
toq;Fk; egu;> ‘gpizahsu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhh;. mtw;iw
toq;fg;gLk; egUf;F ‘xg;gilapLeu;’ vd;W ngau;. kw;Wk;
guptu;j;jid ‘gpiz vLg;G’ vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
4. cupk xg;ge;jj;jpy;> ruf;Ffs; cupikahsUf;F toq;fg;glkhl;lhJ>
gpiz vLg;gpy; nghUl;fs; gpizaj;jpw;F toq;fg;gLfpd;wd> NkYk;
gpiz toq;fy;fs; mtu;fsJ ghJfhg;gpw;fhd nghWg;ghFk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; 5. xg;ge;jr; rl;lj;jpd; 182 tJ gpuptpy; gpd;tUkhW tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;s
,uz;L nrhw;fs; ‘Kftu;’ kw;Wk; ‘Kjd;ik’ Mfpait gpd;tUkhW
tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sd: ‘xU Kftu; vd;gJ xU egUf;F kw;nwhU
nraYf;fhf my;yJ %d;whtJ egUld; njhlu;GgLj;jypy;
Fwpg;Gfs; xUtiu gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jk; xU eguhFk;. mj;jifa
nray; ahUf;F toq;fg;gl;lNjh> my;yJ gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
nra;ag;gLgtUf;F> jiytu; vd miof;fg;gLfpwhu;.’
6. gpupT 183-,d; gb> ‘mtu; Ma;Tf;Fl;gLeuhf ,Uf;Fk;
rl;lj;jpd; gb ngUk;ghd;ik taijf; nfhz;l ve;j xU egUk;>
xU Kftiu gzpaku;j;jyhk;’. xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjp tha;e;j
ve;jnthU egUk; xU KftiuAk; xU rpWghd;ikiaAk;
epakpf;fyhk;. xU igj;jpaf;fhuu; my;yJ xU Fbfhud; xU
Kftiug; gad;gLj;j KbahJ.

4.6 RUf;fk;
••xU jug;gpdu;> gpwiu> jd;id my;yJ NtW ve;j egupd;
elj;ijahy; Vw;gl;l ,og;gpypUe;J kw;wtiu fhg;ghw;WkhW
thf;FWjp mspj;j xU xg;ge;jk; ‘,og;G xg;ge;jk;’. (gpupT 124)
vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
••cj;jputhjj;ij nfhLf;Fk; egu;> ‘gpizak;’ vd;W miof;fpd;whu;;
ahUila ,ay;Gepiy cj;juthjkhf toq;fg;gLfpwJ vd;w
egUf;F> ‘Kjd;ik fldhsp’ vd;W ngau;. cj;juthjk;
mspf;fg;gLk; egUf;F ‘fldhsu;’ vd;W ngau;. xU cj;juthjk;
tha;nkhop my;yJ vOjg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fyhk; (gpupT 126).
••xU egu; xUtUf;F xU cj;juthjj;ij mspg;gtu;>
fldhsu; mijr; nra;gtuhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. kw;nwhUtu; mij
cWjpg;gLj;jp> kw;wtu; Nrutpy;iy vd;why; cj;juthjk;
jtwhdJ. (gpupT 144).
••xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 148-d; gb> ‘xU gpiz vd;gJ
xU egu; kw;nwhUtUf;F ruf;Ffis toq;FtJ> xU
xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> me;j Nehf;fk; epiwNtWk; NghJ> jpUg;gp
mspf;fg;gLk; my;yJ NtW egupd; topfhl;Ljy;gb
mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gLk;’.
••khwhf> xU xg;ge;jk; ,y;yhtpl;lhy;> gpiz vLg;Nghu;> ve;j
,aw;if mjpfupg;G> ,yhgk; <l;lf; $ba my;yJ ,yhgj;jpw;F
toq;f Ntz;baJ gpizaj;jpd; flikahFk;.
••rpy fld; my;yJ $w;W tiuapy; kw;nwhU nrhj;J my;yJ
nrhj;Jf;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; cupikia jf;f itj;Jf;
nfhs;tJ kPs; cupik vdg;gLfpwJ. cupik cilikf;FupaJ
kw;Wk; ruf;Ffis ,oe;jTld; tpiutpy; ,of;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J
‘cupikahsu; cupik’ vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

70 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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••gpizaj;ij epWj;Jtjw;F gpiz vLg;G cupik cs;sJ. jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs;

xg;gilg;ghsu; ve;j xU nray;> gpiz vLg;Gld; Kuz;gl;lhYk;>


gpizaj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F Kuzhf cs;s ve;j xU
nray; fhyhtjpahfptpl;lhYk; my;yJ gpiz vLg;G Nehf;fk;
epiwNtwtpy;iy vd;whYk;> gpizaj;ij epWj;j cupikAz;L. Fwpg;Gfs;
••gpiz vLg;Gld; Kuz;gl;Ls;s ruf;FfSld; gpiz vLg;gjd;
mbg;gilapy;> gpizaj;jpd; kPJ VNjDk; eltbf;if vLj;jhy;>
gpiz vLg;ghy; my;yJ gpiz vLg;G fhyk; fhyhtjpahfptpl;lhYk;
my;yJ gpiz vLg;G Nehf;fk; epiwNtwtpy;iy vd;whYk;
gpizaj;jpd; %yk; gpiz ePf;fg;glyhk; (gpupT 153).
••‘xU Kftu;> NtW VjhtJ xU nraiy nra;a my;yJ %d;whk;
egu;fspd; nfhLf;fy; thq;fypy; ,d;ndhUtiu gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
nra;Ak; xU egu;> mj;jifa nray; ahUf;fhf nra;ag;gLfpwJ
my;yJ gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ vd;gJ Kjy;tuhy;
miof;fg;gLfpwJ.’
••Kftuhy; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Kjy;tu;
xg;Gf; nfhz;Ls;shu; vd;w cz;ik> epWtdj;jpd; xg;ge;jj;ij
Mjupg;gjw;F mjhtJ> me;j nraypy; nray;gl Kftupd;
thf;FWjpia Mjupf;f xU Nghjpa ‘jPq;F tpistpf;Fk;’ vd;W
$wg;gLfpwJ.

4.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;


••njhlu;r;rpahd cj;juthjk;: xU cj;juthjk; xU njhlu;
NtWgl;l kw;Wk; gpupj;jy; guptu;j;jidfSf;F ePl;bf;Fk;NghJ>
mJ ‘njhlu;r;rpahd cj;juthjk;’ vdg;gLfpwJ.
••cWjpnkhop: xU fld; my;yJ xU thf;FWjpia epiwNtw;wj;
Njitahd nghUl;fis ghJfhg;G vd;W gpiz toq;FtJ
‘cWjpnkhop’ vdg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j tof;fpy; gpiz> ‘gpizak;
nfhLg;gtu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;. gpizahsu; ‘gpizak;
Vw;gtu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;.
••kPs; cupik: rpy fld; my;yJ $w;W tiuapy; kw;nwhU nrhj;J
my;yJ nrhj;Jf;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; cupikia jf;f itj;Jf;
nfhs;tJ> kPs; cupik vdg;gLfpwJ.

4.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;


FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. ,og;gPl;L kw;Wk; cj;juthjj;jpd; xg;ge;jq;fspy; xU rpwpa
Fwpg;ig vOJf.
2. njhlu;r;rpahd cj;juthjj;ij uj;J nra;tJ gw;wp RUf;fkhf
vOJf.

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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jdptifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; 3.
fldspg;gtuplkpUe;J cj;juthjj;ij tpLtpg;gij gw;wp
RUf;fkhf vOJf.
4. Kfthz;ikapd; nghJ tpjpfs; gw;wpa xU FWfpa Fwpg;ig
vOJf.
Fwpg;Gfs;
neL tpil tpdhf;fs;

1. ,og;gPL kw;Wk; cj;juthjk; Mfpatw;wpd; nray;ghLfis


tpsf;Ff.
2. gpiz kw;Wk; gpizahsu; MfpNahupd; flikfs; kw;Wk;
cupikfis tpsf;Ff.
3. rl;lk; ,aw;Wtjd; %yk; Kfthz;ikapid epWj;Jtjw;fhd
gy;NtW eltbf;iffis Muha;e;J ghUq;fs;.

4.9 NkYk; gbf;f


Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

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gFjp – II 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
$l;lhz;ik kw;Wk; epWtd rl;lk; mikj;jy;

myF 5 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; Fwpg;Gfs;


fPo; xg;ge;jk; mikj;jy;
mikg;G
5.0 Kd;Diu
5.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
5.2 tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;
5.3 epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpfs;
5.4 jiyg;G kw;Wk; nrhj;Jfspd; khw;wk;
5.4.1 nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; njhlu;ghd tpjpfs;
5.5 gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;
5.6 xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; tpw;gid
5.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
5.8 RUf;fk;
5.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
5.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
5.11 NkYk; gbf;f

5.0 Kd;Diu
ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lk;> 1930 d;gb> ‘ruf;F tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ
tpw;gidahsu; gupkhw;wk; my;yJ ruf;Ffis tpiyf;F thq;FgtUf;F
khw;wr; rk;kjpf;Fk; xg;ge;jk;’ MFk;. vdNt> xU tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;Jf;F
,U NtWgl;l fl;rpfs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> mjhtJ thq;Fgtu;> tpw;gtu;>
xUtu; jdJ nrhe;jg; gz;lq;fis thq;f KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> xU
gFjp cupikahsUf;Fk;> kw;nwhUtUf;Fk; ,ilNa tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;
Nghlg;gLfpwJ. nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,d;wpaikahg;
gz;G> ruf;Ffspy; nrhj;ij khw;WtJ, kw;Wk; ,aq;f $ba cupik>
gzk; jtpu xt;nthU tpjkhd mirAk; mirah nrhj;Jk; ‘ruf;F’
vd;W fUjg;gLfpwJ. ey;nyz;zk;> tu;jj ; f rpd;dk;> gjpg;Gupikfs;>
fhg;Gupik> ePu>; vupthA> kpd;rhuk;> ePjpkd;wk; Mfpatw;wpd; Miz
midj;Jk; ruf;FNghy; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. gq;Ffs; kw;Wk; ifapUg;G
MfpaitAk; nghUl;fspy; Nru;ff ; g;gl;Ls;sd. ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lk; xU
Fwpg;gpl;l tbtj;ij> tpw;gid nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;ij cUthf;f gupe;Jiu
nra;atpy;iy. nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;Ak;, xg;ge;jk; nra;tjd;
%yk; kl;LNk rYifAk;> Vw;wKk; ngw KbAk;. nghUl;fis tpw;gid
nra;tJ Fwpj;J> guprPyid nra;tjw;F gzkhdJ xU ‘tpiy’ vd
njupfpwJ. kw;wgb xg;Gf;nfhz;lhyd;wp> tpiy nkhj;jkhf nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk; my;yJ rl;lg;gbahd Fj;jif gzj;jpy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid vd cWjpaspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ thf;FWjp mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; ,jpy; fhNrhiy fl;lzk;> tq;fp itg;Gj;njhif Nghd;w tbtq;fspy;
gzk; nrYj;jglyhk;.
xU ‘epge;jid’ vd;gJ tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapyhdJ.
Fwpg;Gfs; ,e;j kPwy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l fl;rpf;F <Lnra;a Kbahj Nrjj;ij
Vw;gLj;JfpwJ> me;j xg;ge;jj;ij kWjypf;Fk; tifapy;> ‘fhg;GWjp’
vd;gJ ,uz;lhk;epiy Kf;fpaj;Jtkhf kl;LNk ,Uf;f KbAk;. ,e;j
kPwy;> xU Nrjj;jpdhy; <L nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba Nrjj;jpd; msit
kl;LNk Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. gpupT 13-d; gb epge;jid kPwy; fhg;GWjpapd;
kPwy; vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j myfhdJ tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;> epge;jidfs; fhg;GWjp;>
jiyg;Gfs; nrhj;Jupik kw;Wk; gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsiu
khw;WtJ Mfpatw;iw Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

5.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myF topahf nrd;w gpwF> cq;fshy;; :
••1930-Mk; Mz;bd;> nghUs; tpw;gid xg;ge;j rl;lk; gw;wp mwpe;J
nfhs;s KbAk;.
••tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;ij tptupf;fTk;. nghUs;fspd; tiffis
mwpaTk; KbAk;.
••epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpia mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.
••jiyg;G kw;Wk; gz;G khw;wj;ijg; Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwid tpsf;f KbAk;.
••gzk; nfhLf;fg;glhj tpw;gidahsu;fspd; cupikfisg; gw;wp
mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

5.2 tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;: xU fz;Nzhl;lk;


ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; 4(1) gpupT, ruf;Ffis tpw;gid nra;Ak;
xg;ge;jj;ij tiuaWf;fpwJ. ,J tpw;gidahsu; ,lkhw;wj;jpd; %yKk;
kw;Wk; xU tpiyf;F thq;Fgtupd; nrhj;ij gupkhw;wk; nra;a xg;Gf;
nfhs;fpwJ. nghUl;fspd; tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; rpy Kf;fpa gz;Gfis
,e;j tiuaiw ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,jd; gz;Gfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. ,U gq;Fjhuu;fs;: Kjyhtjhf> xU egu; jdJ nrhe;jg; nghUl;fis
thq;f ,ayhj epiyapy;> tpw;gtu; kw;Wk; tpw;gidahsuhf
xg;ge;jk; nra;a ,uz;L jdpj;Jtkhd fl;rpfs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
,Ug;gpDk;> xU gFjp-cupikahsUf;Fk; kw;Wk; kw;nwhU [gpupT
4(1)]-f;Fk; ,ilNa tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;glyhk;. vdNt>
xU $l;lhsp gq;Fjhuuhf ,Uf;Fk; epWtdj;jpypUe;J ruf;Ffis
thq;fpf; nfhs;syhk; my;yJ mjw;F vjpu;khwhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;.
2. nrhj;J gupkhw;wk;: ,q;F 'nrhj;J' vd;why;> ‘cilik’ vd;W
nghUs;. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> nghUl;fis
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tpw;gid nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpd; ,d;wpaikahj $W> ruf;Ffspy; 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
nrhj;ij khw;WtjhFk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ruf;Ffis kl;Lk; mikj;jy;
cilikahf;fpf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ ‘tpw;gid’ vd;W Fwpf;fg;gl
KbahJ. mJ tpw;gid xg;ge;jkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;>
tpw;gtu; nghUl;fis thq;FgtUf;F gupkhw;wk; nra;a Ntz;Lk; Fwpg;Gfs;
my;yJ guptu;j;jid nra;a xg;Gf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;.
3. ruf;Ffs;: tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; Fwpj;j cld;gbf;ifapy; cs;s
nghUl;fs; ‘ruf;F’ ahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpupT 2(7)-d; gb>
‘nghUl;fs; vd;why; eltbf;iff;Fupa gzk; jtpu kw;w mirAk;
mirah nrhj;Jf;fs; vd;W nghUs;gLfpwJ. gq;Ffs;> tsUk;
gapu;fs;> Gy;> kw;Wk; tpw;gidf;F Kd; my;yJ tpw;gid
xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; Jz;bf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w xU gFjpapy;
,izf;fg;gl;l my;yJ cUthf;fg; nghUl;fs; mlq;Fk;.
4. tpiy: tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; Fwpj;j guprPyid gz guprPyidahf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,J ‘tpiy’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. gpw
nghUl;fs; tpw;fg;gLfpwJ my;yJ guptu;j;jid nra;jhy;>
guptu;j;jid> nrhj;Jupik rl;lk; kw;Wk; ,r;rl;lj;jpd; fPo;
nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;a $lhJ vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ.
Mdhy; nghUl;fSf;F nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; gFjpfSf;F gzk;
rk;ghjpj;J ,Ue;jhy;> xg;ge;jk; tpw;gidapy; xd;whf
fUjg;gLfpwJ. (my;upl;[; kw;Wk; [hd;rd;).
5. tpw;gid kw;Wk; tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; ,uz;ilAk;
cs;slf;fpaJ: ‘tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;’ vd;w nrhw;nwhlu; xU
nghJthd nrhy; MFk;. NkYk;, ‘tpw;gid’ kw;Wk; ‘tpw;gid
xg;ge;jk;’ Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. (xU gpupT 4(1) vd;w
nrhw;nwhlu; tiuaiw ,Ue;J njspthf cs;sJ.
6. filgpbf;f Ntz;ba eltbf;iffspd; vz;zpf;if (gpupT 5):
ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l tbtj;ij> tpw;gid nra;Ak;
xg;ge;jj;ij cUthf;f gupe;Jiuf;ftpy;iy. nghUl;fis tpw;gid
nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk; rYifAk;> Vw;wKk; kl;LNk ngw
KbAk;. ,e;j rYifia tpw;gtu; my;yJ thq;Fgtu; ­%ykhfNt
nra;ayhk;> ,J kw;nwhU KiwiaAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ.
xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; jtiz Kiwapy; tpiyiag; gzk;
nrYj;JtJ vd;gJ xU thliff; nfhs;Kjyhf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba
mtrpakpy;iy. Mdhy;, mJ xU tpw;gidahf ,Uf;fyhk;. cjhuzkhf,
‘jtiz nfhs;Kjy; Kiw’ vd;w Kiwapy;> ‘tpw;gid’ vd;w xd;W
cs;sJ. Vnddpy;, ,e;j Kiwapy; thq;Fgtu; jpUk;gp tu tpUg;gk;
,y;yhky; thq;FtJk;> ruf;Ffspy; nrhj;J thq;Fk; NghJ clNd
thq;FgtUf;F ruf;F jpUk;g tuyhk;.

ruf;Ffspd; tiffs;
‘ruf;Ffs;’ vd;gJ> tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; nghUs; rhu;e;j mikg;ghFk;.
ruf;Ffis gpd;tUk; tiffspy; tifg;gLj;jyhk;:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid 1. eilKiw ruf;Ffs;: tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk; Neuj;jpy;>
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; cly; epiyapy; kw;Wk; tpw;gidahsupd; cilik kw;Wk;/
my;yJ cilik cs;s nghUl;fs;> 'jw;NghJs;s nghUl;fs;'
vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wd. tpw;gtu; vq;fpUf;fpwhu; vd;why;> mtw;wpy;
Fwpg;Gfs; nghJ cilik cs;sJ. tpw;gtu;> xU Kftu; vd;w Kiwapy;>
mtw;iw tpw;f cupik cs;sJ vd;W $w KbAk;.
jw;NghJ fz;lwpag;glhj nghUl;fs; kPz;Lk; ‘Fwpg;gpl;l’ my;yJ
mwpa Kbahj tifapy; ,Uf;fyhk;.
tpw;gidahsuplkpUe;J thq;Fgtuplk; ‘nrhj;J gupkhw;wk;’
njhlu;ghd tpjpKiwfs;> ‘Fwpg;gpl;l’ my;yJ ‘mwpa Kbahj’
nghUl;fSf;F ,ilNaahd NtWghL Kf;fpakhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.
2. vjpu;fhy ruf;Ffs;: tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;l gpd;du;
tpw;gidahsuhy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;L ifafg;gLj;jg;gLk;
ruf;Ffs; ‘tUq;fhy ruf;Ffs;’ vdg;gLk;. [gpupT 2(6)]
3. vjpu;ghuh ruf;Ffs;: nghUl;fs; ngUk; NghJ tpw;gtupd;
epr;rakw;w mtru epiyapdhy; vjpu;ghuhky; fpilf;Fk; ruf;Ffs;
vjpu;ghuh ruf;Ffs; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. [gpupT 6(2)]

tpiy:
nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;tjw;fhd gzk; gw;wpa guprPyid
‘tpiy’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. [gpupT 2(10)] tpiyahdJ xt;nthU
xg;ge;jg;Gs;spapy; xU ,d;wpaikahj $W vd;W Vw;fdNt ePq;fs;
ghu;j;jpUg;gPu;fs;. mjhtJ> nghUSf;fhd tpiy ,y;yhky; rupahf
tpw;gid nra;a KbahJ. kw;wgb xg;Gf;nfhz;lhy; xopa> rl;lg;gb
Fj;jif gzj;jpy; tpiy nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; my;yJ thf;FWjp mspf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; fhNrhiy> fl;lzk;> tq;fp itg;Gj;njhif Nghd;w
tbtq;fspy; gzk; nrYj;jyhk;. Vnddpy;> mJ xU gzk; nrYj;Jk;
Kiw my;y kw;Wk; xU rupahd xg;ge;jkhf Ntz;Lk; vd;w gzk; xU
tpiy nrYj;j xg;ge;jk; MFk;.

tpiy epu;zapf;Fk; Kiwfs;


gpupT 9-,d; gb> tpiyahdJ gpd;tUk; gad;Kiwfspy; xd;W my;yJ
kw;witfspy; epiyahf ,Uf;fyhk;:
1. ,J jpl;ltl;lkhd xg;ge;jj;jhy; ,e;j tpiyahdJ
epu;zapf;fg;glyhk;.
2. xg;ge;jk; toq;fg;gl;l xU Kiwapd; mbg;gilapy; tpiyahdJ
epu;zapf;fg;glyhk;:
3. ,J gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F ,ilapyhd nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fs; %yk;
jPu;khdpf;fg;glyhk;.
4. Nkw;$wpa ve;j xU gad;Kiwf;Fk; Vw;g tpiy epu;zak; nra;a
KbahJ vd;why;> thq;Fgtu;> tpw;gidahsUf;F xU ‘epahakhd
tpiyapid’ nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
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ruf;F cupikf;fhd Mtzq;fs; 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy;
ruf;Ffspd; cilik my;yJ fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;fhd MjhukhfTk;, xg;Gjy;
mspg;gjd; %yk; mq;fPfhuk; toq;Ftjw;fhfTk;, mq;fPfhuk; mspg;gjw;fhd
Mtzk; toq;Ftjd; %yk; Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gtUf;fhfTk; mjd;
Fwpg;Gfs;
%yk; tpepNahfpg;gtu; my;yJ mjd; %yk; ruf;Ffis toq;Ftij
rhd;WgLj;Jjy; Nghd;w rhjhuz Nghf;Ffspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;
ve;jnthU Mtzk; ruf;FfSf;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. [gpupT 2(4)].
,t;thW> cupik %y gj;jpuk; vd;gJ nghUs;fspd; cupikj;Jtj;jpw;F
rhd;whf tpsq;FfpwJ. mjpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s nghUl;fisg; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;tjw;F Kiwahd xg;Gjy; my;yJ Kiwahf njupTg;gLj;jy;
%yk; kw;nwhU egUf;F mj;jifa cupikia NkYk; gupkhw;wk;
nra;Ak; cupikahsuhf mq;fPfupf;fpwJ.
nghUs;fSf;fhd cupik %y MtzkhdJ epge;jidapd;wp
nghUl;fs; itj;jpUg;gtUf;F ruf;Ffis toq;Ftjw;F mjpfhuk;
toq;Fgtupd; xU gFjpahf cs;sJ. mj;jifa Mtzj;ij
toq;Fjy; my;yJ NknyOJjy; %yk; khw;w KbAk; vd;whYk;> mJ
Njhw;w nryhtzpf; fUtpahf fUjg;gLfpwJ> Vnddpy;> gupkhw;wj;jpd;
cupik %ykhdJ (,Ue;jNghjpYk; cz;ikahd) khw;wg;gl;lij
tpl mjpfkhf ,Uf;fhJ. Vndd;why; mj;jifa Mtzj;ij khw;Wk;
tof;fhf ,J cs;sJ.
ruf;F kw;Wk; efy; njhlu;ghd nghJ Mtzq;fSf;fhd
vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;: ,uapy; urPJ> fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;j rPl;L> fg;gy;Jiw
Nkil cupikahsu; rhd;wpjo;> xg;gilg;G Miz> gz;lf fhg;ghsu;
rhd;wpjo;> fg;gy;Jiw vOj;jhid Kjypad.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. nghUl;fspd; tpw;gid xg;ge;jk; vd;why; vd;d?
2. ruf;Ffspd; tiffis gl;baypLf.
3. tpiy vd;why; vd;d?

5.3 epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpfs;


epge;jid vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xU epge;jid
MFk;. ,e;j mj;JkPwy;> xg;ge;jj;ij kWgbAk; fhf;Fk; cupikia>
ghjpf;fg;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;f;F mspf;fpwJ. [12(2)] NkYk;> ,e;j xg;ge;jk;
KOtJk; fiyf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;> tpw;gtu;fSf;F tpepNahfk; nra;a
Kbahj epiyapy; jtwhf ,Ue;jhy;> ,og;Gf;fhd Nrjhuj;jpw;fhd
xU nraiy mtu; guhkupf;fyhk;. (kpy;yu;]; nk\pNdup Nfh. ypl; vs
Nltpl; Nt & rd;).
‘fhg;GWjp;’ vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhd xU
epge;jid MFk;. ,e;j mj;JkPwy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l fl;rpf;F xU

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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid Nrjhuj;jpw;F kl;LNk cupik nfhLf;fpwJ. NkYk;, ,J xg;ge;jj;ij
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; jtpu;g;gjw;F cjttpy;iy. [gpupT 12 (3)].
Nkw;fz;l tiuaiwfs;> ‘epge;jid’ kw;Wk; ‘fhg;GWjp’ vd;gjd;
nghUs; kw;Wk; rl;l tpisTfs; ,uz;ilAk; tpsf;fpr; nrhy;Yk;.
Fwpg;Gfs; ,jw;Nfw;g xU epge;jid> tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> ,e;j
mj;JkPwy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;f;F <L nra;a Kbahj Nrjj;ij
Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. mNj Neuj;jpy; mtu; xg;ge;jj;ij kWjypf;Fk; msTf;F
$l> ,e;j fhg;GWjpapd; ,uz;lhk; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpd; kPJ kl;LNk
Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. ,e;j Nrjj;jpdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ig <L nra;a KbAk;.
cz;ikapy;> epge;jid kPwy; kw;w xg;ge;jq;fspy; Kd;khjpupapy; cs;s
epge;jidia kPWjy;> xg;ge;jk; kw;Wk; cupikNfhuy; Nrjq;fis
uj;J nra;Ak; cupikAs;sJ.
ve;j msTf;Fk;> ve;j xU fhg;GWjpAk; ,y;iy vd;gJ Nghd;w
fLikahd Ntfkhd tpjpahf ,J ,y;iy. gpupT 12(4) mNj
tpisTf;F fPNo cs;sJ. ,t;thW tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpy; xU
epge;jid my;yJ xU fhg;GWjp vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; mikg;gpy; cs;s
xt;nthU tof;fpYk; cs;sJ. ,ij xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU fhg;GWjp vd;W
mioj;jhYk; ,J xU epge;jidahf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,t;thwhf ePjpkd;wk;>
gq;Fjhuu;fspd; nrhy;yhly;fs; %yk; topelj;jg;gl;ljy;y. Mdhy;>
xg;ge;jj;jpd; epge;jidfis> mjd; mikg;G kw;Wk; mijr; Rw;wpAs;s
R+o;epiyfisf; Fwpg;gpl;L> xU epge;jid my;yJ fhg;GWjpahf
,Uf;Fkh vd;W jPu;khdpf;f KbAk;.

epge;jid kw;Wk; fhg;GWjp ,ilNa cs;s NtWghLfs;


epge;jid kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpapw;F ,ilNa NtWghL Gs;spfs; fPNo
RUf;fkhf ,Uf;fyhk;:
1. kjpg;G: xU epge;jid vd;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;F
mtrpakhd xU epge;jid MFk;. Mdhy; xU fhg;GWjp vd;gJ
xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xUq;fike;j xU epge;jid
MFk;.
2. mj;JkPwy;: xU epge;jid kPwy; vd;gJ> xg;ge;jj;ij
kWjypf;Fk; cupik kw;Wk; Nrjq;fis cupik NfhUfpwJ. mNj
Neuj;jpy; fhg;GWjp kPWjy; vd;gJ ghjpf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdUf;F
Nrjj;ij kl;LNk mspf;fpwJ.
3. elj;JKiw: epge;jidia kPWjy; vd;gJ fhg;GWjp kPwyhf
fUjg;glyhk;. Mdhy;> fhg;GWjpia kPWtJ epge;jidia kPwpa-
jhf fUjg;gl KbahJ.

epge;jid kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpia kPWjy;


gpupT 13 epge;jidia kPWjy; vd;gJ xU fhg;GWjpia kPWtjhFk;.
,jdhy; xg;ge;jj;ij uj;J nra;Ak; cupikia ,oe;JtpLfpwhu;.

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NkYk;, Nrjj;jpw;fhd xU $w;iw kl;LNk cs;slf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
tptuq;fs; gpd;tUkhW: mikj;jy;

1. thq;Fgtupd; tpUg;g js;Sgb


2. thq;Fgtu; %yk; nghUl;fs; Vw;wy;
Fwpg;Gfs;
3. nghUs;fspd; xU gFjpia kl;LNk Vw;wy;

ntspg;gil, cl;gilapd; epge;jidfs; kw;Wk;


fhg;GWjpfs;
epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpfs; ntspg;gilahfNth my;yJ
cl;Fwpg;ghfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. mtu;fs; xg;ge;jj;jpy; EioAk; NghJ
gq;Fjhuu;fspd;; Kbit mtu;fs; ntspg;gLj;Jthu;fs;. mtu;fs;
jq;fs; ,Ug;ig ntspg;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;whYk;, xg;ge;jj;jpy;
mtu;fspd; ,Uj;jiy Cfpf;Fk; NghJ mtu;fs; ,t;thW $Wfpd;wdu;.
nray;gLj;jf;$ba epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpfs; tzpf gad;ghL
%yk; gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F ,ilNa ifahSk; Nghf;F my;yJ xU
vjpu;kiwahd fUj;Jld; khWghL ,Uf;fyhk;. (gpupT 62). ,e;j tpjpKiw
vd;gJ rl;lj;ijg; gw;wpa nghJthd Nfhl;ghLf;F cupa gad;ghL MFk;.
ntspg;gilahf nray;gl $ba tifapy; jdpg;gad; kw;Wk; xg;ge;j
Nky;tpjp Mfpatw;wpd; KbTf;F Kw;Wg;Gs;spia itf;fpwJ.

A. nray;gLj;jypd; epge;jidfs;
kw;wgb xg;Gf;nfhz;lhyd;wp> rl;lk; fPo;f;fz;l nray;ghl;L
epge;jidfis> cs;slf;fpAs;s ruf;Ffspd; tpw;gidia xg;ge;jj;jpy;
Nru;j;Js;sJ:
1. jiyg;gpw;fhd epge;jidfs; [gpupT 14(a)].
2. tpw;gid tptuq;fspd; epge;jidfs; [gpupT 15].
3. tpw;gid khjpupapd; epge;jidfs; (gpupT 17).
4. khjpup kw;Wk; tptuq;fspd; %yk; Vw;gLk; tpw;gidapd; epge;jidfs;
(gpupT 15).
5. clw;jFjp kw;Wk; juj;ij gw;wpa epge;jidfs; [gpupT 16(1)].
6. tzpfj;jpwDf;fhd epge;jidfs; [gpupT 16(2)].
7. nkhj;j epiyapd; epge;jidfs;

B. nray;gLj;jypd; fhg;GWjpfs;
NtWtifapy; xg;Gf;nfhz;lhyd;wp> ,r;rl;lk; ruf;Ffis tpw;gid
nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpYk; Nru;f;fpwJ. gpd;tUk; fhg;GWjpfs;:
1. mikjpahd cilikapd; fhg;GWjp [gpupT 14(b)].
2. Rje;jpu jilfSf;fhd fhg;GWjp; [gpupT 14(c)].
3.
nghUl;fspd; Mgj;jhd jd;ikia mwpahg; nghUs;
thq;FgtUf;F toq;f fhg;GWjp mspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; 4. fhg;GWjp vd;why; vd;d?
5. mspf;fg;gl;l epge;jid kPwy; vg;NghJ fhg;GWjpia kPWfpwJ?
Fwpg;Gfs; 6. epge;jidfs; kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpfs; Vd; ntspg;gilahf my;yJ
kiwKfkhf fhzg;gLfpd;wd?

5.4 ngau; kw;Wk; nrhj;Jfspd; khw;wk;


tpw;gtuplk; ,Ue;J thq;Fgtu; ruf;F thq;ff; $ba fhyk; gw;wpa
Jy;ypakhd Neuj;ij gy;NtW fz;Nzhl;lq;fspypUe;J ngupJk;
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf cs;sJ. ,tw;wpy;> gpd;tUk; rpwg;G
mwptpf;iffs; Njitg;gLfpwJ:
1. ,lu;ghL ‘Kjy; Nehf;fpy;;’ nrhj;J nfhz;L nry;Yk; Kiw: xU
nghJthd tpjpapy; cs;s nrhj;Jfs; ,of;Fk; mghak; vd;gJ>
nrhj;J Ftpg;G cs;s eguplk; njhlf;fj;jpNyNa cs;sJ. gpupT
26 mjw;fhd tpisit toq;FfpwJ. kw;wgb> mjpy; cs;s
nrhj;Jf;fs; thq;FgtUf;F khw;wg;gLk; tiu> tpw;gidahsUf;F
Mgj;jhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy;> mjpy; cs;s nrhj;Jf;fs;
thq;FgtUf;F khw;wg;gLk; NghJ> nghUl;fs; thq;FNthu;
nray;fspy; ,Ue;jhYk;, mit khw;wg;gLtjpy;iy. ,t;thW>
xg;ge;jk; Kbe;j gpd; nghUl;fs; mopf;fg;gLfpd;wd my;yJ
Nrjkilfpd;wd. ,og;ig Vw;gtu;> gz;lq;fspd; cilik
vd;w mbg;gilapy; ,y;yhky;> nghUl;fspd; cilik vd;w
mbg;gilapy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W KbT nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. el;lk; Vw;gLk; Neuj;jpy; ruf;FfSf;fhd ,og;ig Vw;f
Ntz;bAs;sJ.
2. %d;whk; gq;Fjhuu;fs; kPjhd eltbf;if: tpw;gid xg;ge;jk;
nra;ag;gl;lgpd;> %d;whk; gq;Fjhuu;fshy; ruf;Ffs;;
Nrjkile;jpUe;jhy;> jtW nra;gtUf;F vjpuhf ahu; eltbf;if
vLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gij Kd;Ng KbT nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
3. tpiy Vw;wk;: nghJthf> ruf;F thq;Fgtuplk; nrhj;J
thq;fpapUe;jhy; kl;LNk tpw;gtu; tpiy nfhLf;f KbAk;.
4. tpw;gtu; my;yJ thq;Fgtupd; nehbg;Gepiy: tpw;gidahsu;
my;yJ thq;FNthUf;F nehbg;Gepiy Vw;gl;lhy;> mjpfhuG+u;tj;ij
ngWgtu; my;yJ jUgtu; ruf;Ffis vLj;Jf;
nfhs;syhkh my;yJ Nfs;tpf;F ,ilA+W tpistpf;Fk;
nghUis thq;Ftjw;Nfh> my;yJ ruf;F cs;s nrhj;Jf;fspd;
KbTf;F gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F nghWj;jkhf cs;sjh vd;gij mwpa
Ntz;Lk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> nghUl;fis tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; Kd;>
ruf;FfSf;F gzk; nfhLg;gjw;F tpw;gidahsu; %yk; Vw;fdNt
tpiy nfhLj;J thq;Fgtuplk; Nju;r;rp ngw;why;> m ­jpfhuk;
ngWgtupd; nghUl;fSf;F vjpuhf cupik Nfhu KbahJ.

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5.4.1 nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; njhlu;ghd tpjpfs; 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy;
nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; njhlu;ghd tpjpfs; gpd;tUk; ,uz;L jiyg;Gfspy;
cs;sd. Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ fz;lwpag;glhj nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; (ii)
nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; vd mwpa Kbahj kw;Wk; vjpu;fhyr; ruf;Ffspy;
Fwpg;Gfs;
nrhj;Jupik khw;wk; Fwpj;J tpthjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

A. F
 wpg;gpl;l my;yJ mwpa te;j nghUl;fSf;fhd nrhj;J
gupkhw;wk;
Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ fz;lwpag;gLk; nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;tjw;fhd
xg;ge;jk; cs;s ,lq;fspy;> cs;s xg;ge;j jug;gpdUf;F mJ
khw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd fUjpajhy;> mtw;wpy; cs;s nrhj;Jf;fs;
thq;FgtUf;F khw;wg;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy;> fl;rpfspd; Nehf;fj;ijg;
nghWj;j tiu> fl;rpfspd; elj;ij> tof;fpd; R+o;epiyfs; Mfpait
Fwpj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F mika Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW
Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fspd; tptfhuj;jpy;> gq;Fjhuu;fs; mjid flf;Fk;
NghJ> nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; eilngWfpwJ. xg;ge;jk; nra;Ak; NghJ
my;yJ nghUl;fis tpepNahfk; nra;Ak;NghJ ve;j Neuj;jpy; gzk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; me;j nrhj;Jf;fis clNd vLj;Jr;
nry;y> gq;Fjhuu; epidj;jpUf;fyhk;.
20> 21> 22 kw;Wk; 24 Mfpa gpupTfspy; tFf;fg;gl;Ls;s tpjpfs;>
mtw;wpd; xg;ge;j my;yJ elj;ij kw;Wk; gpw R+o;epiyfspypUe;J
jPu;khdpf;fg;gl KbahjNghJ ,it gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. [gpupT 19(3)].
,jd; tpjpKiwfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. ruf;Ffs; tpepNahfk; nra;af;$ba epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;
NghJ (gpupT 20): xU epge;jidapd;wp (mjhtJ fl;rpfs;
epiwNtWtjw;F Kd;Djhuzkhd ve;j epge;jidf;F cl;gl;L
my;y)> Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fis tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; epiyapy;
tpw;gid nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s nrhj;Jf;fs;> xg;ge;jk;
nra;ag;gl;l clNdNa thq;FgtUf;F toq;fg;gLk;. mJ kpfTk;
fUj;jpayhdjhf cs;sJ. mjdhy;, tpiy my;yJ tpepNahfk;
nra;Ak; Neuk; ,uz;LNk xj;jp itf;fg;gLk;.
tpsf;fq;fs;:
(a) A xUtu; khj fldhf & 300-f;F xU irf;fps; thq;Ffpwhu;.
filf;fhuuplk; mij jdJ tPl;bw;F mDg;GkhW Nfl;fpwhu;.
filf;fhuu; mg;gb nra;a rk;kjpf;fpwhu;. irf;fps; clNd
A-d; nrhj;jhf khWfpwJ.
(b) P xU thuf; fldhf & 100-f;F xU ehw;fhypia thq;Ffpwhu;.
mLj;j ehs; ehw;fhypia ngw Vw;ghL nra;fpwhu;. me;j
ehspd; khiyapy; kur;rhkhd;fs; filj;njU gFjpapy; jP
tpgj;J Vw;gl;L> ehw;fhypahdJ mope;J tpl;lJ. ,Ug;gpDk;>
me;j ehw;fhypf;Fupa tpiyia P nrYj;j Ntz;bAs;sJ.

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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid 2. ruf;Ffis tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; NghJ (gpupT 21) nra;ag;gl
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; Ntz;bait: Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fis tpw;gjpy; xU xg;ge;jk; ,Uf;Fk;
NghJ> tpw;gtu; mjid ,ul;rpg;ghd tpsf;fkhf khw;w Ntz;Lk;
vd;w Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xU nghUs; nra;a fl;Lg;gl;bUf;fpwhu;. ,J
Fwpg;Gfs; Nghd;w nrayhdJ nra;ag;gLk; tiu nrhj;Jfis mspg;gjpy;iy>
vd;gij thq;Fgtu; ftdpj;jpUf;fpwhu;. ,q;F xd;W vd;w
thu;ji
; japd; nghUs; mtw;iw uapy; my;yJ fg;gypy; Vw;WtJ
my;yJ xU epiwTw;w tbtk; nfhLf;f mtw;iw nfhs;fyd;fspy;
mtw;iw epug;Gjy; Nghd;w xU nraiy Fwpf;fpwJ.
3. nghUl;fspd; tpiyia epu;zapf;Fk; ruf;Ffis fzf;fpl
Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 22): Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fspd; tpw;gidf;F rpy
xg;ge;jkhdJ cs;sJ. Mdhy; xU tpw;gidahd mikg;gpy;>
tpw;gidahsu; eltbf;if gupNrhjid nra;tij fl;Lg;gLj;j,
NtW VNjDk; nray; my;yJ fhupaj;ij Fwpg;gpLtjd; nghUl;L
nghUl;fspd; Fwpg;NgLfs; mj;jifa nray; my;yJ fhupak;
nra;ag;gl;L> thq;Fgtu; mij ftdpf;fpwhu;.
4. xg;Gifr; rhkhd;fs; toq;fg;gLk; NghJ (gpupT 24): nghUs;fs;
tpepNahfk; nra;Ak;NghJ> xg;Gjiyg; thq;Fgtu;, tpw;gtu;
my;yJ NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> mjpy; cs;s
nrhj;Jfis thq;FgtUf;F mJ nry;fpwJ.
(i) mtu; jdJ xg;Gjiy tpw;gidahsu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjd; %yk;
guptu;j;jidia filgpbg;gjd; %yk; NtW VNjDk; rl;lk;
cs;sjh vd;gij vLj;Jiuf;f Ntz;Lk;. v. fh. ruf;Ffis
gad;gLj;jp> nghUl;fis kPz;Lk; tpw;gij cWjp nra;fpwhu;.
(ii)
mtu; tpw;gidahsUf;F xg;Gjy; nfhLf;fNth> Vw;Wf;
nfhs;tNjh ,y;iy vd;why;> kPz;Lk; nghUl;fs; jpUk;gf;
nfhLf;f epu;zapf;fg;gl;l fhyj;ijj; jhz;b> my;yJ
xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;F mg;ghy;> epuhfupg;G gw;wpa
Kd;dwptpg;gpd;wp> ruf;Ffis jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s mtu;
KbntLf;fpwhu;.

B. f
 z;lwpag;glKbahj kw;Wk; vjpu;fhyr; ruf;Ffspd; nrhj;J
gupkhw;wk;
fz;lwpag;glKbahj kw;Wk; vjpu;fhyr; ruf;Ffspy; nrhj;J
gupkhw;wk; nra;tJ njhlu;ghd tpjp 18 kw;Wk; 23 gpupTfspy;
mlq;fpapUf;fpwJ. ,e;j gpupTfs;> tpw;fg;gl Ntz;ba nghUl;fs;
vq;F tpw;gid nra;ag;gLfpd;wd vd;gij mwpa Kbahj mstpy;
cs;s vjpu;fhyg; gz;lq;fs; MFk;. ruf;Ffis thq;Fgtu;fs;
,jid nra;a Ntz;bajpy;iy. mtw;iw tpw;gtu; my;yJ thq;Fgtu;
kw;wtu;fspd; xg;GjNyhL mtu;fSf;F tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; epiyapy;
,Uf;fyhk;. ,J Nghd;w xU epfo;thdJ> cl;Fwpg;ghfNth my;yJ
ntspg;gLj;jy; my;yhjjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. ,J xJf;fPl;Lr;
nra;ag;gl;l gpd;dUk; my;yJ mjw;F Kd;dUk; $l toq;fg;glyhk;.
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xg;ge;jj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu> nghUs; epu;zapj;jy; my;yJ 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
xJf;fPl;Lr; nray;ghL vd;gJ> xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; nghUl;fis mikj;jy;
xJf;fy; my;yJ mikg;gJ MFk;. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;ba Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fis milahsk; fhZjy;
kw;Wk; jPu;khdpf;Fk; Nehf;fj;Jld; $ba nghUl;fspd; njhlu;gpy;> Fwpg;Gfs;
vilapLjy;> mstply;> vz;Zjy; my;yJ xj;j nray;fis
nra;tJld; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


7. vg;NghJ tpw;gidahsu; epu;za tpiyia gad;gLj;Jthu;?
8. nrhj;J gupkhw;wk; njhlu;ghd tpjpKiwfis gl;baypLf.

5.5 gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;


nghUl;fis tpw;gtu;> ‘gzk; nfhLf;fhj tpw;gidahsu;, (a) KO
tpiy nfhLj;J nghUl;fis thq;fhjtu; my;yJ toq;fg;glhj NghJ
my;yJ (b) xU epge;jidg; gzk; nrYj;Jk; my;yJ NtW khw;wf;$ba
fUtp vd;w xU nraypd;> mjhtJ mjd; nray;Kiwf;F cl;gl;L>
mNj ,lj;jpy; mtkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.’
tpw;gtu; vd;w epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; ve;j eguplKk; gw;wpAk; Fwpg;gpl;l
topKiwahdJ mq;fPfupf;fg;glNth my;yJ me;j tpiyf;Nf Neubg;
nghWg;G tfpg;gtu; ruf;F mDg;Ggtuhf my;yJ Kftupd; Kftupia
cs;slf;fpapUf;Fk;. (gpupT 45)
,e;j tiuaiwahdJ> gzk; nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsUf;F
gpd;tUk; gz;Gfis typAWj;JfpwJ:
1. mtu; gz mbg;gilapy; nghUl;fis tpw;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;>
fld; kPJ ,y;yhky;> Cjpakpd;wp ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> tpw;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. mtu; Cjpakpd;wp KOikahfNth my;yJ gFjpahfNth Ntiy
nra;thu;. Mdhy; tpiy rpwpajhf ,Ue;jhYk; $l> gzk;
nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsuhf mtu; fUjg;gLtu;. guptu;j;jid
my;yJ khw;wf;$ba fUtp vd;w nray;Kiwapd; %yk; tpiy
nfhLf;fg;gLk; NghJ> mjid Vw;Wf;nfhs;thu;.
3. mtu; vg;NghJ gzk; nfhLj;jhu; vd;gij Vw;f kWf;ff;$lhJ.
tpiyahdJ thq;Fgtuplk; ,Ue;J gzk; nrYj;jg;gl;lhy;>
tpw;gtu; mij Vw;f kWf;fpwhu;. mtu; xU Cjpak; ngwhj
tpw;gidahsuhf ,Ug;ghu;.

gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupik


gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsUf;F ,uz;L klq;F cupikfs;
cs;sd. mit gpd;tUkhW:
I. gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsUf;F vjpuhf cupik kPwy;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 83 5/20/2019 12:57:53 PM


1930 ruf;F tpw;gid II.
thq;Fgtu; kPJ jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; gzk; nrYj;jg;glhj
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; tpw;gidahsUf;F vjpuhd cupikfs;.
,e;j cupikfis ehk; ,g;NghJ tpupthf Muha;Nthk;.

Fwpg;Gfs; I. gzk; nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsUf;F vjpuhd cupikfs;


ruf;Ffspy; cs;s nrhj;J> thq;Fgtuplk; flj;jg; gl;lJ vd;w
cz;ik vJthf ,Ue;jhYk;> tpw;gidahsUf;F vjpuhf gpd;tUk;
cupikfs; cs;sd:
1. kPs; cupik (gpupT 47)
2. ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;J epWj;jj;jpd; cupik
3. kWtpw;gid cupik [gpupT 46(1)]
1. kPs; cupik (gpupT 47): ruf;Ffis itj;jpUg;gtu;fSf;F cupa
tpiy toq;fg;gLk; tiu mtw;iw thq;FgtUf;F toq;f
kWg;gJ> ‘kPs;’ cupik MFk;. tpw;gid nra;ag;gLk; nghUl;fis
itj;jpUg;gjpy; gzk; nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsu; gpd;tUk;
re;ju;g;gq;fspy; jdJ nray;fisj; jd; kPJ gpuNahfpj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;F cupik cs;sJ:
(a) fld; ngw ve;j epge;jidAk; ,y;yhky;, nghUl;fs; tpw;gid
nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
(b) me;j nghUl;fs; flDf;F tpw;gid nra;ag;gl;lNghjpYk;
fld; jtizahdJ Kbe;J tpl;lJ.
(c)
fld; fhyk; ,d;Dk; Kbe;Jtpl;lhYk;> thq;Fgtu;
jpthyhfptpLfpwhu;.
2. ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;J epWj;jj;jpd; cupik: Nghf;Ftuj;J
epWj;jj;jpd; cupik vd;gJ> nghUl;fis thq;Fgtu;fsplk;
nra;Ak; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xU flj;jy; nra;Ak; NghJ> me;j ruf;F
NkYk; Nghf;Ftuj;J epWj;Jk; cupik vd;W nghUs;gLfpwJ>
kw;Wk; gzk; nrYj;j my;yJ Fj;jif nrYj;Jk; tiu
itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;;. vdNt> xU mu;j;jj;jpy; cupik
vd;gJ kPs; cupik ePl;bg;G MFk;. Vnddpy;> tpw;gidahsu;
ruf;F cilikahf;fg;gl;l NghJ tpw;gidahsiu kPz;Lk;
cilikahff; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
i. ,e;j cupikahdJ vg;nghOJk; cgNahfpf;fg;gl KbAk;
(gpupT 50): gzk; nrYj;jhj tpw;gidahsu; ,e;j cupikia
kl;Lk; jhd; gad;gLj;j KbAk;:
(a) thq;Fgtu; flid jPu;f;f KbahJ.
(b) nrhj;J thq;Fgtiu nghWj;jJ.
(c) ruf;F uapy; ghijapy; cs;sJ.
ii. Nghf;Ftuj;J fhyk; (gpupT 51): ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;J
epWj;jj;jpd; cupik> ruf;Ffs; nry;Yk; ghijapy;
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,Uf;Fk; tiu kl;LNk gpuNahfpf;fg;gl KbAk; vd;gjhy;> 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
,ilj;jq;fy; vg;NghJ njhlq;Fk;> vg;NghJ KbTf;F mikj;jy;
tUk; vd;W njupe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;baJ mtrpakhfpwJ.
,ilj;jq;fy; KbTf;F tUk; NghJ> epWj;jj;jpd; cupikia
gpuNahfpf;f KbahJ. Fwpg;Gfs;
gpupT 51-,d; gb> thq;Fgtu; my;yJ mtuJ Kftu; ntspaPL
nra;Ak; tiu> thq;FgtUf;F gupkhw;wk; vd;w Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
gpizaj;jpw;F tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gLk; NghJ nghUl;fs;
flj;jg;gLk; fhyj;jpy; ,Uf;fyhk; vd;W fUjg;gLfpwJ.
Mifahy;, nghUl;fs; thq;FgtUf;F my;yJ KftUf;F
ve;j tpjkhd nghUs;fSk; toq;fg;glhtpl;lhy;> mit
vt;tsT J}uk; ,Ue;jhYk; gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhd fhj;jpUg;G
my;yJ cz;ikahd gazj;jpy; ,Uf;fyhk;. tpw;gidahsu;
mtw;iw jpUk;g ngw kWj;Jtpl;lhYk;> mit thq;Fgtuhy;
epuhfupf;fg;gl;L> vLj;J nry;gtu; gpizaj;ij njhlu;e;jhy;
nry;YgbahFk;.
iii. Ntiy epWj;jj;jpd; cupik (gpupT 52): nrYj;jg;glhj
tpw;gidahsu; gupkhw;wj;jpd; jilia cupikNahL
gad;gLj;jyhk;:
(a)
nghUl;fspd; cz;ikahd cilikia vLj;Jf;
nfhs;tjd; %yk;>
(b)
me;j nghUl;fs; ahUilaJ vd;w epiyapy;>
nghUs;fis vLj;J (Vw;wp)r; nry;gtu; my;yJ gpw gpiz
vLg;Gf;F mtu; cupik NfhUtJ gw;wp Nehl;B];
nfhLg;gjd; %yk;.
3. kWtpw;gid cupik [gpupT 46(1)]: fl;lzkpy;yhj tpw;gidahsUf;F
mspf;fg;gl;l cupik> kWtpw;gid cupik MFk;. ,e;j cupik
,y;yhj epiyapy;> nghUl;fSf;F vjpuhf nrYj;jg;glhj
tpw;gidahsupd; kw;w cupikfs;> mjhtJ ‘cupkk;’ kw;Wk;
‘,ilepiyg;ghijapy; epWj;jg;gLjy;’ Mfpait kpfTk;
cgNahfkhf ,Ue;jpUf;fhJ Vndd;why;, ,e;j cupikfs;
nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsiu kl;LNk nfhz;bUf;Fk;.
thq;Fgtu; ,ay;G epiyapy; njhlu;eJ ; ,Ue;jhy;> tpw;gidahsu;
fhyjhkjkhf> nghUl;fisj; jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd
; g;gl Ntz;Lk;, ntspg;gilahf ,J rl;lj;jpd; Nehf;fkhf
vjpu;ghu;ff
,Uf;f KbahJ. gpupT 54 vdNt> tpw;gidahsu; gpd;tUk;
re;ju;gg
; q;fspy; nghUl;fs; kWtpw;gid nra;a cupik
nfhLf;fpwJ:
(a) ruf;Ffs; mope;J NghFk; ,ay;Gilait
(b)
thq;Fgtu; Kd;dpay;ghf nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;why;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; mj;jifa cupik jpl;ltl;lkhf
xJf;fg;gLfpwJ.

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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid (c) tpw;gtu; kWtpw;gid nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w jdJ
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; tpUg;gj;ij thq;FgtUf;F mwptpg;G nfhLj;J> thq;Fgtu;
xU epahakhd Neuj;Jf;Fs; tpiyia nrYj;Jtjpy;iy
my;yJ Fj;jif nfhLf;f khl;lhu;.
Fwpg;Gfs; kWtpw;gid nra;Ak;NghJ tpw;gidahsUf;F ,og;G
Vw;gl;lhy;> mtu; mij thq;FtjpypUe;J kPl;f KbAk;. Mdhy;
kWtpw;gidapy; cgup ,Ue;jhy;> tpw;gidahsu; mtUld;
mij itj;jpUf;f KbAk; Vndd;why; thq;Fgtu; jdJ nrhe;j
jtWfisg; gad;gLj;j mDkjpf;f KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk;>
kWtpw;gid [tof;F (c) Njitg;gLk;NghJ] thq;FgtUf;F
nfhLf;fg;gl;lhy;> tpw;gidahsupd; cupikahsu; ,og;igf;
NfhuTk;> cgupj; njhifia kPl;nlLf;fTk; cupik NfhUfpwhu;.
NtW thu;j;ijfspy; nrhd;dhy;> nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsu;
kWtpw;gidia toq;Ftjpy; jtwpy;iy vd;why;> nghUl;fs;
mope;Jglf;$ba ,ay;Gilait my;y my;yJ mj;jifa
cupik ntspg;gilahf xJf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;> thq;Fgtupd;
,og;ig kWtpw;gidapypUe;J mtu; kPl;nlLf;f KbahJ. vdNt
xg;ge;jk; kPwg;gLtjw;F mtrpak; Njitg;gl;lhy;> thq;FgtUf;F
Njitg;gLk; NghJ ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ mtrpak;. ,J Nghd;w
xU mwptpg;G thq;Fgtu; tha;g;ig toq;FfpwJ vd;gjhy;
tpiyiar; nrYj;Jtjw;Fk;> nghUl;fis thq;Ftjw;Fk;
my;yJ tpw;gid nra;tij Nkw;ghu;itapl Kbahtpl;lhy;> mJ
xOq;fhfr; nra;ag;gl;ljh vd;gijg; ghu;f;fTk;.

II. j
 dpg;gl;l Kiwapy; thq;Fgtu; kPJ nrYj;jg;glhj
tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;
NkNy tpthjpf;fg;gLk; nghUl;fSf;F vjpuhd cupikfs; jtpu>
nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsu; fPNo Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s %d;W cupikfs;
cs;sd:
1. epu;za tpiy (gpupT 55): nghUl;fspd; nrhj;J thq;FgtUf;Fr;
nrd;why;; my;yJ tpw;gidapd; tpiy rpy rkaj;jpy;
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;> ,Ug;gpDk; nghUl;fspd; nrhj;J
flf;fg;gltpy;iy kw;Wk; thq;Fgtu; jtwhf Gwf;fzpj;J
my;yJ xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F Vw;g tpiyia nfhLf;f
kWf;fpwhu;. tpw;gidahsu; thq;Fgtu; kPJ tof;Fj; njhLf;fhky;
nghUs;fis tpepNahfk; nra;tij nghUl;gLj;jhky; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. nghUl;fs; toq;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why; rpy rpwg;G
tupirapy; jahupf;fg;gLk; NghJ> tof;fkhf tpiyapy; jhf;fy;
nra;ayhk; kw;Wk; ,t;thW ,y;iynadpy; tpw;gidapy;yhky;
,Uf;fyhk;.
2. Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj ,og;gpw;fhd tof;F (gpupT 56): thq;Fgtu;
jtwhd Kiwapy; Gwf;fzpf;fpwhuh, Vw;Wf;nfhs;s kWf;fpwhuh
my;yJ nghUl;fis thq;Ftjw;F kWf;fpwhuh vdf; $wyhk;. ,e;j
tp\aj;jpy; tpw;gidahsupd; jPu;T> KOikahd nghUl;fspd;
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KO tpiyAldhd xU eltbf;ifia tpl Nrjj;jpw;F xU 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
tof;fhf MFk;. mikj;jy;

3. rpwg;G NrjhuKk;> tl;bAk; (gpupT 61): ,e;jg; gpupT


tpw;gidahsUf;F> ,e;j ,og;Gf;fhd ‘rpwg;G Nrjhuq;fSf;F’
thq;FgtUf;F> mtu;fs; xg;ge;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jpa NghJ> mij Fwpg;Gfs;
kPWtjpypUe;J tpisitf; fhz KbAk; vd;w tifapy; tpw;gtu;
kPJ tof;F cs;sJ. gpupT 61 ,d; gb ,e;jpa xg;ge;jr;
rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 73 ‘rpwg;G Nrjq;fs;’ gw;wpa Nfhl;ghL
kl;LNk cs;sJ. tpw;gid nra;ag;gl;l nghUl;fspd; nkhj;j
nrYj;jg;glhj tpiyapy; xU epahakhd tPjj;jpy; tl;b
ngw cupik ngwhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupikia ,e;j gpupT
mq;fPfupf;fpwJ> mJ cz;ikapy; gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F Kd;Ng
,Ue;jJ. (njY uhk; [hk; mu;fd;thy; & rd;];).

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


9. xU ‘nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsuhf’ fUjg;gLgtu; ahu;?
10. nghUl;fSf;F vjpuhf nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupik
vd;d?

5.6 tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwd;


‘tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f> mtw;iw thq;FtJ
nghUl;fis tpw;gtupd; flik’ (gpupT 31). vdNt> tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd;
nray;jpwd;> tpw;gidahsuhy; toq;fg;gl;L> nghUl;fs; toq;Ftij
Vw;Wf;nfhs;tNjhL> thq;Fgtu; %yk; mtu;fSf;Ff; nfhLg;gdT
toq;fp xg;ge;jg;gb Vw;GilajhFk;. Neuk;> ,lk; kw;Wk; nghUl;fspd;
tpepNahfk;> Vw;ghL kw;Wk; tpiy nrYj;Jjy; Mfpatw;iwg; gw;wp
xg;ge;jj;jpy; tpUk;Gk; ve;j tpjpKiwfisAk; juf;$lhJ. Mdhy;
xg;ge;jj;jpy; ,e;j tp\aq;fisg; gw;wp mikjpahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy
vd;why;> nghUl;fs; tptfhuj;jpy; tpw;gid nra;ag;gLk; tpjpfSf;F
nghUe;Jk;.

tpepNahfpj;jy;:
ruf;Ffis tpepNahfpg;gJ vd;gJ xU eguplk; ,Ue;J kw;nwhU
nghUisf; nfhs;Kjy; nra;tjw;fhd jd;dhu;t ,lkhw;wk; MFk;.
[gpupT 2(2)].ruf;Ffis itj;jpUg;gJ jd;dhu;tkhf ,y;yhtpl;lhy;>
mjhtJ> ifj;Jg;ghf;fpapd; fPo; ifg;gw;wg;gLjy; my;yJ jpULjy;
Mfpait ,y;iy.

tpepNahfpf;Fk; Kiwfs;
gpd;tUk; topfspy; VNjDk; nghUl;fis tpepNahfpj;jy;:

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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid 1. cz;ikahd tpepNahfk;: thq;Fgtu; (my;yJ mtuJ
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Kftu;) tpw;gidahsu; (my;yJ mtuJ
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Kftu;) %yk; nghUl;fs; cl;Gwkhf
xg;gilf;fg;gLk; ,lj;jpy;> tpepNahfpg;G cz;ikahdJ vdf;
Fwpg;Gfs; $wg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> fhupd; tpw;gidahsu; fhupd; kPJ
thq;FgtUf;F tpw;Fk; nghUl;fspd; cz;ikahd tpepNahfpg;G
cs;sJ.
2. FwpaPl;Lg; gpurhuk;: mit vq;Nf ,Uf;fpd;wNjh mq;F ,Uf;Fk;
(mit gUkdhf ,Ug;gjhy;) nghUl;fis thq;Ftjw;fhd
topKiwfs; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> tpw;gtu;
thq;Fgtuplk; xg;gilf;f Ntz;Lk;. nghUl;fs; Nrkpf;fg;gl;Ls;s
fplq;F> my;yJ jiyg;G Mtzk; (mjhtJ> thfdk; my;yJ
uapy; urPJ kNrhjh) thq;FgtUf;F ruf;Ffis ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;
nghUl;L fpilf;Fk;.
3. rl;lxOq;F %yk; Mf;fg;G+u;tkhd tpepNahfk;: tpw;gidahsupd;
nghUl;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; egu;> thq;Fgtupd; rhu;ghf ruf;Ffis
itj;jpUf;Fk; tpw;gidahsupd; cj;juTf;F ,zq;f fld;
thq;fpatu; mjid xg;Gf; nfhs;thu;. ,J Nghd;w tpepNahfj;jpy;>
tpw;gidahsupd; nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; thq;Fgtu; fl;lhak; RUf;fpf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf tpw;gidahsu; thq;FgtUf;F
‘tpepNahf fl;lis’ kPJ ifnaOj;jpLifapy;> tpw;gidahsupd;
gpizakhf ruf;Ffis thq;Fgtu; rhu;ghf mtu;fis
elj;Jtjw;F xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu; kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwhu;.
mNjNghy;> tpw;gidahsupd; rhu;ghf thq;Ftjw;F VJthf
xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu;.

A. nghUl;fs; tpepNahfk; nra;tjw;fhd tpjpKiwfs;


nghUl;fs; tpepNahfk; njhlu;ghd tpjpKiwfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. nlyptup vd;gJ cz;ikahd my;yJ FwpaPl;Lj;jdkhfNth
my;yJ Mf;fg;G+u;tkhfNth ,Uf;fyhk; (gpupT 33): tpw;gid
nra;ag;gLk; nghUl;fis nlyptup nra;tJ ve;j xU jug;gpduhYk;
Vw;fg;gLk; VNjDk; xU nra;jpahy; nra;ag;glyhk;. my;yJ me;j
nghUl;fis thq;Fgtupd; trk; itj;jpUg;gjd; tpisT my;yJ mtu;
rhu;ghf mtu;fis elj;j mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l ve;j egupd; cilTk;
cs;sJ. ,jdhy; nghUl;fspd; tpepNahfk; cz;ikahdjhfTk;>
FwpaPlhfTk;> Mf;fG+u;tkhdjhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. (,e;j nrhw;fs;
Vw;fdNt Kd;gf;f jiyg;gpd; fPo; tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sd).
2. tpepNahfk; kw;Wk; fl;lzk; Mfpait xNu Neuj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;
epiyfs; (gpupT 32): nghUl;fspd; tpiyAau;T xg;Gjy; kw;Wk;
tpiyia nrYj;Jk; tiu> tpw;gidahsupd; tpiy kw;Wk;
thq;Fgtupd; tpiy jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> mjw;F gjpyhf
thq;Fgtu; nghUl;fis toq;f jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> xU

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filapy; nuhf;f tpw;gidapy; ruf;Ffis itj;jpUg;gjw;fhf 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
tpiyia nfhLf;f jahuhf ,Uf;fpwJ. mikj;jy;

3. nghUl;fspy; cs;s nrhj;Jfs; tpepNahfpg;gjpy; gq;Nfw;Fk;NghJ


tpepNahfj;jpd; tpisT (gpupT 34): nkhj;j toq;fypd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;fhd nghUl;fspd; xU gFjpia xl;Lnkhj;jkhf Fwpg;Gfs;
toq;Ftjd; %yk; mj;jifa nghUl;fspy; nrhj;Jf;fis fle;J
nry;Yk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf mNj tpisitf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. NtW
thu;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjhdhy;> ruf;Ffspd; xU
gFjpia tpepNahfpg;gjw;fhd Nehf;fj;Jld; jahupf;fg;gLk; NghJ>
kPjKs;s nghUl;fs; midj;Jk; xU gFjpia toq;Fk;NghJ
tpiutpy; thq;FgtUf;F mDg;gg;gLk; vd;W fUjg;gLfpwJ.
4. tpepNahfpg;gij thq;Fgtu; (gpupT 35): xg;ge;jj;jpd; gb
nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;tJ tpw;gidahsupd; flik vd;whYk;>
mtw;iw toq;FtJ fl;lhakpy;iy. tpepNahfpg;gtu; Nfl;gij
thq;Fgtu; nra;ahtpl;lhy; tpw;gidahsu; Fw;wk; nrhy;y
KbahJ. gq;Fjhuu;fs; NtWtpjkhf xg;Gf; nfhs;syhk;.
5. tpepNahf Neuk; [gpupT 36(2) & (4)]: tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd;
fPo;> tpw;gidahsu; thq;FgtUf;F nghUl;fis mDg;Gtjw;F
fl;lhakhf ,Uf;fpwhu;. Mdhy; mtw;iw mDg;Gtjw;F ve;j
NeuKk; epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; mDg;gg;gl Ntz;Lk;. thq;Fgtu;
my;yJ Fj;jif tpepNahfk; mspg;gjd; %yk;> tpw;gidahsuhy;
toq;fg;gLk; mjpfgl;r Njit epahakhf xU kzp Neuj;jpw;Fs;
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. xU kzpNeuk; vd;gJ cz;ikahd xU
Nfs;tpahFk;.
6. tpepNahfj;jpw;fhd ,lk; [gpupT 36(1)]: tpw;gidapd; xg;ge;jj;jpy;
tpw;fg;gl;l ,lk; Fwpg;gplg;glyhk;> NkYk; Ntiy ehl;fspy; tzpf
Neuq;fspy;> ngauplg;gl;l ,lq;fspy; nghUl;fis toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; xg;ge;jj;jpy; ve;j ,lKk; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy.
gpd;tUk; tpjpfis gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk;:
(i) ‘tpw;gid’ tof;fpy;> tpw;gidf;Fupa Neuj;jpy; mtu;fs;
,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpy; nghUl;fis tpepNahfj;jpw;fhd toq;f
Ntz;Lk;.
(ii) nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;tjw;fhd cld;gbf;ifapy;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
(iii) vjpu;fhy nghUl;fspd; nra;jpahdJ> mit jahupf;fg;gLk;
my;yJ cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; ,lj;jpy; toq;fg;gLk;.
nghUl;fspd; tpw;gidahsu;> fldhspapd; tpw;gidia
tpw;Fk;NghJ> mtw;wpw;F gjpyhf NtW ,lj;jpNyNa jdJ nrhe;j
,lu;ghLfSf;F xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu;fs;. mNj rkak;> nghUl;fspy;
rupT Vw;gLtjw;fhd mghaj;ij ve;jtpj Mgj;Jk; Vw;glhky;
jtpu;j;jy; Ntz;Lk;. (gpupT 40).

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid 7. xU %d;whk; jug;gpdUf;fhd nghUl;fspd; tpepNahfk; [(gpupT 36(3)]:
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; tpw;gidapd; Neuj;jpy; nghUl;fs; %d;whk; egUf;F nrhe;jkhdjhf
,Ue;jhy;> thq;FgtUf;F ve;j tpepNahfKk; toq;fg;glhtpl;lhy;>
%d;whk; egu; jdJ rhu;ghf nghUl;fis itj;jpUg;ghu; vd;gij
Fwpg;Gfs; xg;Gf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa tpepNahfk; ‘Mf;fG+u;tkhd
tpepNahfk;’ my;yJ ‘xg;Gf;nfhs;Sk; tpepNahfk;’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLfpwJ. NkYk; %d;W gq;Fjhuu;fs;> tpw;gidahsu;>
thq;Fgtu; kw;Wk; nghUl;fis itj;jpUg;gtu; Mfpatw;wpd;
xg;Gjy; Njitg;gLfpwJ. tpw;gidahsUf;F ‘tpepNahfpg;gij’
ifg;gw;Wk;NghJ tpw;gidahsupd; nghUl;fSf;F mJ xg;Gf;
nfhs;shtpl;lhy; tpepNahfpg;gjpy;iy.
Mdhy; nghUl;fspd; jiyg;Gf;F Mtzj;jpd; khw;wj;ij
khw;Wtjd; %yk; nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;jhy;> v.fh.> uapy;
urPJ my;yJ kNrhjh tuk;G thq;Fgtu; mj;jifa Mtzk; %yk;
gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jg;gLk; nghUl;fspd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,Ug;gjhf
fUjg;gLfpwJ> NkYk; %d;whk; jug;gpdupd; mDkjpAk; Njitapy;iy.
8. tpepNahf nryTfs; [gpupT 36 (5)]: xg;Gf; nfhs;shtpl;lhy;>
nghUl;fis toq;Ftjw;fhd nryTfs; kw;Wk; tpw;gidahdJ
tpw;gidahsuhy; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
9. jtwhd msT my;yJ NtWgl;l juj;ij toq;fy; (gpupT 37):
Vw;nfdNt filg;gpbf;fg;gl;l tpw;gidahsu;> xg;ge;jj;jpd;
tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f> thq;FgtUf;F nghUl;fis
toq;Ftjw;F flikg;gl;Ls;shu;. xU FiwghLila ­tpepNahfk;>
mjhtJ> xg;ge;jj;jpy; Nru;f;fg;glhj xU tpj;jpahrkhd
tpsf;fj;jpw;fhd nghUl;fSld; fyg;G my;yJ nghUl;fspd;
tpepNahfj;jpw;Fk; FiwthfNth my;yJ mjw;F mjpfkhfNth
tpepNahfj;ij toq;FtJ> thq;FgtUf;F cupj;jhdJ:
(i) KOtijAk; epuhfupf;f Ntz;Lk;> my;yJ
(ii) nkhj;jj;ijAk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;> my;yJ
(iii) msT kw;Wk; juj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L kPjKs;s nghUl;fis
epuhfupj;J tpl;lhu;.
FiwghLs;s tpepNahfj;jpd; fhuzkhf nghUl;fspd; epuhfupg;G
fhuzkhf> mtw;iw tpw;gidahsUf;F jpUg;gp tplkhl;lhu;>
Mdhy; tpw;gidahsuplk; mtu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s kWf;fpwhu; (gpupT
43). NkYk;> ruf;Ffis epuhfupg;gjw;fhd cupikia xg;ge;jj;ij
uj;J nra;tjw;F cupik ,y;iy. thq;Fgtu; nghUl;fis
epuhfupf;fpwhu; vd;why;> tpw;gidahsUf;F xg;ge;jj;jpd; juk; kw;Wk;
msT Mfpatw;wpw;F kPzL ; k; xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;>
thq;Fgtu; mjid Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fk; ­
cupikAilatu;.
(tpyh]; cj;Nahf; ypkpnll; g;uf; td];ghjp 3).
mtu; cz;ikapy; xg;ge;j tpfpjj;jpy; nghUl;fis Vw;Wf;
nfhs;fpd;wdu;. thq;Fgtu; FWfpa fhy tpepNahfj;ij
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 90 5/20/2019 12:57:53 PM


Vw;Wf;nfhz;lNghJ> tpw;gidahsuplkpUe;J mNj msTf;F 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
Nrjq;fisAk; cupik NfhUfpwhu;. ,Ug;gpDk;> gw;whf;Fiw mikj;jy;
mjpfg;gbahd msTf;F kpff; Fiwthdjhf ,Ug;gjhy; fzf;fpy;
vLj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy kw;Wk; thq;Fgtu; nghUl;fis Vw;Wf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j> ‘rl;lkhdJ fzf;fpy;yhj FiwghLfis Fwpg;Gfs;
fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;shJ.’
NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s tpjpfs; tu;j;jfj;jpd; ve;jnthU
gad;ghLk;> cld;gbf;if my;yJ gq;Fjhuu;fSf;fpilapy;
ifahSk; Nghf;fpw;F cl;gl;lit. [gpupT 37 (4)].
10. jtiz toq;fy;fs; (gpupT 38): ,y;iynadpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
nghUs;fis thq;Fgtu; jtizfshy; toq;Ftij
Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjpy;iy. fl;rpfs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwhu;fshdhy;>
ruf;Ffis tpepNahfpg;gjd; %yk; kl;LNk toq;f KbAk;.
juTfs; jtizfshy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W
xg;Gf;nfhs;ifapy;> xt;nthU jtizAk; jdpj;jdpahf nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;> thq;Fgtu; my;yJ tpw;gidahsu; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l jtizfspy; xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjhy; mj;jifa kPwy;
xl;Lnkhj;j kPwy; xg;ge;jk; my;yJ g
­ Fjpapd; kPwy;? ,e;j Nfs;tpf;fhd
xg;ge;jj;jpd; epge;jidfisAk; tof;Ffspd; R+o;epiyfisAk;
rhu;e;jpUf;fpwJ. ,y;iynadpy;> ,uz;L fhuzpfSk; KO
nra;jpiaAk; jPu;khdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(a) xg;ge;jk; xU KO xg;ge;jj;ij rhu;e;jJ kw;Wk;
(b) mj;JkPwy;fs; kPz;Lk; tUtjw;fhd epfo;jfT (Nkg;gps;
gpshf; Nfh ypkpnll; vs Adptu;ry; gu;dpr;ru; ypkpl;nll; 4).
nghJthf jtizj; my;yJ gzk; nrYj;jj; jtwpdhy;> ,e;j
xg;ge;jj;jpd; rpwg;G R+o;epiyfspy; KO xg;ge;jj;ij kPWtjw;F
xU njhif ,y;iy (v. fh. ciog;gpd; Ntiy epWj;jk; fhuz-
khf Miy %lg;gLfpwJ my;yJ thq;Fgtu; ghJfhg;gw;wtu;)
vd;W ,NjNghd;w mj;JkPwy;fis jpUk;g ngw KbAk;.
11.
Jiw cilatu; my;yJ Vw;wp nry;gtu; (gpupT 39): tpw;gidahsu;
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l my;yJ nghUl;fis mDg;g Ntz;Lnkd;W
thq;Fgtu; my;yJ thq;FNthu;> gupkhw;w Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf> my;yJ
ruf;Ffis ghJfhg;ghd fhtypy; itg;gjw;fhf Kjd;ikahd
thq;FgtUf;F nghUl;fis tpepNahfpg;gjhf fUjg;gLfpwJ.
i. tpw;gidahsu; flik: thq;Fgtu; cupikahsu;fsplk;
tpw;gidahsupd; flik> mtu; nghUl;fis toq;Fk;NghJ
my;yJ ghJfhg;ghf thq;Fgtu; rhu;gpy; xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eiotjw;F
kw;Wk; mt;thW nra;ahtpl;lhy; nghUl;fs; ,of;fg;gl;L my;yJ
Nrjkile;jhy; thq;Fgtu; tpepNahfpg;gijf; Fiwf;f $Lk;
my;yJ tpw;gidahsu; nghWg;Ngw;why; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.
ii. fly; Nghf;Ftuj;J: fldhspapd; tpw;gidahsuhy; fly;top
Nghf;Ftuj;J rk;ge;jg;gl;l xU topapypUe;J nghUl;fis
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid mDg;gpapUe;jhy; jq;fs; flypy; fhg;gPL nra;j nghUl;fis
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; thq;Ftjw;F Neubahf njuptpf;f Ntz;Lk;. tpw;gidahsu; mt;thW
nra;ahtpl;lhy;> mj;jifa fly; gazj;jpd; NghJ nghUl;fs;
Mgj;jpy; ,Ug;gjhf fUjg;gLk;.
Fwpg;Gfs; 12. nghUl;fs; thq;Ftijg; Gwf;fzpj;J my;yJ thq;Fgtupd;
nghWg;G. (gpupT 44): tpw;gidahsu; ruf;Ffis toq;Ftjw;F
jahuhf>thq;Fgtu; epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; tpepNahfpg;gij
NfhUfpwhu;> mj;jifa Ntz;LNfhis Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L
tpw;gidahsUf;F mtuJ Gwf;fzpg;G my;yJ kWg;G fhuzkhf
nghUl;fis vLj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Fk;> ruf;Ffis guhkupg;gjw;Fk;
epahakhd fl;lzk; tpjpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

B. thq;Fgtu; %yk; tpepNahfk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;:


thq;Fgtu; nghUl;fis vLj;Jf; nfhz;l cz;ikia mtu;fs;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ ,y;iy. gpupT 42 ,d; gb> thq;Fgtu; fPo;f;fz;l
R+o;epiyfspy; xd;iw Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjhf fUjg;gLfpwhu;> mjhtJ:
1. mtu; tpw;gidahsuplk; nghUl;fis Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhu;.

Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; gw;wp mwpKfg;gLj;Jtjw;F Kd;>
thq;Fgtu; gpupT 41 d; fPo; juj;ij Muha;tjw;Fk;>
gupNrhjpg;gjw;Fk;> juk; njhlu;ghd xg;ge;jj;jpw;F ,zq;f cs;sjh vd
cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk;. Nrhjidapd; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
mtrpakhdhy; nghUl;fisg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. v.fh.> xU Fjpiu
tpw;gidahdJ> xU kzp Neuj;jpw;F 25 fpNyhkPll ; upy; ,aq;ff; $ba
epge;jidf;Fl;gl;lhy;> Fjpiu xg;ge;jj;Jld; ,zq;Ffpwjh vd;gijj;
jPuk
; hdpf;f Fjpiu gad;gLj;j Ntz;baJ mtrpak;. Mdhy; mtu;
jpUg;jp milatpy;iy vd;why;> kWg;G gw;wp tpw;gidahsUf;F
njuptpf;f cldbahf eltbf;if vLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2.
tpw;gidahsupd; cupikAld; nghUe;jhj nghUs;fSld;
njhlu;Gila eltbf;ifia mtu; nra;jhy;> v.fh.> Efu;T>
gad;fs;> cWjpnkhopfs; my;yJ kWtpw;gid nghUl;fs;
my;yJ mtw;wpd; milahsj;ij itf;fpwJ.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


11 tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwd; vd;d?
12. nghUs; tpepNahfj;jpd; rpy Kiwfis gl;baypLf.

5.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Nrhjpj;jwpAk;


tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1. nghUl;fspd; tpwg; id gpupT 4(1)> tpwg ; idahsiu xU tpiyf;F
thq;FgtUf;F nghUs;fspd; nrhj;Jf;fis ,lkhw;WtJ my;yJ
xg;Gf;nfhs;tjd; %yk; xg;ge;jkhf tpwg
; id nra;tij tiuaWf;fpwJ.
92 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 92 5/20/2019 12:57:54 PM


2. ruf;Ffis gpd;tUk; tiffspy; tifg;gLj;jyhk;: 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
i. jw;NghJs;s ruf;Ffs; mikj;jy;

ii. vjpu;fhy ruf;Ffs;


iii. cWjpahd ruf;Ffs; Fwpg;Gfs;
nghUl;fspd; tpw;gidf;fhd gzf; fUtp ‘tpiy’ vd;W
3.
mwpag;gLfpwJ. NtWtpjkhf xg;Gf; nfhs;shtpl;lhy;> tpiy
xg;ge;jk; my;yJ rl;luPjpahd Fj;jif gzj;jpy; nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;W cWjpaspf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,J fhNrhiy> gzk;>
tq;fp itg;G tbtj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;jg;glyhk;.
4.
xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xU fhg;GWjpia
epge;jidAld; ,izj;Jf;nfhs;tJ> ghjpf;fg;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fis
Nrjg;gLj;Jtjw;F cupik mspf;fpwJ.
5. gpupT 13> epge;jid kPWjy; vd;gJ fhg;GWjpia kPWtjhFk;.
,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij uj;J nra;Ak; cupikia thq;Fgtu;
,oe;JtpLfpwhu;. me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpisthf> ,e;j xg;ge;jk;
uj;J nra;ag;gLk;. ,e;j tof;Ffs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. thq;Fgtupd; jd;dhu;t js;Sgb
2. thq;Fgtu; %yk; nghUl;fis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ
6.
epge;jidfSk; fhg;GWjpfSk; ntspg;gilahfNth
kiwKfkhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. mtu;fs; xg;ge;jj;jpy;
gq;Fjhuu;fspd; tpUg;gj;jpd; Ngupy; ntspg;gilahf
$wg;gLtJld;> jhdhfNt xg;ge;jj;jpy; jq;fs; ,Ug;ig
cWjpg;gLj;jpajhf mtu;fs; $wg;gLfpwhu;fs;.
7. nghJthf> nghUs; thq;Fgtuplk; nrhj;J ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk
tpw;gtu; tpiy nfhLf;f KbAk;.
8.
nrhj;J ,Ug;G gpd;tUk; ,uz;L epge;jidfspd; fPo;
nra;ag;gLfpwJ:
(i) Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ mwpag;gl;l nghUl;fspy; nrhj;Jf;fis
khw;WtJ> kw;Wk;
(ii) ek;gfkw;w kw;Wk; vjpu;fhy nghUl;fspy; nrhj;Jf;fis khw;WtJ.
9.
nghUl;fis tpw;gtu; gzk; nfhLf;fhj tpw;gidahsuhf
fUjg;gLtu;.
(a) nkhj;j tpiyia nrYj;jNth my;yJ Fj;jif ,lNth
KbahJ.
(b) xU gupkhw;wk; my;yJ kw;w Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l fUtp
xU epge;jid fl;lzkhf ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;> mjhtJ
mjd; czu;jpwDf;F cl;gl;lJ.
10. ruf;Ffspy; cs;s nrhj;J thq;FgtUf;F flj;jg;gl;l cz;ik
vJthf ,Ue;jhYk;> tpw;gidahsUf;F vjpuhf gpd;tUk;
cupikfs; cs;sd:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 93

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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid i. cupikfspd; cupkk;
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; ii. Nghf;Ftuj;jpy; nghUl;fis epWj;Jtjw;fhd cupik
iii. kWtpw;gid cupik
Fwpg;Gfs; 11. tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;jpwd; vd;gJ> tpw;gidahsuplkpUe;J
nghUl;fis tpw;gjd; %yKk;> xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; thq;Fgtuplk;
gzk; nrYj;Jjy; kw;Wk; mtw;iw Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; Mfpatw;iw
Fwpf;fpwJ.
12. gpd;tUk; topfspy; VNjDk; nghUl;fis tpepNahfpj;jy;:
i. cz;ikahd tpepNahfk;
ii. FwpaPl;L toq;fy;
iii. fl;Lkhdg; nghUl;fs; my;yJ xg;Gf;nfhs;Sjy; %yk;
tpepNahfpj;jy;

5.8 RUf;fk;
••ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lk; gpupT 4(1)> nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;Ak;
xg;ge;jj;ij tiuaWf;fpwJ. ,J tpw;gidahsu; ,lkhw;wj;jpd;
%yk; tpiyf;F thq;Fgtuplk; nrhj;ij gupkhw;wk; nra;a xg;Gf;
nfhs;fpwJ.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf epge;jid vd;gJ
ghjpf;fg;gl;l gq;Fjhuu; xg;ge;jj;ij kWjypg;gjw;fhd cupikia
mspf;fpwJ. $Ljyhf mtupd; ,og;G Nrjq;fs; eltbf;iffs;
guhkupf;fyhk;> KO xg;ge;jKk; cile;J tpl;lhy;> tpw;gidahsu;
my;yhj tpepNahfj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;.
••jiyg;G Fwpg;gpLk; epiyapy;> tpw;gidahsuplk; fl;lhakhf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;W mtu; Fwpg;gpl;lhu;> mtu; cupikahsuhf
,Uf;ff;$lhJ Mdhy; xg;ge;jj;jpd; nry;Ygbia epiyehl;l
KbAk;.
••tpw;gidapd; xt;nthU xg;ge;jj;jpYk;> tpw;gidahsupd;
gFjpapYs;s fhg;GWjpahdJ thq;Fgtu; kw;Wk; nghUl;fspd;
mikjpahd cilikfisg; ngWthu; vd;gjhFk;.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; gpd;du; nghUl;fs; mopf;fg;gl;lhy; my;yJ
Nrjkile;jhy;> ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifahdJ cilikapd;
mbg;gilapy; my;y. khwhf nghUl;fspd; cupikfspd;
mbg;gilapy; jPu;khdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
••nrhj;J gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhd tpjpfs; gpd;tUk; ,uz;L jiyg;Gfspd;
fPo; tpthjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. (i) Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;l
nghUl;fspy; nrhj;Jf;fis khw;WtJ kw;Wk; (ii) ek;gfkw;w
kw;Wk; vjpu;fhy nghUl;fspy; nrhj;Jf;fis khw;WtJ.
••nghUl;fspd; tpw;gidahsu; xU ‘nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsuhf’
fUjg;gLfpwhu;. (a) tpiy KOtJk; gzk; nrYj;jg;glhtpl;lhNyh>
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my;yJ (b) xU gupkhw;wk; my;yJ kw;w Ngr;Rthu;ji
; jf;Fl;gl;l 1930 ruf;F tpw;gid
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
fUtp epge;jid fl;lzkhf ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;>mjhtJ mikj;jy;
mjd; czu;jpwDf;F cl;gl;lJ> NkYk; mJ mtkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
••tpw;gidahsu; cilikahf;fg;gl;L> nghUl;fis xU RahjPd
fhtypy; itj;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> tpw;gidahsupd; cz;ikahd Fwpg;Gfs;
cilikf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ kl;LNk cupkk; fpilf;fpwJ.
••xU kWtpw;gidapy; tpw;gtUf;F e\;lk; Vw;gl;lhy;> mij mtu;
thq;Fgtuplk; ,Ue;J kPl;f KbAk;. Mdhy; kW tpw;gidapy;
cgup ,Ue;jhy;> thq;Fgtu; jdJ jtiw rhjfkhf;fp mDkjpf;f
KbahJ vd;gjhy; tpw;gtu; jd;Dld; itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.
••tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; nray;ghL> tpw;gidahsuhy; thq;Fgtupd;
%yk; gzk; nrYj;Jjy; kw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;jpd;gb nghUl;fis
thq;FNthu; %yk; tpepNahfk; nra;tij Fwpf;fpwJ.
••thq;Fgtu; (my;yJ mtuJ mq;ff
P upf;fg;gl;l Kftu;)
tpw;gidahsuhy; (my;yJ mtuJ mq;ff P upf;fg;gl;l Kftu;)
nghUl;fs; ifg;gw;wg;gl;lhy;> tpepNahfkhdJ cz;ikahdJ vdf;
$wg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf xU thfd tpw;gidahsu;> thq;FNthuplk;
nghUl;fspd; cz;ikahd tpepNahfj;ij xg;gilf;fpwhu;.
••xg;ge;jj;jpd; gb nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;tJ tpw;gidahsupd;
flik vd;whYk;> thq;Fgtu; tpepNahfpg;gpw;F nghUe;Jk; tiu
mtu; mtw;iwf; flikahf;f khl;lhu;.
••juTfs; jtizfshy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W xg;Gf;nfhs;ifapy;
xt;nthU jtizAk; jdpj;jdpahfTk;> thq;Fgtu; my;yJ
tpw;gidahsu; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l jtizfspy;
xg;ge;jk; kPwg;gLtij xg;Gf; nfhs;ifapy;> mj;jifa kPwy;
nkhj;jkhf kPWtjhf xg;ge;jk; my;yJ g
­ Fjpapd; kPwy; cs;sJ?
••Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; gw;wp kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;F Kd;> xU gpupT
41 d; fPo;> thq;Fgtu; xU cupikiaf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhu;. mit
jutpd; mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sjh vd;gij cWjp
nra;Ak; tifapy; ruf;Ffis gupNrhjpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

5.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;


••epge;jid: xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;F epge;jid
vd;gJ kPwg;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fspd; xg;ge;jj;ij kWjypg;gjw;fhd
cupikia kPWfpwJ.
••fhg;GWjp: xU fhg;GWjpia xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
epge;jid cs;sJ> ,e;j mj;JkPwy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l
gq;Fjhuu;fspd; Nrjk; kl;LNk xU cupikia nfhLf;fpwJ.
••epu;za tpiy: tpw;gid xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo;> nghUl;fs;
flj;jg;gltpy;iy kw;Wk; xg;ge;jj;Jf;F ruf;F xJf;fg;gltpy;iy
vd;whYk; tpw;gtu; mtw;iw tpiyf;F toq;fyhk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1930 ruf;F tpw;gid ••xg;Gf;nfhs;Sjy;: fl;Lkhd tpepNahfk;> xg;Gf;nfhs;Sjy;
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jk;
mikj;jy; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
••Jiw cilatu;: ,J xU egupd; cupikahsUf;F xU
njhd;ikahd fhykhFk;. Jiw cilatiu fhtypy; vLj;J
Fwpg;Gfs; nghWg;Gld; nghUl;fs; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd.

5.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rpfs;


FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1.
nghUs;fSf;fhd jiyg;G Mtzj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij
RUf;fkhf vOJf.
2. epiy kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpw;F ,ilNaahd NtWghl;il rpWFwpg;G
tiuf.
3. nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;Ak; xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s kiwKf
epytuj;ijg; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJf.
4.
Fwpg;gpl;l my;yJ njupe;j ruf;Ffspy; nrhj;Jf;fis
khw;Wtjw;fhd RUf;fkhd Fwpg;ig vOJf.
5. thq;Fgtu; kPJ nrYj;jg;glhj tpw;gidahsupd; cupikfs;
gw;wpa rpW Fwpg;G vOJf.
6.
Mf;fG+u;tkhd tpepNahfk; my;yJ tpepNahfj;ij
xg;Gf;nfhs;Sjy; gw;wp rpW Fwpg;G vOJf.

ePz;l tpil tpdhf;fs;


1. ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; fPo; 1930 Mk; Mz;bd; fPo; xg;ge;jj;ij
cUthf;Fk; nray; gw;wp tpthjpf;f.
2. ruf;Ffs; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; xg;ge;jj;jpy; xU epge;jid kw;Wk;
fhg;GWjp rl;lg;G+u;t tpisTfis Muha;e;J ghu;f;f.
3. nghUl;fspd; tpepNahfk; njhlu;ghd gy;NtW tpjpfis Ma;T
nra;f.

5.11 NkYk; gbf;f


Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).
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myF 6 ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;

nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
Fwpg;Gfs;
mikg;G
6.0 Kd;Diu
6.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
6.2 Cu;jpfs; rl;lk;> 1865
6.3 ,uapy;Nt rl;lk;> 1890
6.3.1 ,uapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; flikfs;
6.3.2 ,uapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.3.3 Nfhupf;iffspd; mwptpg;G (gpupT. 78b)
6.4 fly; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; ruf;Ffs; Vw;wpr;nry;Yjy;, 1925
6.4.1 Cu;jpf; Fj;jif xg;ge;jk;
6.4.2 fly; topahf nry;Yeupd; flikfs;
6.4.3 fly; topahf nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.4.4 fg;gy; cupikahsu; cupkk; kw;Wk; fly;top cupkk;
6.5 1972 tpkhd rl;lk; %yk; vLj;J nry;Yjy;
6.5.1 ruf;Fjhuu; kw;Wk; ruf;F Vw;W cupikahsupd;
cupikfs;
6.5.2 ruf;F nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;
6.6 2007 rhiyr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; Vw;wpr;nry;Yjy;
6.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
6.8 RUf;fk;
6.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
6.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
6.11 NkYk; gbf;f

6.0 Kd;Diu
ehl;bd; nghUshjhu tsu;r;rpapy; Nghf;Ftuj;J Kf;fpa gq;F
tfpf;fpwJ. ruf;F kw;Wk; ciog;ghsu;fspd; ,af;fj;jpw;F ,J
toptif nra;fpwJ. etPd tzpfj;jpd; xU khw;W Kiw mbg;gilapy;>
tzpf tsu;r;rpapy; Nghf;Ftuj;jpd; gq;F kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ. vdNt>
‘ruf;F tz;b xg;ge;jk;’ njhlu;ghd rl;lk; Fwpj;j Ma;T fl;lhak;
Ntz;Lk;. Cu;jpfs; ,U gpupTfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. (i) nghJ
Cu;jpfs; kw;Wk; (ii) jdpahu; Cu;jpfs;. xU nghJthd Cu;jp vd;gJ
xU jdpg;gl;l egu;> xU epWtdk;> xU egu;fspd; rq;fk; my;yJ xU
ngUepWtd gFjp MFk;. Mdhy; murhq;fk; xU nghJthd Cu;jp
my;y. xU nghJthd Cu;jp vd;gJ xU jdpg;gl;l egu;> xU epWtdk;>
rq;fj;jpd; egu;fs; my;yJ xU ngUepWtd FOkk; MFk;> Mdhy;
murhq;fk; xU nghJthd Cu;jp my;y. ,Ug;Gg;ghij (murhq;fj;jhy;
nrhe;jkhf ,aq;FfpwJ) Cu;jpfs; rl;lk; 1865> ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; NghJk; mit epu;tfpf;fg;gLtJ ,y;iy. xU jdpahu; Cu;jp
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
MSilik rl;lk; 1865- My; epu;tfpf;fg;gLtJ ,y;iy. mtuJ
epiyg;ghL xU ruf;Ffs; xg;gilf;fg;gl;ltuplk; MFk;. vdNt mtu;
1872 k; Mz;bw;fhd ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jhy; epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpwhu;. xU
Fwpg;Gfs; nghJthd nry;Yeu;> jdJ thfdk; Vw;nfdNt epuk;gpait my;yJ
NghJkhd msT fl;Lg;gl;lhyd;wp> thliff;F mku;j;jpf; nfhs;Sk;
ve;j xU egUf;Fk;> jdJ tof;fkhd ghijapy; vLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F
jahuhf ,Uf;Fk; tFg;gpd; ruf;Ffis kl;Lk; vLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F
fl;Lg;gl;ljhFk;.
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tJ> epyk; topahfNth my;yJ fly;
topahfNth my;yJ fhw;wpdhy; nry;yyhk;. MfNt> ehk; %d;W
njspthd jiyg;Gfspd; fPo; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;fpNwhk;> (1) epyk;
%yk; Vw;wpr; nry;Yjy; (2) fly; %yk; Vw;wpr; nry;Yjy; (3) fhw;wpd;
%yk; Vw;wpr; nry;Yjy;.
epyk; %yk; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; rl;lk; (cs;ehl;L
topnrYj;jy; cl;gl) (a) Cu;jpr; rl;lk;> 1865> kw;Wk; (b) ,e;jpa
,Ug;Gg;ghij rl;lk;> 1890. ,e;j ,uz;L rl;lq;fSk; jw;NghJ gy
Kiw jpUj;jk; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sd.
,e;j myF epyk;> fly; kw;Wk; fhw;wpd; %yk; ruf;Ffis
Vw;wpr; nry;tjpy; cs;s gy;NtW rl;lq;fis Muha;tij Nehf;fkhff;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,J nghJthd Cu;jpfspd; cupikfisAk;
nghWg;GfisAk; tpsf;FfpwJ.

6.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;>
••nry;Yeu;fspd; tiffis mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.
••nghJ nry;Yeupd; cupikfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfis Muha KbAk;.
••epyj;jpd; %yk; ruf;Ffis Vw;wp nry;tij gw;wp mwpa KbAk;.
••fly; topahf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tJ gw;wp tpsf;f KbAk;.
••fhw;wpd; %yk; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tJ gw;wp njupe;J nfhs;s
KbAk;.
••ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tjpy; cs;s rhiy rl;lk; 2007-I Ma;T
nra;a KbAk;.

6.2 nry;Yeu; rl;lk; 1865


xU egu; my;yJ epWtdk; xU ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J kw;nwhU ,lj;jpw;F
ruf;F my;yJ kf;fis nfhz;L nry;y cld;gLk; xU xg;ge;jk; xU
tz;b xg;ge;jk; vd;W mwpag;gLfpwJ. ruf;F my;yJ kf;fis gzk;
ngw;Wf;nfhz;L (cjhuzkhf gzj;jpw;fhf nghUl;fis my;yJ
kf;fis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; $l;lk;> nry;Yeu; vdg;gLfpwJ) vLj;Jr;
nry;Yk; jug;G Cu;jp vdg;gLfpwJ.
98 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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Cu;jpfis tifg;gLj;Jjy; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
nry;Yeu; vd ,U gpupTfshfg; tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. (1) nghJthd
Cu;jpfs; (2) jdpahu; Cu;jpfs;.

1. nghJthd nry;Yeu; Fwpg;Gfs;

nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lk; 1865> nghJthd nry;Yeu;fs; ve;j xU rq;fk; my;yJ


FOkj;jpd; cWg;gpduhf ,izf;fg;gLfpwhu; my;yJ ,lg;gFjpapy; ,Ue;J
thliff;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; tpahghuj;jpy; gzpaku;jj ; y; my;yJ
Ntiyf;F mku;jj ; g; gl;l njhopypy; <LgLj;Jtjw;fhd nrhj;Jf;fis>
gFj;jwptpy;yhj midj;J egu;fSf;F epyk; my;yJ cs;ehl;L
topnrYj;jy; Mfpatw;iw xU nghJthd nry;Yeu; tiuaWf;fpwJ.

2. jdpahu; nry;Yeu;
xU jdpahu; nry;Yeu; vd;gtu; nghJthd rYifiag; ngwhky;>
Mdhy; jw;nrayhd xU njhopyhfr; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yjy;
Mdhy; xU tpahghukhf my;yhky;> jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; rpy rpwg;ghd
tpjpKiwfisg; gpd;gw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l egu; Mthu;. vdNt> xU nghJthd
nry;Yeu;fis Nghyy;yhky;> mtu; midj;J nghUl;fisAk; Rke;J
nry;y Ntz;ba fl;lhak; ,y;iy. ruf;Ffis thq;Ftjw;fhd VNjDk;
jpl;lj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tNjh my;yJ epuhfupg;gijNah mtu;fSf;F
tpUg;gKz;L.
xU jdpahu; nry;Yeu; MSilik rl;lk; 1865-My; epu;tfpf;fg;gLtJ
,y;iy. mtuJ epiyg;ghL xU ruf;Ffs; xg;gilf;fg;gl;ltuplk;
MFk;. vdNt mtu; 1872 k; Mz;bw;fhd ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jhy;
epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpwhu;.

nghJthd Cu;jpapd; flikfs;


nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lk; 1865> xU nghJthd nry;YeUf;F gpd;tUk;
flikfis tpjpf;fpwJ:
1. xU nghJthd nry;Yeu;> jdJ thfdk; Vw;nfdNt epuk;gpait
my;yJ NghJkhd msT fl;Lg;gl;lhyd;wp> thliff;F mku;j;jpf;
nfhs;Sk; ve;j xU egUf;Fk;> jdJ tof;fkhd ghijapy;
vLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F jahuhf ,Uf;Fk; tFg;gpd; ruf;Ffis
kl;Lk; vLj;Jr; nry;tjw;F fl;Lg;gl;ljhFk;.
2. nghJthd xU Cu;jp tof;fkhd my;yJ xg;Gf;nfhz;l topia
gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk;. Njitahdhy; mtu; mjpypUe;J tpyfpapUf;f
Ntz;Lk;. mtrpakpy;yhtpl;lhy; mtu; tpyfptplf; $lhJ.
3. mtu; ruf;Ffis ftdkhf vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;Lk;.
4. xg;Gf;nfhz;l Neuj;jpy; my;yJ xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs;
(ve;j NeuKk; xg;Gf;nfhs;stpy;iy vd;why;)> ,yf;F cs;s
,lj;jpy; ruf;Ffis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; 5.
ruf;Ffs; fle;J nry;Yk; NghJ> ruf;F mDg;Ggtu;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
khw;wpf;nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L ruf;Ff; fg;gypd; topKiwfSf;F
fPo;g;gba Ntz;Lk;.

Fwpg;Gfs; nghJthd nry;Yeupd; cupikfs;


1.
xU nghJthd nry;Yeu;> Vw;fj;jf;f Cjpak; (vJTk;
xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy vd;why;) my;yJ mtuJ NritfSf;fhd
epahakhd Cjpaj;jpw;F cupj;JilajhFk;. mtu; mNj Nghy;
Kd;$l;bNa gzk; vd;w ngaupy; ngw;Ws;sJ.
2. ruf;Ffis vLj;J nrd;wjw;fhd fl;lzj;ij nrYj;Jk; tiu>
ruf;Ffis jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; cupik mtUf;F cz;L.
NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> mtu; ruf;Ffspd; kPJ
Fwpg;gpl;l cupikiag; gad;gLj;j KbAk;.
3.
ruf;F ngWgtu; ruf;Ffis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tij kWj;jhy;>
nry;Yeu;fSf;F ,J Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy; epahakhd
eltbf;iffis vLf;f cupik cz;L. mope;JNghFk; jd;ik
cila nghUl;fis tpw;gid nra;ayhk; my;yJ fplq;fpy;
Nrkpj;J itf;fyhk;. mtu; fplq;F fl;lzk; Nghd;wtw;iw ruf;F
ngWgtuplkpUe;J kPl;Lf; nfhs;syhk;. xg;ge;jj;jpd; jdpr;rpwg;G
,y;yhj epiyapy;> mj;jifa nrytpdq;fSf;F nghWg;ghsu;
nghWg;Ngw;f KbahJ.
4. mtUf;F Vw;gl;l ,og;gpd; fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; Nrjhuq;fis
mtuhy; kPl;nlLf;f KbAk;. Vnddpy;> ruf;Ffspd; mghafukhd
jd;ikapdhy; mtu; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;shu; (ghk;/gPy;L Vs Nfhay;
kw;Wk; n\/gPy;l; buhd;]; fk;gdp ypkpnll;).

nghJthd nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;


Mq;fpy nghJr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo;> xU nghJthd nry;Yeu; mtUf;F
toq;fg;gl;l ruf;Ffspd; fhg;ghsu; MFk;. vdNt> ,e;j ,og;G
Vw;gLk; NghJ jtpu> (xU tpgj;J my;yJ mtuJ rpwe;j ftdpg;G
kPwp xU tpgj;jpy; Nrjkile;jhYk;) ruf;Ffspd; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk;
midj;jpw;Fk; mtu; nghWg;Ngw;ff; $Lk;:
(i)
flTspd; nray;fshd> cjhuzkhf kpd;dy;> G+fk;gk;> Gay;>
nts;sk;.
(ii)
ehl;bd; vjpupfs;> v.fh.> Nghupd; NghJ.
(iii) ruf;Ffspy; cs;s cs;shu;e;j my;yJ ,ay;ghd Jiz %yk;>
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> jputq;fis Mtpahf;Fjy;> goq;fs; mOjy;>
tpyq;Ffspd; Neha;.
(iv) ruf;Fjhuupd; ftdf;Fiwthy;> v.fh.> FiwghLs;s fl;Lkhdk;.
,e;jpahtpy; nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lk; 1865> Cu;jpfspd; nghWg;Gf;fhf
ruf;Ffis ,U gpupTfshfg; gpupj;J tifg;gLj;jpAs;sJ (m)
jpl;lkplg;gl;l ruf;Ffs;> kw;Wk; (M) jpl;lkplg;glhj ruf;Ffs;.
100 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 100 5/20/2019 12:57:54 PM


jpl;lkplg;gl;l ruf;Ffspy; jq;fk;> nts;sp> tpiyAau;e;j fw;fs;> ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
Kj;Jf;fs;> Mguzq;fs;> cz;bay;fs;> ehzaq;fs;> tiuglq;fs;>
muR gj;jpuq;fs; Nghd;w kjpg;Gkpf;f nghUl;fs; mlq;Fk;.
,JNghd;w nghUs;fspd; gl;bay; rl;lj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
gl;baypy; Nru;f;fg;glhj nghUl;fs;> jpl;lkplg;glhj ruf;Ffs; vd Fwpg;Gfs;
miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,U tif ruf;Ffis nghWj;j tiu> nghJ
nry;Yeu; xd;wpd; nghWg;Gfs; Fwpj;J> nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lj;jpd; tpjpfis
fPo;f;fz;lthW njhFj;Jf; $wyhk;:
1. jpl;lkplg;glhj ruf;Ffisg; nghWj;j tiu: Mq;fpy nghJr;
rl;lj;jpd; fPo;> xU nghJthd Cu;jp mtUf;F toq;fg;gl;l
ruf;Ffspd; fhg;ghsu; MFk;. vdNt> ruf;Ffis vLj;J nry;Yk;
NghJ Vw;gLk; ,og;G jtpu> xU tpgj;jpy; Nrjkile;jhYk;,
ruf;Ffspd; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; midj;jpw;Fk; mtu;
nghWg;Ngw;ff; $Lk;: rpy rpwe;j xg;ge;jq;fs; %yk; ,e;j ,og;ig
<L nra;ayhk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> (v. fh. Ke;ija Fwpg;gpy;
cs;sgb)vjpu;ghuhj kw;Wk; jtpu;f;f Kbahj mtruepiyfs;>
nfhs;isf;fhuu;fs;> jpUlu;fs;> jP> kio> frpT kw;Wk; tpgj;J
Nghd;w fhuzpfshy; vOk; ruf;Ffspd; Nrjq;fSf;F nry;Yeu;
nghWg;Ngw;fkhl;lhu;.
2. jpl;lkplg;gl;l ruf;Ffis nghWj;j tiu: ,j;jifa
ruf;Ffspd; kjpg;G & 100 Ij; jhz;bapUe;jhYk;> mtuJ gq;fpw;F
ftdf;FiwT ,Ue;jNghjpYk;> ruf;Ffspd; kjpg;Gk;> tpsf;fKk;>
mtw;iw toq;Fk; Neuk; ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fg; glhj
epiyapy; nry;Yeu; nghWg;Ngw;f KbahJ. Mdhy;>
ruf;Ffspd; kjpg;G kw;Wk; tptuk;> mjpy; cs;s tptuq;fs; %yk;
ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ> xU tpjptpyf;fhd R+o;epiyfspy;>
,e;j ,og;G Vw;gLk; NghJ jtpu> ruf;FfSf;F Vw;gLk; midj;J
,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;F Mq;fpy nghJ tpjpapd; fPo; NkNy
Fwpg;gpl;lit Nghy fhg;GWjp nra;gtNu nghWg;ghthu;. NkYk;>
ruf;Ff; fg;gy; jdJ nry;Yeu; ve;j Fwpg;gpl;l xg;ge;jj;jpd;
%ykhf ruf;Ff; fl;Lg;ghl;bd;fPo; (jpl;lkplg;gl;l ruf;Ffspd;
nghWj;jtiu) fl;Lg;gLj;j KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> jpl;lkplg;gl;l
ruf;Ffisr; Rke;J nry;y $Ljy; fl;lzk; tR+ypf;f mtUf;F
cupik cz;L.
3. nry;Yeu;fspd; ftdf;FiwT (ruf;Ffs; jpl;lkplg;gl;l my;yJ
jpl;lkplg;gl;lit) my;yJ nry;Yeu;fspd; Copau; my;yJ
Kftu;fspd; kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghd nray;fs; (v.fh.> jdJ
nrhe;jg; gad;ghl;bw;F nghUl;fis khw;WtJ my;yJ xU
jtwhd egUf;F mtw;iw mwpKfg;gLj;Jjy;) my;yJ jtwhd
elj;ijahy; (v.fh.> jpUl;L Nghd;w Ntz;Lnkd;Nw jtW) Vw;gLk;
ruf;Ffs; ,e;j ,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;F cs;shfpwJ. ,e;j
fl;Lg;ghL> ruf;FjhuUld; xU rpwg;G xg;ge;jj;jhy; jtpu;f;fg;gl
KbahJ vd;gijAk;> me;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; ve;jg; gpupTk; G+[;akhfTk;
ntw;wplkhfTk; nrayw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 101

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; xU ,og;G my;yJ ghjpg;G Vw;gl;lhy;> mj;jifa ,og;G
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
my;yJ fhak; gw;wp Kjypy; njupe;J nfhz;l NjjpapypUe;J MW
khjq;fSf;Fs; me;j nry;YeUf;F cupik Nfhu Ntz;Lk; vd;W
Cu;jpfs; rl;lj;jpd; 10 Mk; gpupT njuptpf;fpwJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf
1. ‘tz;b xg;ge;jk;’ vd;why; vd;d?
2. nghJthd Cu;jpapd; nghWg;G vd;d?

6.3 ,uapy;ghij rl;lk;> 1890


etPd cyfpy; epyg; Nghf;Ftuj;jpd; jiyaha topfspy; xd;whf
,uapy; Nghf;Ftuj;J fUjg;gLfpwJ. Kd;djhfNt ghu;j;jgb>
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; ,uapy;ghij> 1865 Mk; Mz;bd;
nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lj;jhy; epu;tfpf;fg;gltpy;iy> Vndd;why; mit
murhq;fj;jhy; nrhe;jkhf ,af;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,uapy;ghij %yk;
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tjw;fhd ,e;jpa ,uapy;ghij rl;lk; 1890>
mt;tg;NghJ jpUj;jg;gl;L epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ‘,uapy;ghij epu;thfk;’>
,uapy;ghijapd; epu;thfj;ijAk;> gzpepu;thfj;ijAk; ftdpf;fpwJ.
‘ruf;F uapy;fspy;’; my;yJ ‘gazpfs; uapy;fspy;’> ruf;Ffs;
nfhz;L nry;yg;glyhk;. mOFk; nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; rpwpa fl;Lkhdg;
nghUl;fs; Kf;fpakhf gazpfs; ,uapy;fspy; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLfpwJ.
,J tpiuthf ruf;Ffis xg;gilg;gij cWjp nra;fpwJ> Mdhy;
mjpf ruf;F fl;lzq;fis cs;slf;fpaJ.
••Kd;dDg;Gjy; Fwpg;G (gpupT 72): xt;nthU tifahd ruf;Ffs;
my;yJ kpUfq;fspd; ruf;Fjhuu;fs;> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jhy;
epu;zapf;fg;gl;l gbtj;jpy; xU Fwpg;gpid epiwNtw;wp> kj;jpa
murhy; mq;ff P upf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j Fwpg;G ‘Kd;dDg;Gjy; Fwpg;G’
my;yJ ‘xg;Gjy; Fwpg;G’ vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. gytifahd
ruf;FfSf;F ntt;NtW tifahd tbtq;fs; fpilf;fpd;wd.
Kd;dDg;Gjy; Fwpg;ghdJ ruf;Ffspd; tptuk;> fl;Lkhdg;
nghUl;fspd; vz;zpf;if> vil> ngau; kw;Wk; Kftu;fspd;
ngau;fs; kw;Wk; Kftupfs; Mfpatw;wpd; tptuiz> ,og;G my;yJ
Nrjj;jpw;F nuapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;gpd; msT Mfpatw;iw
nfhz;Ls;sJ kw;Wk; ‘ruf;F rk;gsk;’ my;yJ ‘gzk; nrYj;j’
Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jw;Nfw;g> ruf;F gzk; nrYj;Jfpwhu;.
my;yJ> me;j ruf;Fjhd; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. uapy;ghijfs; %yk;
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;NghJ Vw;gLk; tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk;
epge;jidfs;> Fwpg;gpid gpd;Gwk; mr;rplg;gLfpd;wd.
••,uapy;ghij gw;Wr;rPl;L (R/R): ,uapy;ghij ‘rpg;g mYtyfk;’
mDg;Gk; Fwpg;ig rku;g;gpg;gjd; Ngupy;> me;j mDg;Gdu;>
ruf;Ffis Vw;Wtjw;F xU urPJ mspj;J> me;j tpjpKiwfspd;gb
NkyDg;G Fwpg;G mjw;fhd mwpTiufSf;F cl;gl;lJ. ,e;j urPJ
102 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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‘,uapy;ghij urPJ’ (R/R) vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gl;L ruf;FfSf;fhd ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
jiyg;G Mtzkhf gad;gLfpwJ. ruf;F mDg;Gdu;> ,uapy;ghij
urPij ruf;F ngWgtUf;F mDg;g Ntz;Lk;> Vnddpy;>
ruf;Ffis xg;gilg;G nra;a Ntz;ba ,lj;jpy; ,uapy;ghij
mYtyfj;Jf;F mJ toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;Gfs;

6.3.1 ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; flikfs;


,e;jpa ,uapy;ghij rl;lk; 1890 ,d; fPo;> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd;
flikfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. epahakhd Kiwapy; fhyjhkjkpd;wp Nghf;Ftuj;ij mDg;Gjy;>
mDg;Gjy; kw;Wk; toq;fYf;fhd epahakhd rfy trjpfisAk;
ngw;Wf; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba flik (gpupT 27).
2. ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F my;yJ mjw;F MjuthfNth
my;yJ VNjDk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l egiuNah my;yJ Nghf;Ftuj;jpd;
Fwpg;ghd tpsf;fkhfNth ,y;yhky; my;yJ mjw;F
rhjfkhfNth my;yJ jFjpNah ,y;yhj Kd;Dupik my;yJ
mD$yj;ij mspf;f Ntz;ba flik VNjDk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F
my;yJ ve;j Ma;Tf;Fl;gLtuhf ,Ue;jhYk; my;yJ ve;j xU
fhuzkhfNth my;yJ epahakw;w ghugl;rNkh my;yJ VNjDk; xU
kupahijNah my;yJ ve;j tifapYk; (gpupT 28) ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l
egiuNah my;yJ ve;j mk;rj;ijAk; gad;gLj;jNtz;Lk;.
3. ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;J njhlu;ghf kj;jpa muR mspj;j ve;j
topfhl;Ljy;fSf;Fk; (gpupT 27 A) ,zq;f Ntz;ba flik.
gpupT 27 A ,d; fPo;> ve;j ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;ijAk; (mjhtJ
uapy;Ntapd; Nkyhsu;) Miz %yk; Neubahf ,af;f kj;jpa
muRf;F mjpfhuk; cs;sJ.
(a) mj;jifa nghUl;fs; my;yJ VNjDk; xU tif
ruf;Ffis> kj;jpa muR my;yJ ve;j khepy muR my;yJ
NtW VNjDk; muR my;yJ gpw nghUl;fs; my;yJ ruf;F
juTfspd; mbg;gilapy;> me;j cj;jutpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sthW
Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;F Kd;Dupik mspj;jy;.
(b) mj;jifa ghij my;yJ ghijfshy; ve;jnthU
nghUl;fisAk; kw;Wk; nghUl;fspd; tiffisAk;
vLj;Jr; nry;Yjy; kw;Wk; mtw;wpd; tpiyfSk; tupirapy;
Fwpg;gplg;glyhk;.
mj;jifa gpupitg; gpd;gw;wp ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jhy;
vLf;fg;gl;l ve;j eltbf;ifAk; gpupT 28 ,d; xU kPwyhf fUjg;gl
khl;lhJ vd;W NkYk; $WfpwJ (NkNy Gs;sp 2 I ghu;f;fTk;).
kPz;Lk;> mt;thW nra;ag;gl;l ve;j cj;juTk;> mjd; NjjpapypUe;J
MW khjq;fs; Kbtile;j gpd;du; tpisT epWj;jg;gLk;> Mdhy;
mt;tg;NghJ mJ GJg;gpf;fg;glyhk;.
,t;thW> Njitahd ruf;Ffis nrYj;j jahuhf ,Uf;Fk;
xt;nthU egupd; ruf;FfisAk;> epahakhd fhyjhkjk; ,d;wp> ve;j
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 103

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; xU jpirapYk;> ve;j xU topfhl;LjYf;Fk; nfhz;L nry;y Ntz;Lk;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
vd;w tpjpKiwfis ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nra;J tUfpwJ. me;j
tifapy; kj;jpa muR nghJ eydpy; cs;sJ.

Fwpg;Gfs; 6.3.2 ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;Gfs;


1. gazj;jpd; NghJs;s nghWg;Gfs;: ,og;G> mopT> Nrjk; my;yJ
rPu;NfLfs;> tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ tz;bf;F Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;
ruf;Ffs; my;yJ mjw;F Vw;wtifapy;> me;j ruf;Ffs;
cs;sdth vd;gJ gw;wp ‘Kd;dDg;Gk; Fwpg;gpy;’ cs;s
tpjpKiwfisg; nghWj;jpUf;Fk;. ‘,uapy;ghijapd; Mgj;J’
my;yJ ‘cupikahsupd; Mgj;J’ Nghd;wit ,uapy;ghij
epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;Gfshf vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;Lk;.
,uapy; Nghf;Ftuj;jpd; mghaj;jpy; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nrd;why;>
gpd;tUgit jtpu VNjDk; xU fhuzj;jpypUe;J vOk;
nghUl;fis nghWj;j tiu> VNjDk; ,oj;jy; my;yJ mopT
Nghd;w fhuzq;fSf;F uapy;Nt epu;thfk; nghWg;ghFk;:
(a) flTspd; nray;;
(b) Nghu; eltbf;if
(c) nghJ tpNuhjpfspd; nray;;
(d) rl;lG+u;t epfo;Kiwapd; fPo; ifJ nra;jy;> fl;Lg;ghL
nra;jy; my;yJ ifg;gw;WtJ.
(e) kj;jpa my;yJ khepy muR my;yJ ve;j mjpfhup my;yJ
mjpfhupahy; my;yJ ,jd; rhu;ghf kj;jpa my;yJ khepy
murpw;F fPo;g;gLj;jg;gLk; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l cj;juT my;yJ
fl;Lg;ghLfs;;
(f) rl;lk; my;yJ tpyf;Fjy; my;yJ ruf;Fg; ngWgtu; my;yJ
ruf;F mDg;Gdu; my;yJ Kftu; my;yJ xU Copaupd;
myl;rpak;;
(g) nghUs;fspd; ,ay;ghd FiwghL> juk; my;yJ nghUl;fspd;
Jiz fhuzkhf> nkhj;j my;yJ vilapy; ,aw;if rPu;NfL
my;yJ tpuak;;
(h) cs;Siw FiwghLfs;;
(i) jP> ntbg;G my;yJ vjpu;ghuhj mghak;.
,og;G my;yJ mopT Kjypatw;wpy;> NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l
tpjptpyf;fhd epfo;Tfspy; VNjDk; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l tof;Ffspy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wpait vd;W ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;>
epu;thfk; mij gad;gLj;jpaJ vd;gij ep&gpf;Fk; tiu ,og;G
my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;fhd mjd; nghWg;ig ,uj;Jr; nra;a KbahJ.
kpUfq;fs; my;yJ ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; NghJ epahakhd
Kiwapy; Kd;$l;ba mwptpg;G kw;Wk; ftdpg;G Njit (gpupT
73). ,jd; tpisthfg; gpupT 73> ,uapy; epiya mghaj;jpd;
104 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 104 5/20/2019 12:57:55 PM


Ngupy; nghUl;fs; mDg;gg;gLk; NghJ> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
nghWg;igf; fhg;gPL nra;fpwJ. ,jdhy;> jd; gzpapy; myl;rpak;
fhl;lhky;> mjd; ftdpg;gpy; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;NghJ>
ruf;Ffs; jpUlg;gl;lhy;> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nghWg;Ngw;f
Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;Gfs;
ruf;Ffis cupikahsu; Mgj;jpy;> nfhz;L nry;Yk; ,lj;jpy;>
,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; ve;j xU ,og;G> mopT my;yJ Nrjk;>
ruf;Ffspd; ,lkhw;wk;> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; my;yJ mjd;
Copau;fspy; xU gFjpapdupd; myl;rpak; my;yJ jtwhd elj;ij
fhuzkhf ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; Vw;gl;ljw;fhd rhd;iw jtpu
(gpupT. 74) ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nghWg;Ngw;fhJ. NtW thu;ji
; jfspy;
$Wtjhdhy;> cupikahsupd; mghaj;jpy; nghUl;fs; mDg;gg;gLk;
NghJ> ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; xU ‘xg;GilAilatupd;’ nghUs;
,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;F nghWg;ghFk;.
‘,uapy;ghij mgha tpfpjk;’ cupikahsu; Mgj;J tpfpjj;ij tpl
mjpfkhf cs;sJ. mDg;Geu; my;yJ mtuJ Kftu; ,uapy;ghij
mgha tPjj;ij nrYj;Jtjw;F vOj;J %yk; Nju;en ; jLf;fg;glhjtiu>
tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ ruf;Ffspd; cupikahsu; mgha tPjj;jpy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhf fUjg;gLk;. gpe;ija gFjpapy;> me;j tpisTf;F
(gpupT 74) ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; rhd;wpjo; toq;Fk;.
2. gazj;jpd; jhkjk; kw;Wk; jLg;Gf;fhd nghWg;Gfs; (gpupT.
76): jhkjk; my;yJ jLg;Gf;fhyk; mjd; gFjpapNyh my;yJ
mjd; Copau;fsplNkh myl;rpak; my;yJ jtwhd elkhl;lk;
,y;yhky; vOe;jhy;> ,og;G> mopT> Nrjk; my;yJ tpyq;Ffs;
my;yJ nghUl;fspd; jhkjk; my;yJ jhkjj;jhy; Vw;glf;$ba
ghjpg;G Mfpatw;wpw;F ,uapy;Nt epu;thfk; nghWg;ghFk;.
3. jtwhd tpepNahfj;jpw;fhd nghWg;G (gpupT. 76B): mry; ,uapy;
urPij cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; egUf;F ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk;
ruf;Ffis my;yJ tpyq;Ffis ey;y ek;gpf;ifapd; Ngupy;
toq;FfpwJ mj;jifa egu; rl;lG+u;tkhf epakpf;fg;glhky;
,uapy;ghij urPjpy; xg;Gjy; ngw;why; my;yJ gpwu; FiwghL
cilatuhf ,Ug;gJ Nghd;wtw;wpf;F mJ nghWg;G Vw;fhJ.
4. gazk; epWj;jg;gl;ljd; gpd; cs;s nghWg;G (gpupT 77): mguhj
fl;lzk; nrYj;jhky; uapy; tz;bapypUe;J ,wf;Ftjw;F
mDkjpf;fg;gl;l Xa;T Neuk; fhyhtjpahFk; NghJ (,yf;if
mile;j gpd;du; tUiff;F gpd;)> mJ mDkjpf;fg;glhj
fhytuk;gpw;Fs;> mt;thW Vw;wg;gLk; Xa;T Neuj;jpy;> Nghf;Ftuj;J
epWj;jg;gl;lhy;> uapy; epiya tshfj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpyq;Ffs;
my;yJ ruf;Ffis mfw;whky; ,Uj;jy;.
Nghf;Ftuj;J xg;ge;jk; Kbe;j VO ehl;fspy; ,uapy;ghij
epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;G> ,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lk; (1872) d; 151> 152
kw;Wk; 161 gpupTfspd; fPo;> xU ,og;G> mopT Kjypatw;wpd; fPo;>
xU ‘xg;Gilatu;’ ruf;Ffs; ‘cupikahsupd; Mgj;J tpfpjj;jpy;’
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; my;yJ ‘uapy;fspd; mgha tpfpjj;jpy;’ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wjh
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
vd;gijAk; ftdpAq;fs;. ,t;thwhf> ‘,uapy; Mgj;J tpfpjj;jpy;’
ruf;Ffs; Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; ,lq;fspy; $l> ,uapy; Nghf;Ftuj;J
epWj;jg;gl;l VO ehl;fspd; NghJ ,uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd;
Fwpg;Gfs; nghWg;G xU xg;Gilatu; vd;w tifapy; FiwfpwJ. ,uapy;
epu;thfj;jpd; gzpahsupd; kPJ cs;s ftdf;FiwT my;yJ
jtwhd elj;ij fhuzkhf ,og;G my;yJ ghjpg;G Vw;gl;lhy;
kl;LNk ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nghWg;Ngw;Fk;.
jq;fk;> nts;sp> Kjypad rpwg;G kjpg;G nfhz;l nghUl;fs;
(,uapy;Nt rl;lj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; fl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ)>
tpyq;Ffs; kw;Wk; ntbkUe;Jfs; kw;Wk; gpw Mgj;jhd
nghUl;fs; ,uapy;ghij %yk; vLj;Jnry;Yk; NghJk; kw;Wk;
gazk; Kbe;jgpd; ftdf;FiwT fhuzkhf mjd; gFjpapypUe;J
Vw;gLk; ,og;G> mopT Nghd;wtw;wpw;F ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk;
nghWg;G Vw;fhJ.
uapy; Nghf;Ftuj;J epWj;jg;gl;lij mLj;J VO ehl;fs; fopj;J>
uapy;ghijapdhy; Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; ruf;Ffspy; Vw;gLk; ,og;G>
mopT Nghd;w ve;j xU nraYf;Fk; uapy;ghij epu;thfk;
nghWg;Ngw;fhJ.
,uapy; ngl;bfspy; ,Ue;J tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ nghUl;fs;
,wf;fhky; ,Uf;Fk; tiu> tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ nghUl;fspd;
cupikahsUf;F ve;jj; jPq;F tpistpf;Fk; nghWg;GlDk;
,y;iy vd;gJ uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;GfspypUe;J
ntspg;gilahdJ.
5.
tpyq;Ffis nghWj;jtiu nry;Yeu;fspd; nghWg;G (gpupT.
77A): tpyq;Ffisg; nghWj;j tiuapy;> ,og;G my;yJ
Nrjk; Nghd;wtw;wpw;fhd uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;G>
rl;lj;jpd; Kjy; ml;ltizapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s msTf;F
mjpfkhfhJ. Kjy; ml;ltizapy; $wg;gl;Ls;s nghWg;gpd;
tuk;Gfs; gpd;tUkhW: ahidfs; - xd;Wf;F 1>500; Fjpiu - jiy
xd;Wf;F 750; NfhNtW fOijfs;> nfhk;Gfs; my;yJ xl;lfq;fs;
- jiyf;F 200; eha;fs;> fOijfs;> ML> gd;wpfs;> nrk;kwpahLfs;
my;yJ kw;w NkNy $wg;glhj tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ gwitfs; -
jiyf;F 30. ,Ug;gpDk;> ruf;F mDg;Gdu; Kd;dDg;Gk; Fwpg;gpy;
cau; kjpg;ig mwptpj;J kw;Wk; mjpf thlif nrYj;Jtjhy;>
uapy;ghij mjpfkhd nghWg;Gfis nrYj;j NeupLk;. ruf;Ffs;
fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; Rik my;yJ tpyq;Ffspd; fl;Lg;ghL
my;yJ ruf;F mDg;Gdupd; mjpf Rik my;yJ mtuJ Kftu;
Nghd;wtw;why; Vw;gLk; ,og;GfSf;F uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nghWg;G
Vw;fhJ.
6. nghUl;fspd; rpwe;j kjpg;G gw;wpa nghWg;Gfs; (gpupT 77B):
Kd;G $wpaJNghy; rl;lj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; ml;ltizapy;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sg;gb (mjhtJ> jq;fk;> nts;sp> ehzaq;fs; kw;Wk;
106 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 106 5/20/2019 12:57:55 PM


eiffs;> Nghd;w kjpg;Gkpf;f nghUl;fs;) ve;jnthU rpg;g my;yJ ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
fl;Lkhd nghUis xg;gilg;Gf;F vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; NghJ> me;j
nghUl;fspd; rpg;g my;yJ fl;Lkhd tpiy 500 &gha;f;F kPwp
,Ue;jhy;> uapy;ghij epu;thfk; ,og;G> mopT Kjypatw;wpw;F
nghWg;ghfhJ. ruf;Fg; ngl;lfk; ‘Kd;dDg;Gk; Fwpg;gpy;’ cs;s Fwpg;Gfs;
kjpg;igAk; cs;slf;fp mwptpj;jpUe;jhy;> rpg;g my;yJ fl;Lkhd
nghUl;fis epu;tfpg;gJ kw;Wk; epu;thfj;jhy; Nfhug;gl;lhy;
mjpfkhd Mgj;Jf;fhd ,og;gPL %yk; mjpf ruf;F
toq;fg;gLfpwJ. cupa mwptpg;G nra;ag;gltpy;iy vd;why;>
uapy;ghij epu;thfk; nghWg;gy;y.
7. rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;J ntspNawy; (gpupT 78):
Kd;du; $wg;gl;bUe;j NghjpYk; (gf;f jiyg;gpd; fPo;: ‘uapy;ghij
epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;Gfs;’)> gpd;tUk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy; ,og;G>
mopj;jy;> Nrjk;> rPuopjy; my;yJ ve;jnthU nghUl;fspd;
my;yJ tpyq;Ffspd; tpepNahfj;jpw;Fk; ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk;
nghWg;G my;y:
(a) nghUl;fs; jtwhd tpsf;fk; kw;Wk; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk;
%yk; mDg;gg;gl;lhy; jtwhd tpsf;fk; %yk; ve;j
tpjj;jpYk; ve;jnthU eltbf;ifAk; vLf;fg;glhJ.
(b) xU Nkhrb ruf;F mDg;Gdu; my;yJ ruf;F ngWgtu; my;yJ
Kftupapd; %yk; eilKiwapy; cs;sJ.
(c) mq;F> ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; Nghd;wit Vw;gl;ljhf
uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jhy; ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;> (i) ruf;F
mDg;Gdu; my;yJ ruf;F ngWgtu; my;yJ Kftupapd;
jtwhf Vw;Wkjp my;yJ ,wf;Fkjp my;yJ (ii) fyfk;>
cs;ehl;L ryryg;G> NtiyepWj;jk;> G+l;Ljy;> epWj;Jjy;
my;yJ xU gFjp my;yJ nghJkf;fSf;F Vw;glf;$ba
fhupaq;fisj; jLj;J epWj;Jjy;.
NkYk; ,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; ve;jnthU kiwKf my;yJ mjd;
tpisthf Vw;gLk; ghjpg;GfSf;Fk; my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l re;ijapd;
,og;Gf;Fk; nghWg;ghfhJ.

6.3.3 Nfhupf;iffspd; mwptpg;G (gpupT 78b)


xU egu; ,uapy;ghij %yk; Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; tpyq;Ffisg; my;yJ
nghUl;fis nghWj;j tiu gzj;ij jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jjy; my;yJ
,og;gPL Mfpatw;wpd; $w;W> mtuhy; my;yJ mtuJ rhu;ghf
mwptpf;fg;gl;lhy;> ,og;G> mopT> Nrjk;> rPuopT my;yJ ,og;gPL
Mfpait tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ nghUl;fis xg;gilf;fg;glhj epiyapy;
toq;fg;gLtjpy;iy.
(a)
tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ ruf;Ffs; uapy;ghij epu;thfj;jhy;
toq;fg;gLk; my;yJ

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; (b)
,uapy;ghij epu;thfk; ,uapy; epiyaj;jpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
my;yJ ,og;G> mopT> Nrjk; my;yJ rPuopT Nghd;wit
ifahsg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j cupik Nfhuiy> uapy; %yk; tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ ruf;F
Fwpg;Gfs; tz;bf;F xg;gilg;G nra;j ehspypUe;J MW khjq;fSf;Fs; nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. Nfhupf;if Fwpj;j mwptpg;ig jiyik tzpf fz;fhzpg;ghsu;
my;yJ uapy;ghij Nkyhsu; MfpNahUf;F mspf;fyhk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


3. nry;Yeu;fs; rl;lk; 1865 -My; ,uapy;ghij Vd;
epu;tfpf;fg;gLtJ ,y;iy?
4. ,uapy;ghijapy; ,Ue;J xU gzj;ij jpUg;gp ngWtJ vg;gb?

6.4 fly; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; ruf;Ffs; Vw;wpr;nry;Yjy;,


1925
flypy; ruf;Ffis Vw;wp nry;Yjy; rl;lj;jpy; Kf;fpakhf cs;sJ>
(i) ,e;jpa fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;j rPl;L rl;lk; 1856 (ii) ruf;Ffis
Vw;wp nry;Yjy; gw;wpa fly; rl;lk; 1958. ,e;j fl;Lg;ghl;Lld;
njhlu;Gila gpw rl;lq;fs; cs;sd. (a) tzpf fg;gy; rl;lk; 1958 (b)
fly;rhu; fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk;> 1963. ,e;j rl;lq;fs; jw;NghJ gy Kiw
khw;wpaikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

6.4.1 nry;Yeu; Fj;jif xg;ge;jk;


ruf;Ffis fly; topahf Vw;wpr; nry;tJ> ‘nry;Yeu; Fj;jif
xg;ge;jk;’ vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ‘nry;Yeu; Fj;jif’ vd;w nrhy;Yf;F
‘ghj;jpuk; my;yJ fg;giy thliff;F tpLjy;’ vd;W nghUs;. ,J
ruf;Ff; fg;gy; my;yJ fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp nra;gtu; kw;Wk; fg;gy;
epWtdq;fSf;fpilapyhd xU xg;ge;jkhff; fUjg;glyhk;> gioa
Ntiyf;F mku;j;Jk; my;yJ mDg;Gk; epWtdj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s
xg;ge;jk; vd;W tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;. xU xg;ge;jk; fg;gy; xg;ge;j
thlif my;yJ fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;j rPl;il cs;slq;fpapUf;fyhk;.

A. fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlif


xU xg;ge;jk; fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlif my;yJ fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;j
rPl;il cs;slq;fpapUf;fyhk;. xU JiwKfj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhUtUf;F
ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;tjw;F> nkhj;j fg;giy my;yJ xU Kf;fpa
gFjpia thliff;F mku;j;JtJ> xU ‘fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlif’ MFk;.
,J nghUl;fspd; gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhf fg;gypd; KO my;yJ gFjp
gzpaku;j;jy; xg;ge;jj;jpy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk; Kiwahd vOjg;gl;l
Mtzj;ijAk; Fwpf;fpwJ. fg;giy my;yJ mjpy; xU gFjpia
thliff;F mku;j;JtJ ‘cupik Mtzk;;’ vdg;gLfpwJ.
108 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 108 5/20/2019 12:57:55 PM


xU xg;ge;jk; fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlif (i) xU flw;gazr; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
xg;ge;jk; mjhtJ> xU Fwpg;gpl;l flw;gazj;Jf;F fg;gy; thliff;F
mku;j;jg;gLk;NghJ (ii) xU fhy xg;ge;jk;> mjhtJ fg;gy; thliff;F
vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;l fhyg;gFjpapy; ,Ue;J ,ilg;gl;l fhyg;gFjpapy;
thliff;F vLf;fg;gl;lNghJ. Fwpg;Gfs;
,e;j fg;gy; KOtijAk; thliff;F vLj;jNghJ> rhrdf;
fl;rpapd; tpjpKiwfs; rpy Neuq;fspy; fg;gypd; Fj;jif my;yJ
kiwT vd;w tifapy; ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jd; %yk; fg;gypd; cupikahsu;
jw;fhypfkhf fg;gypd; cupikahsuhfTk;> jiyikahsuhfTk;
khwptpLfpwhu;. me;j FOtpdu; mtuJ Nrtfu;fshf khwptpLfpd;wdu;.
,jid ‘cupik Mtz kiwT’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. nghJthf>
xU rhrdf; fl;rp xU kiwT my;yJ Fj;jif ,y;yhky;> xU
rhjhuz nry;Yeu; xg;ge;jk; Nghy> fg;gy; %yk; mtu; ruf;Ffis Vw;wp
itf;Fk; cupikia kl;LNk ngWfpwJ. jiyikahsUk;> FOtpdUk;
jd; Ntiyf;fhuu;fshf khWtjpy;iy. mj;jifa xU Kiwapy; mJ
‘mopT ,y;yh cupik Mtzk;;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
fg;gypd; xU gFjpia thliff;F vLj;jhy;> mjhtJ fg;gypd;
cupikahsu; fg;gy; kw;Wk; FOtpdiu xU fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;jpUf;Fk;
,lj;jpy;> ruf;Ffis tpepNahfpg;gjd; %yk;> ‘Nrjk; kw;Wk;
jilapd;wp’ fg;gy; cupikahsu; my;yJ jiytu; ifnaOj;jplg;gl;l
xU cupik Mtzk;> nghUspd; urPij xg;Gf;nfhs;tjw;fhf
jutupirahsUf;F toq;fg;gLfpwJ. xU fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlifapd;
fPo; tpepNahfpf;fg;gLk; xU cupik Mtzk;> ruf;Ffspd; urPJ kl;LNk
(xg;ge;jk; ‘fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlif’ vd;W ,Ug;gjw;fhd rhd;Wfs;)
vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ> ,J fg;gy; xg;ge;jj;jpd; Mjhukhf ,Uf;Fk;
xU nghJ fg;gy; tof;fpy; toq;fg;gl;l kNrhjhtpd; rl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J
Kw;wpYk; NtWgl;ljhFk;.
i. fg;gy; thlif Mtzj;jpd; tpjpfs;: gl;lak; kw;Wk; fg;gy;-
cupikahsUf;F ,ilapyhd xg;ge;jj;jpd; midj;J
mbg;gil tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; epge;jidfis xU fg;gy;
thlif Mtzk; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
ii. cupa cj;juthjq;fs;
iii. mj;JkPwypy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfs;

B. Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L


xU ‘Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L’ vd;gJ fg;gy;-cupikahsuhy; my;yJ
fg;gy; mjpfhup my;yJ fg;gy; jiytu; my;yJ kw;w Kftu; %yk;
ntspaplg;gl;l Mtzk; MFk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,yf;if Nehf;fp
vLj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;ba fg;gypy; nghUl;fs; itf;fg;gl;bUe;j gpd;du;>
Jizia ngw;wjw;fhd urPij gupkhwpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ruf;Ffs;
‘nghJ fg;gy;’ ruf;Ffspd; xU gFjpia kl;LNk Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak;
NghJ gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. xU KO fg;giy thliff;F tpLk;
tp\aj;jpy;> fg;gy; thlif Mtzk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;by;> fg;gy; cupikahsu; my;yJ mtu;fspd;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
Kftu;> mjhtJ fg;gy; mjpfhup my;yJ fg;gy; jiytupd; Kj;jpiu
kw;Wk; ifnahg;gkplg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ruf;F tz;br; rl;lj;jpd; fPo;>1925
Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;by; Kf;fpa xg;ge;j tpjpKiwfs; jtpu> gpd;tUk;
Fwpg;Gfs; tpguq;fs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;:
(a) ruf;Ffis milahsk; fhzj; Njitahd Kf;fpa FwpaPLfs;
,J Nghd;w FwpaPLfis> mjhtJ> flw;gazk; KbAk; tiu
rhjhuzkhfj; njhlu;e;J epiyj;J ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w
tifapy; mj;jifa nghUl;fs; cs;s ngl;bfs; my;yJ
ciwfs; kPJ Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
(b)
nghjpfs; my;yJ Jz;Lfs; my;yJ msT my;yJ vil
Mfpatw;wpd; vz;zpf;ifia fg;gy; Vw;Wkjpahsuhy; vOj;J
%yk; gjpT nra;ayhk;.
(c) ruf;Ffspd;; ntspg;gilahd juk; kw;Wk; epiy.
ruf;Ffs; rpwe;j juj;jpYk;> epiyapYk; ,Uf;Fk; vd;W Vw;Wkjp
xg;ge;jr; rPl;by; njuptpf;fg;gLk;NghJ> ,e;j Mtzk; ‘njspthd
Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L’ vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. ngwg;gl;l ruf;Ffs;
Nkhrkhd epiyapy; cs;sd vd;W $wg;gLk;NghJ> me;j epiyapy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L> ‘jFjp tha;e;j Vw;Wkjp
xg;ge;jr; rPl;L’ vdg;gLfpwJ.
ruf;Fg; ngl;bahy; %lg;gl;l ruf;Ffs; XusT fly; %yk;
kw;Wk; XusT epyj;jhy; kw;Wk; flypy; xU fyg;G ruf;Ff; fl;lzk;
tpjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ kw;Wk; epy Nghf;Ftuj;J %yk; vLj;Jr;nry;yg;gLk;>
,e;j Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L ‘CLUtyhd Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L’
vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
i. Nghf;Ftuj;J epWj;jj;jpd; cupik
ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; fPo; nfhLf;fg;gl;lgb> ruf;Ff; fl;lzj;ijr;
nrYj;Jtjw;fhd cupikg; gj;jpuk; gw;wpa cupikia 1856 Mk;
Mz;bw;fhd ,e;jpa rl;lq;fSf;fhd rl;lk;> ghjpf;fhJ. mjd;gb>
ruf;Ff; fg;gy; ruf;Ffis epWj;Jtjw;fhd cupikiaf; ifahSk;
nghUl;L ruf;Ffis toq;Ftjw;fhd topKiwfis toq;fhtpl;lhy;
ruf;Ff; fg;gy; itj;jpUg;gtUf;F ruf;Ffis toq;f Ntz;ba
mtrpakpy;iy.

6.4.2 fly; topahf nry;Yeupd; flikfs;


fly; topahf ruf;F Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; ruf;Fr; rl;lk;> 1925> fly;
topahf ruf;F Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; xt;nthU xg;ge;jj;jpd;fPo; ruf;F
gpd;tUk; nghWg;Gf;Fl;gl;L ,Ug;ghu;:
1.
fg;gy;-cilikahsu;> flw;gazk; njhlq;Ftjw;F Kd;Gk;>
gazj; njhlf;fj;jpYk;> ,J Nghd;w rq;flq;fisg; gpuNahfpg;gjd;
%yk; fl;Lg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;:
(a) fg;giyr; flw;gazj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhdjhf Mf;Fjy;;
110 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 110 5/20/2019 12:57:56 PM


(b) Neu;j;jpahd Kiwapy; fg;giy Maj;jg;gLj;jp toq;fy;; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
(c) Fspu;gjdg; ngl;bfs; kw;Wk; Fspu;r;rpahd miwfs;> kw;Wk;
ruf;Ffs; Vw;wpr; tUk; fg;gypd; kw;w ghfq;fs;> jq;fs;
tuNtw;Gf;F Vw;w kw;Wk; ghJfhg;ghd Kd; Vw;ghLfis
mikj;jpUj;jy;. Fwpg;Gfs;
2. Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; ruf;Ffis vLj;Jr; nry;yTk;> ifahsTk;>
fw;fTk;> itj;jpUf;fTk;> ftdkhfTk;> ghJfhf;fTk; kw;Wk;
ntspNaw;w Ntz;Lk;.
3. ruf;Ffis mtuJ nghWg;gpy; ngw;w gpwF> fg;gy; Nrit
nry;Yeu; my;yJ jiyik mjpfhup my;yJ Kftu;>
mDg;Gifapy;> Fwpg;gpl;l tptuq;fs; mlq;fpa fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp
xg;ge;j rPl;L kNrhjhtpw;F mDg;g Ntz;Lk;.

6.4.3 fly; topahf nry;Yeupd; nghWg;Gfs;


fly; topahf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yeupd;; nghWg;Gfs; rl;lk;> 1925
d; gb> fly; topahf ruf;F Vw;wpr; nry;Yeupd;; nghWg;Gfs; Fwpj;j
tpjpfs; fPo;f;fz;lthW:
fly; topahf ruf;Ffis vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; xU fg;gy;
cupikahsu;> mjhtJ> ,e;j rl;lj;jpy; toq;fg;gl;Ls;s flikfs;
kw;Wk; ,lu;ghLfs; fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; ,og;G my;yJ ghjpg;Gf;F
my;yJ mjd; fhuzkhf Vw;glf;$ba ,og;Gfs; my;yJ jtWfSf;F
kl;LNk nghWg;ghfpwhu;. jiytu;> fg;gNyhl;bfs;> thD}u;jp Xl;Leu;>
my;yJ fg;gy; epu;thfj;jpy; cs;s FOtpduhy; my;yJ fg;gypy;
,Uf;Fk; NghJ Vw;gl;l Gwf;fzpg;ghy; Vw;gLk; e\;lj;jpw;F $l mtu;
nghWg;Ngw;fkhl;lhu;. mtu; fg;gypy; Vw;wpr; tUk; ruf;Ff;F fhg;GWjp
nra;atpy;iy. fly; Nguy;fs; kPJ fhg;gPL nra;a> jdp ‘fly; fhg;gPl;L
nfhs;if’ mtu; vLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xU fg;gy;-cupikahsu; jdJ ftdf;FiwT my;yJ flikfspd;
Njhy;tpahy; vOk; mtuJ nghWg;igf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;sNth my;yJ
Fiwf;fNth KbahJ. xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s ve;j xU cl;gpupTk;> mJ
nry;yhjJk;> jpwikaw;wJk; MFk;.
,J Nghd;w nghUl;fspd; jd;ik kw;Wk; kjpg;G> msT
fg;gy; rl;l%yj;jpy; Eiof;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;du; mDg;Gif %yk;
mwptpf;fg;gl;lhyd;wp> xU njhFg;gpw;F my;yJ myFf;F &.100 f;F
Nkw;gl;l ruf;FfSf;F Nrit ,og;G my;yJ NrjkilAk; ve;j
epfo;epiyapYk; ,J nghWg;Ngw;fhJ. Mdhy;> ,e;j gj;jpapy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
msittpl kw;nwhU mjpfgl;r njhifia vLj;Jr;nry;gtu; kw;Wk;
fg;gy; %yk; rup nra;J nfhs;syhk;> mj;jifa mjpfgl;r ngau;
NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s vz;zpf;iff;F Fiwthf ,Uf;fhJ.
fg;gy; fl;lzkhdJ kNrhjhtpy; mDg;gg;gl;lhy;> mjd; jd;ik
my;yJ kjpg;G mwpe;jpUe;jhy;> nghUs; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;fhd
ve;j epfo;epiyapYk; nrYj;Jgtu; nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhu;. vupaf;$ba
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 111

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; xU ntbg;Gj; jd;ik nfhz;l my;yJ mghakhd ,ay;Gila
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
nghUl;fs;> nrYj;Jgtu;> mlf;fp Ms;gtu; my;yJ fg;gy; Kftu;
%yk; mDg;Gk; NghJ> mit ve;j Neuj;jpYk; mopf;fg;glyhk;. my;yJ
mopf;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;du; ve;j rkaj;jpYk; mtu;fspd; ,ay;G kw;Wk;
Fwpg;Gfs; Fzj;ijg; gw;wpa mwpTf;F xg;Gjy; jutpy;iy ,og;gPL ,y;yhky;
nrYj;jy; %yk; mj;jifa nghUl;fs; fg;gy; %yk; Neubahf my;yJ
kiwKfkhfNth vOk; midj;J Nrjq;fSk; kw;Wk; nryTfSf;F
nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> mj;jifa mwpT kw;Wk; xg;Gjy; %yk;
mDg;gg;gLk; VNjDk; nghUl;fs; fg;gy; my;yJ ruf;FfSf;F Mgj;jhf
MfptpLk; vd;why;> mtu;fs; ve;j ,lj;jpy; jiuapwf;fg;glyhk; my;yJ
mopf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. nrYj;Jjy; %yk; gFjpahdJ xU gFjpapy;
flg;ghL ,y;yhky;> my;yJ xU nghJthdjhf ,Uf;fhJ.
nghUl;fs; tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;l NjjpapypUe;J Xuhz;bw;Fs;
nghUl;fspy; Nrjk; my;yJ ,og;G Vw;gl;L> tof;F njhlug;gl;lhy;>
nghUl;fis nfhz;Lr; nry;gtu; midj;J flikg; nghWg;gpypUe;Jk;
ntspNaw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

6.4.4 fg;gy; cupikahsu; cupkk; kw;Wk; fly;top cupkk;


xU ‘fg;gy; cupikahsu; cupkk;’ vd;gJ> xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; ruf;F
kw;Wk; gpw fl;lzq;fs; nrYj;jg;gLk;tiu mtuplk; Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;
ruf;Ffis (ruf;F) jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s cupikAz;L. ,J xU
nrhe;j cilik.
xU ‘fly;top cupik’ vd;gJ fg;gy;> ruf;Ffs; kw;Wk;
mtu;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l Nrit Mfpatw;wpd; kPjhd xU cupik.
Mgj;J Neuj;jpy; fg;gy; my;yJ ruf;Ffis Nrkpf;f rpy Nrit
nra;j egu;fSf;F ,e;j cupik rl;lj;jhy; toq;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j
cupikapdhy; mtu;fs; jq;fs; Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fis fg;gy; cupikahsu;
my;yJ ruf;F-cupikahsuplkpUe;J kPl;Lf; nfhs;syhk;. mtu;fs;
fl;lzq;fs; nrYj;jg;gLk; tiu> fg;gy; JiwKfj;jpypUe;J ntspNaw
mDkjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. NkYk;> flw;gil cupikahsu;fSf;F
Mjuthf fg;gy; my;yJ ruf;Ffis tpw;gid nra;a ePjpkd;wk;
cj;jutplyhk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. ‘fg;giy thliff;F vLg;gjw;fhd xg;ge;jk;’ vd;why; vd;d ?
2. fg;gy; xg;ge;j thlifapd; nray;ghL vd;d ?

6.5 tpkhd rl;lk; 1972 %yk; vLj;J nry;Yjy;


,e;j rl;lk; 1972> tpkhdk; %yk; vLj;Jr;nrYj;jiy cs;slf;fpaJ.
,e;jr; rl;lk; ,e;jpa nry;Yeu; tpkhdr; rl;lk;> 1934 %yk; jpUk;gg;
ngwg;gLfpwJ. 1929 Mk; Mz;by; thu;rhtpy; ifnaOj;jpl;l ru;tNjr
tpkhdg; Nghf;Ftuj;J kw;Wk; 1955 Mk; Mz;by; N`f; newpKiwfspd;gb
112 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 112 5/20/2019 12:57:56 PM


jpUj;jg;gl;ljhf $wg;gl;l rpy tpjpfis xUq;fpizg;gjw;fhf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
khehl;bw;F eilKiwg;gLj;j Gjpa rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. ,e;j
khehl;by; mry; tbtj;jpy; kw;Wk; jpUj;jg;gl;l gbtj;jpy;
(tpjptpyf;Ffs;> jOty;fs; kw;Wk; jpUj;jq;fs; cl;gl;lJ) cs;s
ru;tNjr xg;ge;jq;fs; kw;Wk; mjDldhd njhlu;GfSf;F ru;tNjr Fwpg;Gfs;
tpjpKiwfisg; gpd;gw;Wtjw;fhd tpjpKiwfis toq;fg;gl;lJ.
1972> tpkhdr; rl;lj;jpd;gb ,uz;L fhy ml;ltizfs;
cs;sd. Kjy; fhy ml;ltizg;gb> N`f; newpKiwfshy; ,d;Dk;
ifnaOj;jplhj ehLfspd; thd;topahf ru;tNjr nfhz;L nry;Yjypy;
nghUe;jf;$ba thu;Nrh khehl;L tpjpfs; cs;sd. fhy ml;ltiz
II jpUj;jg;gl;l tpjpfis nfhz;Ls;sJ (1955y; N`f; newpKiw
jpUj;jg;gl;lJ) N`f; newpKiw ifnaOj;jpl;Ls;s ehLfspd;
thd; %yk; ru;tNjr nfhz;L nrYj;jYf;F nghUe;Jk;. 57 ehLfs;
Vw;fdNt N`f; newpKiwf;fhd xg;Gjy; ngw;Ws;sd. Mdhy;> ,J
Nghd;w tpjptpyf;Ffs;> jftikTfs; kw;Wk; jpUj;jq;fs;> VNjDk;
,Ug;gpd;> mjhtJ> xU mwptpf;if %yk; tpkhd %yk; cs;ehl;by;
Vw;wpr;nry;tjw;fhd nghUe;jf;$ba> I kw;Wk; II Mfpa Kiwfspy;
mlq;fpAs;s tpjpfis kj;jpa muR> Fwpg;gplg;glyhk; (gpupT 8).
tpkhd ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;J kpf mjpfkhf ,Ug;gjhy;> tpkhd
Nghf;Ftuj;J vd;gJ xU gpugykhd ruf;F Nghf;Ftuj;JKiw my;y
vd;gij Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;. nghJthf> ,e;j Nghf;Ftuj;J Kiw> xsp
kw;Wk; tpiyAau;e;j nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; gazpfis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;
Nghf;Ftuj;jpw;Nf Vw;wJ.
1972 Mk; Mz;L tpkhd rl;lk; %yk;> tz;b ,uz;lhtJ
ml;ltizapy; mlq;fpaJNghy> ru;tNjr mstpyhd Ml;fs;>
fl;Lkhdk; my;yJ ruf;Ffs; njhlu;ghd jpUj;jg;gl;l tpjpfs; ,q;F
njhFf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,it gpd;tUkhW:
••cau; xg;ge;jf; fl;rp: ‘cau; xg;ge;jf; fl;rp’ vd;w
nrhy;Yf;F> N`f; newpKiwahy; jpUj;jg;gl;lgb> thu;Nrh khehl;L
tpjpfspy; ifnaOj;jpl;l midj;J murhq;fq;fSk;>
(mjhtJ jpUj;jg;gl;l rl;l%yj;Jld;) mijj; njhlu;e;J
filg;gpbg;gtu;fSk; Nru;e;J nray;gl;lJ. jpUj;jg;gl;l
khehl;bw;F ,e;jpah ifnaOj;jpl;lJ. ,J xg;ge;jf; fl;rp [tpjp
1 (2)] MFk;.
••ru;tNjr tz;b: ‘ru;tNjr tz;b’ vd;gJ> jug;gpdu;fSf;F
,ilapyhd xg;ge;jj;jpd; gb> Gwg;gLk; ,lk;> NrUk; ,lk;
vd;W nghUs;gLk;. my;yJ thfdj;jpy; ,ilNtis ,Uf;fpwjh
,y;iyah my;yJ xU cau; xg;ge;j jug;gpduhf ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;>
kw;nwhU khepyj;jpd; vy;iyf;Fs; xU xg;Gjy; jq;Fkplj;ij
itj;jpUe;jhy;> ,uz;L cau; xg;ge;j jug;gpdu; my;yJ xU cau;
xg;ge;j jug;gpdupd; vy;iyf;Fs; xU fg;gypypUe;J kw;nwhU
fg;gYf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;ag;gLfpwJ. kw;nwhU khepyj;jpd;
vy;iyf;Fs; xU xg;ge;jk; epWj;jg;glhky; xU cau; xg;ge;jf;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 113

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; jug;gpdupd; vy;iyf;Fs; ,uz;L Gs;spfSf;fpilNa cs;s
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
tz;b ru;tNjr tz;b my;y [tpjp 1 (3)].

6.5.1 ruf;Fjhuu; kw;Wk; ruf;F Vw;W cupikahsupd; cupikfs;


Fwpg;Gfs; ,r;rl;lk; (tpjp 15 (3)) y; khw;wj;jf;f tpkhd jlq;fy; gpur;rpidia
mDkjpf;fpwJ vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,q;Nf ehk;
ruf;F mDg;Geu; cupikahsu; kw;Wk; ruf;Fg; ngWeu; cupikahsu;
gw;wpa tpjpfs; gw;wp Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;: mit
••cupikahshupd; epiyg;ghl;bd; cupik (tpjp 12): ruf;Ff;
fg;gy; Gwg;gLk; ,lk; my;yJ ,yf;F tpkhdepiyaj;jpy; mij
jpUk;gg; ngWk; nghUl;L ruf;Ffis mfw;Wtjw;fhd
cupikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ my;yJ ve;j ,wq;Fjsj;jpy;
gazk; nra;jhYk; my;yJ gazj;jpd; NghJ> gazj;jpy; mJ
tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ my;yJ tpkhdr;
re;jpg;gpy; ngauplg;gl;l ruf;Fjhuiuj; jtpu NtnwhUtuplk;
nry;Yk; gazj;jpd; Nghf;fpy; my;yJ Gwg;gLk; tpkhd
epiyaj;jpw;Fj; jpUk;g Ntz;Lk;. ruf;F Cu;jp my;yJ gpw
ruf;Fg; nghUs;fisg; Vw;ghL nra;tJ Nghd;wtw;wpy; mtu; ,e;j
cupikapd; kjpg;igg; gad;gLj;jf;$lhJ. NkYk; ,e;j cupikr;
nray;ghl;bdhy; Vw;gLk; nrytpdq;fis mtu; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk;.
,e;j cj;jutpd; Mizia vLj;Jr; nry;tJ rhj;jpakw;wJ
vd;why;> cldbahf mtuplk; njuptpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
tpkhd Nritf; fk; gdpapd; fl; l isapd; gb> topgl; baypd;
Mjhuq; f s; xU gFjp cw; gj; j pf; F j; Njitg; glhky; > ruf; F fspd;
cj; j uTfis vLj; Jr; nrd; w hy; > mJ gpw; gl; ltu; f Sf; F
tpepNahfk; nra; a g; gl; l J. mtu; jdJ nghWg; g pypUe; J
kPz; L tUk; cupikapd; kP J ghugl; rk; fhl; l hky; > mtu;
nghWg; N gw; f khl; l hu; . topgl; b aypd; Mjhuj; j py; me; j gFjp
cilikahff; fUjg; gLk; ve; j xU ,og; gP l ; bw; F k; ,J
fhuzkhf ,Uf; f yhk; .
ruf;Fjhuu; tpjpKiw 13 y; (Jiz cgNjrj;jpd; fPo;
tpthjpf;fg;gLtJ) njhlq;Fk; NghJ> ruf;Ff; fg;gy; cupikahsu;
toq;fpa cupik rupahdJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> ruf;Ff; fg;gy; ruf;Ffs;
my;yJ ruf;Ffis Vw;f kWj;jhy;> my;yJ mtu; njhlu;G nfhs;s
Kbahtpl;lhy;> ruf;Fjhuu; jdJ Vw;ghLfis kPzL ; k; njhlu;fpwhu;.
••ruf;F ngWgtupd; cupikfs; (tpjp 13):
1. NtW topapy;yhtpl;lhy; ruf;F nry;Yeu; ,yf;F ,lj;jpw;F
te;JNrUk; ruf;Ffis tpiutpy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;
cupikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
2. tpkhdj;jpw;F Ntz;ba ,lj;jpy; ruf;F te;J NruNtz;Lk; vd;w
cupik ,Uf;fpwJ. tpkhd Nrit> thd; topghl;by; Mjhuq;fis
114 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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jd;dplk; xg;gilj;Jf; nfhz;L> ruf;Ffisf; fl;lzg; gzk; ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
nrYj;Jtjd; Ngupy;> tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; cs;s tz;br;
R+oYld; ,zq;fr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
3. ruf;F ,og;ig ruf;F nry;Yeu; xg;Gf; nfhz;lhy;> my;yJ mJ
fhyhtjpahd NjjpapypUe;J VO ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwFk; ruf;F te;J Fwpg;Gfs;
Nru;e;jpUf;fhtpl;lhy;> ruf;Fjhuu; thq;FjYf;fhd xg;ge;jj;jpy;
,Ue;J ntsptUk; cupikahsUf;F vjpuhf eilKiwf;F
mku;j;j cupik cz;L.

6.5.2 ruf;F nfhz;L nry;Ydupd; nghWg;Gfs;


tpkhd Nritf; fg;gy; gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfspy; ,og;gPl;bw;F
cs;shfpwJ.
1. xU gazpapd; ,wg;G my;yJ fhaj;jhy; Vw;gLk; capupog;G
my;yJ xU gazpf;F NtW VNjDk; cly; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;lhy;>
tpkhd Nritf; FO my;yJ VNjDk; eltbf;iffspd;
Nghf;fpy; me;j ,og;gPl;il Vw;gLj;jpa ruf;F nry;Yeu; ,jw;F
nghWg;ghfpwJ vdNt tpjp 17-y; ,Ue;J ,it ePf;fg;gLfpwJ.
2. ruf;F nry;Yeupd; mopT my;yJ ,og;G Vw;gl;lhy; NrjkilTf;F
cs;shfpwJ my;yJ VjhtJ xU gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fl;Lkhdk;
my;yJ VjhtJ xU ruf;Ffs;> my;yJ Nrjhuj;jpd; ,og;G
Nghd;wit ,e;j Nrjj;ij Vw;gLj;jpa epfo;T ‘thd; ruf;F
nry;Yeupd; %yk;’ epfo;e;jJ. ,q;Nf tpkhdk; %yk; thd;top
fhyg;gFjpia cs;slf;fpaJ my;yJ ruf;F nry;Yeu;fs;
ruf;F fl;lzq;fSf;F my;yJ tpkhd epiyaj;jpw;Fk;>
my;yJ tpkhd FOtpw;Fk; nghWg;Ngw;fpwJ. my;yJ ve;j
,lj;jpYk;> xU thD}u;jpia jiuapwf;fyhk; vd;gij (tpjp
18) y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
3. (tpjp 19) d; fPo; gazpfspd;> ruf;Fg; Nghf;Ftuj;J my;yJ
ruf;F tpkhdj;jpd; %yk; jhkjj;jhy; Vw;gl;l Nrjj;jpw;Fk; ruf;F
nry;Yeu; nghWg;ghFk;.
••ruf;F nry;Yeu; nghWg;Gfspd; tuk;Gfs;: gpd;tUk;
R+o;epiyfspy;> ruf;F nry;Yeu; Nrjq;fSf;F nghWg;Ngw;fhJ:
(i) mtUk; mtuJ Copau;fSk; my;yJ Kftu;fSk; Nrjj;ij
jtpu;f;f Njitahd midj;J eltbf;iffisAk;
vLj;Js;shu;fs; my;yJ mj;jifa eltbf;iffis vLf;f
mtu;fshy;; nra;a KbahJ vd;gij ep&gpj;jhy;(tpjp 20).
(ii)
ghjpf;fg;gl;l egupd; ftdf;Fiwthy; Nrjk; Vw;gl;lJ
my;yJ gq;fspg;gjhf mtu; ep&gpj;jhy;. ,e;j tof;fpy;>
ePjpkd;wk; jdJ nrhe;j rl;lj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F
,zq;f> fldhsu; KOikahf my;yJ gFjpastpy; jdJ
nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;J tpyf;fpf; nfhs;syhk; (tpjp 21).

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 115

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 115 5/20/2019 12:57:56 PM


ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; ••mjpfgl;r nghWg;G: nry;Yeu; Nritf; flikg; nghWg;G
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
gpd;tUk; njhiff;Fl;gl;ljhFk;. ,r;rl;lj;jpd;gb ,uz;lhtJ
ml;ltizapy; tpjp 22 ,d; fPo; cs;sJ:
(a) egu;fspd; tz;bapy;> kuzk; my;yJ fhak; Vw;gl;lhy;
Fwpg;Gfs; xt;nthU gazpfSf;Fk; cs;s nghWg;G 2> 50000
gpuhf;Ffs; kl;LNk MFk;. N`f; ­ newpKiwapy; ,d;Dk;
ifnaOj;jplhj ehLfs; thu;Nrh khehl;L tpjpfspd; %yk;
epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. 1972 y; thd; rl;lk; %yk; ruf;F
Cu;jpf;F Kjy; ml;ltizapy; mlq;fpaJNghy> xt;nthU
gazpfSf;fhd nghWg;Gk; 1> 25000 g;uhq;f;Ffs; kl;LNk.
Mdhy; rpwg;G xg;ge;jk; %yk;> ruf;F nry;Yeu; kw;Wk;
gazp xU cau; vy;iy nghWg;ig Vw;fyhk;.
(b) gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fl;Lkhdk; kw;Wk; ruf;F tz;bapd;
,og;G> Nrjk; my;yJ jhkjk; Vw;gLk; NghJ> xU
fpNyhtpw;F 250 gpuhf;Ffs; kl;LNk cs;sJ. me;j gazp
my;yJ ruf;F nry;Yeu; ,Ue;jhYk;> fl;Lkhdj;jpw;F
ifaspf;fg;gLk; Neuj;jpy;> fl;Lkhd kjpg;ig fhl;Lk;
rpwg;G mwptpg;G kw;Wk; ,e;j tof;F Njitg;gl;lhy; $Ljy;
ruf;F nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. me;j tof;fpy;> mwptpf;fg;gl;l
njhif> tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gLk; Neuk; kw;Wk; ,lj;jpy;
cs;s cz;ikahd kjpg;ig tpl mjpfkhf cs;sJ
vd;gij ep&gpf;ftpy;iy vd;why;> me;j njhif mwptpj;j
njhifiatpl mjpfkhd njhifia ruf;F nry;YeUf;F
nrYj;j Ntz;ba nghWg;G ,Uf;Fk;.
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fl;Lkhdk; my;yJ ruf;Ffspy; xU
gFjpapd; ,og;G> NrjNkh my;yJ jhkjNkh Vw;gl;lhy;>
ruf;F nry;Yeu; epWtdj;jpd; nghWg;G tuk;Gf;Fl;gl;Ls;s
njhifia epu;zapg;gjpy; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;ba
vil> fl;Lkhdk; my;yJ fl;Lkhdj;jpd; nkhj;j vil
kl;LNk ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy;> gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fl;Lkhdk;
my;yJ ruf;Ffspy; xU gFjpapd; ,og;G> NrjNkh my;yJ
jhkjNkh> mNj ‘fl;Lkhd fhNrhiy’ my;yJ mNj
‘thd; topgl;bay; Mjhuq;fs;’ cs;s kw;w njhFg;Gfspd;
kjpg;ig ghjpf;Fk; NghJ> mj;jifa njhFg;G my;yJ
fl;Lkhdq;fspd; nkhj;j vil $l ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;
nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba nghWg;gpd; tuk;ig epu;zapj;jy;
MFk;.
(c) gazp jd;idj; jhNd nghWg;Ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;
nghUs;fisg; nghWj;j tiu> ,e;j nghWg;G xU
gazpf;F 5>000 g;uhq;f;fs; vd;W tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ.
NkNy $wg;gl;l fl;Lg;ghL tuk;gpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
‘g;uhq;f;’ ve;j xU njhifiaAk;> xU nry;Yeu; kPJ ve;j
eltbf;ifapd; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhfTk;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l Njjpapy;
116 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 116 5/20/2019 12:57:56 PM


cs;s guptu;j;jid tpfpjj;jpy; &gha;fshf khw;wg;gLk;> ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
,J (1972 ,y; 6 tJ gpuptpy; ruf;F nry;Yeu; %yk;)
ePjpkd;wj;jpy; nrYj;j Ntz;ba Nrjhuj; njhif MFk;.
VNjDk; xU tpjpKiw> nghWg;G flj;jg;gLjy; my;yJ
xU Fiwe;j tuk;ig epu;zapg;gJ vd;w tpjp 22 ,d; fPo; Fwpg;Gfs;
tiuaWf;fg;gl;lijtpl> NkNy $wg;gl;l xU Fwpg;gpl;l
tpjpf;F> cs;shu;e;j Fiwghl;bdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;G my;yJ
Nrjj;jpw;F juk; my;yJ FiwT Mfpatw;wpd; tpisthf
nghWg;G tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ (tpjp 23).
NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s fl;Lg;ghL tuk;Gfs;> Nrjhuk;
my;yJ nry;Yeu;> mtuJ Ntiyf;fhuu;fs; my;yJ
Kfthz;ikfspd; xU nray; my;yJ xirapd;
fhuzkhf Nrjk; tpistpj;jJ vd;W ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy; mJ
nghUe;jhJ. mNefkhf KbT tuk;Giuahf ,J Nghd;w
nray; my;yJ xU Copau; my;yJ Vn[z;l; vd;w
xU tof;fpy;> mtu; Ntiy nra;Ak; vy;iyf;Fs; mtu;
nray;gLfpwhu; vd;gJ ep&gzkhfpAs;sJ (tpjp 25).
••Nrjq;fis czUk; nray;Kiw: Nrjhuj;jpd; NghJ> tpepNahf
cupik ngw;w egu;> Nrjhuk; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lgpd; ,Wjpahf
ruf;F tof;fpy; ngwg;gl;l NjjpapypUe;J gjpdhd;F ehl;fs;
tiuapyhd VO ehl;fSf;Fs;> ,e;j Nrjhuj;jpd; fz;Lgpbg;gpd;
%yk; cldbahf Rikahy; kPJ Gfhu; mspf;f Ntz;Lk; [tpjp
27 (2)].
xU Ntis jhkjkhdhy;> mfw;wg;gl;l ,lj;jpy; ruf;Ffs;
vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; my;yJ ruf;Ffs; itf;fg;gLk; Njjp Kjy; ,UgJ
ehl;fSf;Fs; Gfhu; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; [tpjp 27 (2)].
xt;nthU GfhUk;> tz;bapd; Mtzj;jpd; kPJ my;yJ
jdpg;gl;l mwptpg;ghy;> Kd;du; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; mDg;gg;gl;l
vOj;Jf;fspy; jdp mwptpg;G %ykhfNth vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk;. fhy
Kiwg;ghL jtWjy;> ve;j eltbf;ifAk; nry;Yeu; Nritf;F vjpuhf
ngha; nrhy;y KbahJ> mtuJ gq;fpw;F Nkhrb tof;fpy; Nrkpf;fTk;.
[tpjp 27 (3) (4)].
cau; xg;ge;jf; cupikahsu;fspy; trpg;gplkhf ,Uf;Fk; ePjpkd;wk;
Kd;du;> xU gFjpapypUe;j thjpapd; tpUg;gj;jpd; Ngupy; Nrjj;jpw;fhd
tof;F jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. tzpfj;jpd; gpujhd ,lk; xU
epWtdj;jhy; ,e;j xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;ljd; %yk; my;yJ ,yf;F
cs;s ,lj;jpy; ePjpkd;wk; mjpfhu tuk;gpw;F Kd;G (tpjp 29) cs;sJ.
NkYk; ,e;j tof;F> tpkhdk; te;j NjjpapypUe;J ,uz;L Mz;LfSf;Fs;
jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ tpkhdk; te;J Nru;ej
; pUf;f Ntz;ba
Njjp my;yJ tz;b epWj;jg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;ba Njjp> ,y;iynad;why;
Nrjq;fSf;fhd cupik mize;JtpLk; (tpjp 30).
xg;ge;jk; 1 (4) gb> gy;NtW njhlu;r;rpahd vLj;Jr; nry;Yk;
kw;Wk; xU gpupf;fg;glhj nry;Yeuhf fUjg;gLtjw;fhd tz;b
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 117

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; tof;fpy;> xt;nthU nry;Yeu; xg;ge;jj;jpy; cld;gbf;if nra;Ak;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
cupikahsu;fspy; xUtuhf fUjg;gLtu;. Nkw;ghu;itapd; fPo;
epfo;j;jg;gLk; tz;bapd; jd;ik tof;fpy;:
(a) gazpfSf;F kuzk; my;yJ fhaj;jpw;fhf Vw;gLk; tof;Ffs;>
Fwpg;Gfs; ,e;j tpgj;J epfo;e;j NghJ> me;j tz;bapy; Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;
nry;Yeu; kPJ tof;Fg; gjpT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tof;fpy;>
tpiuT xg;ge;jj;jpd; %yk;> nry;Yeu; KOg; gazj;Jf;Fk;
nghWg;G Vw;Ws;sJ kw;Wk;
(b) ,og;G> ruf;F my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;fhd ,og;GfSf;fhd tof;Ffs;
jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. (i) Kjy; nry;Yeu; vLj;J nry;Yk;
ruf;Ff;F vjpuhf gazpfs; my;yJ ruf;Ff; fg;gy;> (ii) filrp
nry;Yeu; tpkhdpf;F vjpuhf gazpfs; my;yJ ruf;Ff; fg;gy; NkYk;>
tpgj;J> ,og;G> Nrjk; my;yJ jhkjk; Mfpatw;wpd; NghJ thfdk;
Xl;ba fhiu vjpu;j;J xt;nthUtUk; eltbf;if vLf;fyhk;.

6.6 rhiy nry;Yeu; rl;lk;> 2007


rhiy tpgu rl;lk;> 2007 nghJ Cu;jpfs;> tuk;Gf; fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk;
mtu;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l nghUs;fspd; kjpg;ig epu;zapj;jy;>
my;yJ Nrjkilahky; ,Ug;gjw;F mtu;fspd; nghWg;G Mfpatw;iw
epu;zapf;f> jfty; my;yJ fUj;jpd;ik jq;fisNah> mtu;fsJ
Nrtfu;fs;> Kftu;fs;> my;yJ mJ njhlu;ghd jw;nrayhd tp\
aq;fSf;fhf kl;LNk nray;gLk;. [k;K kw;Wk; fh\;kPu; khepyk; jtpu>
,e;j rl;lk; ,e;jpah KOtJk; gutpAs;sJ.
,r;rl;lj;jpd; gb> xU egu; gjpT rhd;wpjo; toq;fhjtiu> nghJ
nry;Yeu; tpahghuj;jpy; ve;j egUk; <Lglkhl;lhu;. NkYk;> ,j;jifa
eltbf;iffspy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk; xUtu; njhz;Z}W ehl;fSf;Fs;
gjpT nra;a Ntz;Lk;. gjpthsu; mjpfhupAld; gjpT nra;tjw;F
tpz;zg;gpf;fg;glhtpl;lhy; mj;jifa Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l NjjpapypUe;J
180 ehl;fspd; fhyhtjp tiuapy; mj;jifa tpahghuj;jpy; <Lgl
KbahJ vdTk; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpwJ.
rhd;wpjo; itj;jpUg;gtu;> rl;lj;jhy; tpjpf;fg;gl;l ve;j
tpjpKiwfNsh my;yJ rl;lj;ij kPWtjw;Nfh jtwptpl;ljhf
czu;e;jhy;> gjpthsu; mjpfhupahy; gjpT nra;ag;glyhk;. gjpthsu;
mjpfhuk; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l jghy; my;yJ kpd;dZ Clfk; my;yJ
30 ehl;fSf;Fs; jpUj;jk; nra;a itj;jpUg;gtUf;F NtW VNjDk;
rupghu;f;Fk; topKiwiaAk; mwptpf;Fk;. xU Ntiy> jpUj;Jk;
nra;a itj;jpUg;gtu; mt;thW nra;aj; jtwpdhy;> gjpT nra;Ak;
mjpfhup gjpTr; rhd;wpjio jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;. Gfhu; ngwg;gl;bUe;jhy;
itj;jpUg;gtu; jdJ rhd;wpjioAk; ,of;fyhk;.
gjpT rhd;wpjopd; itj;jpUg;gtu; 1988 Mk; Mz;bd; Nkhl;lhu;
thfd rl;lj;jpd; fPo; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sgb> murhq;f Nghf;Ftuj;J
Nky;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F mWgJ ehl;fSf;Fs; gjpthsu;
mjpfhupaplk; KiwaPL nra;a cupik cz;L.
118 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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2007 rhiy jLg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk;> xt;nthU khepy my;yJ ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
A+dpad; gpuNjrj;jpYk; cs;s muRg; Nghf;Ftuj;Jf; FOkk;> rhiyg;
Nghf;Ftuj;J kw;Wk; neLQ;rhiy njhlu;ghd kj;jpa muR Jiw
khepy my;yJ A+dpad; gpuNjrq;fspy; nghJ nry;Yeu;fs; Vw;wp tUk;
nghUs;fspd; tptuq;fis mikr;rfj;Jf;F Mz;LNjhWk; rku;g;gpf;f Fwpg;Gfs;
Ntz;Lk;.
kdpj capu;f;F Mgj;jhd my;yJ mghafukhd ,ay;Gila
nghUl;fspd; tz;b tptfhuq;fis ,e;j rl;lk; Ma;fpwJ. mj;jifa
eilKiwf;F ,zq;f> mj;jifa ghJfhg;Gf;F ,zq;Ftijj; jtpu>
xU nghJthd Nfupau; %yk;> kdpj capu;fSf;F Mgj;jhd my;yJ
mghafukhd ,aw;ifapd; ve;j nghUl;fSk; tpjpf;fg;gl khl;lhJ.
ve;jnthU fhak;> ,wg;G my;yJ nrhj;J cilikfSf;F VNjDk;
Nrjk; Vw;gl;lhy;> mj;jifa nghUl;fis nghWj;J fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jk;
G+u;j;jp nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2007 Mk; Mz;bd; tof;F rl;l eltbf;if $l ve;j ,og;Gf;Fk;
xU nghJthd nry;YeUf;F vjpuhf ve;j xU tof;ifAk; rl;l
eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. ruf;Ffis
Kd;gjpT nra;j Njjp Kjy; 180 ehl;fSf;Fs; ,J njhlq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
rhjhuz Copau; vd;gJ> flTspd; nray;> Nghu; my;yJ nghJ
tpNuhjp> fytuk; kw;Wk; rptpy; rkurq;fs; jtpu NtW VNjDk;
fhuzj;jpypUe;J vOk; ,og;G> mopT> Nrjk; my;yJ Nghf;Ftuj;J
rPu;NfLfs; my;yJ flj;jypd; rpijTf;F fhuzkhf cs;sJ. kj;jpa
muR my;yJ khepy murhq;fj;jhy; tpjpf;fg;gLk; rl;l nray;Kiw
kw;Wk; xOq;F my;yJ fl;Lg;ghL Mfpatw;wpd; fPo; ifJ nra;jy;
my;yJ jil nra;jy;.
2007 Mk; Mz;bd; rhiy rl;lj;jpd; tz;b $l ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpd;
tpjpfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf tpjpKiwfis cUthf;Ftjw;F kj;jpa
muirf; fUJfpwJ. NkYk;> ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpd; tpjpKiwfSf;F ve;jtpj
rpukKk; Vw;gltpy;iynadpy;> ,e;j f\;lq;fis mfw;Wtjw;fhf
kj;jpa muRf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L.
,e;j gpupTfspy; Fwpg;gpl;l tplaq;fisf; Fwpg;gpLtJ uj;J
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf> 1897 Mk; Mz;bd; nghJ tpjpfs;
rl;lj;jpd; 6 Mk; gad;ghl;bw;F ghugl;rk; my;yJ jhf;fj;ij
Vw;gLj;jhJ vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


7. tpkhdr; rl;lk;> 1972 Mk; Mz;bd; fl;Lg;ghl;L mjpfhupapd;
fl;Lg;ghLfs; vd;d?
8. ‘cau;e;j xg;ge;jf; fl;rpia’ tiuaWf;fTk;.
9. 2007 Mk; Mz;bd; rhiyr; rl;lj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fl;Lg;ghl;L
mjpfhuk; vd;d?
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 119

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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
6.7 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;
tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1.
gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F xU egu; my;yJ epWtdk; xU
Fwpg;Gfs; ,lj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU ,lj;jpw;F nghUl;fis vLj;Jr; nry;y
xg;Gf;nfhs;fpw xg;ge;jk;> xU ‘nry;Yeu; xg;ge;jk;’ mwpag;gLfpwJ.
2. ,e;jpahtpy;> tz;br; rl;lk;> 1865> ,uz;L gpupTfshf nry;Yeu;
fl;Lg;ghl;bd; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf nghUl;fis tifg;gLj;jpAs;sJ;
(a) jpl;lkplg;gl;l nghUl;fs;> kw;Wk; (b) jpl;lkplg;glhj nghUl;fs;.
3.
ruf;Ff; fg;gy;fs; vd> ,uapy;Nt> 1865 Mk; Mz;bd;
tz;b rl;lj;jhy; epu;tfpf;fg;gltpy;iy> Vndd;why; mit
murhq;fj;jhy; nrhe;jkhf ,af;fg;gLfpd;wd. 1890 Mk; Mz;L
,e;jpa ,uapy;Nt rl;lk;> uapy;Ntapd; ruf;Ffis thq;Fjy;>
mt;tg;NghJ jpUj;jg;gl;L tUfpwJ. ‘uapy;Nt epu;thfk;’
epu;thfj;ijAk;> gzpepu;thfj;ijAk; ftdpf;fpwJ.
4. uapy; %yk; tpyq;Ffs; my;yJ ruf;F Vw;wpr; nry;Yk;NghJ
toq;fpa Njjp MW khjq;fSf;Fs; Nfhupf;if itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
,uapy;Ntapd; jiyik tzpf Nkyhsu; my;yJ NkyhsUf;Ff;
$w;Wf;fhd mwptpg;G toq;fg;glyhk;.
5. flypy; ruf;Ffis thq;Fk; xU xg;ge;jk; ‘gupTzu;T xg;ge;jk;’
vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ ‘gupTzu;T’ vd;w thu;j;ij ‘fg;gy;
my;yJ fg;gypd; gzpaku;j;jy;’ vd;gjhFk;. ,t;thwhf>
ruf;Ffis vLj;Jr; nry;y fg;gypy; cs;s ,lk;> ‘ruf;F’
vdg;gLk; tpiyapy;> thliff;F vLf;f> Kd;dhs; xg;Gf;
nfhz;l xg;ge;jk; my;yJ fg;gy; epWtdj;jpw;F ,ilNa cs;s
xg;ge;jkhf ,J tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;. xU rhrd xg;ge;jk; my;yJ
thlif xg;ge;jk;> xU fg;gy; urPJ xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;syhk;.
6. xU ‘rhrd xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ xU JiwKfj;jpypUe;J
kw;nwhU Jiwf;Fr; nry;tjw;F KO fg;gy; my;yJ xU Kf;fpa
gFjpiaAk; gzpaku;j;Jtjw;F Eioe;j Kjd;ik xg;ge;jkhFk;.
,J nghUl;fspd; gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhf fg;gypd; KO my;yJ gFjp
gzpaku;j;jy; xg;ge;jk; ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk; Kiwahd vOjg;gl;l
Mtzj;ijAk; Fwpf;fpwJ. fg;gy; my;yJ mjd; xU gFjpia
gzpaku;j;Jk; xUtu; ‘jufu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;.
7. 1972 Mk; Mz;L tpkhd rl;lk;> 1934 k; Mz;L ,e;jpa
nry;Yeu; uj;J nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jr; rl;lk; ,e;jpa
tpkhdj;ij 1934 Mk; Mz;lstpy; tpkhd rl;lk; %yk; jpUg;gpr;
nrYj;JfpwJ. egu;fs;> ruf;Ffs; Nghd;w ru;tNjr nry;Yeu; njhlu;ghd
jpUj;jg;gl;l tpjpfs; rl;lj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; fl;lk;.
8. ‘cau; xg;ge;jf; fl;rp’ vd;w nrhw;nwhlu;> N`f; GNuhl;Nlhfhy;
(mjhtJ jpUj;jg;gl;l cld;gbf;ifAld;) jpUj;jg;gl;L
thu;rh khehl;L tpjpfSf;F ifnahg;gkplg;gl;l ehLfspd;
midj;J ehLfspYk; Kjypy; cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz;lJ.
120 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 120 5/20/2019 12:57:56 PM


jpUj;jg;gl;l khehl;bw;F ,e;jpah ifnahg;gkplyhf ,Uf;fpwJ> ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
Mifahy; cau; xg;ge;jf; fl;rp [tpjp 1 (2)] MFk;.
9. rhiy jLg;Gr; rl;lk;> 2007 nghJ nry;Yeu;fs;> tuk;Gf;
fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; mtu;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l nghUs;fspd;
kjpg;ig epu;zapj;jy;> my;yJ Nrjkilahky; ,Ug;gjw;F Fwpg;Gfs;
mtu;fspd; nghWg;G Mfpatw;iw epu;zapf;f> jfty; my;yJ
fUj;jpd;ik jq;fisNah> mtu;fsJ Nrtfu;fs;> Kftu;fs;>
my;yJ mJ njhlu;ghd jw;nrayhd tp\aq;fSf;fhf kl;LNk
nray;gLk;. [k;K kw;Wk; fh\;kPu; khepyk; jtpu> ,e;j rl;lk;
,e;jpah KOtJk; gutpAs;sJ.

6.8 RUf;fk;
••1865> mjhtJ> epyk; my;yJ cs;ehl;L %yk; thliff;F
nrhj;Jilikia vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; tzpfj;jpy; <Lgl;Ls;s
my;yJ ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;> ve;j xU rq;fk; my;yJ egu;fspd;
mikg;G my;yJ egu;fs; cl;gl xU nghJ nry;Yeu; Nrit
topnrYj;jy;.
••xU egu; my;yJ epWtdk; xU tpiyf;F khw;whf nghUl;fis
my;yJ kf;fis xU ,lj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU ,lj;jpw;F
nfhz;L nry;y cld;gLk; xU xg;ge;jk; ‘nry;Yeu; xg;ge;jk;’
vdg;gLfpwJ.
••fly; topahf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; rl;lk; (i) ,e;jpa
rl;l%yq;fs;> 1856> kw;Wk; (ii) fly; topahf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Yk; ruf;F nry;Yeu; rl;lk;> 1925. ,e;j tptfhuj;ijr; rhu;e;j
epu;tfpf;Fk; Vida njhlu;Gila rl;lq;fs; — (a) tzpfu; fg;gy;
Nghf;Ftuj;J rl;lk;> 1958> kw;Wk; (b) fly; fhg;GWjp rl;lk;>
1963.
••1890 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpa ,uapy;Nt rl;lk;> uapy;Ntapd;
ruf;Ffis thq;Fjy;> mt;tg;NghJ jpUj;jg;gl;L tUfpwJ.
‘uapy;Nt epu;thfk;’ epu;thfk; kw;Wk; ,uapy;Nt Copau;fisg;
ghu;j;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.
••xU fg;gy; fl;rp vd;gJ fg;gy; KOtijAk; xU JiwKfj;jpypUe;J
kw;nwhU ruf;Ff;F vLj;Jr; nry;yf;$ba KO fg;gy; my;yJ
xU Kf;fpa gFjpia thliff;F vLj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; rhrd
xg;ge;jkhFk;. ,J nghUl;fspd; gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhf fg;gypd;
KO my;yJ gFjp gzpaku;j;jy; xg;ge;jk; ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk;
Kiwahd vOjg;gl;l Mtzj;ijAk; Fwpf;fpwJ.
••ruf;F tpw;gid rl;lj;jpd; fPo; nfhLf;fg;gl;lgb> ruf;Ff;
fl;lzj;ijr; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd cupikg; gj;jpuk; gw;wpa
cupikia 1856 Mk; Mz;bw;fhd ,e;jpa rl;lq;fSf;fhd rl;lk;>
ghjpf;fhJ. mjd;gb> ruf;Ff; fg;gy; ruf;Ffis epWj;Jtjw;fhd
cupikiaf; ifahSk; nghUl;L ruf;Ffis toq;Ftjw;fhd
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; topKiwfis toq;fhtpl;lhy; ruf;Ff; fg;gy; itj;jpUg;gtUf;F
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
ruf;Ffis toq;f Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy.
••‘fg;gy; cupikahsupd; cupik’ vd;gJ> tz;b xg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo;
ruf;F kw;Wk; gpw fl;lzq;fs; nrYj;jg;gLk;tiu mtuplk; Vw;wpr;
Fwpg;Gfs; nry;Yk; ruf;Ffis (ruf;F) itj;jpUg;gij jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;s
cupikAz;L. ,J xU cilik cupikahFk;.
••tpkhd rl;lk;> 1972 ,y; tpkhdk; %yk; thfdk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l
rl;lk; cs;slf;fpaJ. ,e;j rl;lk; tpkhd rl;lk; 1934 %yk;
,e;jpa tz;bfis jpUk;gg;ngWfpwJ.
••tpkhdr; rl;lk; 1972 ,y;> ,uz;L ml;ltizfisf;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. fhy ml;ltizg;gb> N`f; GNuhl;Nlhfhypy;
,d;Dk; ifnaOj;jplhj ehLfspd; thd;topahf ru;tNjr
tz;bf;F nghUe;jf;$ba thu;Nrh khehl;L tpjpfs; cs;sd.
••2007 y; rhiy rl;lj;jpd; %yk; tUk; tz;b> nghJ
nry;Yeu;fis xOq;FgLj;Jk; nghWg;G kw;Wk;
mtu;fSf;F xg;gilg;G toq;f nra;ag;gl;l nghUl;fspd; kjpg;ig
epu;zapj;jy;> my;yJ ghjpg;G Nghd;w nghUl;fis jfty; my;yJ
Fw;wk; rhl;Ltjd; %yk; Vw;gLk; e\;lj;jpw;fhd mtu;fspd;
nghWg;G Mfpatw;iw epu;zapf;f toptif nra;fpwJ.
jq;fisNah> mtu;fsJ Nrtfu;fs; my;yJ Kftu;fisNah>
my;yJ mJ njhlu;ghd my;yJ jw;nrayhd tp\aq;fSf;fhf
kl;LNk nray;gLk;.

6.9 Kf;fpa fUj;Jgbkq;fs;


••fly;rhu; cupik: fg;gy;> ruf;Ffs; kw;Wk; mtu;fSf;F
toq;fg;gl;l NritfSf;F ruf;F Mfpatw;wpd; kPJ xU ‘fly;top
cupik’ vd;gJ xU $w;W. Mgj;J Neuj;jpd;NghJ fg;gy; my;yJ
ruf;Ffis fhg;ghw;w rpy Nritfis toq;fpa midtUf;Fk;
,e;j cupik rl;lk; toq;fg;gLfpwJ.
••tpkhd topurPJ: xU thD}u;jp my;yJ tpkhdr; ruf;Ff; Fwpg;G
vd;gJ xU ru;tNjr tpkhdg; nghUl;fs; xU ru;tNjr tpkhd
epWtdk;> ruf;F xg;ge;jj;jpd; xU rhd;whFk;. Mdhy; mJ
ruf;FfSf;F jiyg;G gw;wpa Mtzk; my;y. vdNt> thd;ntsp
urPJ Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;F ,lkpy;iy.
••efu; Rq;f tup: ,J Efu;Tf;fhf xU khtl;lj;jpw;F nfhz;L
tug;gl;l gy;NtW fl;Liufspy; Nrfupf;fg;gl;l cs;Su; tup MFk;.

6.10 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;


FW tpil tpdhf;fs;
1. nghJthd nry;Yeupd; cupikfs; kw;Wk; flikfspy; xU rpwpa
Fwpg;ig vOJf.
122 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 122 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


2. uapy;Nt epu;thfj;jpd; nghWg;G gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJf. ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr;
nry;Ytjw;fhd rl;lq;fs;;
3. ‘thlif xg;ge;jj;jpy;’ xU rpwpa Fwpg;ig vOJf.
4. fg;gy; ruf;F ,urPJ gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJq;fs;.
5. fg;gy; cupikahsupd; cupik kPjhd RUf;fkhd Fwpg;ig Fwpg;Gfs;
vOJf.
6. nry;Yeu; flg;ghLfs; nghWg;gpd; FiwghLfs; gw;wp xU rpwpa
Fwpg;G vOJf.
7. ruf;Ff; fg;gy; cupikahsupd; cupikfs; gw;wpa RUf;fkhd
Fwpg;ig vOJf.

neL tpil tpdhf;fs;


1. ruf;F Cu;jpfis epu;tfpf;Fk; gy;NtW rl;lq;fis tpthjpf;fTk;.
2. ,e;jpahtpy; ruf;Fg; gazj;jpd; 1865 Mk; Mz;bd; Copaupd;
rl;lj;jpd; gq;if tptupf;fTk;.
3. Nghf;Ftuj;jpd; NghJ uapy;fspd; nghWg;Gf;fis Ma;f.
4. fly; topahf ruf;Ffis Vw;wpr; nry;Yk; gy;NtW rl;lq;fis
tpupthf tpthjpf;fTk;
5. rhiyr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; 2007 Mk; Mz;bd; gy;NtW fl;lq;fis
gFg;gha;T nra;f

6.11 NkYk; gbf;f


Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 123

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;; myF 7 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;
Fwpg;Gfs;
mikg;G
7.0 Kd;Diu
7.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
7.2 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lk;;: tiuaiw> rpwg;gk;rq;fs;>
tiffs; kw;Wk;; jug;Gfs;
7.2.1 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gz;Gfs;
7.2.2 thf;FWjpr; rPl;L
7.2.3 guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;L
7.2.4 fhNrhiy
7.2.5 tq;fp tiuT
7.2.6 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; Kjpu;r;rp
7.2.7 cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy;
7.2.8 tl;b nrYj;Jjy;
7.2.9 itj;jpUg;gtu;
7.3 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;; rl;lj;jpid toq;fy;
7.4 Vw;fhj kw;Wk; ifkhwj;jf;f Mtzk; ntspNaw;Wjy; kw;Wk;
%yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy;
7.4.1 Mtzq;fs; kw;Wk; jug;Gfs; ntspNaw;wk;;
7.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
7.6 RUf;fk;
7.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
7.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
7.9 NkYk; gbf;f

7.0 Kd;Diu
‘khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;’ vd;gJ ‘tpepNahfpf;fg;gLk; xU vOjg;gl;l
Mtzk;’ vd;W nghUs;. khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; %d;W tifahd
khw;Wr;rPl;L Mtzq;fisg; ngw;Ws;sd. mjhtJ cWjpnkhop
Fwpg;G> guptu;j;jid rPl;L kw;Wk; fhNrhiy MFk;. 1934 Mk; Mz;L
jpUj;jr; rl;lj;jhy; jpUj;jg;gl;l ,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fp rl;lk;> 1934-d;
31Mk; gpuptpd; fPo; ,e;j Mtzq;fs; ,aq;Ffpd;wd. mit
xUtuplkpUe;J kw;nwhUtUf;F ve;j rk;gpujhaj;jd;ikAk; ,y;yhky;
khw;wf;$baJ. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> ,e;jf; Mtzq;fspy;
cs;s nrhj;J (cupikahsupd; cupik)> xg;Gjy; %ykhfNth
(juj;jpw;F nrYj;jNtz;ba gzk;) my;yJ tpepNahfk; %yk; (vLj;J
nry;gtUf;F nfhLf;f Ntz;ba gzk;) kl;LNk mDg;gg;gLfpwJ> NkYk;
,lkhw;wj;jpw;F ve;j MjhuKk; Njitapy;iy. upru;t; tq;fp my;yJ
kj;jpa murpd; tpjpfspd; fPo; nray;gLk; khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
124 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 124 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


rl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sgb> ,e;j myF khw;W Kiwahtzq;fis 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
Ma;T nra;tij Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

7.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


Fwpg;Gfs;
,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;>
••‘khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;’ vd;w nrhy;iy Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;
••khw;W Kiwahtzq;fspd; rpwg;gpay;Gfisg; gFg;gha;T nra;a
KbAk;
••khw;W Kiwahtzq;fspd; tpsf;fTiu fw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;.
••khw;W Kiwahtzq;fspd; jug;Gfis tpsf;f KbAk;
••thf;FWjpr; rPl;L xd;wpd; mbg;gilf;$Wfs; gw;wp mwpe;Jnfhs;s
KbAk;
••guptu;j;jid khw;wrPl;il Muha KbAk;

7.2 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lk;;: tiuaiw> rpwg;gk;rq;fs;>


tiffs; kw;Wk;; jug;Gfs;
khw;W vd;w thu;j;ijapd; nghUs; ‘tpepNahfpg;gjd; %yk; khw;wj;jf;fJ’
kw;Wk; Mtzq;fs; vd;gjd; nghUs; ‘rpy egu;fSf;F Mjuthf xU
cupikia cUthf;fpa xU vOjg;gl;l Mtzk;’ MFk;. ,t;thW>
‘khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;’ vd;gjd; nghUs; ‘tpepNahfpf;fg;gLk; xU
vOjg;gl;l Mtzk;’ vd;gjhFk;.
khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 13-d; gb> ‘xU khw;W
Kiwahtzq;fs; vd;gJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> guptu;j;jid urPJ
my;yJ elj;Jgtu; my;yJ nrYj;Jtjw;fhf nrYj;j Ntz;ba
fhNrhiy’ vd;W nghUs;gLk;. khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ,uz;L
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l Cjpak; xd;Wf;F nrYj;jg;glyhk; mJ
xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L khw;WfSf;F nrYj;jg;glyhk;> my;yJ xd;W
my;yJ rpy gy;NtWgl;l Cjpaq;fs; nrYj;jg;glyhk; [gpupT 13 (2)].
,e;j rl;lk;> %d;W tpjkhd khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;> mjhtJ
Fwpg;Giu> urPJfs; kw;Wk; fhNrhiyfs; vd Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. gpd;tUk;
tbtq;fspy; VNjDk; xd;wpy; mtu;fSf;F gzk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd mwptpf;fpd;wd:
1. juj;jpw;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba gzk;: xU Fwpg;Giu> urPJ
my;yJ fhNrhiy xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F my;yJ mtuJ
xOq;FKiwf;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba juj;jpw;F nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> (i) A gzk; nrYj;Jjy;> (ii) A f;F gzk;
nrYj;Jjy; my;yJ juk;> (iii) A ,d; juj;jpw;F gzk;
nrYj;Jjy;> (iv) A kw;Wk; B gzk; nrYj;Jjy; kw;Wk; (v)
A my;yJ B f;F gzk; nrYj;Jjy; Mfpatw;wpy; juj;jpw;F
nrYj;j Ntz;ba khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; gy;NtW
tbtq;fspy; cs;sd. Mdhy; mJ gupkhw;wj;ij jilnra;Ak;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 125 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ve;jnthU thu;j;ijiaAk; nfhz;bUf;fhJ> v.fh.> ‘A f;F NtW
rl;lk;;
thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> ,e;jf; Mtzq;fspy; cs;s
nrhj;J (cupikahsupd; cupik)> xg;Gjy; %ykhfNth (juj;jpw;F
nrYj;jNtz;ba gzk;) my;yJ tpepNahfk; %yk;
Fwpg;Gfs; (vLj;J nry;gtUf;F nfhLf;f Ntz;ba gzk;) kl;LNk
mDg;gg;gLfpwJ> NkYk; ,lkhw;wj;jpw;F ve;j MjhuKk;
Njitapy;iy. vdNt> mj;jifa Mtzk; khw;W
Kiwahtdq;fshf fUjg;glkhl;lhJ> Vnddpy; mjd;
khw;WKiw tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. xU Mtzkhf
nry;Ygbahf;fk; nra;af;$ba ntspg;gilahd nrhw;fisf;
nfhz;l Mtzq;fs; nry;YgbahFk;. (mjhtJ> xU
cld;gbf;ifahf) Mdhy; mit khw;W Kiwahtzq;fshf
,y;iy NkYk; mit khw;wk; nra;a KbahJ vd Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.
xU fhNrhiy fldpy; ‘fzf;F itj;jpUg;gtu; kl;LNk’
Ngr;Rthu;j;ij elj;j KbAk; NkYk;> tq;fpahsu; me;j tof;fpy;
$Ljy; ftdj;ij nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba gzk;: ‘vLj;J
nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba gzk;’ vd;gjd; nghUs;> ‘ve;j
egu; Ntiy nra;fpwhNuh mtUf;F nrYj;j $baJ’ MFk;. xU
Fwpg;Giu> urPJ my;yJ fhNrhiy vd;gJ ‘vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F
nrYj;j Ntz;ba xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nky; cs;s xNu
my;yJ filrp xg;Gjy; vd;gjd; ntw;wplj;jpy; cs;s xU
xg;Gjy; MFk;’;. vdNt> xU Fwpg;Giu> urPJ my;yJ fhNrhiy
vd;gJ ‘A my;yJ vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;Jjy;’ my;yJ
‘A> B my;yJ vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;Jjy;’> Mfpait
vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba gzk; vd;w tbtpy;
,Uf;Fk;. NkYk;> xU Mtzq;fs; Kjypy; ‘juj;jpw;F nrYj;j
Ntz;ba gzk;’ vdpy;> gzk; nrYj;Jgtuhy; epue;jukhf xg;Gf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;> mJ ‘vLj;J nry;gtu;f;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba
gzk;’ vd khWk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU fhNrhiy A-f;F gzk;
nrYj;JtJ. A kPz;Lk; jdJ ifnahg;gj;ij gpd;dhy; itg;gjd;
%yk; mij xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu; kw;Wk; mJ Ngr;Rthu;j;ijfspd;
Nehf;fj;Jld; Bf;F toq;Ffpwhu;. (B my;yJ B-d;
juj;jpw;F gzk; nrYj;jg;glhky;;) B-d; iffspy;> cs;s
fhNrhiy xU gzpahsu; MtzkhFk;.
khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; 13 Mk; gpuptpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s
tiuaiw> khw;W Kiwahtdq;fspd; mbg;gilg; gz;Gfis
epu;zapf;ftpy;iy. rhj;jpakhd Ngr;Rthu;ji; jf;Fl;gl;l
Mtzq;fspd; kpfTk; ntspg;gilahd kw;Wk; midj;J R+o;epiy
tiuaiwia gpd;tUkhW jhk]; $Wfpwhu;:
‘gupkhw;wg;gLk; xU khw;wf;$ba fUtp vd;gJ rl;lg;gb
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l xU thzpfk; my;yJ rl;lj;jhy;>
nlyptup %yk; gupkhw;wg;gLk; my;yJ ,J Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy;
mjd; cupikahsu; jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy; mjd; (a) tof;Fj;
126 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 126 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


njhluyhk; kw;Wk; (b) gupkhw;wj;jpd; jiyg;gpy; ve;j FiwghL 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
,Ue;jhYk;> mjd; kjpg;G> gq;Ffspy; ,Ue;J tpLgl;L> kjpg;gpw;F
xU ey;y nghUis khw;wg;gLk;.

7.2.1 khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gz;Gfs; Fwpg;Gfs;


khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; vd;w tiuaiwia Muha;e;jhy;>
Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fupa Mtzq;fs; gpd;tUk; mbg;gil mk;rq;fis
ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ> mit xU rhjhuz ciuahlypUe;J NtWgLfpd;wd:
1. vspjhf khw;Wjy;: mtu;fs; ve;jnthU rk;gpujhaKk; ,d;wp>
xUtuplkpUe;J ,d;ndhUtUf;F khw;Wjy; MFk;. NtW
thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> ,e;jf; Mtzq;fspy; cs;s
nrhj;J (cupikahsupd; cupik)> xg;Gjy; %ykhfNth
(juj;jpw;F nrYj;jNtz;ba gzk;) my;yJ tpepNahfk; %yk;
(vLj;J nry;gtUf;F nfhLf;f Ntz;ba gzk;) kl;LNk
mDg;gg;gLfpwJ> NkYk; ,lkhw;wj;jpw;F ve;j MjhuKk;
Njitapy;iy.
2. fldhsUf;F mwptpg;G nfhLf;fhkNy gupkhw;wp jdJ nrhe;j
ngaupy; tof;F njhluyhk;: xU urPJ> Fwpg;Giu my;yJ fhNrhiy
vd;gJ flidf; Fwpf;fpwJ. mjhtJ ‘tof;Ff;Fupa cupik’ vd;gJ
fldhspaplkpUe;J VjhtJ xd;iw kPlg ; jw;F fld; nfhLj;jtupd;
cupikiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ. fld; ngWgtu; ,e;jj; ­ njhifiar;
Nru;ff
; yhk; my;yJ mtuJ cupikia NtW egUf;F khw;wyhk;.
mtu; jdJ cupikia khw;wpdhy;> xU khw;wf;$ba Mtzq;fspd;
gupkhw;wj; jd;ik> jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy; cs;s Mtzq;fspd; kPJ
tof;F gjpT nra;a cupikAs;sJ kw;Wk; me;j cz;ik Fwpj;J
fld;fhuUf;F mwptpg;G mspf;fhky;> mij itj;Jf;nfhs;thu;.
xU rhjhuz ‘eltbf;iff; Nfhupf;if’ khw;wy; my;yJ xJf;fy;
vd;gJ (mjhtJ> xU Gj;jff; fld; vd;gJ mtuJ fzf;Fg;
Gj;jfk; my;yJ gh`p Mfpatw;wpy; fld;fhuuhy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l)
gupkhw;wj;jpd; fPo; cs;sJ. nrhj;J rl;lk;> fldhsUf;F mwptpg;G
mtupd; nrhe;j ngaupy; tof;Fj; jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;gjw;fhf mtrpakhf cs;sJ> ,y;iynadpy; mtu; vg;nghOJk;
jdJ gupkhw;wj;jpy; Nru Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ mry; fldhsp> mtu;
fld;fhuuplkpUe;J Kd;Ng mtuJ $w;iw kPlf ; KbAk;.
3. ek;gfkhd gupkhw;wj;jpd; kjpg;gpw;F rpwe;j jiyg;G: xU
Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l Mtzq;fspd; xU ek;gfj;jd;ik
gupkhw;wk; Mtzk; ‘midj;J FiwghLfspypUe;J t ­ pLjiyAk;’
ngWfpwJ. khw;wpapd; jiyg;G my;yJ VNjDk; xU jug;gpdupd;
FiwghLfshy; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. rhjhuz gjq;fspd;
tof;fpy; nghUe;jpa jiyg;G khw;wg;gLk; rl;lj;jpd; nghJ tpjp>
‘jdJ nrhe;j jiyg;ig tpl rpwe;j jiyg;ig ahUk; khw;w
KbahJ’ vd;gJ khw;W KiwahtzfSf;F nghUe;jhJ. xUtd;
kw;nwhUtuplk; jpUlg;gl;l ­ thndhyp xd;iw tpw;fyhk;> Mdhy;
cz;ikahd cupikahsu; thq;fpatuplkpUe;J ­ thndhypiaj;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 127

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; jpUk;gg; ngwyhk;> ,Ue;jhYk; mtu; mij fUj;jpy; nfhz;L
rl;lk;;
ey;y ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fyhk;.
4. mtu; kPJ Kd; fUj;Jf;fs;: Fwpg;gpl;l Kd;fUj;Jfs; midj;J
khw;W Kiwahtzq;fSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. ,e;j Kd;fUj;Jfs;
Fwpg;Gfs; ,e;j myfpy; gpd;du; tpthjpf;fg;gLk;.
Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l> Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;F cl;glhj>
miu-Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l kw;Wk; Kd;fUj;Jfs; Mfpatw;wpd;
vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs; fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd

a. khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fspd; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;


gpd;tUk; Mtzq;fs;> khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fshf rl;lj;jhy; my;yJ
gad;ghL my;yJ jdpg;gad; %yk; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd: (i)
guptu;j;jid khw;wrPl;L; (ii) thf;FWjpr; rPl;L; (iii) murhq;f fhNrhiyfs;
(iv) thf;FWjpr; rPl;L; (v) jpiwNrup urPJfs;; (vi)gq;fhjhak; thupfs;;
(vii) gq;F thupfs;; (viii) Ntiyahs; fldPl;Lg; gj;jpuq;fs;; (ix)
JiwKf ek;gpf;if my;yJ Nkk;ghl;L mwf;fl;lis; (x) urPJfs;; (xi)
NtiyahSf;Fr; nrYj;j Ntz;ba ,uapy;Nt gj;jpuq;fs; Nghd;wit
mlq;Fk;.

b. khw;wj;jfhj Mtzq;fSf;fhd vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:


,it: (i) gz cj;juTfs;;; (ii) jghy; cj;juTfs;; (iii) epiyahd
itg;G tuTfs;; (iv) gq;F rhd;wpjo;fs;; (v) fld; fbjq;fs;.

c. miu- khw;wj;jf;f MtzfSf;fhd vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;


‘jiyg;G Mtzq;fs;’ vdg;gLk; rpy Mtzq;fs; cs;sd. v.fh: (i)
fg;gy; Vw;Wkjp xg;ge;jr; rPl;L (ii) fg;gy;Jiw cj;juT (iii) uapy;Nt
urPJfs; kw;Wk; (iv) fg;gy;Jiw Nkilcupikahsu; rhd;wpjo;fs;
Nghd;w khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;> xg;Gjy; kw;Wk;/my;yJ tpepNahf
%yk; khw;w KbAk; jpwd;> Mdhy; mj;jifa Mtzq;fis
khw;WNthu; jhdhfNt itj;jpUg;gijf; fhl;bYk; ve;jnthU rpwe;j
jiyg;gpdUf;Fk; nghUs;fis toq;f KbahJ. ,j;jifa Mtzq;fs;
‘miu-khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fs;’ vd;W Fwpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. NkYk;>
khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; tpjpfspy; nghUe;jhJ.

d. khw;W Kiwahtzq;fSf;fhd Kd;fUj;Jf;fs;


gpupTfs; 118 kw;Wk; 119> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; njhlu;ghf gpd;tUk;
Kd;fUj;Jf;fis nfhLf;fpd;wd. khwhf ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;
1.
xt;nthU khw;W Kiwahtzq;fSk; tiuag;gl;l>
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l> kiwKfkhf my;yJ fUj;jpy; khw;wg;gl;L
nra;ag;gLfpwJ;
2. xU Njjpiaf; nfhz;l xt;nthU khw;W Kiwahtzq;fSk;
mj;jifa Njjpapy; jahupf;fg;gl;lJ my;yJ tiuag;gl;lJ;
128 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 128 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


3. xt;nthU gupkhw;w guptu;j;jidAk; mjd; Njjp kw;Wk; Kjpu;r;rpf;F 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
Kd;du; xU epahakhd Neuj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ;
4. xU khw;W Kiwahtzq;fspd; xt;nthU gupkhzKk; mjd;
Kjpu;r;rpf;F Kd;du; nra;ag;gl;lJ;
Fwpg;Gfs;
5. xU khw;W Kiwahtzq;fspy; Njhd;Wk; xg;Gjy;fs; mit
mjpy; Njhd;wpa tupirapy; nra;ag;gl;ld;
6.
xU njhiye;j khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; Kiwahf
Kj;jpiuaplg;gl;bUe;jJ;
7. xU khw;W Kiwahtzq;fis itj;jpUg;gtu;> cupa Nghf;fpy;
itj;jpUg;gtu; Mtu;. Mdhy; me;j cupikahsu; mjd;
rl;lg;G+u;tkhd cupikahsuplkpUe;Njh my;yJ mjd; rl;lG+u;tkhd
fhtypy; cs;s ve;jnthU eguplkpUe;Jk; fUtpia ngw;Ws;shu;
vd;gij ep&gpf;Fk;NghJ> xU Fw;wk;> Nkhrb my;yJ rl;ltpNuhjkhf
fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> mj;jifa re;ju;gg ; j;jpy;> itj;jpUg;gtu; xU
cupa Nghf;fpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ep&gpf;f Ntz;Lk;;
8.
me;j Mtzq;fs; mtkjpg;gjhf ,Ue;jJ> Vkhw;wg;gl;l
Mtzq;fspd; kPJ tof;F gjpT nra;ag;gLfpwJ> mJ ePjpkd;wj;jpy;
jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl;L> ‘vjpu;g;G’ vd;gJ ep&gzkhfpAs;sJ;
NkNy $wg;gl;l Kd;fUj;Jf;fs; gpujpthjpfshy; kWf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

7.2.2 thf;FWjpr; rPl;L


xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L vd;gJ> ‘xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifiar; (tq;fpf; Fwpg;G
my;yJ ehzaf; Fwpg;G my;y) nrYj;jNth my;yJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l
egUf;F my;yJ Mtzq;fspd; Ntiyahs; kPJ kl;LNk gzk; nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk; vd;w epge;jidAld;> jahupg;ghsuhy; ifnahg;gkplg;gl;l
epge;jidaw;w xg;ge;jk; nfhz;l xU MtzkhFk;’.
rl;lj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l tiuaiwapypUe;J> xU nry;Ygbahd
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L vd;w tifapy;> gpd;tUk; mj;jpahtrpa Njitfis
xU Mtzq;fs; epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;:
1. ,J vOj;J tbtpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L
vOj;Jf;fspy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU tha;%y thf;FWjp vd;gJ
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L MfhJ. VNjDk; jhs; my;yJ gh`p my;yJ
Gj;jfq;fspy; vOjg;glyhk;. ,J v ­OJNfhy; my;yJ ikapy;
,Uf;Fk; kw;Wk; mr;rpLjy; my;yJ jl;lr;R MfpaitAk; mlq;Fk;.
ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l t­ btpyhd nrhw;fSk; mtrpakpy;iy> xU
fbjj;jpy; mlq;fpAs;s thf;FWjp $l NghJkhdJ> NkYk;
gpupT 4 ,d; gpw Njitfs; ,zq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. epr;rakhf>
gad;gLj;jg;gl;l nrhw;fs; xU njspthd thf;FWjpia mspf;f
Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> ‘cWjpnkhop’ vd;w thu;j;ijia (ghyKFe;j;
kw;Wk; Kd;dhyhy;) gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W mtrpakpy;iy.
2. xU thf;FWjpia nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ
Cjpak; ngw Ntz;Lk;: ,J xU thf;FWjp my;yJ gzk;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. gzk; nrYj;JtJ> ntspg;gLj;jf; $ba
rl;lk;;
nrhw;fSf;F my;yJ Njitahd cl;nghUs; %yk; xd;W
jpul;lg;glyhk;. fld;jd;ik gw;wp ntWk; xg;Gifr; rPl;lhf mJ xU
cld;ghl;Lf;F nry;Ygbahdjhf ,Ue;jhYk;> ,J Nghd;w
Fwpg;Gfs; tifapy; nry;Ygbahff;$Lk;.
vt;thwpUe;j NghjpDk;> ,e;j Mtzj;jpy; cs;s fld;jd;ik
Fwpj;j xg;Gifr; rPl;L> Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l
gzj; njhifapd;gb cs;sJ. ‘gzk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;’ vd;w
thu;j;ijfs; gad;gLj;jg;glhtpl;lhYk;> xU nry;Ygbahd
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L cs;sJ. Vnddpy;> ,e;j nrhw;nwhlu; ‘Njitapd;
mbg;gilapy; nrYj;jg;glNtz;baJ’ vd;gJ ‘xUKiw my;yJ
cldbahfr; nrYj;j Ntz;ba xU thf;FWjpia’ Fwpf;fpwJ.
3. gzk; nfhLf;Fk; cWjpnkhop epge;jidapd;wp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;:
tu;j;jf cyfpy; cWjp kpfTk; mtrpakhdJ. ,t;thW>
xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> epge;jidAld; $ba thf;FWjpia
mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. gzk; nfhLf;Fk; cWjpnkhop rpy
epr;rakw;w epfo;tpd; epfo;itr; rhu;e;J ,Uf;ff; $lhJ mjhtJ xU
epge;jid my;yJ xU epge;jidia G+u;j;jp nra;tJ MFk;.
xU Mtzj;jpy; epge;jidAld; $ba thf;FWjp ,Ue;jhy;> mJ
nry;Ygbahd thf;FWjpr; rPl;L my;y> epge;jid epfo;e;Jtpl;l
gpd;dUk; mJ nry;YgbahfhJ kw;Wk; Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l
epiy tuhJ. (`py; kw;Wk; `y;Nghu;l;).
Mdhy; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba xU thf;FWjp epge;jid my;y>
njhif nrYj;Jtjpy;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;jpy; my;yJ xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fg; gpwF my;yJ epfOk; epfo;tpd;NghJ
elf;Fk; epfo;Tfs; epr;rakw;wjhf ,Uf;fyhk; (gpupT 5> gj;jp 2).
vdNt> A Mtzq;fis Fwpg;gpLifapy;: C ,d; kuzj;jpw;Fg;
gpwF VO ehl;fSf;F B 500-ia nfhLg;gjhf xg;G nfhs;fpwhu;>
,e;j cWjpnkhop nry;YgbahFk; Vnddpy; ,J epge;jidahff;
fUjg;gltpy;iy> Vndd;why; mtuJ kuzj;jpd; rupahd Neuk;
epr;rakw;wjhf ,Ue;jhYk;> C ,wg;gJ epr;rak; MFk;.
4. cUthf;Fgtu; ifnahg;gkpl Ntz;Lk;: ,e;j thf;FWjpr; rPl;L>
jahupg;ghsupd; ‘ifnahg;gk;’ %yk; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
fl;lhakhdjhFk;. ‘ifnahg;gk;’ vd;gJ xU egupd; ngaiu my;yJ
xU Mtzj;ij mq;fPfupg;gjw;fhd Nehf;fj;Jld; jdJ ngaiu
my;yJ mtupd; mjpfhuj;ij gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd xU
milahsj;ij vOJtjhFk;. ifnahg;gk; Mtzj;jpd; ve;j
gFjpapy; Ntz;LkhdhYk; ,Uf;fyhk;> mJ fPNo ,Uf;f Ntz;ba
mtrpakpy;iy. vdpDk;> ifnaOj;jpLk; Nehf;fk; vy;yh
re;ju;g;gq;fspYk; ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,J vOJNfhy; my;yJ
ikapy; ,Uf;fyhk;. ngau;r;rpg;gbia cUthf;Fgtu; gbg;gwpT
,y;yhjtu; vd;why;> mtuJ fl;il tpuy; Fwp NghJkhdJ. Mdhy;
njhiyefy; gjpTfs;> mr;rpLtNjh my;yJ Jisg;gjhNyh
,izf;fg;gLjy; my;yJ NtW tbtj;jpy; kw;Wk; Kj;jpiu %yk;> me;j
130 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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jug;gpdu;fs; Fwpg;ghf mtu;fis elj;j xg;Gf;nfhs;shj tiu> 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
ifnaOj;jhf mq;fPfupf;fg;glhJ.
5. jahupg;ghsu; xU Fwpg;gpl;l eguhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: ahu;
me;j egNuh my;yJ jhNk gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhf my;yJ
jk;ik <LgLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk; egu;fs; vd;gij Mtzq;fs; Fwpg;Gfs;
cWjpg;gLj;jp nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. xU egupd; ngauhy;
milahsk; fhl;lg;gl;lhy;> mtu; xU jahupg;ghsuhfg;
nghWg;Ngw;fg;gLfpwhu;. Vnddpy;> xU
jahupg;ghsu; mtUila tpsf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J xU
Fwpg;gpl;l tpsf;fj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> mtUila
milahsj;ijg; gw;wp NghJkhd Fwpg;igg; gpd;gw;Wfpwhu;. ,uz;L
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l jahupg;ghsu;fs; ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpy;>
mtu;fs; $l;lhf my;yJ $l;L kw;Wk; ,ilepiyahfj; jq;fis
gpizj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. Mdhy; khw;W rl;l MNyhrfu;fs; rl;lj;jpy;
mDkjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy; Vnddpy; ‘nghWg;G vq;NfAk; ,y;iy
vd;gJ njsptw;wJ’ vd;W nghJ tpjp cs;sJ. ,t;thW>
tbtj;jpy; xU Fwpg;G ‘mNyhf; Fkhu; gzk; nrYj;Jtjhf
thf;FWjpaspj;J> MNyhf; Fkhu; ifnaOj;jpl;lhu; my;yJ rjP\;
re;jpuh vd;gtu; mNyhf; Fkhu;f;F vjpuhf xU ey;y Fwpg;ig
vLj;Js;shu; vd;gjhFk;.
6. gzk; ngWgtu; cWjpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;:
jahupg;ghsiug; NghyNt xU gpujpthjpapd; gzpahsUk;
Mtzq;fis i ­ fahStjpy; cWjpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU
Fwpg;G nry;YgbahFk; vdpy;> gzk; ngWgtupd; ngau; jtwhf
ngauplg;gl;lJ my;yJ mtuJ cj;jpNahfG+u;t gjtp kl;LNk
toq;fg;gLk; vd;why;> mtiu rhd;Wfs; %yk; mwpa KbAk;.
mJ ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l gzk; ngWgtu;fs;
$l;lhf my;yJ ,uz;bw;F khw;whf xd;Wf;F gzk; nrYj;Jjy;
my;yJ xd;W my;yJ rpyu; gzk; ngWgtu;fs; nrYj;jj;jf;f
tifapy; nra;ag;glyhk;. ,t;thW khw;W gzk; ngWgtu;fs;
rl;lj;jpy; mDkjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. Mdhy; mij Kjypy;
cj;juT nra;tjw;F gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpa upru;t;
tq;fpapd; rl;lk; 1934-d; gb> Kjypy; jhf;fy; nra;ag;gLk;
xU Fwpg;G> rl;ltpNuhjkhfTk; nry;Ygbaw;wjhfTk; cs;sJ.
NkYk;> Nghypahd egUf;F Mjuthd Fwpg;G rl;ltpNuhjkhdJk;>
nry;Ygbaw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. Vnddpy;> mJ NtiyahSf;F
nrYj;jj;jf;fgb elj;jg;gLfpwJ. jahupg;ghsUf;F
nrYj;j Ntz;ba gpujpgypg;G xU G+[;ak;> fhuzk; thf;FWjp
nfhLg;gtUk;> ngWgtUk; mNj egu; Mtu;.
7. nrYj;j Ntz;ba njhif cWjpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: xU
nry;Ygbahd thf;FWjp Fwpg;Gf;F> gzk; nrYj;Jtjhf
cWjpaspf;fg;gl;l gzj;jpd; $l;Lj; njhif epr;rakhfTk;>
cWjpahdjhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;.

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 131 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; nrYj;j Ntz;ba njhif $l;ly; my;yJ fopj;jy; jpwd;
rl;lk;;
nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ.
Mdhy;> gpupT 5> ghuh 3 d; gb> ,e;j njhif fhytiuaw;wJ
my;y> Vnddpy;:
Fwpg;Gfs;
(i) me;j njhifia tl;bAld; nrYj;Jk; tifapy;> tl;b
tpfpjk; toq;fg;gLk; vd;w thf;FWjp cs;sJ;
­
(ii) ,j;njhifia xU Fwpg;gpl;lg; gupkhw;w tPjj;jpy; my;yJ
guptu;j;jid gb nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;; my;yJ;
(iii) ,j;njhifia jtiz Kiwapy; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. xU
jtiz nrYj;Jtjpy; Kd;gpUg;G fhuzkhf> nrYj;jg;glhj
epYit nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;;
8.
gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba njhif ,e;jpahtpd; rl;lg;G+u;t
El;gj;jpd; gzj;jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: xU thf;FWjpiaf;
nfhz;l Mtzk;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhif ntspehl;Lg; gzj;ij
nrYj;JtJ my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l msT ruf;Ffis toq;FtJ
vd;gJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L my;y. ,NjNghy;> ney;Yf;F khwhf
toq;Ftjw;fhd xU thf;FWjp> my;yJ gzk; $Ljyhf ,Ug;gJ
vd;gJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L my;y. A %yk; ifnahg;gkplg;gl;l
xU Mtzk; $WtJ> B-f;F 500-ia nfhLg;gjhfTk; kw;Wk;
mLj;j [dtup 1 md;W jd; fUg;G Fjpiu toq;Ftjhf thf;FWjp
,Ue;jJ. ,J xU nry;Ygbahd thf;FWjp rPl;L my;y.
9. gpw Kiwikfs;: ,e;j njhif Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; nrYj;jg;gLtjw;F
Kd;Ng> me;j Njjpapy;> Njjp Fwpg;gplhky; ,Ue;jhy;> me;j Mtzj;ij
nry;YgbahftplhJ> epiwNtw;Wjy; Njjpia RahjPdkhf mwpa
KbAk; my;yJ ep&gpf;f KbAk;. ‘kjpg;G ngw;wJ’ vd;w nrhw;fs;
xU gpujp gbtj;jpd; xU ,d;wpaikahj gFjpahf ,y;iy. Vnddpy;>
gpupT 118-d; gb> ,J ep&gzkhFk; tiu guprPyid nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
Mdhy;> ,e;jpa Kj;jpiur; rl;lj;jpd; Njitf;Nfw;g xU thf;FWjpr;
rPlL; Kiwahf Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthU Kj;jpiuAk;
fl;lhak; uj;J nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk.; Kj;jpiu KOtJk; Njjp
jahupg;ghsupd; ifnahg;gk; Kj;jpiuia jpwk;glj;ij uj;Jnra;fpwJ.
Kj;jpiuaplg;glhj my;yJ NghJkhd Kj;jpiu gjpj;j thf;FWjpr;
rPlL; nry;yhJ vd;whYk;> NtW tpjkhf ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy; fld;
njhifia kPlf ; KbAk;.

7.2.3 guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;L


khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 5-y; cs;s guptu;j;jid
khw;wrPl;il gpd;tUkhW tiuaWf;fpwJ:
‘guptu;j;jid khw;wrPl;L vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F xU
Fwpg;gpl;l njhifia kl;Lk;> my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F my;yJ
me;j Mtzj;jpd; Ntiyahs; kPJ nrYj;Jk; nghUl;L> epWtdk;
ifnahg;gkpl;l xU epge;jidaw;w Miz mlq;fpa xU MtzkhFk;’.
132 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 132 5/20/2019 12:57:57 PM


gpd;tUk; ,uz;L cz;ikfs; ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
(i)
xU Fwpg;gpl;l egUf;F kl;LNk nrYj;j Ntz;ba xU
gupkhw;w kNrhjh nry;YgbahFk; vd;whYk;> mJ tiuaiwapd;
Njitfisg; G+u;j;jp nra;J> mjd; khw;wj;jf;f jd;ik Fiwthf
,Ug;gjhy; khw;W Mtzkhf ,Uf;f KbahJ. Fwpg;Gfs;
(ii)
xU gupkhw;w kNrhjh Kjypy; gzk; nrYj;jg;glyhk;
vd;whYk;> mj;jifa tof;fpy; Njitg;gl;lhy;(Njitg;gl;lhy;
%d;W khjq;fs; fopj;J) mJ nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NtW
thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> xU kNrhjh Njitia G+u;j;jp
nra;a KbahJ. Njitf;Nfw;g nrYj;j Ntz;ba fl;lhak;
,Ue;jhy;> mJ cj;juT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. (,e;jpa upru;t;
tq;fp rl;lj;jpd; 31 tJ gpupT).

gupkhw;w kNrhjhtpd; Njitfs;


gupkhw;wj;jpd; kNrhjhtpd; NjitahdJ> ,e;j khw;wpd NjitfSf;F
,zq;f Ntz;Lk;> ,J gpd;tUkhW:
1. vOj;Jf;fspy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. mJ nrYj;j Ntz;ba fl;lisahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. fzf;fpy;
gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lnkd;w Nfhupf;ifia mstpl KbahJ.
Mdhy; ,jid xOq;F fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ntspg;gLj;jg;glyhk;.
3. nrYj;j Ntz;ba fl;lhak; epge;jidaw;wjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
4. ,J vLg;gtu; %yk; ifnaOj;jplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
5. gzk; toq;Fgtu;> vLg;gtu; kw;Wk; nrYj;Jgtu; epr;rak;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rp fhuzkhf> ,uz;L my;yJ
mjw;F Nkw;gl;l tiuNtLfs; kPJ xU rl;ltiuit tiua
KbahJ. Vnddpy;> ngha; vd;gjpy; Fog;gkpy;iy. Mdhy; xU
kNrhjhtpw;F khw;whf ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l (gpupT
13) urPJ nrYj;jg;glyhk;.
6. njhif nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
7. kNrhjhtpy; gzj;ij kl;LNk nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.
8.
,J Njjp> fUj;jha;T> Kj;jpiufs; Kjypatw;iwg;
nghWj;jkl;by; Kiwg;gb ,zq;f Ntz;Lk;.
NkNy Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s xU kNrhjhtpd; mbg;gil mj;jpahtrpakhdJ>
xU cWjpnkhopiaf; fhl;bYk; mjpfkhfNth my;yJ FiwthfNth
,Uf;Fk;. cWjpnkhop Fwpg;GfSf;F nghUe;jf;$ba tpjpfs; nghJthf
gupkhw;w urPJfSf;F nghUe;Jk;. (,e;j mj;jpahtrpa tptuq;fisg;
ghu;f;f> cWjpnkhopf;fhd Fwpg;Gfisf; fhz;f.)

7.2.4 fhNrhiy
gpupT 6> khw;W Mtz (jpUj;j kw;Wk; ,ju Vw;ghLfs;) rl;lj;jhy;
khw;wg;gl;L 2002> gpd;tUkhW fhNrhiy tiuaWf;fpwJ:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ‘xU fhNrhiy xU Fwpg;gpl;l tq;fpahsu; kPJ tiuag;gl;l xU
rl;lk;;
gupkhw;w urPJ’ MFk;
Njitf;Nfw;g NtWtpjkhf nrYj;j Ntz;baJ mtrpak; kw;Wk;
kpd;dZ tbtj;jpy; kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk; xU fhNrhiyia cs;slf;fpaJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
tpsf;fk; I: gpuptpd; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhd> ntspg;ghL:
(a) ‘kpd;dZ tbtj;jpy; fhNrhiy’ vd;gJ xU fhfpj
fhNrhiyapd; Jy;ypakhd fz;zhbg; gpk;gj;ijf; nfhz;l
fhNrhiy vd;W nghUs;gLk;> NkYk; kpd;dZ gad;ghl;Lld;
Fiwe;j gl;r ghJfhg;ghd Kiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l> vOjg;gl;l
kw;Wk; ifnahg;gkplgl;l ghJfhg;G juepiyfis cWjpg;gLj;Jk;.
(b) ‘xU rpijf;Fk; fhNrhiy’ vd;gJ> jPu;Tf;fhf xU kpd;
cw;gj;jpapd; %yk; gzk; nrYj;Jfpwjh my;yJ
thq;fg;gLfpwjh vd;gij> xU Row;rpapd; NghJ jPu;g;gzpf;fg;gLk;
xU fhNrhiy vd;W nghUs;gLfpwJ. gpujpgypg;Gf;F cldbahf
gzk; nrYj;Jtjd; %yk; gzk; nrYj;Jjy; vOjg;gLfpwJ.
tpsf;fk; II: ,g;gpuptpd; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf> ‘fhNrhiyj; jPu;tfk;’
vd;w nrhw;nwhlu;> ,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fpapdhy; epu;tfpf;fg;gl;lJ
xU jPu;itf; nfhz;l fhNrhiyj; jPu;tfk; ,e;jpa tq;fpfs; %yk;
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l jPu;itf; Fwpf;fpwJ.
,t;thwhf> fhNrhiy vd;gJ ,U jdpj;Jtkhd mk;rq;fSld;
guptu;j;jid nra;Ak; xU rl;lfk; MFk;. mitfs;>
(i) ,J vg;NghJk; tq;fpahsuhy; vLf;fg;gl;l Ntz;Lk;.
(ii) ,J vg;NghJk; Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

fhNrhiyapd; khjpup

fhNrhiy kw;Wk; guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;bw;F ,ilNa cs;s


NtWghLfs;
nryhtzp khw;wr;rPl;bd; xU gFjpahfNt ,Uf;Fk; fhNrhiy> xU
Fwpg;gpl;l njhifiar; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w epge;jidapd; Ngupy;>
xU egu; my;yJ Ntiyahs; Kjyhdtw;wpd; Mizapd; ngaupy;>
gzk; vLg;gtu; ifnahg;gkpl;l xU kNrhjhtpd; midj;J mbg;gilf;
$Wfspy; midj;ijAk; G+u;j;jpnra;a Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; ,uz;bw;Fk;
rpy NtWghLfs; cs;sd. mitahtd:
134 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 134 5/20/2019 12:57:58 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
fhNrhiy guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;L rl;lk;;
fhNrhiy vg;NghJk; tq;fpahsuhy; xU tq;fpahsu; cl;gl NtW egUk;
vLf;fg;gl;l Ntz;Lk;. guptu;j;jid khw;wr;rPl;L vLf;fyhk;.
fhNrhiy Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpwF>
kl;LNk vLf;f KbAk;. Njitahd epiyapy; my;yJ Fwpg;Gfs;
fhyhtjpahFk; NghJ gupkhw;wf;
fl;lzj;ij nrYj;j KbAk;.
‘Nfhupf;ifapd; Ngupy; Ntiyahs; ‘Nfhupf;ifapd; Ngupy; NtiyahSf;Fr;
nrYj;j Ntz;ba fhNrhiy’ nrYj;j Ntz;ba guptu;j;jidapd;’
nry;YgbahFk;. vLg;Gfs;> Kw;wpYk; ntw;whdJ kw;Wk;
rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ
fhNrhiyfSf;F ve;j Kj;jpiuAk; guptu;j;jid khw;WrPl;by; rupahd
Njitg;glhJ. Kiwapy; Kj;jpiuaplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
fhNrhiyia nghWj;j tiuapy;> fhy khw;W rPl;bd; NghJ Kjpu;T
Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; nrYj;jg;gl Njjpia fzf;fpl;L> mjhtJ
Ntz;ba njhifiar; rupghu;f;fTk; fhyhtjpahd gpwF ngwg;gLk;
ehl;fspd; vz;zpf;if gz;Gfs; vLg;Gfshy; %d;W ehl;fs; gz;Gfs;
mDkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. mDkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
fhNrhiyapy; FWf;fhf Nfhbl;l guptu;j;jid khw;W rPl;by; FWf;fhf
KbAk;. Nfhbl;l KbahJ
fhNrhiyfspy; mwptpg;G kw;Wk; vjpu;g;G guptu;j;jid khw;W rPl;by; mwptpg;G
Nghd;w xU KiwAk; ,y;iy. kw;Wk; vjpu;g;G Nghd;w xU Kiw
,Uf;fpwJ.
fhNrhiyfs; vLg;Gfs; %yk; guptu;j;jid khw;WrPl;L rl;ltiuit
nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ. vLg;Gfshy; nrYj;j KbahJ.
gioa gzk; nrYj;Jtjpy; jhkjk; guptu;jidapd; vLg;Gfs;
Vw;gl;lhy;> fhNrhiyapd; vLg;Gfis nghWg;gpypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
nghWg;gpypUe;J tpLtpf;fKbahJ.

7.2.5 tq;fp tiuT


tq; f p tiuNthiyahf xU tq; f p kw; n whU tq; f papYk; my; y J
mjd; nrhe; j f; fpisapYk; (nghJthf mjd; nrhe; j f; fpisapy;
vLg; G fis nra; t J) cj; j uT MFk; . xU Fwpg; g pl; l egUf; F
my; y J mtuJ cj; j uit itj; J xU Fwpg; g pl; l njhifia
nrYj; j Ntz; L k; vd; W mwpTWj; J fpwJ. ,J xU khw; w j; j f; f
fUtpahFk; > ,J xU fhNrhiy Nghd; w J> ,J gpd; t Uk;
NtWghLfSld; cs; s J:
(a)
kw;nwhU tq;fp my;yJ mjd; gpw fpisapy; cs;s xU
tq;fpapdhy; kl;LNk> fhNrhiyapy; cs;s xU jdpegupd; kPJ
vLg;Gfs; nra;a KbAk;.
(b) fhNrhiyia kpf vspjhf ,uj;J nra;a KbahJ.
(c) ,J Ntiyayhy; nrYj;j KbahJ.

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; 135

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; 7.2.6 khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fspd; Kjpu;r;rp
rl;lk;;
‘Kjpu;T’ vd;gjd; nghUs;> xU Mtzj;ij nrYj;Jtjw;F Kd;
KbtilAk; NjjpahFk;;. fhNrhiy Nghd;w Njitf;Fg; gzk; nrYj;j
Ntz;ba xU Mtzk;, mJ fhyhtjpahFk; NjjpFs; cldbahf
Fwpg;Gfs;
nrYj;jg;gl;lhy;, mjd; Kjpu;r;rp gw;wpa Nfs;tpf;F ,q;F ,lkpUf;fhJ.
gzk; mjd; jPu;g;gpd; NjjpapypUe;J xUKiw tpyfpAs;sJ. Kjpu;r;rpapd;
Nfs;tp> xU cWjpnkhopapd; Fwpg;G my;yJ xU gupkhw;w guptu;j;jid
tof;fpy; kl;LNk vOjg;gLfpwJ.
xt;nthU thf;FWjpr; rPl;Lk; guptu;j;jid khw;Wr; rPl;Lapy;
Fwpg;gpl;l ehspy; nrYj;jg;glyhk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhy fl;lj;jpy; mjd;
ghu;itf;Fg; gpwNfh> my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l xU fhyfl;lj;jpy;> epr;rakhd
xU epfo;T ele;J Kbe;j gpwNfh> nrYj;jg;glyhk;. my;yJ %d;whtJ
ehs; mjhtJ mJ Kjpu;tilAk; filrp ehspy; nrYj;jg;gl;l Ntz;Lk;.
(gpupT 22). %d;W ehl;fs; rYif fhyj;Jf;fhd fhy msT my;yJ
Fwpg;G vd;gJ> filrp ehspd; rYif mbg;gilapy; (my;yJ mjw;F
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;ba Njjp ,y;yhky;) Kjpu;r;rpailfpwJ. my;yJ
tPo;r;rpailfpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> [dtup 1y; ngwg;gl;l guptu;j;jid
khw;Wr; rpl;L> %d;W khjq;fSf;Fg; gpwF nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;bapUe;jhy;>
Vg;uy; 4k; Njjpapy; Kjpu;T epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;. mj;jifa xU
khw;Wr; rpl;L my;yJ Fwpg;G> rYifapy; ,Wjp ehspy; kl;LNk
nfhLg;gdtpw;F Kd;itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> Kjpu;r;rp mile;j gpd;du;
mLj;j ehNs tof;F jhf;fy; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. xU Fwpg;gpl;l Njjpapy;
‘xU NghJk;’ vd;w thu;j;ij Nru;f;fg;gl;lhYk; $l> %d;whk; ehs;
rYifapd; NghJ gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd ve;j xU nghUj;jKk;
nry;yhJ.
Kjpu;T fzf;fpLtjw;fhd tpjpKiwfs;: 23 Kjy; 25 tiuapyhd
gpupTfs;> xU fhy khw;Wr; rPl;bd; Kjpu;r;rpia fzf;fpLtjw;fhd
gpd;tUk; tpjpfisg; gpd;gw;WfpwJ:
1. xU khjj;jpw;F gpwF> my;yJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhy epfo;Tf;Fg;
gpwF Fwpg;gpl;l msT gzk; nrYj;jg;gl;lhy;> mJ khjq;fspd;
Fwpg;gpl;l NjjpapypUe;J %d;W khjq;fSf;Fg; gpwF> (my;yJ
nrYj;jg;gLk;) Kjpu;r;rpailfpwJ.
2. fhyk; KbtilAk; khjj;jpy; ve;jj; NjjpAk; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy
vd;why;> me;j khjj;jpd; filrp ehspy; epWj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
3. mJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l vz;zpf;ifapyhd ehl;fSf;F gpd;du; my;yJ
VNjDk; xU epfo;tpw;F gpd;du;> me;j fUtp> Vw;G fhl;rp epfo;T
epfOk; NghJ> me;j fUtpapd; %yk; vLg;Gfs; nra;ag;gLk;
ehisj; jtpu;j;J> Kjpu;T fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;Wf;F xU
ehs; kl;LNk xJf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
4. Kj;jpiuaplg;gl;l Njjp my;yJ Fwpg;G Kjpu;T milAk;
epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; Njjp> xU nghJ tpLKiwahf ,Ue;jhy;>
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mLj;j Ke;ija tzpf ehspy; Mtzf;fis fUj;jpy; nfhs;s 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
Ntz;Lk;. nghJ tpLKiw jpdkhf mwptpf;fg;gl Qhapw;Wf;
fpoikAk; kj;jpa murpd; mwptpg;G %yk; murpjopy; ntspte;j
NtW ve;j ehspYk; ‘nghJ tpLKiw’ MFk;. xU Mtzj;jpd;
Kjpu;r;rp QhapW md;W Kbtile;jhy;> mjw;F rdpf;fpoikia Fwpg;Gfs;
nfL Njjpahf fUjg;gLfpwJ. xU mtrufhy tpLKiw ehspy;
Kjpu;T Kbtile;jhy;> mLj;j mLj;jLj;j tzpf ehs; me;j
Mtzj;jpd; nfL Njjpahf fUjg;gLfpwJ.
5. xU Mtzk; jtiz Kiwapy; nrYj;jg;gl;lhy;> xt;nthU
jtizf;Fk; (gpupT 67) %d;W ehl;fs; rYif mDkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

7.2.7 cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy;


xU khwj;jf;f Mtzj;jpd; fPo; gzk; nrYj;Jjy; vd;gJ> vjpuhd
Mtzj;jpd; ‘cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy;’ vd;w njhifiag;
ngWtjhy; mit nry;YgbahFk; ntspNaw;wkhf nray;gLfpwJ.
10 tJ gpuptpd; gb xU njhif nrYj;Jk; tifapy; khw;wf;$ba
Mtzk; mjhtJ ‘cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy;’> gpd;tUk;
epge;jidfis epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;:
1. gzk; nrYj;Jjy;> Mtzk; ntspg;gilahd
nghUj;Jgb ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;: ,tw;iw Kjpu;r;rp miltjw;F
Kd; my;yJ mjw;F gpd; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. xU Mtzk;
Kjpu;r;rp milAk; Kd; gzk; nrYj;Jjy; vd;gJ cupa
fhyj;jpy; nrYj;jg;gLtjhf fUjg;glkhl;lhJ. vdNt> xU
guptu;j;jid khw;Wr; rPl;L ,Wjp ehSf;F Kd;Ng nrYj;jg;gl;L>
ntspg;gilahf ifnahg;gkplg;gl;lhy;> mJ Kiwahd fhyj;jpy; xU
cupikahsupd; iffspy; ,Ue;Nj nry;YgbahFk;. NkYk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sgtu; Mtzj;ij kPz;Lk; nrYj;Jtjpy;
nghWg;ghf ,Ug;ghu;. mNj Nghy;> tq;fpahsu; mjpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s
Njjpf;F Kd;ghf Njjpapl;l fhNrhiyia nrYj;jpdhy;>
mtu; Mtzj;jpd; ntspg;gilahd nghUj;JeiuAk;> mjhtJ
vLg;Gfspd; cz;ikahd Nehf;fq;fSf;F vjpuhfTk;
nray;gLfpwhu;> vdNt gzk; nrYj;Jk; NghJ fl;lzj;ijg;
gl;Lthlh nra;a KbahJ.
2. ey;y ek;gpf;ifapd; ngaupYk;> ftdf;FiwT ,y;yhkYk;
gzk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;: gzk; nrYj;Jk; egu; mjw;F
rl;lG+u;tkhf cupik nfhz;ltu; vd;w ek;gpf;ifapy; mtw;iw
Neu;ikahd Kiwapy; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. gzk; nrYj;Jtjpy;
ve;j ftdf;FiwTk; nrYj;JgtUf;Fk; ngw;Wnfhs;NthUf;Fk;
,Uf;f $lhJ. re;Njfj;jpw;fplkhd R+o;epiyfs; kw;Wk;
nrYj;Jgtu;fs; Njitg;gl;l tprhuizia nra;aj; jtwptpl;lhy;>
FiwghLfis ntspg;gLj;jf;$ba gzk; nrYj;Jjy; nra;a
$lhJ. vdNt> xU rpwg;ghd xg;Gjy; ngwg;gl;l khw;Wr; rPlL;
guptu;jj; id nra;ag;glhkNyNa gzk; nrYj;jg;gl;lhy; Nghyp
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 137

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 137 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ifnahg;gj;jpid xU fhNrhiy nfhLg;gtu; nrYj;Jgtupd;
rl;lk;;
myl;rpaj;ij ­mstpLthu;> NkYk; fl;lzk; nrYj;jg;gl khl;lhJ.
,t;thW rpwg;ghd xg;Gjy; mspj;j guptu;jj
; id khw;Wr; rPlb
; y;>
gzk; ngWgtiu tprhupf;fhky; Nghyp ifnahg;gj;Jld; fhNrhiy
Fwpg;Gfs; nfhLj;jhNyh my;yJ me;j fhNrhiyia ngw;W mDg;Ggtu; mij
nrYj;jpdhNyh> mJ gzk; nrYj;Jgtupd; ftdf;FiwthFk;>
fl;lzr;nryTf;F cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; mspf;fg;gLk;.
3. Mtzq;fis itj;jpUf;Fk; xU egUf;F mtrpakhd
R+o;epiyapy; gzk; nrYj;JtJ re;Njfj;ij Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.
,jdhy; ­mtUila Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gtuplk; ,Ue;J mjpy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;l njhifiag; ngWfpwhu;.
gzk; nrYj;Jjypy; cupa fhyj;jpw;fhd nfL Njjpia
toq;f KbahJ. vdNt Mtzj;jpd; jahupg;G Njitg;glhky;
cUthf;fg;gl;lhy;> gzk; nrYj;jg;gLtjw;F Kd; me;j
Mtzj;ij ghu;f;f Ntz;Lk;> gzk; nrYj;Jtjpy; cs;s
Mtzj;ij ngw Ntz;Lk;.
4. gzk; NtW ve;j rhjdj;jpd; %yNkh fhNrhiy my;yJ
­tiuNthiyapd; %yNkh Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F xg;Gf; nfhs;shtpl;lhy;
mit gzkhfNt nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
$l;Lj;njhif cupa fhyj;jpy; gzk; nrYj;JtJ Fiwe;J
,Ug;gij Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ. (i) ,e;j Mtzj;jpd; Njhw;w epi-
yapd; gb my;yJ Kjpu;r;rp mile;j gpwF (ii) myl;rpak; ,y;yhj
ey;y ek;gpf;ifapd; ngaupy; (iii) gzj;jpd; %yk; (my;yJ
itj;jpUg;gtUf;F Vw;Gilajhf ,Ue;jhy; fhNrhiy %yk;) (iv)
xU egUf;F Mtzj;jpd; kPJ rl;lG+u;tkhd ­ cupikAk; cz;L
mNjrkak; cilikAk; ,Uf;fpwJ.

7.2.8 tl;b nrYj;Jjy;


tl;b nrYj;Jjy; njhlu;ghd gpd;tUk; tpjpKiwfis> khwj;jf;f
Mtzk; rl;lk; gpd;tUkhW tFf;fpwJ:
1. tpfpjk; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; NghJ: xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpfpjj;jpy; tl;b vd;gJ
xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L gupkhw;wr; rl;ltiutpy; ntspg;gilahf
nrYj;jg;gLk;NghJ> Fwpg;gpl;l tPjj;jpy; tl;b fzf;fplg;gLk;>
mjhtJ> me;j Mtzj;jpd; NjjpapypUe;J> mjhtJ> xg;ge;j
Gs;sp my;yJ cz;ikahf ,J Nghd;w njhifia> ePjpkd;wk;
topfhl;bAs;s Kiwapy; ,j;jifa njhifia kPl;nlLf;fpwJ.
(gpupT 79).
2. tpfpjk; Fwpg;gplg;glhj NghJ: me;j Mtzj;jpd; tl;b
tpfpjk; vJTk; Fwpg;gplg;glhj NghJk;> mjd; Fwpg;gpy;
­
tl;bapLk;NghJk;> NkYk; mjpy; cs;s njhif kPjhd tl;bia>
xU jug;gpdUf;fpilNaahd tl;b njhlu;ghd Ngr;Rthu;j;ijapd;
kPJk; xg;ge;jk; ,Ue;jhy;> mNj tPjj;jpy; xU tUlj;jpw;F 18
rjtPjk; vd;gJ> me;j njhifapd; xg;ge;j Gs;sp mstplg;gLk;
138 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 138 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


tiu> me;j njhifia> ePjpkd;wk; topfhl;bAs;s Kiwapy; 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
(gpupT 80) kPl;gjw;F Vw;w xU nghUj;jkhd epWtdk; Fwpg;gpl;l
me;j ehs; tiu> gzk; nrYj;jpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
3. xU jug;gpdupd; fl;lzk; mwtplg;glhtpl;lhy;> Vw;fhj fhNrhiy
Mtzj;jpd; cupikahsu; mJ epuhfupf;fg;gl;l mwptpg;G (gpupT Fwpg;Gfs;
80 f;F tpsf;fk;) te;j fhyj;jpypUe;J kl;LNk tl;b nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk;.

7.2.9 cupikahsu;
xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;jpd; ‘cupikahsu;’ vd;gjd; nghUs;
vd;ntd;why;> jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy; me;j Mtzj;ij itj;jpUe;jhNyh
my;yJ mjd; %yk; (gpupT 8) xU jug;gpduplkpUe;J fpilf;Fk;
njhifiag; ngw;whNyh me;j egu; mij kPl;f cupikAs;s egu; vd;W
nghUs;gLk;. ,t;thW ‘mtu; cupikahsu;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhu;.
,t;tifapy; gpd;tUk; ,uz;L epge;jidfis me;j egu; G+u;j;jpnra;a
Ntz;Lk;.
1.
mtu; jdJ nrhe;j ngaupNyNa Mtzj;jpd;
cilikf;F cupik ngw;wpUf;fNtz;Lk;: Mtzj;jpd; cz;ikahd
cilik mj;jpahtrpakhdJ my;y. rpy rl;lG+u;t my;yJ
nry;YgbahFk; jiyg;gpd; fPo; cilik ngw vd;d NjitgLfpwJ.
mtu; xU Nl [_up cupikahsuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; Nl ghf;Nlh
cupikahsuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mtrpak; ,y;iy. mjhtJ>
xU egUf;F Mtzj;jpy; ngauplg;gl;l Mtzk; Fwpg;gplg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,we;jtupd; thupRjhupd; kPJ rl;lk;
,aw;wgLtjd; %yk; NtW ve;j egUk; mjw;F
cupikahdtuhf ,Ug;gtu;. Mdhy; mtu; gzk; ngWgtiu Mjupj;J
nray;gLgtuhf ,Uf;fkhl;lhu;.
xU egu; xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij ngw;wpUe;jhy;> mjw;fhd
cupik mtuplk; ,y;iy vd;why;> mtiu cupikahsu;
vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. ,t;thwhf> xU jpUld; my;yJ
rhiyapy; ,Ue;J mij vLj;jtu; xU Nghyp Mtzj;jpd; fPo;
mij Mjupj;J nray;gLgtu; vd;whYk;> me;jf; Mtzj;jpd;
cilikiag; ngw;wpUf;fyhk;. Vnddpy;> mtu; rl;luPjpahd
jiyg;ig ngWtjpy;iy> vdNt mtu; jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy;
cupik ngw;wtuy;y. ,NjNghy;> xU rhjfkhd cupikahsu;
ahUila rhjfkhd Mtzj;ij cUthf;f my;yJ vLg;Gfs;
nra;ag;gl;lNjh xU kDjhuu; %yk; $Wfpwhu;. Vnddpy; mtu; jdJ
nrhe;j ngaupy; itj;jpUg;gjw;F cupik ,y;iy kw;Wk; Mtzj;jpy;
(Rgh ehuhazDf;F vjpuhf uhkrhkpf;F vjpuhf) xU
eltbf;ifiaj; jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;s KbahJ.
2.
mjd; %yk; fpilf;Fk; njhifiag; ngwNth my;yJ
mjpypUe;J kPz;Lk; ngw mtu; cupikAilatuhfNth ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. xU cupikahsu;> jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy; me;j;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 139

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; Mtzj;jpd; cilikiaf; nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk; vd;gij
rl;lk;;
Fwpf;Fk;. me;j egu; me;j Mtz njhifia ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;
cupikiaAk;> gzk; nrYj;JgtUf;F xU nry;Ygbahd
ntspNaw;wj;ijAk; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW xUtu; xU
Fwpg;Gfs; Mtzj;ij ngWgtu; my;yJ gzk; ngWgtu; my;yJ xU
rhjidahsuhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> me;j Mtzj;jpd; kPjhd
njhifiag; ngWtjpy; xU ePjpkd;w cj;juT %yk; jil
nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhy; mtu; cupikahsuhf ,Uf;fyhk;.
vdNt> NkNy $wg;gl;l epge;jidfs; xUtuhy; jpUg;jp
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; me;j egiu cupikahsu; vd KbT nra;ayhk;.
cjhuzkhf> cj;juthjj;jpw;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba xU Mtzk;> jdJ
KftUf;F gzk; nrYj;Jgtuhy; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;> Kftu; mjd;
cupikahsuhf khWtjpy;iy> ,Ug;gpDk; mtu; gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F
mDkjpf;fg;glkhl;lhu;> Mdhy;> jdJ nrhe;jg; ngaupy; me;jf;
Mtzj;ij ngw mtUf;F cupikapy;iy.
xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gtu;> ,e;j Mtzq;fspy;
ngupJk; Kf;fpakhdnjhU jug;ghf cs;shu;. xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij
(rpy tpjptpyf;Ffis nfhz;L) gw;wp mtu; kl;LNk nrhy;y KbAk;>
mjw;F xU nry;Ygbahd ntspNaw;wj;ijAk; nfhLf;f KbAk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. ‘khw;wf;$ba Mtzk;’ vd;why; vd;d?
2. ,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fp rl;lj;jpy; cs;s khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;jpd;
tpjpKiwfis gl;baypLf.
3. khw;wj;jf;f Mtzq;fspd; rpy cjhuzq;fisg; gl;baypLf.
4. gupkhw;w rPl;bd; rpy rpwg;ghd gyd;fis gl;baypLf.
5. cWjpaw;w Mtzk; vd;why; vd;d?
6. %d;whk; jug;G vd;why; vd;d?

7.3 khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij rku;g;gpj;jy;


ntspg;gLj;Jjy;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij
itg;gJ my;yJ rku;g;gpg;gJ> Vw;gtupd; Kd; cs;s ghu;it my;yJ
fl;lzk;> jahupg;ghsu;> ngWgtu; my;yJ gpw jug;gpd; rhu;gpy;
my;yJ rhu;ghf nghWg;Ngw;Fk; cupikahsu; ‘Kd;itg;ghsu;’ vd;W
miof;fg;gLfpwhu;. ,t;thwhf gpd;tUk; %d;W Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf
ve;jnthU epfo;itAk; toq;fyhk;:
1. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tpsf;fq;fs;.
2. ghu;itf;F toq;fy;.
3. fl;lzk; nrYj;Jjy;.

140 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 140 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tpsf;fq;fs; 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
gupkhw;w rPl;Lfspd; Kiwapy; kl;LNk ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; tpsf;fq;fs;’
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> xg;GjYf;fhf Kd;itf;fg;gl Ntz;ba
ve;jnthU urPJfSk; ,jpy; ,y;iy. gupkhw;w rPl;Lfspd; ‘Njitf;Nfw;g
Fwpg;Gfs;
nrYj;j Ntz;ba guptu;j;jid’ my;yJ ‘Njjpapd; gpe;ija fhyfl;lk;
fhyhtjpahFk; epiy’ ($wpagb %d;W khjq;fSf;F gpwF gzk;
nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;)> my;yJ ‘epfo;e;j rpy epfo;Tfs; eilngWk;
Njjpapy; nrYj;jg;glyhk;’ ($wpagb X ,d; kuzj;jpd; NghNj)
Mdhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy> ,y;iyNay;
gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F mJ fhuzkhfpwJ. vt;thwpUg;gpDk;> gpd;tUk;
urPJfs;;> jug;gpdUf;F nghWg;gspf;Fk; nghUl;L Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl
Ntz;Lk;:
(a)
,e;j urPJ Kbtiltij rupnra;a> ngWgtupd; ghu;it my;yJ
Vw;G vd;w tiuTf;F mj;jifa urPJ Kd;itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;
(gpupT 61).
(b)
gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F Kd; Vw;nfdNt Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;W ntspg;gilahd epge;jid cs;s xU urPJ cs;sJ.
tpsf;ff;fhl;rp tpUg;gj;njupthd ,lj;jpy; $l> me;j urPjpd;;
(i) rPl;L Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtupd; ngaupyhd $Ljy; ghJfhg;G my;yJ
(ii) ,Og;ghsUf;F vjpuhf cldb cupik toq;fy; kw;Wk;
xg;Gjy;fs; VNjDk; ,Ue;jhy;> rl;ltiuT Vw;Wf;nfhs;shjjhy;
mtkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;fsplkpUe;J ngwg;gLk; ghu;itAk;
$l tpUk;gj;jf;fjhf ,Uf;fpwJ> Vnddpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s kWj;jhy;>
jhkjkpd;wp mtupd; tpisTfis mtuhy; ngwKbahJ vd;gjw;fhd
Muk;g mwptpg;igg; ngwyhk;.

i. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
urPJ ngWgtu;> urPJ nfhLg;gtupd; xg;GjYf;F mtuJ vOj;J%yk;
jdJ xg;Gjiyf; Fwpf;Fk; NghJ> me;jr; rl;lj;ij ‘Vw;Wf;’
nfhz;Nlh my;yJ ,y;yhkNyh ifnahg;gkpLtjd; %yk; ifnahg;gk;
toq;FtijNah> my;yJ cupikahsUf;F xg;Gjy; mspj;jijNah
cupikahsu; Vw;Wf;nfhz;ljhf ,e;j urPJ $WfpwJ. jdJ xg;Gjiy
toq;Fk; tiu> xU urPjpd; kPJ me;j ngWgtu; nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhu;.
mjd; %yk; mJ Vw;ghdjhf khWfpwJ. mDg;Gdu; ifnaOj;jpLtjw;F
Kd; my;yJ mDg;Gdupd; kuzk; gw;wpa mwptpg;G te;j gpd; xU urPJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;.

ii. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tiffs;

urPij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ (i) nghJthd Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; my;yJ (ii)


jFjpahd Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;.
i)
nghJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;: xU epge;jid my;yJ jFjp ,y;yhky;>
urPjpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s njhifiag; ngw nfhLg;gtupd;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 141

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 141 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; Mizia ngWgtu; Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
rl;lk;;
nghJthdjh> KOikahdjh my;yJ jFjpaw;wjh vd;W
$wg;gLfpwJ. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; fl;lzk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;ba
tq;fpiaf; Fwpg;gplyhk;> ,J xU epge;jidfhdJ ,y;iy. xU
Fwpg;Gfs; tpjp> nry;YgbahFk; nghUl;L> xU xg;Gjy; ‘nghJthdjhf’
my;yJ epge;jidaw;wjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
ii)
jFjpahd Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy; (gpupT 86): ,e;j urPij nfhLg;gtu;
rpy epge;jid my;yJ jFjpf;Nfw;g Vw;Fk; NghJ> mjd; %yk;
urPjpy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk; tpjpKiwfs; khWgLk;> ,J jFjpahd
Vw;G vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> urPjpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sij
tpl Fiwthd njhifia Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ> my;yJ urPjpy;
Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sij tplf; Fiwthd fhy epfo;tpd; Vw;ghL my;yJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,lk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lk; kw;Wk; NtW
,lj;jpw;F kl;Lk; my;y vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ my;yJ urPjpy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s ,lj;jpypUe;J NtWgl;l ,lj;jpw;F nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ xU jFjpahd Vw;G MFk;. ,uz;L my;yJ
mjw;F Nkw;gl;l ngWtu;fspd; kPJ ,e;j urPJ tiuag;gLk;NghJ>
gq;Fjhuu;fs; vd;W ,y;yhky;> xd;W my;yJ rpyu; kl;LNk
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ> mJ xU jFjpngw;w Vw;G MFk;.
$l;lhspfis nghWj;jtiuapy;> $l;lhspfspdhy;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; vd;gJ xU nghJthd Vw;G MFk;.
xU jFjpngw;w Vw;G Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glh tpl;lhy;>
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glhj rl;l urPij Vw;Wf; nfhs;s cupikahsu;
kWj;Jtplyhk;. cupikahsu; jdJ tpUg;gj;ijg; nghWj;J> jFjpngw;w
xg;Gjiy Vw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. ,JNghd;w jFjpngw;w xg;Gjiy>
Ke;ija jug;Gfspd; xg;Gjy; ,y;yhky; mtu; Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy;>
mjd; gpw;gFjp mtu;fspd; nghWg;gpypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
jFjpngw;w Vw;G> ,e;j urPij nry;Ygbahfhj khw;wj;jf;f Mtzkhf
khw;wpaikf;fpwJ> mjd;gpd;du; ,e;j urPJ fld; Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtupd;
xU rhjhuz xg;ge;jkhf fUjg;gLk;.

ii. ahuhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ?


,e;j rPl;by; xU ‘cupikahsu;’ my;yJ mtupd; Kftu; kl;LNk>
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf; $ba xU urPij Kd;itf;f KbAk;. ,jd; nghUs;
vd;dntd;why;> urPij Vw;Fk; Kd; khw;wKiw elj;jg;gl;lhy;> my;yJ
mtupd; Kftu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tiuT urPij Kd;itf;ff;$Lk;
vd;gjhFk;.

iii. ahUf;F toq;FtJ?


gpd;tUtdtw;wpy; VjhtJ xd;iw Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F xU urPJ
toq;fg;glyhk;:
1. ngWgtu; my;yJ mtuhy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Kftupd; urPJ. (gpupT
61 kw;Wk; 27).
142 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 142 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


2. mq;Nf gy ngWgtu;fs; cs;sdu;. Mdhy; rpyu;> 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
kw;wtu;fsplk; ,Ue;J mjpfhuk; ngw;why;> $l;lhz;ik epWtdj;jpd;
nray;Kiwapy;> mj;jifa xU mjpfhupNah my;yJ xU
gq;Fjhuupd; xU egUf;F kl;LNk NghJkhdJ. gq;Fjhuu;fshf
,y;yhj gy ngWgtu;fs; %yk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l xU urPJ> Fwpg;Gfs;
mij Vw;fhjtu;fs; kw;Wk; mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj kw;wtu;fs;
kl;LNk> Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf; $ba xU jFjp ngw;w Vw;G (gpupT 34)
MFk;.
3. ngWgtu; ,we;Jtpl;l tof;fpy; rl;lG+u;t gpujpepjp (gpupT 75). Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;> rl;lg;G+u;t gpujpepjp mj;jifa xg;GjYf;F
jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; nghWg;ghthu;. (gpupT 29).
4. ngWgtu; flid nfhLf;f Kbahj gl;rj;jpy; fld; nrhj;J
epu;thfp mYtyu; nfhLg;gu; (gpupT 75).
5. Njit Vw;gl;lhy;> mjhtJ> me;j urPjpd; ngaiu> mjhtJ mry;
ngWgtu; %yk; mJ mtkjpf;fg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy;> me;j urPJ
ahUf;F toq;fg;gLk; vd;W rPl;by; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ (gpupT 33
kw;Wk; 115).
6. kupahijf;fhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;thu;. rpy R+o;epiyfspy;> rl;ltiutpy;
cs;s xU Gjpatu; ve;jnthU jug;gpd; ngWgtu; my;yJ
xg;GjYf;fhd kupahijiaAk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. ,J
‘kupahijf;fhd Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;’ my;yJ ‘vjpu;j;Jk; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;Sjy;’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
gpupT 108 ,t;thW $WfpwJ: ‘gupkhw;wj;jpw;fhd xU urPJ
ftdpf;fg;gLk;NghJ my;yJ Vw;fg;glhj my;yJ rpwe;j
ghJfhg;gpw;F vjpu;g;Gj; njuptpf;Fk; NghJ> xU egu; Vw;fdNt
nghWg;Ngw;fhj xU jug;gpduhf ,Uf;Fk; ve;j egUk;> ,e;j
urPjpd; xg;GjNyhL> ,e;j urPjpy; vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk;’. vdNt>
kupahijf;fhf rupahd Vw;ghf mJ nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;;
(i) urPJ Fwpg;gpl;lgpd; my;yJ vjpu;g;G njuptpj;jgpd;;
(ii) urPjpw;F Gjpatu; %yk; (iii) urPJ Fwpj;J vOj;J %yk;;
(iv) cupikahsupd; mDkjpAld;.
Neu;ikf;fhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ltu;> urPij vOJtjd; %yk;>
jho;j;jg;gl;ltupd; Neu;ikahf mtu; ngaiuf; Fwpg;gpLk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l
xg;GjYf;fhf my;yJ nghJthf nfsutj;jpw;fhf (gpupT 109)
vjpu;g;gjhf xg;Gf;nfhs;fpwhu;.
Neu;ikahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; cupikfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfs;:
Vw;gJ Fwpj;J nfsutpf;Fk; nghWg;G Vw;gtu;> fl;rpapd; nfsutj;ij
Vw;Fk; mNj epiyg;ghl;ilj;jhd; vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhu;. mtUila
cupikfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfs;> mtupd; nghWg;G epge;jidf;F cs;s
xNu tpj;jpahrj;jpy; jhd; xNu khjpupahditahFk;.
(i)
,e;j urPJ mry; ngWgtUf;F kPz;Lk; toq;fg;gl;L> mjd;
Kjpu;r;rpapy; gzk; nrYj;jp> mtuhy; mtkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ> kw;Wk;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 143

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; (ii)
mj;jifa mtkjpg;gpw;Fupajy;yhjgb fz;lwpjy; kw;Wk;
rl;lk;;
Mu;g;ghl;lk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.
kupahijf;fhf Vw;gtu; Nkw;gb epge;jidfis epiwNtw;whky;
mry; ngWjiy $l mtu; nrYj;Jtjpy;iy. (gpupT 111 kw;Wk; 112)
Fwpg;Gfs;
Neu;ikf;fhd fl;lzk;: Neu;ikf;fhf nry;YgbahFk;
nrYj;Jjypd; mtrpaq;fs;:
(a)
,e;j urPJ ftdj;jpy; nfhz;L tuhj fl;lzj;jpw;F vjpu;g;G
njuptpj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(b)
nfsut nfhLg;gdTf;fhd Vw;Gupikia xU rhd;W
cWjp mYtyUf;F Kd; mwptpf;f Ntz;Lk; ahUila
Neu;ikahf mtu; gzk; nrYj;JfpwhNuh me;jf; gq;Fjhuu;
nghJkf;fsplkpUe;J ,uj;J nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. (gpupT 113)
Neu;ikf;fhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ltu;> urPJ nry;YgbahFk;
gzk; nrYj;Jtjpy;> mj;jifa gq;Fjhu; Kd;dhs; gq;Fjhu;fsplk;
,Ue;J ngw;Ws;s gzj;jpid kPl;f cupik cz;L> mjDld; tl;b
nrYj;Jfpd;w midj;J njhifAk;> mj;jifa gzk; nrYj;Jtjpy;
mj;jifa nrytpdq;fSk; rupahf toq;fg;gLk;. ,e;j gq;FjhuUf;F
mLj;J tUk; midj;Jf; gq;FjhuUf;Fk; ,e;j nfhLg;gdit toq;Fk;
nghWg;G tpLtpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. gpupT 114) ,e;j gpupT> gq;Fjhuu; toq;fpa
njhifia Neu;ikahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F mDkjpg;gjd; %yk;>
mj;jifa gq;Fjhuu; gzk; ngw;Wtpl;lhy;> ‘ve;jnthU egUk; kw;nwhU
flid nrYj;Jtjd; %yk; jd;idf; fldhspahf;f KbahJ’ vd;gJ
rl;l tpjp MFk;.

iv. fhy mtfhrk;


Vw;fNtz;ba Neuk; Fwpj;j tpjpKiwfs; gpd;tUkhW:
1. fl;rpfs; tu;j;jfu;fs; my;yJ tu;j;jf my;yhjtu;fsplkpUe;Njh>
tzpf kzpNeuj;jpw;Fs; Vw;ghL nra;ag;gLtjw;fhd Vw;ghL
nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; (gpupT. 61).
2. Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjw;Fupa Kd;itg;G> mjhtJ> xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpy; ,e;j urPJf;F gzk; mspf;fg;gl;lhy;> mjpy; gq;FjhUf;F
NeuKk; Fwpg;gplg;glNtz;bapUe;jhy;> mJ ngwg;gl;l gpwF
epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; toq;fg;gLk;.
3.
urPJapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;Fk; fhyk;> me;j fhyfl;lj;jpy;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

v. ,lk; toq;fy;
urPJapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;Fk; fhyk;> me;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; vd;W urPjpapy;
Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jhy;> mJ me;j ,lj;jpy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j
khjpup Neuj;jpy;> epahakhd NjlYf;F gpwF> jw;Nghija Njjpapy;
thq;f Kbatpy;iy vd;why;> me;j urPJ mtkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. (gpupT
144 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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61) urPjpapy; ve;j ,lKk; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy vdpy;> mJ tof;fkhd 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
,lj;jpypUe;Njh my;yJ mtuJ ,y;yj;jpypUe;Njh toq;fg;glyhk;.

v. rhd;W toq;fy;
Vw;W nfhs;tjw;fhd jpl;ltl;lkhd rhd;Wk;> mNj Nghy; ngWgtupd; Fwpg;Gfs;
kWg;igAk; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; ‘Vw;fhj tifapy;’
mtkjpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; ‘vd;W mwptpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;> ,e;j
urPJ> cz;ikapy; mtuJ Vw;Gf;F> my;yJ epahakhd NjLjYf;F
gpd;du; mij ngWgtuhy; fz;Lgpbf;f Kbatpy;iy vd;W rhl;rpfspd;
cjtpAld; nghJ kf;fs; Kd; ep&gpf;f Ntz;Lk;> kw;Wk; mj;jifa
Mjhuk; nghJkf;fshy; Kiwahfg; gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
xg;ge;jk; my;yJ gad;ghL %yk; mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l ,lj;jpy;>
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fbjj;jpd; %yk; jghy; mYtyfk; %yk; ngwg;gl;l
xU jw;fhy tptuk; NghJkhdJ (gpupT 61) MFk;.

vi. ngWgtUf;fhd tpopg;Gzu;T Neuk;


ifnahg;gk; Njitg;gl;lhy; mtuplk; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l xU guptu;j;jidapd;
gpujpnahd;W Njitg;gl;lhy;> mtu; mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;syhkh
vd;gijg; guprPypf;f nghJ tpLKiw jpdq;fisj; jtpu;j;J ehw;gj;jp
vl;L kzpNeuj;ij mDkjpf;f Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 63). ,jdhy;>
nghWg;ig vLj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;F Kd;du; ngWgtupd; Kd;tupirf;F
Neuk; Njitg;gl;lhy;> itj;jpUg;gtu; mtiu ehw;gj;jp vl;L kzpNeu
Neuj;jpw;F mDkjpf;f fl;lhakhf ,Uf;fpwhu;. itj;jpUg;gtu;> ehw;gj;jp
vl;L kzp Neuj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhf> nghJ tpLKiw jpdq;fis jtpu;j;J>
thjj;jpw;F mDkjpf;fpwhu; vd;why;> mj;jifa ePl;bg;Gf;F Kd;$l;b
mDkjpf;fg;glhj midj;J Ke;ija gq;FfisAk;> itj;jpUg;gtu;
Mtu; (gpupT.83). ngWgtu; urPij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shtpl;lhy;> ehw;gj;jp vl;L
kzpNeuj;Jf;Fs; me;j urPJ Vw;fg;glhJ.

vii. kd;dpf;fg;gLk;NghJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd tpsf;fq;fs;


gpd;tUk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; epfo;tpy; kd;dpg;G
Nfhug;gLtNjhL xg;Gjy; ngwhky; xg;Gjy; ngwhjjw;fhf urPJ vdf;
fUjg;gLfpwJ:
1. jFjpaw;w xg;ge;jk; nra;a ,ayhj NghJ my;yJ mtu; xU
fw;gidahd egu; (gpupT.91).
2. jw;nrayhf> xU epahakhd Njliyf; $l fhzKbahj NghJ
(gpupT 61).

viii. tpsf;fkw;wfhl;rpapd; tpisT


Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tpsf;ff;fhl;rp vd;gJ fl;lhaj;jpw;FupaJ> mjhtJ> xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; urPJ nrYj;jg;gLk;NghJ> kw;Wk; cupikahsu;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tiuTf;fhd midj;Jf; fl;rpfspYk;> mjhtJ>
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 145

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ,Og;ghd; kw;Wk; xg;GjYldhd VNjDk; xU ntspNaw;wk; mj;jifa
rl;lk;;
cupikahsUf;F mtu;fsJ nghWg;G MfpaitahFk; (gpupT 61).

2. ghu;itf;fhf itj;jy;
Fwpg;Gfs; ghu;itf;F toq;fy; vd;gJ> xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;ba xU cWjpnkhopg; gj;jpuj;jpy; kl;LNk mtrpakhfpwJ>
vdNt Fwpg;G Kjpu;r;rpia cWjpnra;ag;glyhk;. gpupT 62-d; gb> ‘xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs;> xU cWjpf; Fwpg;G> gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F
cupik cs;s egUf;F> epahakhd Neuj;jpy; xU tzpf Neuq;fspy;
mJ jahupf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,j;jifa Kd;dpay;ghf> ve;j gq;FjhuUk;
mj;jifa ,ay;Gepiyia cUthf;Fk; egUf;F ngWg;Ngw;fkhl;lhu;.’

3. fl;lzk; nrYj;Jjy;
cWjpnkhop Fwpg;G> guptu;j;jid kw;Wk; fhNrhiyfSf;Ff; fl;lzk;
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;ba NjjpfSf;Fs; fl;lzk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
mj;jifa epfo;tpd; ,ay;Gepiyapy;> jahupg;ghsu;> Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy;
my;yJ thq;Fgtu; jtpu> Mtzq;fis itj;jpUg;gtUf;F
nghWg;Ngw;fhJ. (gpupT 64 (1))
i. fldspg;gtUf;fhd rupahd ntspNaw;wj;ij toq;ff;$ba
eguhy;> mjhtJ> itj;jpUg;gtu; my;yJ mtuJ mq;ff P upf;fg;gl;l
Kftu; %yk;> my;yJ mtuJ ,wg;G my;yJ nehbg;nghOjpy;>
mtuJ rl;l gpujpepjp my;yJ mjpfhug;G+u;t MSeuhy;>
tof;fpy; ,Uf;fyhk;. gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fbjj;jpd; %yk; jghy;
epiyaj;jpd; %yk; xU xg;ge;jk; my;yJ tpahghug; gad;ghL
%yk; mq;ff P upf;fg;gLtNj NghJkhdJ MFk;. (gpupT 64(1)).
ii. thf;FWjpr; rPl;L toq;Fjy;> guptu;j;jid kw;Wk; fhNrhiyfs;
nrYj;Jjy; Mfpait> KiwNa (gpupT 64(1) mjd; jahupg;G
epWtdj;jtiuAk;> Vw;ghd; my;yJ tbtpaiyNah nra;ag;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,jid cUthf;Fgtu;> Vw;ghu; my;yJ ngWgtu; vd
mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Kftuplk; $l mspf;fyhk;> ,e;j tof;F>
my;yJ jahupg;ghsu;> Vw;gtu; my;yJ ngWgtu; ,we;Jtpl;l
epiyapy;> mtUila rl;lG+u;t gpujpepjpaplk; ,Uf;fyhk;
my;yJ> mtu; xU nehbg;G epiyau; vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;L>
cj;jpNahfG+u;t cupikkhw;wk; ngWgtu; (gpupT 75).
xU Jz;bf;fg;gl;l fhNrhiy xU kpd;dZ gzj;ij
nrYj;Jtjw;fhf toq;fg;gl;lhy;> tq;fpapy; ,Ue;J Jz;bf;f gl;l
fhNrhiyf;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l ve;jnthU jftiyAk; NfhUtjw;F> fUtpapd;
ntspg;gilahd jzpf;if gw;wpa epahakhd re;Njfj;jpw;Fk;> Nkhrb
kw;Wk; Nrjhuk; my;yJ Mtzk; mopg;G> kw;Wk; mJ kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l
fhNrhiyia toq;Ftij NkYk; NfhUtjw;F cupik cs;sjh
vd jd;id rupghu;gg ; jw;fhf kw;Wk; Jz;blg;gl;l fhNrhiy jf;f
itj;J nfhz;L> gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; (jpUj;jk; kw;Wk; gy;NtW

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Vw;ghLfs;) rl;lk;> 2002 (tpfpjq;fs; 6-2-2003) rl;lj;jpd; fPo; (gpupT 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
64-y; Eiof;fg;gl;l) xU gpuptpy; itj;J gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.

A. gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd Neuk;


rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd Neuk; Fwpj;j tpjpfs; gpd;tUkhW: Fwpg;Gfs;
1. tof;fkhf tzpf Neuq;fspy; gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd fl;lzk;
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tof;fkhf tq;fpf; fzf;fhdJ (gpupT 65)
tq;fpaplk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2.
Njitf;Nfw;w khw;W Mtzk; vd;gJ> xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyfl;lj;jpy; fhNrhiy nrYj;Jtjw;F jtiz KbTfis
nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; (gpupT 66). Ke;ija epfo;thdJ nray;jpwd;
kpf;fjhf ,y;iy> NkYk; xU ehs; jhkjk; Mdhy;> gq;Fjhuu;fs;
gpujhdkhf nghWg;Ngw;fNtz;Lk;.
3. Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; gzk; nrYj;jf;$ba MtzkhdJ>
ngwg;gl;l gpd;du; epahakhd Neuj;Jf;Fs; nfhLg;gdit toq;f
Ntz;Lk;> ,y;iynadpy;> mjd; mbg;gilapy; cs;s gq;Fjhuu;fs;
jq;fs; nghWg;gpypUe;J (gpupT 74 kw;Wk; 73) mtu; e\;lj;ij
fUjg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
4.
Njitapy; vg;nghOJk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;ba fhNrhiy>
ntspaPL nra;ag;gl;l gpwF epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; kl;Lk;
nrYj;jg;glNtz;bajy;y> NkYk; ngWgtu; kw;Wk; mtuJ
tq;fpahsu; ,ilNa cs;s njhlu;G ngWgtupd; ghugl;rj;jpw;F
khw;wg;gLtjw;F Kd;ghf> (mjhtJ tq;fp nraypoe;jJ)
gq;Fjhuu; Kjd;ikahf nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhu;> mjhtJ ntspaPL
nra;ag;gLk;> ,e;j jhkjj;jhy; Vw;gl;l ,og;gpd; fhuzkhf mtu;
mila Ntz;Lk; (72 kw;Wk; 84).
Kd;itf;fg;gLk; jhkjj;ij jtpu;ff ; yhk; (gpupT 75A). fl;Lg;ghl;bd;
mg;ghw;gl;l R+o;epiyfshy; Vw;gl;Ls;sjh my;yJ mtuJ ,ay;Gepiy>
jtwhd elj;ij my;yJ myl;rpak; Mfpatw;wpw;F nghUj;jkw;wjh
vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJ (Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; my;yJ gzk; nrYj;Jjy;)
jhkjkhFk;. ,jdhy;> mQ;ry; Ntiy epWj;jk; fhuzkhf> gzk; nrYj;Jk;
,lj;jpw;F fUtpia mDg;Gk; eilKiw rhj;jpakpy;yhky; Nghdjhy;
fhyjhkjk; Vw;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; jhkjk; nra;tjhy; nray;gl Kbahky;
Nghf fhuzkhfpwJ. ,J xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
epahakhd Neuk; (gpupT 105). Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; my;yJ gzk;
nrYj;Jjy; njhlu;ghd xU epahakhd Neuk; vd;d vd;gij jPu;khdpg;gjpy;
Mtzj;jpd; jd;ik kw;Wk; xNu khjpupahd Mtzq;fSld; ifahSk;
tof;fkhd Nghf;F Mfpait ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;; NkYk;> mj;jifa
Neuj;ij fzf;fpLtjpy;> nghJ tpLKiwfs; jtpu;f;fg;gLk;.

B. fl;lzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd ,lk;


,r;rl;lk;> gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhd ,lk; njhlu;ghd tpjpfis
gpd;tUkhW tFf;fpwJ:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 147

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 147 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; 1.
xU Mtzj;jpy; fl;lzk; nrYj;Jk; ,lj;jpd; Kftupia
rl;lk;;
Jy;ypakhf jahupg;ghsu; Rl;bf;fhl;bAs;shu;. ngWgtu; my;yJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sgtu;> gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;fhf me;j ,lj;jpw;F
toq;f Ntz;Lk; (gpupT. 68 kw;Wk; 69). ­cjhuzkhf> xU tq;fpahy;
Fwpg;Gfs; ‘tq;fpahsu;fsplkpUe;J gzk;’ Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;> me;j urPJ
Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l tq;fpapy; rku;gg ; pf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; egUf;F xU tpsf;ff;fhl;rp NghJkhdjhf ,Uf;fhJ.
,Ug;gpDk;> khw;wl
P L
; ,lq;fspd; ngau;fs; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jhy;>
Mtzq;fis ,U ,lq;fspYk; nrYj;jyhk;.
2. gzk; nrYj;Jk; ve;j ,lKk; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iynadpy;> Fwpg;G
my;yJ urPJ tzpfj;jpd; ,lj;jpy; (VjhtJ ,Ue;jhy;)> my;yJ
jahupg;ghsupd; ,lj;jpy;> tof;fkhf (gpupT 70) ,y; toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
3.
jahupg;ghsu;> nfhLg;gtu; my;yJ Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l
Mtzj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ltUf;F tpahghu my;yJ
epiyahd trpg;gpl ,lk; vJTkpy;iy> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; my;yJ
gzk; nrYj;Jjy; Nghd;wtw;wpw;F toq;fg;gLk; Mtzj;jpy; ve;j
,lKk; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy (gpupT 71).
Nkw;fz;l tpjpfSf;F cl;gl;L> Kd;Dupik mspg;gjpy;
xU Kd;dpUg;G ,Ue;jhy;> jahupg;ghsu;> Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; my;yJ
miytupiriaj; jtpu NtW ve;j Mtzj;ijAk;> itj;jpUg;gtuplkpUe;J
nghWg;Ngw;fhJ. thf;FWjpr; rPl;L (gpupT 68-69 cld; gbf;fTk;). VNjDk;
,Ug;gpd;> gzk; nrYj;Jjy; vd;w guptu;j;jidapy; cs;s urPJ
kw;Wk; xg;Gtpg;Gfs; Mfpatw;wpy; kl;LNk> fl;lzk; nrYj;jhjitahf
fUjg;gLk;.

fl;lzk; nrYj;j Njitapy;yhj NghJ (gpupT 76)


gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F ve;jnthU mtrpaKk; Njitapy;iy> gpd;tUk;
ve;jnthU tof;FfspYk;> me;j Mtzk; toq;fg;gl Ntz;ba Njjpapy;
mtkupahij nra;ag;glyhk;:
1. toq;fy; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw jLf;fg;gLk;NghJ: jahupg;ghsu;>
Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy; my;yJ nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;Nw
VjhtJ xU Mtzj;ij toq;Ftijj; jLf;fpwJ. v.fh.> xU
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L njhiye;J> jahupg;G epWtdk; xU efy;
nfhLf;f kWf;fpwJ.
2. tzpf ,lk; %lg;gl;lJ: Mtzk; tzpf ,lj;jpy;
nrYj;jg;gl;lhy;> mtu; tof;fkhd tzpf Neuq;fspy; xU
tpahghu jpdj;jpy; mj;jifa ,lj;ij %btpl Ntz;Lk;.
3. gzk; nrYj;Jgtu; nrYj;Jk; ,lj;jpy; tuhjJ: NtW
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy; Mtzk; nrYj;jg;gLk;NghJ>
tof;fkhd tzpf Neuq;fspy; nrYj;Jgtu; my;yJ fl;lzk;
nrYj;Jtjw;F mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l ve;j egUk; ve;j ,lj;jpYk;
fye;J nfhs;s khl;lhu;fs;.
148 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 148 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


4. gzk; nrYj;Jgtu; fhz Kbahj NghJ: ve;j Fwpg;gpl;l 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
,lj;jpYk; Mtzk; nrYj;jg;gltpy;iynadpy;> Njjpapidj;
Njl Kbahtpl;lhy; gzk; nrYj;j KbahJ.
5. toq;fy; js;Sgb: toq;fy; vd;w jiyg;gpy; egu;> mjhtJ> gzk;
nrYj;Jgtu; toq;fy; kw;Wk; thf;FWjpfis toq;Ftjpy;iy Fwpg;Gfs;
vd;whYk; $l js;Sgb nfhLf;fg;gl khl;lhJ. ,j;jifa js;Sgb
vd;gJ ntspg;gilahfNth my;yJ kiwKfkhfNth nra;ag;glyhk;.
Kd;$l;bNa Klf;fp itf;fg;glyhk;. ,J> ‘toq;fy; js;Sgb’
vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; thu;ji ; jfspy; ntspg;gilahf Nru;ff
; g;gLfpwJ.
‘toq;fy; js;Sgb’ vd;w me;j Mtzj;jpy; ntspg;gilahf
Nru;gg
; jd; %yk; xU ntspg;gilahf js;Sgb Kjpu;rr ; pailAk;
Kd; nra;ag;glyhk;. jahupg;ghsu;> Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sgtu;> nfhLg;gtu;
Mfpatw;wpd; elg;gpypUe;J xU kiwKfkhd js;Sgb tpyf;fg;gLk;.
Kjpu;rr; papd; gpd;du;> KO my;yJ gFjpfshy; nrYj;j Ntz;ba
njhifia nrYj;Jtjw;fhd Mtzk; my;yJ thf;FWjpfspd;
mbg;gilapy; gzk; nrYj;Jtjw;F mtu; xU gq;if nrYj;Jfpwhu;.
6. gzk; vLg;ghsUf;F Nrjk; Vw;glhJ: gzk; vLg;ghsu; gzk;
nrYj;jhky; ,Ue;jhy; ghjpg;G Vw;gLk; tha;g;G ,y;iy. v.fh.>
gzk; ngWgtu; vd;gJ xU Nghypahd egu; my;yJ xg;ge;jj;jpw;F
jFjpaw;wtu; my;yJ vLg;ghsu; kw;Wk; gzk; ngWgtu; xNu eguhf
,Uf;Fk; NghJ> me;j vLg;ghsu;> gzk; ngWgtu; kw;Wk; gzk;
itj;jpUg;gtu; MfpNahUf;F vjpuhf ,Uf;fyhk;. tpsf;ff;fhl;rp
,y;yhky; vLg;ghsiu nghWg;Ngw;f nra;aKbAk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


7. ‘Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; tpsf;fq;fs;’ Vd; mtrpak;?
8. ‘ghu;it toq;fy;’ vg;NghJ Njitg;gLfpwJ?

7.4 khw;wj;jf;f Mtzk; kw;Wk; nghUs;


jpUj;jpaikj;jy; Mfpatw;iw Neu;ikaw;W
ntspNaw;wy;.
xU Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l Mtzk; (i) Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj my;yJ
(ii) gzk; nrYj;jg;glhjjpd; %yk; mtkjpf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;fyhk;.
guptu;j;jid vd;w rl;l%yq;fs; kl;LNk Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;w epiyapy;> gupkhw;w urPJ kl;LNk Vw;fg;glh tpl;lhy; mJ
Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glhj xd;whf fUjg;gLk;. epr;rakhf ve;jnthU
Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l Mtzk;—cWjpnkhop Fwpg;G> gupkhw;wk;
my;yJ fhNrhiy urPJ my;yhj fl;lzk; %yk; mtkjpg;G ,Uf;fyhk;.

Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj tifapy; mtkjpf;fg;gl;lJ


xU guptu;j;jid urPJ fPo;f;fz;l tof;Ffspy; Vw;fg;glhj tifapy;
mtkjpf;fg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 149

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 149 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; 1. gzk; ngWgtu; my;yJ gy ngWgtu;fs; ($l;lhspfshf ,y;yhj)
rl;lk;;
NghJ> me;j urPJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F Kiwahd xg;Gjy; Njit.
mtu; Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhkh ,y;iyah vd;gijg; guprPypf;f 48
kzp Neu Neuk; (nghJ tpLKiw jpdq;fis kl;Lk; jtpu;j;J)
Fwpg;Gfs; Njitg;glyhk; vd;gij ,J epidT $WfpwJ (gpupT 63).
2. ,e;j xg;Gif Vw;fg;gLk; NghJ> urPJ Vw;fg;gLtjpy;iy> mjhtJ
Vw;fg;glhkNyNa cs;sJ.
3. ngWgtu; xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjpaw;w epiyapy; cs;sJ.
4. ngWgtu; Vw;Giuapy; ,lk; ngWfpwJ.
5. ngWgtu; xU Nghypahd eguhf ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ epahakhd
NjlYf;F gpwF fz;Lgpbf;f KbahJ (gpupT 61).
xU nryhtzp urPjpy; ngauplg;gl;Ls;s xU ‘ngWgtu;’ vd;w
ngaupy;> ,e;j urPJ> mj;jifa ngWgtu; (gpupT 115) mtkjpf;fg;gLk;
tiu mtkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;tJ Kf;fpakhFk;.

Neu;ikaw;w tifapy; gzk; nrYj;jhjJ


xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> guptu;j;jid my;yJ fhNrhiy Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;>
gzk; nrYj;jg;gLjy; %yk; mtkjpf;fg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
,e;jf; Fwpg;gpd; ngWgtu; my;yJ fhNrhiy ngWgtu;> fhNrhiy
Mfpatw;iw Vw;gtu;> nrYj;j Ntz;ba fl;lhaj;jpy; nrYj;jg;gLk;NghJ>
xU cWjpnkhop> gupkhw;wk; my;yJ fhNrhiy gw;whf;Fiwahy;
jpUg;gg;gl;ljhf $wg;gLfpwJ. (gpupT 92). NkYk;> xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L
my;yJ guptu;j;jid urPJ fl;lzk; nrYj;jg;glhky; mtkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
gzk; nrYj;Jjy; vd;gJ urPjpd; Fwpg;gpid my;yJ Vw;ghid
cUthf;Fgtu;fspdhy; ntspg;gilahf Vw;fg;gLfpwJ. Fwpg;G my;yJ
urPJ Kjpu;T (gpupT 76) my;yJ mjw;F gpd; nfhLf;fg;glhj epiyapy;
cs;sJ. mtkjpg;Gld; njhlu;Gila rpy mk;rq;fSk; cs;sd.

Fwpg;G tiujy;
‘Fwpg;G tiujy;’ vd;gJ> xU khw;wj;jf;f fUtpapd; cz;ikahd kw;Wk;
cj;jpNahfG+u;t ep&gzk; MFk;. xU fhNrhiy mtkjpg;G tof;fpy; vOk;
Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why;> mj;jifa re;ju;gg ; j;jpy;> tq;fp kWjypg;Gld;>
fhNrhiyfis kWguprPyid nra;a vOJk; fhuzq;fisf; Fwpg;gpLtjd;
%yk; jpUk;g nfhLf;fpwJ> NkYk; mJ jhdhfNt xU cz;ikahd
Mjhukhf nray;gLfpwJ. cs;ehl;L rl;l%yq;fs; my;yJ Fwpg;Gfspy;
$l> Rl;bf;fhl;lf; $ba fl;lhakpy;iy (gpupT 104).
gpupT 99 fUj;Jg;gb> xU thf;FWjpr; rPlL
; my;yJ guptu;jj
; id
urPJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glhj my;yJ fl;lzkw;w tifapy; mtkjpf;fg;gLk;
NghJ> me;jf; Mtzj;jpd; kPJ xU nghJ Mtzk;> my;yJ mjpy;
,izf;fg;gl;l xU jhspy; my;yJ xt;nthd;wpd; kPJ my;yJ xU
gFjpiag; gw;wp xU Fwpg;igf; Fwpg;gpLtu;. ,jw;fhf cupikahsu;
my;yJ Fwpg;ig vLf;Fk; Mtzk; nghJ kf;fSf;F Vw;Wf;nfhs;tNjh
150 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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my;yJ gzk; nrYj;Jtjhf Nfhup Vw;Wf;nfhs;gtu;> jahupg;ghsu; my;yJ 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
jahupg;ghsu; kPJ KiwaPL nra;tJ urPJ my;yJ Fwpg;gpy; mt;thwhd
Fwpg;Gfis nra;a kWg;gJ gw;wpaJ. ,t;thW ‘Fwpg;G tiujy;’ vd;gJ>
Neu;ikaw;w Mtzj;jpy; cs;s Neu;ikaw;w my;yJ Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
mjDld; ,ize;j xU Mtzj;jpy; gjpT nra;tjhFk;. mtkjpg;Gf;Fg;gpd; Fwpg;Gfs;
xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs; Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;Lk;: (i) Neu;ikaw;w Njjp;
(ii) mj;jifa mtkjpg;Gf;F epakpf;fg;gl;l fhuzk;; (iii) Mtz nryTfs;
MfpaitahFk;.

vjpu;g;G
‘vjpu;g;G’ vd;gJ mtuJ Nfhupf;ifapd; Ngupy; nghJ Mtzj;jhs;
toq;fg;gl;l mtkjpg;Gf;fhd xU rhjhuz rhd;wpjo; MFk; (Fwpg;ghff;
Fwpg;Ngl;by; cs;s xU gjpT kl;Lk; my;y) (gpupT 100).

7.4.1 Mtzk; kw;Wk; cupikahsupd; ntspNaw;wk;


Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l Mtzq;fspd; njhlu;gpy; ‘ntspNaw;wk;’ vd;w
thu;j;ij ,uz;L fUj;jhf;fq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ: (i) Mtzq;fis
ntspNaw;WtJ> kw;Wk; (ii) Mtzj;jpy; nghWg;Gfspy; ,Ue;J xd;W
my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l cupikahsu; ntspNaw;wk;.

(i) Mtz ntspNaw;wk;


xU khw;wf;$ba Mtzk;> Kw;wpYk; gadw;wjhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ>
mJ NkYk; Ngr;Rthu;j;ij elj;j KbahJ vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. xU
khw;wj;jf;f Mtzkhf midj;Jf; fl;rpfSf;Fk; vjpuhd cupikia
KbTf;F nfhz;LtUtjd; gpd;du; KbTf;F tUk;> ve;jf; xg;ge;jKk;>
cupa Nghf;fpy; xU cilikahsu; $l ve;jf; xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;Jk;
me;jf; Mtzj;jpd; njhifia cupik nfhz;lhl KbahJ.
Mtzj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntspNaWk; xg;ge;jj;jpy; gpujhdkhf
kw;Wk; ,Wjpapy; Mtzkhf nghWg;Ngw;ff; $ba xg;ge;jj;jpd; KbT
ntspaplg;gLk;.

(ii) xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l xg;ge;jk; ntspNaw;wk;


Mtzk; kPJ jdJ flik KbtilAk; NghJ xU xg;ge;jk; jdJ
nghWg;GldpypUe;J ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
xU Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l Mtzj;jpw;F rpy xg;ge;jk; kl;LNk
ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLk; NghJ> Mtz Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;lJ
kw;Wk; kWf;fg;glhj xg;ge;jq;fs; mjw;F nghWg;Ngw;fpd;wd. vdNt>
xU Mtzj;jpy; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fspd;
ntspNaw;wj;ij Mtzj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;w KbahJ kw;Wk;
mjw;fpilapyhd cupikfs; ,d;dKk; nghWg;Ngw;ff; $ba me;jf;
xg;ge;jq;fSf;F vjpuhf nray;gl KbAk;.
,t;thwhf> xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fis xU
,lj;jpypUe;J ntspNaw;wpaJ> me;j Kiwiag; gpd; njhlu;tjpy;iy>
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 151

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; NkYk; mjd; fPo; cs;s cupikfs;> njhlu;e;J nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;ba
rl;lk;;
gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F vjpuhf mky;gLj;jg;gl KbAk;.
,J xU khw;wj;jf;f KiwahfTk; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F
Nkw;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F gpd;tUk; topfspy; nghWg;gpypUe;J
Fwpg;Gfs; tpLtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. NkYk; %yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy; gw;wp
tpupthf tpthjpg;Nghk;.
1. uj;Jnra;jy; [gpupT 82 (a)]
2. tpLtpj;jy; [gpupT 82 (b)]
3. nrYj;Jjy; [gpupT S2 (c) kw;Wk; 78]
4. 48 kzpNeuj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd Neuj;ij mDkjpj;jy; (gpupT 83)
5. jFjpngw;w xg;Gjiy vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy; (gpupT 86)
6. Neu;ikaw;wij Kd;dwptpg;gjpy;iy
7. xU kNrhjhtpd; xg;Gjiy Vw;fhjJ (gpupT 61)
8. fhNrhiy Kd;itg;gjpy; jhkjk; (gpupT 86)
9. %yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy;: xU khw;wf;$ba
fUtpapd; ve;j xU nghUSk; xNu ntw;wplj;ij>
mjhtJ> mjd; nraiy mg;gbNa khw;wp tpLfpwJ> ,e;j
khw;wj;jpw;F xg;Gjy; juf;$lhJ vd;W midj;J gq;Fjhuu;fSk;>
,e;j khw;wj;jpid nra;Ak; NghJ (gpupT 87)> mjd; rl;lk; ,Ue;J
tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> jpUj;jpaikj;jgpd;> me;j
rhjdj;Jf;Fg; nghWg;ghf ,Uf;Fk; egu;fs;> khw;wj;jpd;gb mikg;gpd;
fPo; nghWg;ghfpd;wdu;. NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> khw;wg;gl;l
mikg;gpid nrhy;gtu;fs; gw;wp vJTk; $w KbahJ. (gpupT 88).
,e;jf; Kiwapd; %yg;nghUs; khw;wpaikj;jy;> mj;jifa
khw;wpaikj;jiy nra;Ak; Neuj;jpy; midj;Jf; gq;Fjhuu;
flikg; nghWg;igf; nfhs;fpwJ> NkYk; me;j khw;wk; ve;j
Kiwf;F gaDs;sjhf cs;sJ my;yJ jPq;Ftpistpf;fpwJ
vd;gjw;F khw;wkhf cs;sJ. Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gtu; my;yJ
xU ntspegupd; %yk; cs;s me;j Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gtu;
my;yJ xU ntspegupd;> me;j Mtzj;jpd; nraypy; ,Uf;Fk;
NghJ> mJ mjd; Neu;ik (Nltpl;rd; kw;Wk; $g;gu;) mij
ghJfhf;f fl;Lg;gl;lJ Vnddpy;. Mdhy;> ghJfhg;G ve;j xU
ftdf;FiwTk; ,y;yhky; xU ntspeguhy; nra;ag;gl;lJ
(FNuhre;jpu kw;Wk; f;U\;zh rhu;dh) ,J mq;F cs;s
fl;rpfspd; nghWg;ig ghjpf;fhJ.
%yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy; vt;thW mikfpwJ?
,J xU Mtzk; my;yJ cupikfs; nry;YgbahFk;
jd;ikia ghjpf;Fk; vd;W xt;nthU jpUj;jpapYk; cs;sJ.
khw;wpaikj;jy; ‘nghUs;’-Mf ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk> me;jf;
fUtpapd; nry;Ygb my;yJ fl;rpfspd; cupikfs;
Nfs;tpf;Fwpahf tUk;. khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;jpd; rl;lk;
152 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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vd;gJ> xU nghUis jpUj;jpaikj;jy; vd;w Nfs;tpf;F 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
mikjpahf cs;sJ? vdNt> ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ePjpkd;wq;fs;>
Mq;fpyr; rl;lj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp> gq;Fjhuu;fSf;fpilNa cs;s
rl;lG+u;t cwTfis my;yJ Mtzj;jpd; jd;ik my;yJ gzk;
nrYj;Jjw;Fupa njhifg; nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jiy khw;Wtjd; Fwpg;Gfs;
tpisitf; nfhz;Ls;sd.
%yg;nghUs; jpUj;jpaikj;jy; cjhuzq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
(i) gzk; nrYj;Jk; Neuj;ijAk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba ,lj;ijAk;
nrYj;j Ntz;ba Njjpapd; khw;wj;ijAk; Fwpf;fpwJ.
(ii) xU Gjpa gq;Fjhuupd; Mtzj;ij khw;wpaikj;jy;
(Njhl;lf;fhuu; kw;Wk; Nthy;\;)
(iii) tl;b tpfpjj;ij khw;wpaikj;jy; (ntu;Nfh gpiuNtl;
ypkpnll; kw;Wk; epA+e;jpuk;).
­
(iv) Mtzj;jpd; %yg;nghUis khw;wpaikj;jy;.
Mtzj;jpd; gpd;tUk; nray;fspy; cs;s Mtzq;fis
khw;wk; nra;tjw;F ve;jnthU ruf;FisAk; khw;wp
mikg;gjpy;iy> Vnddpy; mit gq;Fjhuu;fspd; cupikfs; kw;Wk;
nghWg;Gfisj; Vw;gjpy;iy.
(i) xU jtW my;yJ xU ,urhag; gpioia jpUj;Jtjd;
Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf nra;ag;gl;l khw;wpaikj;jy;.
(ii) xj;j gq;Fjhuu;fspd; nghJthd Nehf;fj;ij epiwNtw;w
khw;wpaikj;jy;.
(iii) Mtzj;jpw;F Kd; toq;fg;gLk; khw;wq;fs;.
(iv) me;jf; Mtzj;jpd; kPJ nghWg;G nfhz;l gq;Fjhuu;fspd;
xg;GjYld; khw;wpaikj;jy; nra;ag;gl;lJ.
(v) VNjDk; xU fhNrhiyia gupNrhjpf;Fk;gb khw;Wjy;
(vi) Kbtilahj my;yJ KOikailahj Mtzq;fspd;
ntw;wplq;fis epug;Gjy;. (gpupT 20). ,t;thW> gzk;
ngWgtupd; fhNrhiy Fwpj;j Njjpiag; FwpapLtJ.
Mtzj;jpd; ntw;wplj;ij jpUj;jpaikj;jjpy; cs;s
%yg;nghUs; jpUj;jj;jpw;F msT ,y;iy. (gh];fud;
re;jpuNrfud; kw;Wk; ,uhjhfpU\;zd;)
(vii) Kbtpy;yhky; xU KOikahf;fYf;Fs; jpUj;jk; nra;jy;.
(gpupT 49)
(viii) jFjpngw;w Vw;Gfis nra;jy;. (gpupT 86)
(ix) khw;Wk; kw;Wk; khw;wKbahj fhNrhiyfs; (gpupT 125)
(x) tpgj;J tpisthf Vw;gLk; khw;wk;. fOTjy; %yk;
mopj;jy;> nts;is vWk;Gfs; my;yJ vypfs; %yk;
R+iwahlg; gl;lJ> xU Foe;ijahy; fpopf;fg;gl;l Mtzk;>
xU rpfnul;bd; R+lhd Kbtpy; vupf;fg;gl;l Mtzk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 153 5/20/2019 12:57:59 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; (n`hq;nfhq; kw;Wk; \hq;fha; tq;fp fhu;g;gNu\d;f;F
rl;lk;;
vjpuhf Nyh yP \p).
khw;wpaikj;jy; gw;wpa Mtzj;jpd; kjpg;G ntspg;gilahdJ
,y;iy: rpy Neuq;fspy;> xU khw;wf;$ba Mtzj;jpd; ­ cjtpahy;
Fwpg;Gfs; khw;wpaikf;fg;gLfpwJ> Mdhy; mt;thW khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;ljhfj;
mJ Njhd;wtpy;iy. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> & 500-f;F xU fhNrhiy>
,U nrhw;fs; kw;Wk; gzk; ngWgtupd; Nkhrj; njhif & 3500
Mfpatw;wpd; msit tpl ntspg;gilahf ­ mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;.
mj;jifa R+oe ; piyfspy;> xU egu; my;yJ tq;fpahsu; gzk;
nrYj;Jifapy;> ntspg;gilahd egupd; NtW tifapNyh gzk;
nrYj;Jfpwhu; vd;why;> mtu; nghWg;gpypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;>
Mdhy; me;j MtzkhdJ khw;wg;gl;l Mtzj;jpd; nray;fspd;
%yk; mj;jifa gzk; tprhupf;fg;glKbahJ [gFjp.89 (1)].
fhNrhiy vd;gJ xU rpijg;gl;l fhNrhiyapd; xU kpd;dZ gpk;gk;
MFk;. ,J Nghd;w kpd;dZ gpk;gj;jpd; Njhw;w tisTk;> rpijj;j
fhNrhiyf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s nghUs; khw;wk; MFk;. mJ tq;fp
my;yJ fhNrhiyj; jPut ; fj;jpw;F flikahf ,Uf;f $Lk;. ,e;j
Nghd;w epfo;Tfspy; cs;sJ Nghy;> cUtj;ijf; khw;wpaikf;fTk;>
ntspg;gLj;jTk; nra;Ak; NghJ> rpijTWk; fhNrhiyapd; kpd;dZtpd;
Njhw;w tistpd; jd;ikia cWjpg;gLj;JtJ mtrpak;. [gFjp.89
(2)]. xU khw;wpaikf;fg;gl fhNrhiyahdJ kpd;Ndw;wk; ngw;w
kpd;dZ gpk;gj;ij ngWk; ve;j xU tq;fpiaNah my;yJ xU
jPui
; ttPlL ; > mjd; gpk;gj;ijg; ntspg;gLj;jpa gq;Fjhuuplk; ,Ue;J
rupghu;ff
; Ntz;Lk;> mjd; gpk;gk;> mjd; %yk; mJ ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;L>
ngwg;gLtNj MFk;. [gFjp.89 (3)].
10. xU xg;ge;jj;jpd; gpd;idilT urPJ: gupkhw;wj; jpUj;j
cld;gbf;ifapd; %yk;> ‘xg;ge;jg; gpd;dilT’ %yk;
Vw;ghsUf;F kPz;Lk; tUk;NghJ> mtu; mjd; cilikahsu;
Mfpwhu;. Nguk; NgrpAs;s xU guptu;j;jid kNrhjh> jdJ nrhe;j
cupikapy; Vw;fduhy; elj;jg;gl;lhy; mJ Kjpu;r;rp mile;j
gpwF> midj;J eltbf;iff;fhd midj;J cupikfSk; mjpy;
,izf;fg;gLfpwJ. [gFjp 90].

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


9. xU khw;W Mtzq;fs; my;yhj Vw;Wf;nfhs;sjhjy; mtkjpg;G
nra;ag;gLk; tof;Ffis gl;bayplg;gl;Ls;sd.
10. xU khw;W Mtzk; vg;NghJ ntspNaw;wk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ?

7.5 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk;


tpdhf;fSf;fhd tpilfs;
1.
khw;WKiw Mtzk; vd;w nrhy;Yf;F> tpepNahfj;jhy;
khw;wf;$ba vOj;J %ykhd Mtzk; vd;W nghUs;.
154 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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khw;WKiw Mtz rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 13-d; gb> ‘xUkhw;wKiw 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
Mtzk; vd;gJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> guptu;j;jid Mtzk;
my;yJ elj;Jgtu; my;yJ nrYj;Jtjw;fhf nrYj;j Ntz;ba
fhNrhiy vd;W nghUs;gLfpwJ. xU khw;W MtzkhdJ
,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l nrYj;jf;$batu;fis $l;lhf Fwpg;Gfs;
nrYj;jyhk;> my;yJ xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L my;yJ rpy
nrYj;jf;$batu;fis khw;whf nrYj;jyhk; [gpupT 13 (2)].
2.
,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fpapd; rl;lk;> gpupT 31d; rl;lj;jpw;F
khw;wj;jf;f MtzkhdJ cl;gl;Ls;sJ. 1946 Mk; jpUj;jr;
rl;lj;jpd;gb khw;wj;jf;f MtzkhdJ jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;lJ.
i. ,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fp my;yJ kj;jpa muR jtpu NtW ve;j
egUk;> Ntiyahs; xUtUf;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba thf;FWjpr;
rPl;Lfis cUthf;fNth my;yJ ntspaplNth KbahJ.
ii. ,e;jpa upru;t; tq;fp my;yJ kj;jpa muR jtpu NtW ve;j
egUk; Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; NtiyahSf;Fr; nrYj;j
Ntz;ba nryhtzp kNrhjhit tiuaNth my;yJ Vw;fNth
KbahJ.
iii. Njitapy; Ntiyahs; fzf;fpy; nrYj;j Ntz;ba fhNrhiy>
xU tq;fpAld; xU egupd; fzf;Fld; tiuaWf;fg;glyhk;.
3. ,tu;fs;: (i) gz cj;juTfs;; (ii) jghy; fl;lisfs;; (iii) epiyahd
itg;G tuTfs;; (iv) gq;F rhd;wpjo;fs;; (v) fld; fbjq;fs;.
4.
cyf tu;j;jf cyfpy; guptu;j;jid kNrhjhf;fis
gad;gLj;Jtjd; rpwg;G gad;fs; gpd;tUkhW:
i. khw;W Kwp vd;gJ ,ul;ilg; ghJfhf;fg;gl;l MtzkhFk;.
,e;j Mtzk; Vw;gtuhy; mtkjpf;fg;gl;lhy;> gzk;
nfhLg;gtu; my;yJ gzk; ngWgtupd; njhif>
fl;lzj;jpw;fhd tpepNahfj;jpid ghu;f;ff;$Lk;.
ii. gzkhdJ cldbahf Njitg;gl;lhy;> gzk; ngWgtupd;
tq;fp %yk; ,e;j Mtzj;ijf; js;Sgb nra;ayhk;.
iii. ,U jdpj;jdpahd tu;j;jff; fld;fis nryhtzp rl;l%yk;
%yk; ntspNaw;w KbAk;. vdNt> ,q;F A vd;gtu; B 1000
&ghia %d;W khjq;fspy; jpUg;gp jUtjhf $wp fld;
thq;Ffpwhu;. rpy ehl;fSf;F gpwF B mNj Kiwapy; mNj
&ghia C tplk; ,Ue;J thq;Ffpwhu;. gpwF B vd;gtu;
A tplk; 1000 &ghia C tplk; jUkhW $Wfpwhu;. ,jd;
jdpj;jdpahd tu;j;jf fld;fis ntspNaw;w KbAk;.
5. nryhtzp my;yJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L vd;W fUjg;gLk;
xU MtzkhdJ> xU njsptw;w Mtzkhf ,Uf;fyhk;.
mg;gbg;gl;l epiyapy;> cupikahsuhf ,Ug;gtu; mij xU
guptu;j;jid my;yJ thf;FWjpr; rPl;L vd;W khw;wf;$Lk;> Mdhy;
mtu; jdJ tpUg;gj;ij Kd;itj;jNghJ> me;jf; MtzkhdJ
mjw;F Vw;whu; Nghy [gpupT 17] elj;jg;gLk;.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 155

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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; 6. xU khw;wj;jf;f Mtzj;ij mq;fPfupj;jgpd;> epge;jidapd;wp
rl;lk;;
my;yJ rpwg;G Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf kl;Lk; cs;sJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf
my;yJ> gpiz my;yJ ghJfhg;ghd Kiwapy; my;yJ>
mjpy; cs;s nrhj;Jf;fis Kw;wpYk; khw;Wk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf
Fwpg;Gfs; my;yhky;> mJ %d;whk; jug;G fzf;F vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
7.
khw;Wr;rPl;Lfs; ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk Vw;G vd;gJ
mtrpakhfpwJ. Mdhy;> xg;GjYf;fhf Kd;itf;fg;gl Ntz;ba
xt;nthU MtzKk; ,jpy; ,y;iy. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpd;
fhyhtjpahFk; NghJ Njit my;yJ nrYj;jNtz;ba gzk;
nrYj;Jjw;Fupa khw;Wr;rPl;L> my;yJ epr;rakhd epfo;T epfOk;
Njjpapy; nrYj;jg;glNtz;baij (jpU X ,d; kuzj;jpy;)
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba Njit ,y;iy> NkYk; mJ gzk;
nrYj;Jtjpw;F fhuzkhf MfptpLfpwJ.
8.
ghu;itf;F xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpy; nrYj;jj;jf;f xU
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> Fwpg;Gtpd; Kjpu;r;rpia mwpa KbAk;.
vdNt> ghu;itf;F ,J mtrpakhdjhFk;. gpupT 62-,d;
gb> ‘xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyf;fl;lj;jpw;F nrYj;jj;jf;f
thf;FWjpr; rPl;L> mjd; ghu;itf;F mij cUthf;Fgtuplk;
rku;g;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. xU epahakhd Neuj;jpw;Fs;>
mJ nra;ag;gl;l gpd;du;> tzpf Neuj;jpy; tu;j;jf ehshf
khw;wg;gLk;. ,j;jifa Kd;dpay;ghf> nray;fis ve;j
gq;FjhuUk; mj;jifa ,ay;Gepiyia cUthf;Fk; egUf;F
nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhu;’
9. xU guptu;j;jid kNrhjh fPo;f;fz;l tof;Ffspy; Vw;fg;glhj
tifapy; mtkjpf;fg;gLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ:
i. ngWgtu; my;yJ nrYj;Jgtu; ($l;lhspfshf ,y;yhky;)>
,e;j kNrhjhit Njitahd Neuj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;NghJ
,ay;Gepiy jpUk;GfpwJ. nrYj;Jgtu; 48 kzp Neuk; (nghJ
tpLKiw ehl;fs;) Vw;Wf;nfhs;thu;fsh ,y;iyah vd;gij
guprPypf;f (gpupT 63) Njitg;glyhk;.
ii. Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd Kd;nkhopT Nfhug;gLk;NghJ> kNrhjh
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glhJ> mjhtJ> Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy.
iii. ngWgtu; xg;ge;jk; nra;a jFjpaw;wtu;.
iv. ngWgtu; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd jFjp cilatu;.
v. ngWgtu; xU fw;gidahd eguhf ,Ue;jhy; epahakhd
Njliy fhz KbahJ. (gpupT 61).
10. xU khw;W Mtzk; vd;gJ Kw;wpYk; gadw;wjhf ,Uf;Fk;NghJ
ntspaPL nra;ag;gl;ljhf $wg;gLfpwJ> mJ ,d;Dk;
Ngr;Rthu;j;ij elj;jg;glhJ. xU khw;W Mtzk; midj;J
fl;rpfSf;Fk; vjpuhd cupikfis KbTf;F nfhz;LtUk;
gpd;du; KbTf;F tu ve;jnthU gq;Fjhuupd; fl;rpAk; fhuzkhf
,Uf;f KbahJ.
156 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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7.6 RUf;fk; 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;

••khw;W Mtzk; vd;gJ tpepNahfpg;gjd; %yk; khw;wj;jf;fJ’>


kw;Wk; nrhy; fUtp vd;gJ ‘rpy egu;fSf;F Mjuthf cupikia
cUthf;fpa vOjg;gl;l Mtzk;’ vd;gjhFk;. ,t;thW> khw;W Fwpg;Gfs;
Mtzk; vd;w thu;j;ijapd; mu;j;jk; ‘tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;l
vOjg;gl;l Mtzk;’ MFk;.
••‘jhq;fpf;nfhs;sf;$baJ’ vd;gJ ‘vtNuDk; nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;gij jhq;FfpwJ. xU Fwpg;G> kNrhjh my;yJ
fhNrhiy mjw;F kl;LNk nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ
ve;jnthU filrp my;yJ xg;Gjy; thf;F%yk; ngwg;gLk;.
••xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L vOjp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU tha;%y
thf;FWjp vd;gJ xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L MfptplhJ. jhspy; vOjp
Gj;jfj;jpy; ,Uf;fyhk;.
••,jpy; ngd;rpy; my;yJ ,q;f; cld; Nru;j;J mr;rpLjy; my;yJ
jl;lr;R nra;jy; mlq;Fk;.
••tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Njitfs; G+u;j;jp nra;jhy; Fwpg;gpl;l
egUf;F kl;Lk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba xU guptu;j;jid kNrhjh
nry;YgbahFk;> Mdhy; mJ khw;Wtjw;fhd jil
tpjpf;fg;gLtjhy; tpyq;fpay; rl;lj;jpd; mu;j;jj;jpw;Fs;
Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fupa fUtpahf ,Uf;f KbahJ.
••xU fhNrhiy gupkhw;w kNrhjhtpd; xU gFjpahf ,Ug;gJ>
kNrhjhtpd; vy;yh mj;jpahtrpaq;fisAk; jpUg;jpg;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk;> v.fh. xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnahg;gkpl Ntz;Lk;.
••xU KOikaw;w my;yJ ntw;W Ngr;Rthu;j;ijf;Fl;gl;l fUtp
xOq;fhf Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gl;L ifnahg;gkplg;gLtJ xU ‘Jtf;F
Mtzk;’ vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
••Kjpu;T vd;gJ Mtzj;jhy; gzk; nrYj;Jk; Njjp FiwAk;.
Nfhupf;if my;yJ fhNrhiy vd;gJ nrYj;jg;gLk;
fUtpf;F Njjp cldbahf nrYj;jg;gLtNjhL mjd; Kjpu;r;rpia
Nfs;tpf;Fl;gLj;jhJ.
••Kf;fpakhd gq;Fjhuu;fs; khw;W Mtzj;ij itj;jpUg;gu;. ,J
khw;W Mtzj;jpd; kPJ tof;F njhlu KbAk; jdpahf (rpy
tpjptpyf;Ffs;) me;j Ngr;R thu;j;ijfis Kbf;f KbAk; kw;Wk;
ntspNaw;w KbAk;.
••gupkhw;w urPJfspd; nra;jpapy; kl;LNk Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd
tpsf;fq;fs; mtrpak;. Mdhy; xt;nthU kNrhjhitAk;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;bajpy;iymit xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
••toq;fy; cWjpnkhopapd; Fwpg;Gf;F kl;LNk Njitg;gLfpwJ
,J xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyfl;lj;jpw;Fs; nrYj;jg;glj;jf;fJ vdNt
Fwpg;G Kjpu;r;rp cWjpnra;ag;glyhk;.

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs; ••xU khw;W Mtzk; %yk; (i) xg;Gf;nfhs;Sjy;
rl;lk;;
my;yhjJ (ii) gzk; nrYj;Jjy; my;yhjJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F
Kd;itf;fg;gLtJ kl;LNk tof;fpy; Njitg;gLfpwJ. mJ
Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj Kiwapy; gupkhw;w urPJfs; kl;LNk cs;sd.
Fwpg;Gfs; ••xU thf;FWjpr; rPl;L nrythzpapd; kNrhjh my;yJ
fhNrhiy vd;gJ fhNrhiyapd; tiuit cUthf;Fgtu;>
fhNrhiy Vw;Fk;NghJ gzk; nrYj;JtjpypUe;J
mtkjpf;fg;glyhk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. mNj Neuj;jpy; gzk;
nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w Fwpg;gpd; NghJ mJ gzk;nrYj;JfpwJ.
••mtkjpg;G mwptpf;fg;gLk; egUf;F Kiwahf mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l
Kftu; %yk; toq;fg;gLk;. xU Mtzk; vd;gJ KftUld;
ifnahg;gkplg;gl;L> mtkupahij nra;ag;gLk; NghJ Kftupapd;
rhu;ghf gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F mwptpf;f KbAk;.
••gpupT 94-d; gb> mtkjpg;G gw;wpa mwptpg;G tha;nkhopahf
vOjg;glyhk;. mt;thW vOjpdhy; jghy; %yk; mDg;gyhk;.
,J jtwhf elj;jg;gl;lhYk; Kiwahfg; Ngrg;gl;L> jghy;
nra;ag;gLk; xU mwptpg;ghFk;.
••xU khw;wj;jf;f fUtpapd; cz;ikahd cj;jpNahfG+u;t
ep&gzk; vd;gJ Rl;bf;fhl;lj;jf;fJ. fhNrhiy mtkjpf;fg;
gl;l tof;fpy; Fwpg;gpl;l Nfs;tpfs; vOtjpy;iy> Vnddpy;
mj;jifa epiyapy; tq;fp kWf;Fk; NghJ gzk; nrYj;Jjy;
vd;gJ> Neu;ikahf vOJtjw;fhd fhuzq;fisj; jUk;
fhNrhiy MFk;.
••khw;W Mtzq;fs; ,uz;L khw;wq;fis nfhz;Ls;sJ. (i) Mtz
ntspNaw;wk; (ii) Mtz nghWg;Gfspy; ,Ue;J xd;W my;yJ
mjw;F Nkw;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fspd; ntspNaw;wk;
••xU Mtzq;fspy; xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l
gq;Fjhuu;fspd; ntspNaw;wj;ij Mtzq;fspy; ,Ue;J
ntspNaw;w KbahJ kw;Wk; mjd; fPo; cs;s cupikfs;
njhlu;e;J nghWg;ghf ,Uf;Fk; gq;Fjhuu;fSf;F vjpuhf
nray;gLj;jg;glyhk;.
••,e;j fUtpapd; %yg;nghUs; khw;wpaikj;jy; vd;gJ midj;J
jug;gpdupd; nghWg;igAk; ,j;jifa jpUj;jpaikj;jiy
nra;Ak; Neuj;jpy; nra;fpwJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ> mJ ve;j
fl;rpf;Fk; ed;ik my;yJ jPq;F tpistpf;ff; $ba tifapy;
khw;wpaikj;jy; vd;gJ ve;j tpj;jpahrj;ijAk; nfhLf;fhJ.

7.7 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;


••Mtz urPJ: kNrhjh %yk; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gl;l nghUl;fs;
njhlu;ghd Mtzq;fs;> v.fh> xg;ge;j rPl;L my;yJ uapy;Nt
urPJ> tpiyg;gl;bay;> fly; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;if Mfpait

158 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 158 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


kNrhjhTld; ,izf;fg;gLk;> ,e;j kNrhjh Mtz kNrhjh 1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
vdg;gLfpwJ.
••Kjpu;r;rp: Kjpu;r;rp vd;why;> xU Mtzf; fl;lzj; njhifapy;
tPo;r;rp milAk; Njjpiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ.
Fwpg;Gfs;
••mjpfhuG+u;tkhf ngWgtu;: ,e;j epakpf;fg;gl;l egu; xU
Kbit mikf;Fk; nghUl;L xU jw;fhypf fiyg;gjpfhupahf
nray;gLfpwhu;.
••mjpfhuG+u;tkhd gzpahsu;: fhyhtjpahd nrhj;Jf;fis fld;
toq;Fgtu;fSf;F rl;l ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tpepNahfpf;Fk; ­mjpfhupahf
cs;shu;. fldhspfSf;F mtuJ flikfis eptu;j;jp nra;a
mtu; cjTfpwhu;.
••khw;W Mtzq;fis ntspNaw;WtJ: Kf;fpakhf> ,Wjpapy;
Mtzj;jpd; kPjhd nghWg;Gfs; KbTf;F tUk; NghJ> me;j
Mtzk; ntspNawptpLk; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.
••,e;jpa vy;iy tiuaiw rl;lk;: 1963 Mk; Mz;bd; ,e;jpa tuk;Gr;
rl;lj;jpd; 5 Mk; gpupT> tof;FiuQu;fSf;F cjTtjw;fhd xU
nray;ghlhFk;. Fwpg;gpl;l fhy fl;lj;jpy;> gy;NtW rl;lq;fspd;
fPo; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

7.8 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;


FWfpa gjpy; Nfs;tpfs;
1. khw;W Mtzq;fspd; gy;NtW tbtq;fs; gw;wp rpwpa Fwpg;G
vOJf.
2. khw;W Mtzq;fspd; rpwg;gpay;Gfisg; gw;wp RUf;fkhf vOJf.
3. rhd;W rPl;L gw;wpa mj;jpahtrpakhd Fwpg;igf; Fwpg;gpLf.
4. gzk; nrYj;JtJ gw;wp rpwpa Fwpg;G vOJf.
5. xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l gq;Fjhuu;fspd; ntspNaw;wk;
gw;wp rpW Fwpg;G vOJf.

ePz;l tpil tpdhf;fs;


1. xU Mtzk;> thf;FWjpr; rPl;L nry;YgbahfNtz;ba khw;W
Mtzk; vd;gJ mj;jpahtrpakhdJ my;y. ,e;j mwpf;ifia
epahag;gLj;Jf.
2. khw;W Mtzj;ij khw;Wtjw;fhd mbg;gilf;fhd Njitfis
tptupf;f.
3. khw;W Mtzq;fspd; tpsf;fj;ij Ma;T nra;f.
4. khw;W Mtzq;fspd; mtkjpg;Gf;fhd gy fhuzpfis tpthjpf;f.
5. khw;W Mtzq;fspd; fUj;J kw;Wk; jd;ikapd; tptuq;fis
Muha;f.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 159

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 159 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


1881> khw;W Kiwahtzq;fs;
rl;lk;;
7.9 NkYk; gbf;f
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2013. tzpf rl;lk;> MwhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fwpg;Gfs; Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; tpNtf; Fr;rhy;. 2012. tzpfr; rl;lk;> vl;lhtJ
gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
Fr;rhy;> M.C. kw;Wk; jPgh gpufh\;. 2010. Nkyhz;ikf;fhd tzpfr;
rl;lq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;G. nly;yp: tpfh]; gg;sp\pq; `T];.
l;uhd;\;gpy;l;> uhgu;l;. 2003. vspjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l tzpfr; rl;lk;.
Mf;];Nghu;L: ney;rd; Njhu;d;]; (Mf;];Nghu;L gy;fiyf;fof
gjpg;gfk;).

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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 160 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


fhg;gPL

myF 8 fhg;gPL
mikg;G Fwpg;Gfs;
8.0 Kd;Diu
8.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;
8.2 fhg;gPL: tiuaiw kw;Wk; rl;l %yq;fs;
8.2.1 fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd; tiffs;
8.2.2 ePjpj;Jiw mikg;G kw;Wk; rl;lf; Nfhl;ghLfs; fhg;GWjp
8.2.3 ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;GWjpr; rl;lq;fspd; tuyhW
8.3 fhg;gPL xU xg;ge;jk;
8.3.1 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik
8.3.2 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs;
8.3.3 MAs; fhg;GWjp
8.3.4 jP fhg;GWjp
8.3.5 flw;Jiw fhg;GWjp
8.4 cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpAk; tpdhf;fSf;fhd
tpilfs;
8.5 RUf;fk;
8.6 Kf;fpa fUj;Jg;gbkq;fs;
8.7 jw;Nrhjid kw;Wk; gapw;rp tpdhf;fs;
8.8 NkYk; gbf;f

8.0 Kd;Diu
fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk; 1938> gpupl;b\; ,e;jpahtpy; 1938-,y; ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;lk;>
fhg;gPl;L Jiwia Kiwg;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ njhopy;Jiw nray;gLk;
gue;j rl;l tiuaiwia toq;FfpwJ. ,r;rl;lk; vy;yhtpjkhd
fhg;GWjpfis %btpl;lJ. ,e;j rl;lj;jpy;> murpayikg;G> Nkyhz;ik
kw;Wk; fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fis epu;tfpj;jy; njhlu;ghd tpjpfSk;
cs;sd. fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk;> 1938> MAs; kw;Wk; nghJthd fhg;gPl;L
,uzLk; tzpfj;jpw;F nghUe;Jk;. Vnddpy;> mit epu;tfpf;Fk; rpwg;G
rl;lq;fspy; mlq;fpatu;fSf;F ,J Kuzhdjhf ,y;iy.
1963 y; Rje;jpu ,e;jpahTf;fhd Gjpa fly;rhu; fhg;gPl;L rl;lk;
,aw;wg;gl;lJ. fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;gb> fhg;gPl;L fl;Lg;ghl;L mikg;G
xU xOq;FKiw cUthf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s
ngupa fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fis Njrpakakhf;fpaijj; njhlu;e;J>
,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fof rl;lk;> 1956 kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;GWjp
tzpfk; (Njrpakakhf;fy;) rl;lk; 1972-,y; mjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
Fiwatpy;iy. vg;gb ,Ue;jhYk;> ,e;jpahtpd; fhg;gPl;L Jiw jdpahu;
epWtdq;fSf;F njhlq;fg;gl;lJ Nghy> fhg;GWjp ,e;jpa xOq;FKiw
kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;Lf; FOkk; (IRDA) 1999-,y; mikf;fg;gl;lJ. mjd;
fPo; ,e;jpa epWkk;> 1956 epWtdq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gjpT nra;J>
,e;jpahtpy; ,aq;f mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ. fhg;gPl;L re;ijapd; ngUk;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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fhg;gPL kpd;dOj;jk; kw;Wk; fhg;gPL nra;a Ntz;ba Njit> Fwpg;ghf MAs;
fhg;gPL> gue;j mstpy; fpilf;Fk; tifapy; muR fhg;gPl;L Jiwia
jdpahu; epWtdq;fSf;F epWtpaJ. ,jd; ntspehl;L epWtdj;jpw;Fr;
nrhe;jkhd cupik ,e;jpahtpd; IRDA cupkk; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Fwpg;Gfs; ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPl;L njhopypd; xOq;fhd tsu;r;rpia Kiwg;gLj;jTk;>
Cf;Ftpf;fTk;> cWjp nra;aTk;> xU rl;lg;G+u;tkhd mjpfhuj;ij
epWTtJ ,e;j IRDA rl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs;fspy; xd;whFk;.
,e;j myF ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd; gupzhkj;ij
Ma;T nra;J mjd; gy;NtW nfhs;iffisAk;> rl;l tiuaiwAk;
tpsf;FfpwJ.

8.1 myfpd; Nehf;fq;fs;


,e;j myif ePq;fs; gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;G cq;fshy;;,
••‘fhg;gPL’ vd;w nrhy;iy czu KbAk;
••fhg;gPL rl;lj;jpd; %yq;fis Muha KbAk;
••fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpw;fhd ePjp mikg;ig fw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;
••fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;ltiutpd; tuyhw;iw tpsf;f KbAk;
••fhg;gPL nra;Ak; rl;l Nfhl;ghLfis mwpa KbAk;
••fhg;gPL xg;gizahf Muha KbAk.
••tho;tpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfisg; Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;> neUg;G
kw;Wk; fly;rhu; fhg;GWjpia tpsf;f KbAk;

8.2 fhg;gPL: tiuaiw kw;Wk; rl;l %yq;fs;


,d;iwa nghUshjhu mikg;gpd; tsu;eJ ; tUk; rpf;fy; jd;ik fhuzkhf>
fhg;gL
P nra;ag;glf;$ba mghaq;fs; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; msTf;F
mjpfupj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,t;thwhf> etPd cyfpy; fhg;gL P Kf;fpa ,lj;ijg;
gpbj;Js;sJ. ,J xt;nthU Fbkfdpd; tho;tpYk; xU Kf;fpa gq;if
tfpf;fpwJ. rkPg fhyj;jpy; gy tifahd fhg;GWjpg; gupzhk tsu;rr ; pf;F
,l;Lr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. cz;ikapy;> ,g;Nghnjy;yhk;> fpl;lj;jl;l
ve;j Mgj;J fhg;gL P xg;ge;jk; nra;a KbfpwJ. 1938 vd;w fhg;gl P L
; r;
rl;lk; gpupT 2-,d; Gjpa cl;gpupT (7a)d;gb> ,e;jpa fhg;gl
P L
; epWtdk;
ve;j fhg;GWjpj; epWtdkhf cs;sJ vd;W nghUs;gLk;:
(a) mJ cUthf;fg;gl;l kw;Wk; epWtdq;fs; rl;lk; 1956 fPo;
gjpT.
(b) xU ntspehl;L epWtdk;> mjd; Jiz epWtdq;fs; my;yJ
mjd; epakdq;fs; %yk; gq;Ffspd; nkhj;j ,Ug;Gf;fs;>
,J Nghd;w ,e;jpa fhg;gPl;L epWtdj;jpd; nrYj;jg;gl;l
KjyPl;L %yjdk; 26 rjtPjk; kpfhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
(c) MAs; fhg;gPl;L tzpfk;> nghJ fhg;GWjp tzpfk; my;yJ
kW fhg;GWjp njhopiy Nkw;nfhs;tJ ahUila xNu
162 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 162 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


Nehf;fk; MFk;. fhg;gPL

tpsf;fk;: ,e;j cl;gpuptpd; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf ‘me;epa epWtdk;’


vd;gJ tUkhd tupr; rl;lj;jpd; 2 Mk; gpuptpd; (23a) ,d; fPo;> 1961
vd;w nghUspy; tFj;jikf;fg;gl;l nghUs; MFk;.
Fwpg;Gfs;
8.2.1 fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd; tiffs;
fhg;gPl;L tzpfk; ,uz;L gpujhd fpisfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ:
1. MAs; fhg;gPl;L tzpfk;
2. nghJthd fhg;gPl;L tzpfk;.
nghJthd fhg;gPl;L tzpfk; vd;why; neUg;G> fly; my;yJ ,ju
fhg;gPl;L tzpfk;. Ntiyaspg;Nghu;> nghWg;Gf; fhg;gPL> nfhs;isf;
fhg;GWjp> fhy;eil fhg;GWjp> gapu;f; fhg;gPL> Nkhl;lhu; thfdf; fhg;GWjp
Nghd;w ,dq;fs; gy;NtW fhg;GWjpj; njhopypd; fPo; cs;sd. capu;>
neUg;G> fly; fhg;GWjp Mfpa %d;W tifahd fhg;GWjpj; njhif
gw;wp tpupthf ehk; tpupthff; fhz;Nghk;.

8.2.2 ePjpj;Jiw mikg;G kw;Wk; rl;lf; Nfhl;ghLfs; fhg;GWjp


,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPl;L tzpfk; gpd;tUk; rl;lq;fspd; %yk;
epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpwJ:
1. 1938 fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk;> (,d;W tiu khw;wk;)
2. 1956 MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fofr; rl;lk;>
3. 1963 fly;rhu; fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk;>
4. 1972 nghJ fhg;gPL tzpfk; (Njrpakakhf;fy;) rl;lk;
5. 1999 fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; tsu;r;rpf; FOkk; rl;lk;.
fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lk; 1938> fhg;gPL kw;Wk; fhg;gPL Mizak;> Kftu;
cupkk; toq;Fjy;> Kftu;fs; epakdk;> gzpahsiu epakpg;gJ>
nfhs;iffs; kw;Wk; cupik Nfhuy;fis gjpT nra;jy;> fhg;GWjpf;
fl;Lg;ghl;lhsupd; mjpfhuq;fs;> nfhs;if %yk; xg;gilg;G kjpg;G
mfit mwpf;if> itg;Gj;njhif> KjyPL kw;Wk; fld;fs;> nrhj;Jf;fs;
kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfs; kjpg;gPL> fzf;Ffs; kw;Wk; ,Ug;Gepiyf; Fwpg;G
kWfhg;gPL Nghd;wit. ,e;j rl;lj;jpy; murpayikg;G epu;thfk;
njhlu;ghd tpjpfSk; cs;sd. 1938> fhg;gPl;L rl;lk; nghUe;Jk;, MAs;
kw;Wk; nghJthd fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpw;F ,it ,uz;Lk;> mtw;iw
epu;tfpf;Fk; rpwg;Gr; rl;lq;fspy; cs;s Kuzw;w epiyapy; ,y;iy.
,it> mtw;NwhL njhlu;Gila rpwg;Gr; nray;fspy; mlq;fpatu;fSf;F
Kuzhf ,y;iy. ,r;rl;lk; jtpu> %d;W tifahd fhg;gPLfSk;
Fwpg;gpl;l rl;lq;fspd; %yk; epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. (i) MAs; fhg;gPL
tzpfKk; MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fof rl;lk;> 1956 MFk;. (ii) jP fhg;GWjp
tzpfKk; nghJ fhg;GWjp njhopy; (ehl;Lilik) rl;lk;> 1972 nfhz;L
tug;gl;lJ. (iii) fly;rhu; fhg;gPl;L tzpfKk; epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
fly; fhg;GWjpr; rl;lk;> 1963> kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;GWjp tzpfk;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 163

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 163 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


fhg;gPL (Njrkakhf;fy;) rl;lk;> 1972 fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L
Mizak; (IRDA) rl;lk; 1999-f;F gpd;du;> MAs; fhg;GWjp kw;Wk;
nghJ fhg;GWjp tu;j;jf epWtdq;fSk; 1999 IRDA rl;lk;> 29 Kjy;
brk;gu; 1999 tiu epu;tfpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
Fwpg;Gfs;
8.2.3 ,e;jpahtpy; fhg;GWjpr; rl;lq;fspd; tuyhW
A. fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;ij ehl;Lilikahf;fy;:
,e;jpahtpy; midj;J tifahd fhg;gl P L
; tzpfKk; KOikahf
nghJ cilik kw;Wk; kj;jpa murpd; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; 1999 brk;gu;
28 tiu ,Ue;jJ. 29 brk;gu; 1999 Kjy;> fhg;gl P L
; Jiw> jdpahu;
epWtdq;fSf;fhf epWtpaJ. ,J fhg;gl P L; xOq;FKiw kw;Wk;
Nkk;ghl;L Mizar; rl;lk;> 1999 Mfpatw;wpd; tpisthf cs;sJ.
MAs; fhg;gl P L
; tzpfk; 1956 y; ehl;Lilikahf;fg;gl;lJ. nrg;lk;gu; 1>
1956 Kjy; 28 brk;gu; 1999 tiu MAs; fhg;gl P L; tzpfk; ,e;jpa MAs;
fhg;gl
P L
; f; fofj;jhy; gpuj;jpNafkhf elj;jg;gl;L> MAs; fhg;gl P L
; f; fof
rl;lk;> 1956 My; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. nghJthd fhg;GWjp tzpfk; %yk;
ehl;Lilikahf;fg;gl;lJ. nghJthd fhg;GWjp tzpfk; ehl;Lilik
rl;lk;> 1972 ,aw;ww ; g;gl;lJ. [dtup 1 Kjy; 28k; Njjp tiu 1974
tiu nghJ fhg;gl P L
; tzpfk;> ,e;jpa nghJ fhg;GWjpf; fofk; (GICI)
%yk; kl;LNk> NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ:
(i) Ne\dy; ,d;\_ud;]; Nfh ypkpnll;> nfhy;fj;jh. (ii) epA+ ,e;jpah
m\;A+ud;]; Nfh ypkpnll;> Kk;ig. (iii) GJjpy;ypapYs;s fPoj ; j
; pir
neUg;G kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;gl P L
; $l;LwT ypkpnll;. kw;Wk; (iv) If;fpa
,e;jpah jP kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;GWjp epWtdk; ypkpnll;> nrd;id.
tpjptpyf;F: nghJ fhg;GWjp tzpfr; (ehl;Lilik) rl;lk; 36 ,d;
gpupT> tpyf;fspg;Gfs; (i) fy;fj;jh kUj;Jtkid kw;Wk; nrtpypau;
,y;y eyd;fs; rq;fk; ypkpnll; (ii) Vw;Wkjp fld; kw;Wk; cj;juthj
fhu;g;gNu\d; ypkpnll; kw;Wk; (iii) itg;Gj;njhif fhg;GWjpf; fofk;
(itg;Gj;njhif fhg;GWjpf; fofk; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; epWtg;gl;l 1961).
,J ,e;jpa nghJ fhg;gPl;L epWtdk; kw;Wk; mjd; ehd;F Jiz
epWtdq;fs; jtpu> nghJthd fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;ijAk; Nkw;nfhs;sfpwJ.

B. f
 hg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Mizak; (IRDA)
rl;lk;> 1999
,e;jpahtpy; fhg;gPl;L tzpfk; Ie;J gj;jhz;LfSf;F Nkyhf nghJj;
Jiwapd; fPo; te;Js;sJ. re;ijapy; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f CLUty;fis
vl;l Kbatpy;iy. fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l kf;fspy; 22 rjtPjk; Ngu;
kl;LNk MAs; fhg;gPlhf cs;sdu; vd;w cz;ik ep&gzkhfpAs;sJ.
fhg;gPl;L re;ijapd; kpfg; ngupa Mw;wiy milahsk; fhZjy;>
Fwpg;ghf MAs; fhg;gPL> gue;j mstpy; fpilf;fr; nra;tJ> muR
fhg;gPl;L Jiwia jdpahu; epWtdq;fsplk; njhlq;fpdu;. mjd;gb> 1999>
brk;gu; 29 Kjy; 1999 tiu fhg;gPL xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L
Mizar; rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
164 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 164 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


%yjd Njit: fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;> Gjpa gjpyPL nra;ag;gl;l fhg;gPL

gpupT 6-d;gb> 1938> fhg;gPl;lhsu; xUtupd; %yjdj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu


Njitg;ghL nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd;gb> MAs; fhg;GWjp> nghJ
fhg;GWjp my;yJ kW fhg;GWjp Mfpa tpahghu epWtdq;fs; vijAk;
fhg;GWjp nra;atpy;iy. IRDA rl;lk; njhlq;fg;gl;l my;yJ gpd;du; Fwpg;Gfs;
,e;jpahtpy;> 1999 (mjhtJ 29 brk;gu;> 1999) mtu; ,Ue;jhy; jtpu
gjpT nra;ag;gLk;:
(i) MAs; fhg;GWjp my;yJ nghJ fhg;GWjpj; njhopiy
Nkw;nfhs;tjpy; xU egu; ,Ug;gpd; Fiwe;jgl;r nrYj;jg;gl;l
gq;F 100 Nfhb MFk;. my;yJ
(ii) xU egu; xU kPs; fhg;GWjpf;F kl;Lk; gpuj;Nafkhf tzpfk;
nra;Ak; NghJ> 200 Nfhb Mff; Fiwe;jgl;rf; fl;lzk;
nrYj;jg;gl;l %yjdk; MFk;.
gpupT (i) my;yJ gpupT (ii) ,y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s Cjpak; %yjd
%yjdj;ij epu;zapg;gjpy;> gpupT 7 d; fPo; nra;ag;gLk; itg;G kw;Wk;
epWtdj;jpd; cUthf;fk; kw;Wk; gjpTf;F cl;gl;l ve;jnthU Muk;g
nryTk; tpyf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;;.
fhg;gPl;lhsu; MAs; fhg;gPL> nghJ fhg;gPl;L fhg;gPl;ilf; my;yJ
ifahSjy; Mfpatw;wpw;F cl;gl;lJ IRDA rl;lk; 1999> (mjhtJ>
brk;gu; 29> 1999) Jtq;Ftjw;F Kd;du; ,e;jpahtpy; kW fhg;gPL kw;Wk;
,e;j rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;batu;> tpjpKiwf;Nfw;g xU
Cjpa %yjd %yjdk; Ntz;Lk; (i) kw;Wk; gpupT (ii)> gpupT vdpy;>
me;j rl;lj;jpd; njhlf;fk; MW khjq;fSf;Fs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
vdNt> xU EioT jilia cUthf;f> kpf mjpf %yjdk;
Njitg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; jPtpukhd tPuu;fs; kl;LNk ,e;j njhopypy;
Eiofpwhu;fs;.

IRDA-,d; flikfs;> mjpfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; gzpfs;


IRDA ,d; Kf;fpa flikfs;> mjpfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; gzpfs; gpd;tUkhW
njhFf;fg;glyhk;:
(i) fhg;GWjp njhopy; kw;Wk; kPs; fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd;
xOq;fhd tsu;r;rpia xOq;FgLj;Jjy;> Cf;Ftpj;jy;
kw;Wk; cWjp nra;fpwJ.
(ii) tpz;zg;gjhuUf;F gjpTr; rhd;wpjo; toq;Fjy;> GJg;gpj;jy;>
jpUj;jk;> tpyf;fpf; nfhs;sy; my;yJ uj;J nra;fpwJ.
(iii) nfhs;if xg;gilj;jy;> nfhs;ifjhuu;fs; epakdk;>
fhg;GWjpj; njhif NfhUjy;> fhg;GWjp cupik Nfhuy;fs;
jPu;T> nfhs;if kjpg;G kw;Wk; fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jq;fspd;
epge;jidfs; Mfpait njhlu;ghd tptfhuq;fspy;
nfhs;if itj;jpUg;Nghupd; eyd;fisg; ghJfhf;fpwJ.
(iv) fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fshy; epjp KjyPl;bid Kiwg;gLj;JfpwJ.
(v) Njitahd jifikfs;> elj;ij newp kw;Wk; nra;Kiwg;
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 165

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 165 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


fhg;gPL gapw;rpfis ‘fhg;GWjp ,ilj; jufu;fs;’ kw;Wk;
Kftu;fSf;F Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. fhg;gPl;L jufu;fs;> fhg;gP
l;L jufu;fs;> fhg;GWjp MNyhrfu;fs;> epy msitahsu;fs;
kw;Wk; el;lf; fzf;fPl;lhsu;fs; MfpNahu; mlq;Ffpwhu;fs;.
Fwpg;Gfs; (vi) epy msitfs; kw;Wk; el;lf; fzf;fPl;lhsu;fs; elj;ij
tpjpKiwfis Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.
(vii) fhg;gPl;L njhopiy elj;Jtjpy; jpwikia Cf;Ftpf;fpwJ.
(viii) fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; kPs; fhg;GWjp tpahghuj;Jld;
njhlu;Gila njhopy;Kiw mikg;Gf;fis Cf;Ftpj;J
xOq;FgLj;Jf;fpwJ.
(ix) fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; fhg;GWjpj; jfuhWfSf;F ,ilapyhd
rr;ruTfisj; jPu;j;jy;.
(x) fpuhkg;Gw my;yJ r%fj; Jiwapy; fhg;gPl;lhsu;fshy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; MAs; fhg;gPl;L tzpf kw;Wk; nghJ
fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;jpd; rjtPjj;ij Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;.

C. fhg;gPl;L rl;lq;fspd; jpUj;jq;fs;.


i. fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lj;jpy; 1938> Kjy; ml;ltizapd; %yk;> IRDA
rl;lk; 1999: IRDA rl;lk; 1999 ,d; gpupT 30> fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;
rpy tpjpfspy; 1938 Mk; jpUj;jq;fis NfhUfpwJ. me;j tifapy;>
rl;lj;jpd; Kjy; ml;ltizapy; epu;zaf;fg;gLfpwJ. fhg;gPl;Lr;
rl;lj;jpy; cs;s jpUj;jq;fs;> fhg;gPl;L njhopypd; xOq;fhd tsu;r;rpia
Kiwg;gLj;jTk;> Cf;Ftpf;fTk; kw;Wk; cWjp nra;aTk;> ‘fhg;gPl;L
xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Mizaj;jhy;’ (IRDA) mjpfhuk;
mspf;Fk; tifapy; ,aw;ifapNyNa tpisfpd;wd. vdpDk;> xU rpy
Kl;Lf;fl;ilg;nghUs; jpUj;jq;fs; fPNo tpthjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd:
ii. MAs; fhg;gl P L
; f; fof rl;lj;jpy; jpUj;jk; 1956> kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;GWjp
tzpfk; (Njrkakhf;fy;) rl;lk; 1972 ,uz;lhtJ kw;Wk; %d;whtJ
,izg;Gr;rl;lk; 1999 %yk;: gpupT 31 kw;Wk; 32 IRDA rl;lk; 1999> MAs;
fhg;gl
P L
; f; fof rl;lk; 1956 ,y; jpUj;jk; nra;a Kidfpd;wdu; kw;Wk; nghJ
fhg;GWjp tzpfk; (ehl;Lilik) rl;lk; 1972> KiwNa ,uz;lhtJ kw;Wk;
%d;whtJ ml;ltizapy; epu;zag;gLk; tifapy; 1999 ,e;j jpUj;jq;fs;>
MAs; fhg;gl P L
; f; fof ((LIC)) kw;Wk; nghJf; fhg;gl P L
; f; fofk; gpuj;Naf
rYifia toq;Ffpd;wd. (GIC) kw;Wk; mjd; ehd;F Jiz epWtdq;fs;
jq;fs; tho;ehs;/MAs; my;yhj fhg;GWjp tzpf nfhz;L nry;y Ntz;Lk;.
(mjhtJ 29 brk;gu; 1999) kw;w ,e;jpa fhg;gl P L
; epWtdq;fs; fhg;gl P L
;
njhopiy nra;a VJthf ,Uf;Fk;. NtW thu;ji ; jfspy; $Wtjhdhy;>
LIC kw;Wk; GIC ,d; VfNghf cupik xU KbTf;F tUk; vd;Wk;>
fhg;gl
P L
; j; Jiw> jdpahu; Jiwapy; cs;s gpw epWtdq;fSf;F 29 brk;gu;
1999 Kjy; njhlq;fp itf;fg;gLk; vd;Wk; njuptpj;Js;sJ.
xU l[d; jdpahu; MAs; fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; miu
l[d; jdpahu; MAs; fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fs; ,e;jpahtpy; jq;fs;
nray;ghLfis njhlq;fpAs;sd. ,tw;wpy; ngUk;ghyhd fhg;gPl;L
166 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 166 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


epWtdq;fs; ntspehl;L epWtdq;fSld; $l;L Kaw;rp xg;ge;jq;fspy; fhg;gPL

ifnaOj;jpl;Ls;sd. Kf;fpa ru;tNjr fhg;GWjpahsu;fs; —


g;Nuhnld;\pay; kw;Wk; ];lhz;lu;l; iyg; Mg; jp UK> rd; iyg; Mg;
fdlh> kw;Wk; AIG kPl; iyg; kw;Wk; epA+ ahu;f; iyg; Mg; jp USA>
kpfg; gue;j mstpy; Ruz;bf;nfhs;sKbahj fhg;gPl;Lr; re;ijia Fwpg;Gfs;
miltjw;F ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s Kd;dzp epWtdq;fSld; xU
rpytw;iw ngauplg;gl;lJ gpugy jdpahu; fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fs;: ICICI
GUnld;\pay; MAs; fhg;gPl;L epWtdk;> lhlh AIG MAs; fhg;gPl;L
epWtdk;> gpu;yh rd; MAs; fhg;gPl;L fof epWtdk;> ,d;[p t;a];aj;
MAs; fhg;gPl;L $l;LwT epWtdk;. ICICI Nyhk;ghu;L nghJ MAs;
fhg;gPl;L epWtdk;.> lhl;lh AIG nMAs; fhg;gPl;L $l;LwT epWtdk;.>
kw;Wk; g[h[; myd;rp]; nghJ MAs; fhg;gPl;L fof epWtdk;.
fhg;gl
P L
; Jiwia jdpahu; kakhf;FtJ> thbf;ifahsu;fspd; kdk;
ftu;ej
; khw;wkhFk;. mtu;fs; ,g;NghJ KO ghJfhg;G %yk; epiyahd
jpUk;gp toq;Fk; KOikahd epjp jPuT; vd;W fhg;gL
P ghu;ff; pwhu;fs;. ,jd;
tpisthf> jdpg;gl;l fhg;gl P L
; epWtdq;fs;> Fwpg;gpl;l thbf;ifahsu;
Njitfisg; G+u;jj ; p nra;a> thbf;ifahsu; ftdk; nrYj;Jk; Nrit
kw;Wk; njhopy;Kiw MNyhridfs;> tYthd Nghl;bapd; rfhg;jj;jpy;
capu; gpiof;f gyjug;gl;l jahupg;Gfs;/nfhs;iffis toq;Ffpd;wd.
iii. fhg;gPL (jpUj;jk;) rl;lk;> 2002: fhg;gPL (jpUj;jr;) rl;lk;> 2002>
1938 vd;w fhg;gPl;Lr; rl;lj;jpy; jpUj;jk; nra;a Kaw;rpf;fpwJ. ,J
2002 nrg;lk;gu; 23 Kjy; rpwg;ghf nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. jpUj;jr; rl;lk;
toq;Ffpd;wJ> ‘fhg;gPL $l;LwT rq;fk;’ mikf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpupT
2-,y; Gjpjhf Eiof;fg;gl;l cl;gpupT (18a) gb> ‘fhg;gPl;L $l;LwT
rq;fk;’ vd;why;> ve;j fhg;gPlhsu; rq;fk; vd;W nghUs;gLk;.
(a) $l;Lwtpd; fPo; ,aq;Fk; $l;LwTr; rq;fkhf gjpT
nra;ag;gLfpwJ. $l;Lwtpd; fPo; ,aq;Fk; $l;LwTr;
rq;fkhf gjpT nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
(b) rq;fq;fs; rl;lk; 1912> my;yJ $l;LwT rq;fq;fs;
njhlu;Gila ve;j khepyj;jpy; mkypy; ,Uf;Fk; fhyk;
my;yJ gpw khepy $l;LwT rq;fq;fs; rl;lq;fs;
1984 mky;gLj;JfpwJ. Fiwe;j gl;r Cjpak; ngWk;
%yjdj;ijg; ngw;W (gpupT 7-d; fPo; nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba
itg;Gj; njhif jhdhf) 100 Nfhb
(c) ,jpy; ve;j xU $l;lhz;ik mikg;G> mjhtJ> ,e;jpahtp
w;F ntspNa gjpT nra;ag;gl;l/nra;ahtpl;lhy; my;yJ
mjd; Jiz epWtdq;fs;> epakdf; fhg;gPL> ve;j
Neuj;jpYk;> mj;jifa $l;LwTr; rq;fj;jpd; jiyefupy;
26 rjtPjj;jpw;F Nky; cs;sJ kw;Wk;
(d) ,jd; xNu Nehf;fk; ,e;jpahtpy; MAs; fhg;gPl;L tzpfk;
my;yJ nghJ fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;ij Nkw;nfhs;tJ MFk;.
,e;j jpUj;jr; rl;lk; NkYk; xt;nthU fhg;GWjp $l;LwTr;
rq;fKk; ‘fhg;GWjpapLeu;’ vdf; fUjg;gLk;. xU ,e;jpa fhg;GWjp
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 167

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 167 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


fhg;gPL epWtdkhf ,Uf;Fk; xU ‘fhg;GWjp’ epWtdj;jpw;F nghUe;jf;$ba
midj;J tpjpKiwfspd;gb> xU fhg;GWjp $l;LwTr; rq;fj;jpw;F
tpz;zg;gpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. tuk;Giuahf fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw Nkk;ghl;L
Mizak; (IRDA) rl;lj;jpd; ve;j tifaiwAk; mwptpf;if %yk;
Fwpg;Gfs; Neubahf mwptpf;fyhk;. (a) fhg;GWjp $l;LwTr; rq;fj;jpw;F nghUe;jhJ
my;yJ (b) ,e;j mwptpg;gpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s tpjptpyf;Ffs;
kw;Wk; jftikTfNshL kl;LNk xU fhg;gPl;L $l;LwT rq;fj;jpw;F
tpz;zg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

cq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijr; Nrhjpj;jwpf


1. nghJthd fhg;gPL vd;why; vd;d?
2. gy;tif fhg;GWjp tiffis gl;baypLf.

8.3 fhg;gPL xU xg;ge;jk;


fhg;glP L
; f; fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU jug;gpdu;> fhg;gL P vd;w xU
guprPyidf;Fg; gjpyhf> kw;nwhU jug;gpdUf;F> Fwpg;gpl;l xU epfo;Tf;fhf
xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifia (xU Fwpg;gpl;l taJ tiu ,wg;G my;yJ
miljy;) nrYj;Jk; xU xg;ge;jkhFk; my;yJ ,lu; fhg;GWjp %yk; vOk;
el;lj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU jug;gpdUf;F ghjpg;G Vw;gLj;Jk; (nrhj;Jf;Ftpg;G
tof;fpy;). xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifia nrYj;JkhW thf;FWjp nfhLf;Fk;
jug;gpdu;> my;yJ> kw;w jug;gpdu; fhg;gl P l
; hsu; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ
[rpy Neuq;fspy; fhg;GWjp nra;gtu; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ (MAs;
fhg;gLP tof;fpy;) my;yJ FiwvOJgtu; (fly;rhu; fhg;GWjp tof;fpy;)>
NkYk;> ,e;j ghJfhg;G fhg;gl P L
; gupkhw;wj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l jug;gpdu;
fhg;gLP (my;yJ cj;juthjk;) vdg;gLfpwJ.
fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpjpfs; kw;Wk; epge;jidfs; mlq;fpa
Mtzk; xU nfhs;if vdg;gLfpwJ. vdNt fhg;gL P vd;gJ nfhs;if-
itj;jpUg;gtu; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. fhg;gl P L
; f; fhg;gl
P l
; hsupd; fhg;gl
P L
;
njhif mtUf;F toq;f Ntz;ba ghJfhg;G fhg;GWjp vdg;gLk;. xU
nfhs;if gpwg;gpj;Js;s njhif> fhg;GWjpj; njhif my;yJ nfhs;ifj;
njhif vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. fhg;gL P vd;w nghUs; my;yJ nrhj;Jupik>
fhg;gL
P gw;wpa tp\ak; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. nghUs;-tp\aj;jpy;
fhg;gl
P l
; hsupd; tl;b mtuJ fhg;GWjpj; njhif vdg;gLfpwJ.

8.3.1 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; jd;ik


fhg;GWjpj; njhif vd;gJ xU tifahd xg;ge;jkhFk;. xU xg;ge;jk;
vd;gJ> VNjh xU epfo;T> mj;jifa xg;ge;jj;jpd; xUq;fike;jit>
my;yJ elf;ftpy;iy vd;why; (,e;jpa xg;ge;j rl;lj;jpd; gpupT 31)
my;yJ elf;fhJ vd;W xU xg;ge;jk; MFk;. ,t;thwhf> B50>000
&gha; nrYj;j rk;kjpj;J> B-f;F <lhf 1>000 fhg;GWjp> B ,d; tPL
vupf;fg;gl;lhy;> xU gpupT xg;ge;jk; cs;sJ> ,jd; nray;jpwd; xU
epr;rakw;w epfo;T epfo;epiyiag; nghWj;jJ. fhg;gPl;Lf; fl;lzk; vd;gJ
168 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 168 5/20/2019 12:58:00 PM


VNjh xU tifapy;> xU $ypg; gzk; my;yJ R+jhl;l xg;ge;jj;Jf;F fhg;gPL

xj;jjhf ,Ue;jhYk;> fhg;GWjpg; ge;ja> mtuJ tPL vupf;fg;gl;L>


fhg;gPl;Lf;F vjpuhd mjd; kjpg;ig mtUf;F mspj;jpUf;Fk;. Mdhy;
cz;ikapy;> gpd;tUk; fhuzq;fSf;fhf mJ xU rhjhuz xg;ge;jk;
my;y: Fwpg;Gfs;
1. xU fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpy;> epr;rakw;w vjpu;fhy epfo;T Vw;gl;lhy;>
el;lj;jpw;F vjpuhd fhg;GWjpia ghJfhg;gNj Nehf;fkhFk;. xU
Cjpa xg;ge;jj;jpy;> gzk; kw;Wk; gzk; kl;LNk R+jhl;lk; vd;W
nghUs;. Mf> ,d;W kio nga;jpUe;jhy; B 100 &gha; nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk;. kio nga;ahtpl;lhy; B.A.> f;F 100 nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2. fhg;gPL xg;ge;jj;jpy;> fhg;gPL nra;a Kad;w MAs; my;yJ
nrhj;Jfspy; fhg;gPL nra;a Kbahj Mu;tk; cs;sJ. xU
Cjpaf; xg;ge;jj;jpy;> ve;j fl;rpf;Fk;> mjd; tpisthf Vw;gLk;
Mjhak; my;yJ ,og;igj; jtpu NtW ve;j cld;ghLk; ,y;iy.
,J xU $ypahd xg;ge;jj;Jld; xg;gpLifapy;> nry;YgbahFk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rk; MFk;. ,U jug;gpdUf;Fk; VjhtJ
fhg;gPL ,Ue;jhy;> mjhtJ xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;s jdpAupik tl;b>
mJ xU $ypahf ,Uf;fhJ.
3. fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jk; (capu;> tpgj;J kw;Wk; cly; eyf;Fiwit
jtpu) fhg;gPL vd;w Nfhl;ghl;bd; mbg;gilapy; mike;Js;sJ.
Mdhy; xU Cjpa xg;ge;jj;jpy;> ve;j ,lu;ghLk; ,y;iy vd;W
xU FiwghLfs; vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy vd;gjhFk;.
4.
fhg;gl
P b
; w;fhd xg;ge;jk;> mghaq;fis tpQ;Qhd Kiwapy;
fzf;fpLtij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. NkYk;> mghaj;ijg;
ghjpf;Fk; gy;NtW fhuzpfis fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;nfhz;L> gpuPp
kpaj;jpd; njhifia mwpa KbfpwJ. xU $ypapy;> ntWk; R+jhl;lk;
vd;W ve;j fzf;fLP vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy vd;W $WfpwJ.
vdNt> fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU KOikahd xg;ge;jkhFk;.
xg;ge;j tpjpapd; nghJthd Nfhl;ghLfs; ,j;jifa xg;ge;jj;Jf;F
rkkhf nghUe;JfpwJ. ,J Nghd;w> xU rupahd xg;ge;jk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk; mJ gpd;tUk; Njitfis epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk;: (i)
fl;rpfSf;fpilNa cld;ghL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> (ii) xg;ge;jk; Ntz;Lk;
guprPyidf;F MjuT> (iii) jug;gpdu; xg;ge;jk; nra;a jpwd; ngw;wpUf;f
Ntz;Lk;> (iv) cld;ghl;L jug;gpdu; rk;kjk; ‘,ytr rk;kjk;’ ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;> kw;Wk; (v) nghUs; rl;ltpNuhjk; my;yJ xOf;fnewp
gpwohky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

8.3.2 fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfs;


midj;J tifahd fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;Jf;Fk; rpy mbg;gilf;
Nfhl;ghLfs; (my;yJ gz;Gfs;) cs;sd. ,it gpd;tUkhW:
1. G+uz ed;ek;gpf;if: nghJ tpjp ‘vr;rupf;ifAld; thq;Fjy;’
(thq;Fgtu; vr;rupf;fl;Lk;) rhjhuz tu;j;jf xg;ge;jq;fSf;F
nghUe;Jk;> fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jq;fSf;F nghUe;jhJ. fhg;gPl;L
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 169

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fhg;gPL xg;ge;jq;fs; vd;gJ kpFe;j ey;y ek;gpf;if my;yJ cngw;upNk
/ngil xg;ge;jq;fs; MFk;. mjd;gb> midj;J jug;gpdupd;
KOikahd kw;Wk; epahakhd ntspg;gLj;JjYf;fhd fhg;gPL
xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ ,U jug;gpdUf;Fk; cs;shu;e;j flikahFk;.
Fwpg;Gfs; ,jd;gb> cj;Njrpf;fg;gl;l fhg;GWjpj; njhif njhlu;ghd
midj;J Mjhuq;fis cz;ikfisAk; KOikahfTk; epa-
hakhfTk; ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;F xU xg;ge;jk;> fhg;GWjp vd;w
,U jug;gpdupd; cs;shu;e;j flikahFk;. fhg;gPl;L Kiwapy;
fhg;gPL nra;tjhy;> xU jug;gpduplkpUe;J kw;nwhU jug;gpdUf;F
fhg;gPL Vw;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf xU nghUs;rhu;
cz;ik vd;dntdpy;> mtu; xU xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eiothu; my;yJ
xU fhg;gPl;L tPjj;jpy; my;yJ NtW VNjDk; xd;wpy; Eioa
KbAkh vd;W fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> xU Gj;jprhypahf fhg;GWjp
nra;J nfhs;Sk; jPu;g;ig ghjpf;fpwJ. cjhuzkhf> MAs;
fhg;gPl;by; M];Jkh my;yJ ru;f;fiu Neha; Nghd;w Nehahy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;F ,ilapilNa jiytyp vd;gJ xU
nghUs; cz;ik my;y vd;gjhFk;.
tpjptpyf;Ffs;: gpd;tUk; tifahd cz;ikfs; Kd;nkhope;jtu;
%lg;gl Njitapy;iy. mjhtJ> mtw;iw ntspg;gLj;jhky;
,Ug;gJ xg;ge;jj;jpw;F capupog;ig MfhJ:
(i) ve;j xU cz;ik Mgj;J FiwfpwJ.
(ii) ve;j cz;ik vJ vd;W mwpag;gl;lNjh> my;yJ fhg;GWjpf;F
mwpag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Cfpf;fg;gLk;.
(iii) nghJ mwptpd; jd;ik my;yJ ehl;bd; rl;lj;jpw;F
njhlu;Gilait vJ vd;gJ gw;wpa cz;ikahFk;.
(iv) fhg;GWjpf;F ve;jj; jftiyj; js;Sgb nra;fpwJ vd;gJ
gw;wpa cz;ikahFk;.
mj;JkPwypy; Vw;gLk; tpisTfs;: xU ey;y ek;gpf;if> ,U
jug;gpduhy; filgpbf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;why;> me;j xg;ge;jk;
ntspg;gLj;jg;glhj my;yJ epuguhjp vd;W ,y;yhky;> jug;gpdu;
tpUg;gj;jpd;gb> mJ jtWjypd;wp MfptpLfpwJ. epr;rakhf> epu-
guhjp jtwhfg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;jhy;> xg;ge;jj;ij jtpu;g;gjpy;
fhg;GWjp kW epjp cz;L vdg;gLfpwJ.
2. ,og;gLP fs;: ,uz;lhtJ mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghL> fhg;GWjp gw;wpa
midj;J xg;ge;jq;fSk;> capu; ,og;G my;yJ cly; ghjpg;G Vw;gLk;
NghJ gzk; nrYj;Jjy; ,y;yhj> jdpg;gl;l tpgj;Jf; fhg;glP hFk;. fly;
kw;Wk; jP fhg;gl
P hFk; NghJ> Fwpg;gpl;l ngy;]; %yk; Vw;gLk; ,og;G
my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;fhd fhg;gl P b; id fhg;gL
P nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,og;igg;
nghWj;j tiuapy;> fhg;GWjpapd; msit fhg;GWjp nra;jpapypUe;J
kPlf
; KbfpwJ. nfhs;ifapd; fPo; ,og;G VJk; Vw;gltpy;iy vd;why;>
fhg;GWjp nra;jtUf;F fhg;gL P nra;a Ntz;ba fl;lhakpy;iy. ,e;j
epfo;tUKd; cldbahf mtu; Mf;fpukpj;Js;s mNj epiyapy;>
e\;lj;Jf;Fg; gpwF fhg;gi P lr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj ,og;ghsupd;
170 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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Nehf;fkhFk;. ve;jr; R+oe
; piyapYk;> fhg;gl
P L
; j; njhif mtUf;F fhg;gPL

Vw;gl;l ,og;ig tpl mjpfkhf gadspf;Fk;. ,jw;Ff; fhuzk;>


mg;gb ,Ue;jhy;> fhg;GWjp epfo;it Mirg; gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w
tpUg;gk; vg;NghJk; ,Uf;fpwJ.
jP my;yJ fly;rhu; fhg;GWjp gw;wpa xg;ge;jq;fs; $l> Fwpg;Gfs;
cz;ikahd ,og;Gf;fhd ve;j rhd;Wk; Nfhuhky;> xl;Lnkhj;j
,og;G my;yJ mopT Vw;gl;lhy;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhiff;F
gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W mtu;fs; toq;Fk; NghJ> mJ
,og;G xg;ge;jq;fs; cs;sd. ,J ‘kjpg;G tha;e;j nfhs;iffs;’
vd;w tplaj;jpy; ,t;thW cs;sJ. ,J Nghd;w nfhs;iffspy;>
gFjpasT ,og;G ,Ue;jhy;> fhg;gPL vd;gJ kl;Lkpy;yhtpl;lhy;>
mtuJ ,og;ig ahUk; yhgkhf nra;a mDkjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy.
NkYk;> ,e;j fhg;gPL ‘fhg;gPL nra;a $ba tl;bAld;’
,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;Wk; $wyhk;. xU-ehd;fhtJ rf cupi-
kahsu; KO nrhj;J fhg;gPL ngWfpwhu; vd;why;> mtu; jdJ
tl;b my;yJ gq;F ve;j msT mtu; nrhj;J fhg;gPL xl;Lnkhj;j
mopg;G tof;fpy; kl;LNk cs;sJ.
3. fhg;GWjpj; njhif: fhg;gPL xg;ge;jj;ij nfhz;L tUtjw;F
xU ,d;wpaikahj Kd; epge;jidahFk;. fhg;GWjpj; njhif>
fhg;GWjp Fwpj;j Neuj;jpy; fhg;gPL njhlu;ghd tp\aj;jpy;>
fhg;gPL ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk; ,y;iynadpy;> fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jk;
vd;gJ xU eilKiwg;gLj;j Kbahj xg;ge;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;.
MAs; fhg;gPl;by;> xg;ge;j Neuj;jpy; kl;Lk; (mjhtJ fhg;gPL
nra;ag;gLk; NghJ) kl;LNk fhg;gPL nra;a Ntz;Lk;. kuz
Neuj;jpy; mJ mq;F ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy my;yJ
cupik Nfhug;gLk; NghJ mJ ,y;iy. ,t;thwhf xU MAs;
fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;if> Rje;jpukhf epakpf;ff;$baJ.
jP fhg;gPL tl;b> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gLk; NghJ kw;Wk; e\;lj;jpy;
,Uf;Fk; Neuj;jpy; ,uz;ilANk cldpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU fhg;gP
l;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jkhf ,Ug;gjhy;> xU jP fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifia
xU thq;Fgtu;> Nkhu;l; my;yJ cWjpnkhop vd;W nghUs; kPJ
rpy tl;b ngw;wJ Vnddpy;> ,og;G Neuj;jpy; Mu;tk; ,Ue;jhy;
xopa> mtu; nra;a KbahJ.
fly;rhu; fhg;gPL nghWj;j tiu> nghUs; ,og;G Vw;gLk; Neuj;jpy;
fhg;GWjpj; njhif fl;lhak; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> fhg;gPL nra;Ak;
Neuj;jpy; fhg;GWjp nra;a Ntz;ba tl;bia cWjp nra;a
Ntz;baJ mtrpak; my;y vd;gjhFk;.
4. mz;ik fhuzp: mLj;j fhg;GWjpj; jj;Jtk;> fhg;gPl;Ljhuu;>
,e;j ,og;Gf;fSf;F kl;LNk nghWg;G vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. NtW
thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> xU ,og;Gf;F fhg;gPL nra;tjw;F
nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf> mUfhikapYs;s> ­cldbah
my;yJ filrp fhuzk; ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> NkYk; fhg;gPL
nra;ag;gl;ltu;fSf;F vjpuhf fhg;gPL nra;jhy; kPl;f KbfpwJ.
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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fhg;gPL ,Jjhd; fhuz fhupa tpjp MFk;. fhg;gPl;lhsu;fs;> njhiyJ}
u fhuzq;fshYk;> njhiy J}uf; fhl;rpfspYk;> fhg;gPL
nra;ag;gl;l Nguplu; tifiar; Nru;e;jtu;fshf ,Ue;jhYk;
nghWg;Ngw;fkhl;lhu;fs;. ‘xU ,og;Gf;F fhuz fhupakhd Nfs;tp>
Fwpg;Gfs; mLj;jLj;J gy fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; kl;LNk vOfpwJ.
xU KbT ,uz;L fhuzq;fshy; nfhz;L tug;gLk; NghJ> ePq;fs;
fl;lhak;> fhg;gPl;L rl;lj;jpd;Ngupy;> ,jd; tpisT> njhiyJ}
u fhuzk; ,y;yhky; epfo;e;jpUf;fhJ vd;whYk;> mUfpYs;s
fhuzj;ijg; ghUq;fs;. ,e;j tpjp> e\;lj;jpw;fhd mry; fhuzk;
vd;d vd;gij mwpa> mLj;jLj;J tUk; fhuzq;fshy; kPz;Lk;
nry;y cWjp Vw;f KbahJ’ (gpq;f; vs gpnskpq;).
vdNt> ,e;j ,og;G fhg;GWjp nra;ag;gl;l ve;j mghaj;jpd; %yk;
Njhd;wpajh vd;gij KbT nra;tjpy;> neUf;fkhd my;yJ
filrp fhuzq;fisg; ghu;j;J kw;wtu;fs; epuhfupf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
xNu Neuj;jpy; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l Nguplu;fis ,af;fpdhy; ,og;G
Vw;gLfpwJ. vd;why;> mjpy; xd;W kl;Lk; tpjptpyf;fhFk;. (mjhtJ
fhg;gPL nra;aKbahj) Nguplu;> fhg;gPL nra;Ak; NghJ Vw;gLk;
ghjpg;Gfspdhy; fhg;GWjpf;F nghWg;ghthu;fs; jdpj;jdpahf
mwpa Ntz;Lk;. fhg;gPl;lhsupd; ghjpg;G kw;Wk; tpjptpyf;fpdhy;
Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfis gpupf;f KbahJ vd;why;> fhg;GWjp jhuu;
nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhu;fs; vd;gjhFk;.
fhuz fhupa mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghL ngUk;ghYk; fly;tho;
kw;Wk; jP fhg;gPl;by; nghUe;jpdhYk;> mJ MAs; fhg;GWjpj;
jpy; nghUe;Jtjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. rup> Vnddpy; ‘jdpegu; tpgj;Jf;
nfhs;iffs;’ kuz fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd neUf;fkhd fhuzk; tpgj;J
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,aw;if kuzk; Vw;gl;lhy; fhg;GWjpf;F mJ
nghWg;Ngw;fhJ.
5. Mgj;ij ,izf;f Ntz;Lk;: mLj;j fhg;GWjpj; jj;Jtk;> xU
nry;Ygbahd fhg;GWjpg; xg;ge;jj;jpw;F Mgj;J xd;W ,izf;f
Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;. fhg;GWjp njhlu;ghd Ma;Tf;Fl;gLeu;-nghUs;
,Ue;jhy; (cjhuzk; nghUl;fs; vupf;fg;gLfpd;wd) my;yJ
fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l fg;gy; Vw;fdNt te;Jtpl;lJ ghJfhg;ghf>
fhg;GWjp vLf;fg;gLk; Neuj;jpy;> Mgj;J ,izf;fg;gltp
y;iy> ,jd; tpisthf fhg;GWjp nrYj;j Ntz;ba njhif
fhg;gPl;Lf; fhg;gPl;blkpUe;J gpbj;jk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ> Vnddpy;
fhg;GWjpfhd guprPyid Kw;wpYk; nraypoe;jJ. vdNt> Mgj;ij
xUNghJk; ,aq;f tplhky;> guprPyid Njhy;tpailAk; vdNt
fhg;GWjp jpUg;gp nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ. ‘fhg;gPl;Ljhuu;fs; xUNg-
hJk; Mgj;jpd; kPJ ,Ue;jjpy;iy vd;why;> mtu;fs; gpuPkpaj;ij
rk;ghjpj;jhu;fs; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ’ vd;w nghJthd
Nfhl;ghlhf mJ cs;sJ. Mgj;J NkYk; ,izf;fg;gltpy;iy
vdNt fhg;GWjp jpUg;gp nra;ag;gLfpwJ mq;F xU nfhs;if
xU rpy FiwghL fhuzkhf ab-njhlf;fj;jpypUe;Nj vd;W
mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. rpW my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l fl;rpfNsh>
172 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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tpsk;gu-,lNkh ,y;yhky; ,Ug;gJ cWjp nra;ag;gLfpwJ. fhg;gPL

Mdhy; xU nfhs;if ntw;wplj;jpy; cs;sJ> Vnddpy; ‘fhg;GWjp


nra;a KbahJ’> jtiz nrYj;j KbahJ kPl;G Vnddpy;>
mJ fly; fhg;gPL tof;F jtpu ‘$ypau;’ vd;W> xg;ge;jj;jpy;
EioAk; Neuj;jpy; xU fhg;gPL nra;a KbahJ vd;W cWjp> Fwpg;Gfs;
mq;F (`u;]; vs Kj;J MAs; cWjp ,iz). NkYk; fhg;gP
l;lhsupd; fhg;gPl;L njhif kPjhd fhg;GWjpf;F fhg;gPL jtpu;f;fg;gl
Ntz;ba ,lj;ij gpbj;jk; nra;a KbahJ.
6. ,og;ig jzpf;Fk;: jP tpgj;J Vw;gLk; NghJ xU jP fhg;GWjp
nfhs;if tof;fpy;> vLj;Jf;fhl;L> xU tpgj;J fhg;gPL NghJ>
mtUf;F fhg;gPL ,y;iy Nghd;w ,og;igj; jzpf;f my;yJ
Fiwf;f eltbf;if vLg;gJ nfhs;if itj;jpUg;gtu; flik>
kPjKs;s ghJfhg;G mtuJ rpwe;j nra;a Ntz;Lk; nrhj;J
,y;iynadpy;> fhg;gPl;lhsu; jdJ ftdf;Fiwthy; Vw;gl;l
e\;lj;ijg; gzk; nrYj;Jtijj; jtpu;f;fyhk;. fhg;gPl;lhsupd;
,j;jifa eltbf;iffis vLj;jjpy;> mtUf;F Vw;gl;l
e\;lj;jpw;F ,og;gPL Nfhu Ntz;Lk; vd;w cupikAs;sJ.
7. fld; gw;Wupik khw;wPL Nfhl;ghL: fld; gw;Wupik khw;wPL vd;w
Nfhl;ghL> mJ> jP kw;Wk; fly;rhu; fhg;gPl;Lf;Fg; nghUe;jf;$ba
tifapy;> FiwghLfs; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;Lf;Fg; nghUe;JfpwJ.
fhg;gPL vd;w nfhs;ifapd; gb> fhg;gPlhdJ> Nguplu; fhg;gPL
nra;j e\;lj;jpd; cz;ikahd njhifia kl;LNk kPl;f KbAk;>
,jdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ig tpl mjpf gyd; ngw mDkjpf;f
KbahJ. fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l nrhj;jpd; kPjhd ,og;G> ahUila
gq;fpw;F ve;j jtWk; ,y;yhky; tha;g;ghy; vOe;jpUe;jhYk;>
fhg;gPl;lhsu; kPJ kl;LNk cupik Nfhu KbAk;. VNjDk; xU
%d;whk; jug;gpduhy; ,og;G my;yJ FWk;Gj;jdj;jpdhy; e\;lk;
vOe;jhy;> fhg;gPlhsu; kw;Wk; jtW nra;gtUf;F vjpuhf tof;Fj;
njhlu cupik ngWfpwJ. Mdhy; fhg;gPL xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU
fhg;gPLf;fhd xg;ge;jkhFk; vd;gjhy;> fhg;gPlhsu; ,UtuplkpUe;J
kPz;L> mjd; %yk; jdJ fhg;gPl;bypUe;J ,yhgk; <l;Ltjw;F
mDkjpf;f KbahJ mtu; fhg;GWjp nra;gtiu my;yJ jtW
nra;gtiu vjpu;j;J cupik Nfhu KbAk;.
8. gq;fspg;G jj;Jtk;: fld; gw;Wupik khw;wPL vd;w Nfhl;ghl;ilg;
NghyNt> gq;fspg;Gr; rpj;jhe;jKk;> mjhtJ> jP> fly;rhu;
fhg;GWjp Nghd;w xg;ge;jq;fSf;F kl;LNk nghUe;JfpwJ.
gq;fspg;G muRfspd; Nfhl;ghL: ‘,ul;ilg; fhg;gPl;by;> midj;J
fhg;GWjpj; njhifAk;> xt;nthU KiwAk; cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
njhiff;F Vw;g fl;lzr; Rikia gfpu;e;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
xU fhg;GWjpjhuu; e\;lj;jpd; tpfpjj;ijtpl mjpfkhf gzk;
nrYj;Jfpwhu; vd;why;> mtu; jdJ rf fhg;GWu;fsplkpUe;J
tUk; kpif cupikia kPl;f cupikAz;L. mtw;wpd; tpiy
tpfpjj;ijf; fhl;bYk; FiwthfNt Cjpak; ngw;Ws;sdu;.’

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fhg;gPL gq;fspg;Gr; rpj;jhe;jj;ijg; ngw rpy mj;jpahtrpa epge;jidfs;
Njitg;gLfpd;wd.
9. nfhs;if tpjpKiwfs;: jP fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhy msT> tof;fkhf Xuhz;L fhyk; tiu> fhg;gPl;lhsu; kPjhd
Fwpg;Gfs; nghWg;G jhdhfNt KbTf;F tUfpwJ. fly; fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jk;
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;F my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l flw;gazj;jpw;F
,Uf;fpwJ. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;F> fg;gy; gazk; ,d;Dk;
Kbthftpy;iy vd;whYk;> me;jf; fhyk; fhyhtjpahd gpwF>
fhg;GWjpfhuupd; nghWg;G KbTf;F tUfpwJ. mJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l
flw;gazk; vd;why;> xU tUlj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd fhyk; MFk;
tiu> me;jf; fhg;GWjpfhuupd; nghWg;G njhlu;fpwJ. MAs;
fhg;gPl;by; xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ xU tUlj;jpw;F kl;Lk; xg;ge;jk;
my;y> ,J xU Fwpg;gpl;l vz;zpf;ifapyhd Mz;LfshfNth
my;yJ fhg;gPl;lhsupd; tho;f;ifapd; rkepiyNah MFk;.

8.3.3 MAs; fhg;GWjp


MAs; fhg;gPl;L tzpf fhg;gPL rl;lk;> 1938 (jpUj;jk; Kjy; Njjp tiu)
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fof rl;lk;> 1956 kw;Wk; 1999 fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw
kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Miza rl;lk;> 1956 Mk; Mz;L MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf;
fof rl;lk;> ,e;jpahtpy; ,dkakhf;fg;gLjy;> MAs; fhg;GWjp
tzpfk; Mfpatw;iw toq;f ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. mj;jifa midj;J
njhopiyAk; ,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fofj;jpw;F (ICICI) khw;Wtjd;
%yk;> mjw;fhd tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; xOq;FKiwfSf;F toptif
ICICI Ntiy nra;fpwJ. mjhtJ mjd; epu;thfk;> epjp xJf;fPL> epjp>
fzf;Ffs; kw;Wk; jzpf;if Mfpait njhlu;ghdit MFk;.
nrg;lk;gu; 1k; Njjp Kjy; 28k; Njjp tiu 1956 brk;gu;> 1999 tiu
MAs; fhg;gl P L
; tzpfk;> ,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gl P L
; f; fofj;jhy; gpuj;jpNafkhf
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. kw;Wk; MAs; fhg;gl P L
; f; fofj;jhy; epu;tfpf;fg;gLk;
rl;lk;> 1956 MFk;. ‘fhg;GWjp xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Mizaj;
rl;lk;> 1999 (mjhtJ 29 brk;gu;> 1999) njhlq;fg;gl;l gpwF> MAs;
fhg;gl
P L
; tzpfk; kw;w ,e;jpa fhg;gl P L
; epWtdq;fSk;> ,e;jpa MAs;
fhg;gl
P L
; f; fofj;jpd; VfNghf cupikAk; KbTf;F te;Js;sJ.
‘MAs; fhg;gl ; y; xg;ge;jk;’ vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhg;gl
P b P i
; l
fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> cj;juthjk; my;yJ epakdjhuu;/xJf;fL P ngw;wtu;>
rl;l thupRf;F my;yJ rl;lG+u;tkhd thupRjhuu;> mtuJ kuzk; Fwpj;j
tof;fpy; cWjp nra;ag;gl;l xU njhif> xU Fwpg;gpl;lg; gzk; my;yJ
ed;ik gaf;fpwJ. fhg;gl P l
; hsupd; kuzk; njhlu;ghf khje;NjhWk;>
fhyhz;L> miuahz;L my;yJ tUlhe;jpu jtizfspy; gzk;
nrYj;Jjy;.(ahUila tho;fi ; f fhg;gL
P nra;ag;gLfpwJ) my;yJ xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpy;> xU mwf;fl;lis nfhs;if tof;fpy;> kw;Wk; xU
KO MAs; nfhs;if fPo>; kw;Wk; fhg;gL P kuzk; kPJ nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
1938> fhg;GWjp rl;lj;jpd; 2 (11) ,d; gb> ‘MAs; fhg;GWjp
tzpfk;’ vd;gJ> kdpj tho;fi ; fapd; kPJ fhg;gl
P L
; g; xg;ge;jq;fis
174 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 174 5/20/2019 12:58:01 PM


nfhz;LtUk; tzpfk; vd;W nghUs;gLk; mjpy; gzk; nrYj;Jjy; fhg;gPL

vd;gJ> kuzk; Fwpj;J cWjp nra;ag;gLfpwJ (tpgj;jpy; ,wg;igj;


jtpu) my;yJ kdpj tho;fi ; fia rhu;ej; ve;j xU neUf;fbAk; epfo;eJ
;
nfhz;bUf;fpwJ> kw;Wk; xU jtiz rhu;eJ ; xU gjtpf; fhyj;jpy;
fhg;GWjpia nrYj;Jtjw;F cl;gl;L VNjDk; xg;ge;jk; kdpj tho;fi ; f Fwpg;Gfs;
kPJk;> gpd;tUtdtw;iw cs;slf;fpajhff; fUjg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.
(a) fhg;gPL xg;ge;jj;jpy; toq;fg;gl;lhy; Cdk; kw;Wk; ,ul;il
my;yJ Kk;klq;fhd tpgj;Jf;fhd rYiffs; toq;Fjy;;.
(b) kdpj tho;f;ifapd; kPJ md;dpaq;fis toq;FtJ kw;Wk;
(c) ve;j xU gpwtpapYk; ,Ue;J nrYj;jj;jf;f cjtpj;njhiffs;
kw;Wk; md;dpaq;fis toq;Fjy;. Fwpg;gpl;l njhopy;>
tzpfk; my;yJ Ntiy tha;g;gpy; <Lgl;Ls;s egu;fspd;
epthuzk; kw;Wk; guhkupg;Gf;F kl;Lk; nghUe;Jk; epjp
my;yJ ,J Nghd;w egu;fis rhu;e;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd gy;NtW mk;rq;fis ,g;NghJ tpthjpg;Nghk;.
,it gpd;tUkhW:

I. fhg;gPL nra;j tl;b:


‘fhg;GWjpj; njhif> fhg;GWjp ,y;iy’ vd;gJ fhg;GWjp rl;lj;jpd;
mjpfk; cs;sJ. ,t;thwhf> MAs; fhg;gPl;by; cj;juthjk;
mspf;fg;glhjtiu> MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jk; ntw;wplj;jpy;
cs;sJ. fhg;GWjp itj;jpUg;gtu; (mjhtJ nfhs;ifjhuu;) kw;Wk; MAs;
fhg;gPl;lhsu; MfpNahUf;F ,ilNa ,Uf;Fk; xU njhif cwtpy;>
fhg;GWjp Mu;tk; vOfpwJ> fhg;gPlhsu; ,we;jjd; %yk; ,of;fg;gl;L>
mtu; capNuhL ,Uf;Fk; tiu njhlu;e;J Mjhak; ngw;W tUfpwhu;.
NtW thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> MAs; fhg;GWjp nra;ag;gl;l egu;
njhlu;e;J ,Ug;gjhy; jhd; nghUshjhu uPjpahf Mjhak; ngw KbAk;>
my;yJ fhg;gPl;L egupd; ,wg;gpdhy; mtu; epjp ,og;Gf;F cs;shf
NeupLk; NghJ kl;LNk> xU fhg;GWjpf;fj;jf;f Mu;tj;ij mtuhy; ngw
,aYk;. vdNt> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl Ntz;ba xU epjp my;yJ gzk;
rhu;e;j mf;fiwiag; ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,uj;jk; kw;Wk; ghrj;jpd;
ntWk; cwTfSk;> typikahdjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jdhy;> xU kfDf;F
je;ijapd; tho;f;ifapy; ve;j mf;fiwAk; ,y;iy.ahu; mtu; Vio
jhd; kfdplk; Mjuit ngWfpwhu;.
MAs; fhg;gPl;by;> fhg;gPL xg;ge;jj;jpy; cs;splg;gLk;NghJ
fhg;gPl;by; ve;j Neuj;jpy; toq;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gij cWjp nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. me;j egupd; ,we;j Neuj;jpy; my;yJ fhg;gPL vg;NghJ tUk;
vd;w NghJ mJ epfohky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tpjpf;F fhuzk;>
MAs; fhg;gPl;by; xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ> ,d;];A+ud;]; xg;ge;jk; my;y
vd;gjhFk;.
i. fhg;gPL nra;a ,ayhj tl;b: gpd;tUk; %d;W re;ju;g;gq;fspy;>
fhg;GWjp nra;af;$ba tl;b ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> mjw;F Mjhuk; vJTk;
Njitapy;iy:
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 175

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 175 5/20/2019 12:58:01 PM


fhg;gPL (a) nrhe;j tho;tpy;: ,e;j tp\aj;jpy; tl;b Cfpf;fg;gLk;> Vnddpy;
xUtu; mtUila Njhl;lj;ij ghJfhf;f KbAk;> mtUila
tUq;fhy Mjhaq;fs; my;yJ Nrkpg;gpd; ,og;G mtUila
mfhy kuzj;jpd; tpisthf ,Uf;fyhk; vdg;gLfpwJ.
Fwpg;Gfs; (b) fztd; tho;tpy; kidtp: ,e;j tp\aj;jpy;> fztu;
rl;lg;gb jdJ kidtpf;F MjuT nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;
vd;gjhy;> tl;b Cfg;gLfpwJ> vdNt mts; fztdpd;
tho;f;ifapy; fhg;GWjp nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
(c) kidtp tho;tpy; fztd;: ,e;j tp\aj;jpy;> kidtp
fy;tpawpT ngw;W> cWg;gpduhf ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk tl;b
Cfg;gLfpwJ.
,e;j re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> fhg;GWjp nra;a Ntz;ba njhiff;F
vy;iyNa ,y;iy (mjhtJ> tl;b tuk;gpy;yhj msTf;F ,Uf;fyhk;)>
kw;Wk; mtu; tpUk;gpagb ve;j xU njhifAk;> my;yJ ve;j xU
njhifiaAk; cWjp nra;a KbfpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> eilKiwapy;
cWjp nra;ag;gl;l njhif> fhg;GWjp nrYj;j Ntz;ba epjp epiy
kw;Wk; jpwd; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
ii. fhg;gPL nra;a Kbahj tl;b: fhg;GWjp nra;a Ntz;ba tl;b vd
Cfpf;fg;gl Kbahj tof;Ffis> tl;b gw;wpa xU rhd;iw ,uz;L
jiyg;Gfspy; (i) egu;fs; njhlu;G nfhs;s KbahJ. (ii) egu;fs;
njhlu;Gilatu;fs;.
(i) egu;fs; njhlu;ghdit: fztd; kidtpiaj; jtpu NtW
cwTfs; ,Ue;jhy;> je;ij kw;Wk; kfd;> rpj;jg;gh kw;Wk;
kUkfd;> rNfhjup> rNfhjud; MfpNahUf;F fhg;gPL nra;a
Ntz;Lk;. mtu; kw;nwhU cwT MjuT vd;gij ep&gpj;jhy;>
mtu; kl;LNk kw;w cwT tho;f;if cWjp nra;a KbAk;.
,t;thwhf> xU je;ijf;F kfidr; rhu;e;jpUf;fpwhu;
vd;gij ep&gpdhyd;wp> jd; kfdpd; tho;f;ifapy; ve;j
xU fhg;GWjp Mu;tKk; ,y;iy. mJNghy> xU kfDf;F>
jdf;F Mjuthf ,Uf;Fk; jhapd; tho;f;ifapy;> ahUf;Fk;
fhg;gPL fpilahJ. xU tpjit rNfhjup mtis Mjupf;Fk;
mtuJ rNfhjud; tho;f;if kPJ fhg;gPL nra;fpwJ.
,j;jifa cwTfspy;> gz tl;b ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy;>
fhg;GWjpj; njhifiag; nghWj;j tiu tuk;G VJkpy;iy.
Mdhy; tof;fkhf fhg;Gupik nrYj;Jk; jpwd; fhg;gPl;L
jpl;lk; njhifia jPu;khdpf;fpwJ.
(ii) njhlu;gpy;yhj egu;fs;: tzpfk; my;yJ xg;ge;j cwthy; fhg;gPL
ngwj;jf;f Mu;tj;ij gpd;tUgit nfhz;Ls;sd:
(a) fldhspapd; tho;ehspy; fldspg;gtu; 'fldhspapd; mstpw;F'
fld; toq;Fgtu;. Mthu;.
(b) xU fldspg;gtupd; tho;f;ifapy; xU fld; toq;Fgtu;>
mtUila Kf;fpa fldhspapd; tho;f;ifapy; kw;Wk; mtuJ
cWjpahd> mtuJ cj;juthjk; mstpw;F epr;rapf;fg;gl;ltu;
176 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 176 5/20/2019 12:58:01 PM


(c) xU $l;lhsp (xU epWtdj;jpy;)> gpe;ijatu; KjyPL nra;j fhg;gPL

%yjdj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu> xU rf gq;fhspf; $l;lhspahf


,Uf;Fk; NghJ> mtUila %yjdj;jpd; gq;F mtuJ
thupRfSf;F toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; tpisthf epjp
gw;whf;Fiw Vw;glyhk;. $l;lhspfSf;F ngUk; epjp ,og;G Fwpg;Gfs;
mspf;fpwJ.
(d) Ntiy nra;Ak; gjtpf;fhyj;jpd; rk;gsk;> my;yJ rhjhuz
rk;gsk; tiu mtuJ Kjyhsp xUtupd; tho;f;ifapy; xU
Copau; xg;ge;jk; nra;ag;gl;lhu;.
(e) mtuJ Kf;fpa Copau; tho;f;ifapy; xU njhopyjpgu;> v.fh.
nghJ Nkyhsu; my;yJ jiyikg; nghwpahsUf;F ,og;G
Vw;gLk; tiu rk msT nfhz;l kw;Wk; mDgtk; nfhz;l
xU kdpjd; fpilf;Fk; tiu> mj;jifa Copau; jpwd; kw;Wk;
mwpT ,og;G fhuzkhf Kjyhspaplk; yhgk; Vw;fpwhu;.
Nkw;fz;l tof;Ffspy;> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gLk; ve;jnthU egupd;
kiwT fhuzkhf epjp ,og;G Vw;gLk; msTf;F> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gLk;
kw;nwhUtupd; tho;ehspy; xU tiuaWf;fg;gl;l tl;b cs;sJ vd;gij
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> ,d;ndhUtupd; tho;ehspy;
mtuJ tl;bf;F mjpfkhf fhg;gPL ,y;iy vd;gijAk; mwpe;J nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> cupik Nfhuiy ntspg;gLj;Jk;
Neuj;jpy; fhg;gPL nra;jtUf;F> tho;tpy; ve;j xU cs;shu;e;j
mf;fiwAk; ,y;iy vd;w cz;ikia mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
,J vJthf ,Ue;jhYk;> fhg;gPL KOj; njhifia nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.
,jw;Ff; fhuzk;> MAs; fhg;gPL vd;gJ xU fhg;gPl;Lg; gzp my;y.
vdNt> xU fldhspapd; tho;thjhuj;jpw;F fhg;gPL mspf;fg;gl;lhy;>
fldhsu; flid jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jpdhy;> fldhsu; fldhspapd; fldpy;
ve;jtpjkhd tl;bAk; ,y;yhjNghJ> fldhspapd; kuzj;jpd; kPJ
<Lnra;a Kbahj msT kPl;fg;glyhk;. flid jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jgtupd;
tho;ehs; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jg;gLk;.

II. tho;f;iff; nfhs;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;Jjy;


ngUk;ghd;ik ngw;Ws;s xU egu;> rupahd xg;ge;jj;jpy; Eioe;jhy;>
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifia RakhfTk;> me;j fhg;gPL ahu; kPJ MAs;
fhg;gPl;L nfhs;ifahf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gijAk; fz;lwpayhk;. xU rpy
epge;jidfSf;F cl;gl;L> xUtupd; tho;f;ifj; Jizia my;yJ
Foe;ijapd; tho;f;ifapd; kPJ nfhs;iffis ntspNa vLj;Jf;
nfhs;syhk;. ngz;fspd; tho;f;if gw;wpa Kd;nkhopTfs;> <l;lf;$ba
tUkhdk; my;yJ tUkhd tupia <u;f;Fk; my;yJ nry;tj;ij <l;bj;
je;j tUkhdj;Jld;> Mz; capu;fSf;F ,izahf elj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
kw;w R+o;epiyfspy;> $Ljyhf fhg;gPL tR+ypf;fg;gLfpwJ.
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifia vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; xUtu;>
fhg;GWjpj; jpl;lk; (mjhtJ> ,e;jpahtpd; MAs; fhg;gPl;L fofk;) %yk;
toq;fg;gLk; xU Kd;nkhopT gbtj;ij epug;g Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthU
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
; 177

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fhg;gPL tifahd nfhs;iff;Fk; ntt;NtW tifahd Kd;nkhopT tbtq;fs;
cs;sd. ,e;j Kd;nkhopag;gl;l gbtj;jpd; MNuhf;fpaj;jpw;F mtuJ
FLk;g tuyhW> taJ> tho;f;if Kiw> gof;f tof;fq;fs; kw;Wk;
nfhs;ifapd; msT> tif kw;Wk; fhy tiuaiw Mfpatw;iwg;
Fwpg;Gfs; gw;wpa jfty; Njitg;gLfpwJ. ey;y ek;gpf;ifapy; cs;s vy;yhf;
Nfs;tpfSf;Fk; Kd;nkhopag;gl;ltu;fs; gjpy; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;.
mtu;> vy;yh cz;ikfisAk; KOikahf ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
Kd;nkhopag;gl;ltu;fs; kUj;Jtg; gupNrhjidAk; Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,e;j Kd;nkhopT gbtk; Kjy; fhg;gPL njhifAld;>
mNj epge;jidapd;wp Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lhy;> Kjy; fhg;gPL urPjpy;
(Vw;G fbjkhf nray;gLfpwJ)> mq;F> xU gpizg;G xg;ge;jk; kw;Wk;
,ilA+W nra;ag;gl;l urPJ Mfpait xNu Njjpapy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd.
Kd;nkhopT gbtk; fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilahFk;. MAs;
fhg;gPL xg;ge;jk; xU ‘kpfr; rpwe;j ek;gpf;if’ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
mjhtJ> KO ey;nyz;zj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> Kd;nkhopT gbtj;jpy;
VNjDk; mwpf;if ngha;ahdJ my;yJ nghUs;rhu; cz;ikfis %b
kiwf;fhky; ,Ue;jhy;> fhg;gPl;lhsu; nfhs;ifiaj; jtpu;j;Jtplyhk;.

III. xg;gilg;G kjpg;G


‘xg;gilg;G kjpg;G’ vd;gJ fhg;gPl;lhsu; nfhs;if ehzaj;jpd;
ve;j Neuj;jpYk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba kjpg;G my;yJ fUj;jpidf;
Fwpg;gpLtjhFk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F gpd;du;> ,af;fg;gLk;
xg;ge;jj;jpd; nkhj;j ntspNaw;wj;jpy;> jdJ nfhs;ifia xg;gilj;J>
mjd; kPJ jdJ cupikfis mKy;gLj;JfpwJ. RUf;fkhf> ,e;j
ruzile;jy; kjpg;G> xg;ge;jj;ij epWj;j KbT nra;jhy;> fhg;GWjp
itj;jpUg;gtUf;F nrYj;j Ntz;ba nuhf;f kjpg;ig Fwpf;fpwJ.
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyg;gFjpapy; ,aq;Fk; ,e;j nfhs;ifahdJ>
xU xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig ngWfpwJ. ,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gPl;L fofk;> ,J
njhlu;ghf rpy tpjpfis toq;FfpwJ.
xt;nthU KiwAk; fhg;gPl;by; njhifg; gzj;ij nrYj;jpdhYk;>
xg;gilg;G kjpg;G mjpfupf;fpwJ. cz;ikahd xg;gilg;G kjpg;G
fzf;fPL tpsf;fg;glk;> nfhs;ifapy; Nru;f;fg;gLfpwJ. nghJthf> Kjy;
Mz;bd; fhg;gPL kw;Wk; tpgj;J Mjhaj;jpw;fhf nrYj;jg;gl;l> midj;J
$Ljy; fhg;gPLfisAk; jtpu;j;J> fhg;gPl;bd; %yk; nrYj;jg;gLk;
nkhj;j njhifapy; Fiwe;jgl;rk; 30 rjtPjj;jpw;F rkkhd xg;gilg;G
kjpg;G ,Uf;Fk;. NkYk;> ,e;j nfhs;if ,yhgj;jpy; xd;whf ,Ue;jhy;
kl;LNk> jw;NghJs;s VjhtJ xU Cf;fj;njhif Nru;f;ifapd; gz
kjpg;ig mDkjpf;Fk;.

IV. fl;lz kjpg;G


,e;jf; nfhs;if xU ‘xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig’ ngw;w gpd;du;> nfhs;ifjhuu;
fhg;gPL nrYj;Jtij epWj;jtpy;iy vd;why;> nfhs;if Kw;wpYk;
ntw;wplkhfptplhJ. Mdhy;> ‘gzk; nrYj;Jk; nfhs;if’ njhlu;e;J
178 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 178 5/20/2019 12:58:01 PM


nray;gLk;. mj;jifa epiyapy; nfhs;if itj;jpUg;gtu;> ‘gzk; fhg;gPL

nrYj;Jk; kjpg;ig’ cupikahf;fyhk;. epr;rakhf> mj;jifa kjpg;G


nfhs;ifapd; Kbtpy; kl;LNk nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;; ,e;j fhuzj;jpw;fhf
jhd;> ,e;j kjpg;G vg;NghJk; ‘xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig’ tpl mjpfkhf
cs;sJ. ,e;j nfhs;if> xg;gilg;gjw;f;F Kd;Ng gzk; nrYj;jg;gl Fwpg;Gfs;
Ntz;Lk;.
‘gzk; nrYj;Jk; kjpg;G’ vd;gJ> nfhs;ifapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s
fhg;gPl;Lj; njhiffspd; vz;zpf;iff;Fk;> cz;ikapy; nrYj;jg;gl;l
fhg;gPl;Lj; njhiffspd; vz;zpf;iff;Fk; Vw;g cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
njhiff;Fk; xNu tpfpjj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. xU R+j;jpuj;jpd; tbtj;jpy;:

V. fld; kjpg;G
,e;jpa MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fofk; ntspapl;Ls;s nfhs;iffSf;F
,zq;f ‘xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig’ ngw;Ws;s epiyapy;> mJ xU ‘fld;
kjpg;igAk; ngWfpwJ’. fld; kjpg;gpd; KO njhifia cWjp nra;a
eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; nfhs;iffspy; 90 rjtPjk; xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig
fzf;fpLfpwJ. kw;Wk; gzk; nrYj;j Ntz;ba nfhs;ifapy;> 85
rjtPjk; xg;gilg;G kjpg;ig fzf;fpLfpwJ. gpd;du;> me;j njhif
5-f;F mUfpYs;s fPo;kl;lj;jpy; KOikahf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 150
f;Fk; Fiwthd njhiffSf;fhf fld;fs; toq;fg;gltpy;iy. 1976
[dtup 1 md;W ntspaplg;gl;l nfhs;iffisg; nghWj;j tiuapy;>
250 f;Fk; Fiwthd njhiffSf;fhd fld;fs; toq;fg;gltpy;iy.
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; fofk;> mt;tg;NghJ rup nra;J tUk; epiyapy;>
,JNghd;w tpjpKiwfSf;Fk; epge;jidfSf;Fk; cl;gl;L fld;
toq;fg;gLfpwJ. jw;NghJ tR+ypf;fg;gLk; tl;b tpfpjk; Mz;Lf;F 9
rjtPjk; MFk;. ,J miuahz;lhf cs;sJ. MW khjq;fis tpl
Fiwthd fhyj;Jf;F fld;fs; toq;fg;glkhl;lhJ. gzk; ,of;fg;gLk;
msTf;F ve;j Mgj;Jk; ,y;iy vd;gjhy;> ,e;epWtdk; nra;a $ba
rpwe;j KjyPlhf ,J cs;sJ. Vnddpy;> xg;Gf;nfhz;l Neuj;Jf;Fs;
flid jpUg;gpr; nrYj;Jtjpy;iy. ,e;jf; nfhs;if ,Wjpahf
xg;gilf;fg;gLk; NghJ my;yJ fPNo tpOe;jhy;> tl;b jpul;ly; njhif
Nfhupf;if njhifapy; ,Ue;J fopf;fg;gLfpwJ.

VI. tho;tpay; nfhs;iffs; xg;gilg;G


xU MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;if xg;ge;jj;Jf;fhd rhd;W> xU nrhj;J
MFk;. fhg;gPl;lhsupd; ,wg;G Fwpj;J> fhg;gPl;L epWtdj;jpd; rl;lg;
gpujpepjpfs;> fhg;gPl;bd; fhuzkhf NtW ve;j flidAk; xNu
khjpupahf ngwhky;> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l kidapd; cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
xU gFjpapd; njhifia tR+ypf;fyhk;. fhg;gPl;lhsupd; ,wg;G Fwpj;J>
fhg;gPl;L epWtdj;jpd; rl;lg; gpujpepjpfsplk; cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
njhifiar; Nrfupf;f KbAk;. ,J fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l Njhl;lj;jpd;
gFjpahf cs;sJ. xU tho;tpay; nfhs;ifapd; cupikahsu; vy;yh
nrhj;Jf;fisAk; NghyNt ,e;j nrhj;ijAk; ifahs KbAk;. mtu;

Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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fhg;gPL mij tpw;f my;yJ fldhf ngw my;yJ mij guprhf nfhLf;f
KbAk;.

VII. nfhs;if - cupikahsu; %yk; epakdk;


Fwpg;Gfs; jdJ nrhe;j tho;f;if Fwpj;j xU tho;tpay; nfhs;ifia
itj;jpUg;gtu;> nfhs;if Kjpu;tjw;Fs; mtuJ kuzk; Vw;gl;lhy;>
nfhs;if gzj;ij ngw ve;j xU egiuf; epakpf;fTk;> rl;lg;gbahd
cupik cs;sJ. epakpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba egu;> ‘epakpf;fg;gl;ltu;’
vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. fhg;gPl;lhsu; ,we;jhy;> nfhs;if gzj;ij
epakdjhuUf;F toq;f Ntz;Lk;.nfhs;if Kjpu;T mile;J fhg;gPL
nra;ag;gl;l gpwF> xU epakdjhuUf;F cWjp nra;ag;gl;l njhifiag;
ngWtjw;F epakpf;f KbahJ vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
nfhs;if Kjpu;r;rpailtjw;F Kd;> fhg;gPl;lhsu; ,we;Jtpl;lhy;>
nfhs;ifapy; ghJfhf;fg;gl;l njhifia> epakdjhuUf;F nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk;. nfhs;if itj;jpUg;gtupd; tho;ehspy;> epakdk; nra;tjd;
%yk;> fhg;gPl;lhsu;fs; ,e;j nfhs;ifia epWj;jptplyhk;. nfhs;ifapy;
cs;s cupikfis mtUf;F gpupj;Jf; nfhLf;ftpy;iy. mtu; mjd;
kPJ mjpfhuj;ijf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhu;.
‘epakpf;fg;gl;ltu;fs;’ nfhs;if gzj;ij epakdjhuUf;F
nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> fhg;gPl;lhsupd; thupRjhuu;fSf;F fhg;gPL
nra;a Ntz;bajpy;iy vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ. D.M. Kjypahu; vs ,e;jpa
fhg;GWjp kw;Wk; tq;fpapay; ngUepWtdk; (1957)> ,e;j epakdjhuu;>
jiyg;G njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidia KbT nra;ahky; fhg;gPl;lhsu; %yk;
gzk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s 'ngWeu;' vd;W epakpf;fg;gl;ltu;. kD jhf;fy;
toq;fg;glhj epiyapy;> rl;l eltbf;iffspy; <LgLtjhy;> cupik
Nfhuiy jhkjg;gLj;jp ,Uf;fyhk;. fhyjhkjk; kw;Wk; nrytpdj;ij
cs;slf;fpa xU jpwikahd rl;l ePjpkd;wj;jpypUe;J ‘thupRupik
rhd;wpjio’ toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j jhkjk; kw;Wk; nryit jtpu;f;f>
nghJthf nfhs;if itj;jpUg;gtu;fspd; epakdk; Kd;Dupik
mspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifia jdJ nrhe;j tho;f;ifapy;
itj;jpUg;gtu; kl;LNk epakdk; nra;a KbAk; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.
nfhs;ifapd; tFj;jik my;yJ khw;wk; Mfpatw;iw ngaupl
,ayhJ. NkYk;> $l;L tho;T nfhs;if fhuzkhf> cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
capu;fs; Kjy; ,wg;G tiu cs;s njhif> capu; gpioj;jtUf;F
nrYj;jg;gLtjhy;> fhg;gPl;L egu;fis epakpf;f KbahJ. mt;thwhd
epiyapy;> fhg;GWjp nra;ag;gl;l midj;J epakdhjuu;fSf;F xNu
Neuj;jpy; kuzk; Vw;gl;lhy; kl;LNk> gzk; ngWtjw;F Ntl;GkD
jhf;fy; nra;a KbAk;.
gpupT 39> fhg;GWjp rl;lk; 1938> nfhs;if itj;jpUg;gtupd;
‘epakdk;’ njhlu;ghd rpy tpjpfis cUthf;FfpwJ:

180 Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;

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8.3.4 jP fhg;GWjp fhg;gPL

jP fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jq;fs;> 1938> (jpUj;jk; nra;ag;gl;l Njjp)>


nghJ fhg;gPl;L tzpfk; (Njrpakakhf;fy;) rl;lk;> 1972 kw;Wk;
fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Mizar; rl;lk;> 1999> kw;Wk;
Fwpg;Gfs;
,q;fpyhe;J kw;Wk; ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ePjpkd;wq;fs;. ,e;jpahtpy; jP
fhg;GWjp tzpfk; Njrpakakhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W> 1972 nghJ
fhg;gPl;L tzpf (ehl;Lilik) rl;lk; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. [dtup 1k; Njjp>
1974 Kjy; brk;gu; 28k; Njjp> 1999 tiu jP fhg;GWjp tzpfk;> ,e;jpa
nghJ fhg;GWjpf; fofk; (GICI) %yk; kl;LNk khw;wpaikf;fg;gl;lJ.
Nkw;$wpa rl;lk; kw;Wk; mjd; ehd;F Jiz epWtdq;fs;> (i) Njrpa
fhg;gPl;L fof epWtdk;> nfhy;fj;jh> (ii) epA+ ,e;jpah m\;A+ud;];
fk;ngdp ypkpnll;> Kk;ig (iii) Xupaz;ly; gau; kw;Wk; nghJ fhg;gPl;L
fof epWtdk;> GJ nly;yp kw;Wk; (iv) Aidnll; ,e;jpah gau; kw;Wk;
nghJ fhg;gPl;L fof epWtdk;> nrd;id.
NkYk;> ‘fhg;gPl;L xOq;FKiw’ kw;Wk; Nkk;ghl;L Mizar;
rl;lk;> 1999> (mjhtJ 29 brk;gu; 1999) njhlq;FtjpypUe;J> gpw ,e;jpa
fhg;gPl;L epWtdq;fSf;F jP fhg;GWjp tzpfk; jpwe;J itf;fg;gl;lJ>
,e;jpa nghJ fhg;gPl;Lf; fofj;jpd; Nkk;ghl;L cupik kw;Wk; mjd;
ehd;F Jiz epWtdq;fs; (NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy;) nghJ fhg;gPl;L
tzpfj;ij nray;gLj;j xU KbTf;F te;jd.
2002 nghJ fhg;GWjp tzpf (Njrpakakhf;fy;) jpUj;jr; rl;lk;>
mjd; ehd;F Jiz epWtdq;fspy; ,Ue;J> ,e;jpa nghJ fhg;GWjpf;
$l;Lj;jhgdj;jpd; (GICI) ,d; fPo; fye;Jiuahliy Nkw;nfhs;s
Kw;gLfpwJ. ,e;j jpUj;jr; rl;lk;> jpUj;jj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ehd;F fhg;gPl;L
epWtdq;fs; tof;fk;Nghy; nghJ fhg;gPl;L tu;j;jfj;ij elj;Jk;
vd;W njuptpf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> GICI nghJ fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;ij nra;a
epWj;JtNjhL> mJ kW fhg;gPl;L tzpfj;ij kl;LNk Nkw;nfhs;fpwJ.
jP fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jk;: ‘jP fhg;GWjp’ vd;why;> neUg;gpdhy;
Kl;Lf; fl;il my;yJ Nrjhuj;jpw;F Nrjk; VNjDk; Vw;gl;lhy;
mjw;F vjpuhf fhg;gPL vd;W mu;j;jk;. jP fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jk; xU
xg;ge;jk; MFk;. cz;ikahd njhif nfhs;ifapd; msit tpl
xUNghJk; mjpfupf;fhJ vd;w epge;jidf;F cl;gl;L> xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fhyj;jpy; neUg;G> fhg;gPl;L njhif> fhg;gPl;L nrYj;jg;gl;lijj;
fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> Fwpg;gpl;l tiuaWf;fg;gl;l nghUs; fhuzkhf>
mJ epiyngwf;$Lk; my;yJ mjd; %yk; mopf;fg;gLk;.
jP fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fis tpupthf ghu;g;Nghk;.
,it gpd;tUkhW:

I. jP fhg;GWjp xg;ge;jj;jpd; rpwg;gpay;Gfs;


jP fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa gz;Gfs;:
1. ,J xU ,og;gPL xg;ge;jk; MFk;. jP nfhs;ifapy; Vw;gLk;
,og;igf; fhg;gPL nra;jhy;> mJ fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl;l njhifia
Rafw;gpj;jy; nghUs;
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MBA_II_Business-Laws.indd 181 5/20/2019 12:58:01 PM


fhg;gPL tpl mjpfkhf ,y;yhj msTf;F> cz;ikahd ,og;gpypUe;J
kPs KbAk;.
2. ,J kpfTk; ey;y ek;gpf;if nfhz;l xg;ge;jk; MFk;. mjhtJ>
‘cngw;upNk /gpNjap’. Kd;nkhopgtu;fs;> fhg;gPL nra;ag;gl
Fwpg;Gfs; Ntz;ba tp\ak; njhlu;ghd tpupthd jfty;fis mspf;f
Ntz;ba fl;lhak; cs;sJ. mtu; midj;J %yg;nghUs;
cz;ikfisAk; rupahfTk;> KOikahfTk; ntspg;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk. ,y;iynadpy;> fhg;GWjp fhg;gPl;lhsu; vd;w Kiwapy;
,e;j xg;ge;jk; ,lk; ngwf;$baJ.
3. ,J Mz;L Kjy; Mz;L tiu xg;ge;jk; MFk;. vdNt> xU tUl
fhyj;Jf;F kl;LNk jP fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifia gpwg;gpf;fyhk;.
4. ‘fld; gw;Wupikkhw;wPL’ kw;Wk; ‘gq;fspg;G’ vd;w Nfhl;ghLfs;>
jP fhg;gPl;Lf;fhd xg;ge;jj;Jf;F nghUe;Jk;.
5. kpf neUf;fkhd neUg;gpdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ig ,J cs;slf;fpaJ.
6. xU MAs; fhg;gPl;Lf; nfhs;ifiag; Nghd;W ,y;yhky;> xU jPf;
nfhs;if> ruziljy; kjpg;G my;yJ gzk; nrYj;Jk; kjpg;ig
nfhz;L tUtjpy;iy.
7. rk;ge;jg;gl;l tp\ak;> mjhtJ> xg;ge;j Neuj;jpy; kw;Wk;
e\;lj;jpd; NghJ> nrhj;J fhg;gPL nra;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. xU
MAs; fhg;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; Nghy; my;yhky;> xU jP fhg;gPL
xg;ge;jk; tl;b ,og;G Neuj;jpy; $l ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy;>
mJ xU ,og;gPl;L xg;ge;jk; MfpwJ. cWjp my;yJ xJf;fPL
,og;G Neuj;jpy; fhg;gPL nrhj;J tl;bahf ,Ue;jhy;> mtu;fshy;
xd;Wk; nra;a KbahJ. fhg;gPL nra;a Kbahj msTf;F rpy
tof;Ffs; cs;sd.

II. ‘neUg;G’ kw;Wk; ‘neUg;gpdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;jpd;’


nghUs;
neUg;G nfhs;ifapd; nghUSf;Fs; 'neUg;G' vd;gJ> vy;iyiaj;
jfu;j;J> mjd; ,ay;gpy; cs;s xU nghUs; MFk;. jw;nrayhfNth
my;yJ NtW tifahfNth ,Ue;jhy;> cz;ikahd jPg;gw;witg;G
my;yJ vupr;ry; ,Uf;Fk;. gf;fj;Jizaw;wjd; %yk; ntg;g Gusp vd;gJ
neUg;G my;y. vdNt> cz;ikahd jPg;gw;witg;G kw;Wk; ,og;G Nghd;w
jP %l;Lgitfspd; %yk; kpf mz;ikapy; ,Uf;Fk; tiu> fhg;GWjp
nra;gtu;fs; nghWg;gpy;iy. ,jdhy;> GifNghf;fp %lg;gl;Ls;s xU
fhw;Nwhl;bapd; ngUk; ntg;gj;jhy; ru;f;fiu nfl;Lg;NghdJ. Mdhy;>
mjpy; cz;ikahd jPg;gw;witg;G ,y;iy. cWjp nra;ag;gl;ltu;
(M];bd; vs l;Nuhk;) MfpNahu; kPl;f Kbatpy;iy. mNj Nghy>
R+upadpd; ntg;gk; gy Neuq;fspYk; kuj;jhy; MdJ. Mdhy;> mJ
neUg;gpdhy; Vw;gLk; ,og;ghff; fUjg;gl KbahJ. ru;f;fiu my;yJ
kuj;Jz;Lfis itj;jpUf;Fk; tshfj;jpd; cz;ikahd jPg;gw;witg;gpd;
%yk; ntg;gk; cz;lhFkhdhy;> Nrjkjpg;G ‘neUg;gpdhy; NrjkilAk;’
vd;W fUjg;gLk;. Mdhy;> fUj;J-nghUs;> mjhtJ ru;f;fiu my;yJ
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kuj;Jz;Lfs; cz;ikapy; vupf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,J xU fhuz fhupa fhg;gPL

jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ.

III. fhuz fhupa jP fhg;GWjp


fhuz fhupa Nfhl;ghL jP fhg;gl P L
; f;Fg; nghUe;JfpwJ. capu; ,og;G my;yJ Fwpg;Gfs;
Nrjj;jpd; neUf;fkhd nghUSld; jP Vw;gl;lhy;> ,og;G kPlf ; g;gLfpwJ. fhg;gL
P
Njit vd;w fUj;J-nghUs; vupf;fg;gltpy;iy. jPgg ; w;witg;G (mjhtJ
vupe;J nfhz;bUf;Fk;) nghUl;fs; fhg;GWjp my;yJ tshfj;jpNyNa
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. nghUs; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; jpBupLjy;> Efug;gl;L
jpl;lk; jPgg
; w;witg;G %yk; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; Vw;gLfpwJ. my;yJ
me;j tshfj;jpd; xU gFjpia nfhSj;jpdhy;> jpl;lk; NrjkhfpwJ: xU
tof;fpy; ,og;G kw;Wk; ghjpg;G Nghd;wit xU Nrjk; ‘jpBupLjy; jP’
vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW> ‘kUe;Jfspd; ifapUg;G’ jP tpgj;Jf;F
vjpuhf fhg;gL P nra;ag;gl;lJk;> filapd; tshfj;jpy; jPgg ; w;witg;G
fUtp nghUj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jd; tpisthf> ngUk;ghyhd kUe;Jfs; Nrjk;
mile;jd. Vnddpy;> mjpfg;gbahd ntg;gk; fhuzkhf> mJ neUg;gpdhy;
Vw;gLk; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjkhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
(a) ,og;G my;yJ Nrjk; vd;gJ nghUs;-nfhs;if rk;ge;jj;Jld;
njhlu;Gilajhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;;
(b) jPg;gw;witg;G my;yJ jP tpgj;J my;yJ Nrjk; fz;bg;ghf
Vw;gLk;. kw;Wk;
(c) jPg;gw;witg;G vd;gJ> mJ itf;fg;gl;Ls;s nghUl;fs;
my;yJ fhg;GWjp nra;ag;gl;l nghUl;fSf;F ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
jP fhg;GWjp $w;Wf;F> jP tpgj;Jf;fhd fhuzk; vd;d vd;gij
ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. jP tpgj;J Vw;gl;lhy;> mJ fhg;GWjp
nra;jpapypUe;J kPl;fg;gLk;. mJ Ntz;Lnkd;Nw cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
my;yJ mtuJ Kftu; %yk; nfhz;L tug;gl;lhy;> Rlu; vupAk; vd;W
vt;thW fz;lwpa KbAk; kw;Wk; me;j tpgj;J my;yJ tbtikg;gpd;
tpisthf ,Uf;Fkh vd;W mJ nghUl;gLfpwJ. cWjp nra;ag;gl;l
my;yJ mtuJ mbahu;fspd; ftdf;Fiwtpdhy; $l fhg;GWjpjhuu;
njhlu;e;J nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk; (^l;n[d; vs ngg;gpwNf).
ePjpj;Jiw KbTfspd; mbg;gilapy;> ‘neUg;gpdhy; Vw;gLk;
,og;G my;yJ ghjpg;G’ vd;gJ> ,og;ig jzpj;jy; vd;w Nehf;Fld;
jPia mizf;Fk; Kaw;rpfshy; Vw;gLk; ,og;G my;yJ Nrjj;ijAk;
cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. ,t;thwhf> gpd;tUk; ,og;Gfs; jP fhg;GWjp %yk;
Vw;gLfpd;wd:
(a) jP mizf;f gad;gLj;jpa ePuhy;> nfl;Lg;Nghd n