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CalTPA–Designing Instruction Task ID #00000000

Before beginning this task, read the complete directions provided in the CalTPA Candidate
Handbook.

Step 1: Academic Content Selection and Learning about Students


Directions:
An important step in planning instruction is to learn about your students. Select one class, one
content area, and the state-adopted academic content standards or state-adopted framework (if
your single subject content area does not have content standards) for this task. Respond to the
questions below about this class, unit of study, and how you learn about the students.

A. Academic Content Selection

Grade Level: 6
Content Area: Language Arts/Social Studies
Subject Matter:_____________ Roman Empire

1. List the state-adopted academic content standards or state-adopted framework that you
will cover for this unit of study.
6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious and social structures
during the development of Rome.
6.7.2 Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g.,
written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).
6.7.4 Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome’s transition from
republic to empire.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy. RH.6.10 By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend
history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and
proficiently.
California English Language Development Standards-
SL.6.1,3,6, L6.1,3,6, RL6.1-7; RH.6.1-10; RST.6.1-10; SL.6.2; L.6.1,3,6, SL6.4;
L.6.1,3.

2. Describe the unit of study that addresses those standards.

This unit will cover the standards listed above will be about Ancient Rome. It will include
what constitutes an empire, identifying the characteristics of the Roman Empire and its place
in world history, events and people during its period in history. This lesson will continue to
work on the previous lessons discussing what constitute an empire and what allows empires to
rise. Students will be required to analyze texts and gather evidence to support their responses.
This lesson will allow for different scenarios for the teacher and the students. There will be
independent work, class discussion, group work, as well as multi-media work. Teacher will
guide students through important events and peoples of Ancient Rome, review research skills
and discussion rules. Collaboration is also a skill that will be covered and learned in this unit.

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3. What is (are) the academic learning goal(s) for this unit of study?

1. The student will show that they can identify events and people during the Roman Empire by
scoring at least a 70% on the short quiz.
2. The student will work in collaboration with other students and complete the “A Day in our
Roman Life” activity pages. Each student must complete the worksheets to at least 70% to get
credit.
3. Students will show ability to describe and analyze the reasons for the fall of the Roman
Empire and compare to contemporary times by completing the homework with complete
sentences.
4. Students will use complete sentences with evidence from the readings.

Class Information
Age range of students: 11-12 Number of male students: 25

Total number of students: 36 Number of female students: 11

B. Student Characteristics

Linguistic Background
1. What information that may influence instruction do you want to learn about your
students?
First, I would like to identify any students who are English Language Learners and learn
what languages are spoken at home and content knowledge. I will need to know ELPAC
scores to get a good idea and know development level. This will let me know if they are
emerging, expanding, or bridging. It is important to know what the primary language is
spoken at home as this can impact support system. I also want to identify which students, if
any, have speech and language disability. I also would like to know if there are any high
achievers in the class that I need to adapt or accommodate the lesson for.

2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why
you have chosen to use those particular methods.
I would learn about my students’ linguistic background and needs both formally and
informally. Prior to the beginning of the school year it would be important to find out as
much about incoming students to my class. I will be looking at their ELPAC scores and
look to see if any student has an IEP. I would start out classes by having all students fill out
an “About me” assignment, which will give me insight to each child’s home and personal

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life, as well as likes and dislikes. Informally, I will be conducting parent/teacher


communication so I can get to know what the home language and life are like. Also,
informally I will learn how about their English and linguistic patterns both in the classroom
during class discussions or socially with other students during group work or during breaks.
All ELD and ELL students will be at different levels. Therefore, it is important for me to
adjust the lessons and goals according to the individual. I will pull up the Educator’s
Assessment Data Management System (EADMS) to see individual student reports. EADMS
will allow me to see students results in ELPAC, District Benchmarks, and CAASPP scores
from the previous school years.

3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected
content area?
I will use the information I gather from EADMS to appropriately group or partner my
students and be aware of which students will require additional scaffolding or adaptations
and/or accommodations. For those students that are EL or ELD I can use more oral
instructions, or make sure that my oral instructions are explicit, clear and concise. Also, for
these students I can come up with a list of translations and/or pictures for new key terms
that they may encounter and possible pictures with words or phrase so students could still
understand the lesson or concept with support. In grouping or pairing it would be beneficial
to pair students that are EL or ELD with students that are more fluent English Speakers.
This will help both students. The EL or ELD student will be more apt to share and
communicate with the peer and the fluent English Speaker will feel pride that they are a role
model.

Academic Language Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Skills


1. What information that may influence instruction do you want to learn about your
students?
Prior to the unit I would want to determine the following:
- Students’ reading levels
- Students’ ELD levels
- Students background knowledge of Ancient Rome
- Which students need writing support?
- Which students work well independently?
- Learning and assessment preferences
- Have they had any experience in researching?
All this information will influence the instruction of this unit and its lessons. In being aware
of the needs and abilities of each individual student I can provide modifications for the
individual and the group. Knowing which students can easily work independently allows
me to know how to group my students in order to place those with similar needs together
and provide scaffolding or high-level work for those that are high achievers. The level of
ELD of the individual students will allow me to plan for the amount of visual aids,
scaffolding, sentence frames, and the amount of pre-teaching necessary to help them be
successful. Students that need individual writing assistance would need to meet with me at
least two times a week to receive support in this area. By knowing this I could also group
ELD students together and have them meet with me as a group during group time to receive
this specialized attention.

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2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why
you have chosen to use those particular methods.
The lesson on Ancient Rome comes in the second semester. Therefore, I will have attained
plenty of insight into the needs of my students and gotten a feel about what their progress is.
Specifics as to which students work well with others, what students require extra help when
it comes to staying on task and successfully completing work, and what students can work
independently will also be evident at this time of the year. I can also review the “About
Me” assignment I gave out at the beginning of the school year. I will contact parents via
email, phone call or in the classroom. I can look at sample writings in their CUM files and
their ELPAC scores. I could also meet with or contact students’ previous teachers and/or
families to get insight as to their observations on the students’ needs. These assessments
will guide me into differentiating lessons for students according to their individual levels in
English Language skills. I would also look into forming groups that have one or more
students who excel in group and ELA/Social Studies subjects and students who need extra
help in these areas. This way they can provide support for those students that need help. I
can monitor by listening in and joining the group at different times. I have chosen these
methods because they involve both formal and informal assessments. In the informal
assessments students are more willing to share their ideas and open up freely as they feel
less threatened than in a formal test environment.

3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected
content area?
I would use the information from my informal assessment, the “About Me” assignment or
other interest inventory, and my students’ previous writing and reading samples, as well as
consider their ELD level, to place my students into cooperative learning groups for the unit.
The inventory or “About Me” assignment would help me to put students together that may
have things in common and make them feel more at ease. I can also use their previous
knowledge on Ancient Rome, their ELPAC scores, and their exposure to informational texts
and their levels in ELA/Social Studies in order to plan a successful unit and address student
needs during each lesson of the unit. I can spend time daily, during groups with my below
grade level students, ELL, ELD, and intervention students and meet with my grade level
and above grade level a few times during the week. As I work with my English Learners I
can read the informational texts more times as needed with the goal of having them
understand the vocabulary and reading comprehension. I would also provide these students
with outlines, graphic organizers, visual aids, sentence frames, and vocabulary flash cards
or translations as needed. Independent students can be paired with partners who may be
suitable for them or perhaps need just a bit of assistance and they can work through the
readings and questions together. Advanced learners, can be given a more in depth research
based assignment to keep them engaged. Giving differentiated instruction and support will
ensure that my students are successful throughout this unit and the school year.

Physical, Social, and Emotional Development


1. What information that may influence instruction do you want to learn about your
students?

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It is important that I am aware of where my students are in their physical development.


There are physical developments that could affect their learning such as hearing or visual
impairments, and/or wheelchairs or using crutches. Another adaptation that may occur is a
student with back problems that may struggle to sit still for long periods of time. Gross
motor or fine motor skills would also affect how they learn or how a lesson may have to be
differentiated. Students who lack gross motor and fine motor skills could be given the
option to dictate their summaries to a teacher, peer, teacher’s aide, parent volunteer. Also,
student may require the use of a computer in order to type their assignments rather than
write them out.
Because social skills are important for the collaborative activities involved in this lesson it
is important for me to know where students are in their social development. I can
accomplish this informally by watching the interaction between individual students and
others during discussions and groups prior to this. It is important to know where students
are in order to place them in groups that would benefit all students involved. Students who
have difficulty getting along with their peers will be given the opportunity to work with
myself, an aide, volunteer, or independently. This also is a great way to find leaders within
the class and have them be assigned leadership roles.
Emotional development varies by age, so it is important to know where a child will be in
sixth grade. It is important also to know about where each individual student is place
attention to any outside or home situations that could be tolling on that student. At this age
students tend to be shy or socially awkward. Being in groups of their peers would allow for
the shy students to open up and not feel uncomfortable to share to the whole class during
discussions. This is where it is important for me to be aware of IEPs and/or go thru their
CUM files and see if there are any triggers I may want to avoid and/or any issues that I need
to know of such as anxiety, loss, trauma, or depression.

2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why
you have chosen to use those particular methods.
It is important to be aware of a student’s IEP. I will use this first as a go-to to find resources.
In this I can information about adaptations that have been guaranteed and names of either
parents, previous teachers, psychologists, or any other adult professional that may be
familiar with this individual student’s needs. I choose this method because it is already, or
should be readily available and saves time. I can also learn about my students’ physical
needs, gross and fine motor skills by reviewing their writing samples as well as by talking
to their families or previous teachers. If a student has difficulty writing they will be
provided with a Chromebook or computer and if a note taker is available (or my notes
printed) can also be given to the student. For challenges of movement such as crutches,
wheelchair or other adaptions can be made such making sure there are no constraints for
them and they can freely and independently move around the room. I can talk to previous
teachers on how they accommodated for this. I choose this method because it also saves
time in reaching the accommodations and saves time in between class activities.
Learning about social skills of students is best when done by either observation or asking
previous teachers. It is important to monitor students in my class as dynamics can change so
what worked for one teacher may no longer work after any school breaks. It is important for
me to see how students work with one another so I can plan group activities and know who
I can pair together or not.

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I will learn about my students’ emotional development by consulting the CUM and IEP,
there are any. This is my first go-to for all questions. If issues arise that are not addressed in
any of these two, I can always turn to previous teachers, parents, and school counselors.
Parents could give me insight into information that teachers and counselors may not be
aware of. This would allow me to provide support to my students’ needs all year long.

3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected
content area?
I will use the physical, social, and emotional information about my students to differentiate
appropriately and consciously group them correctly. Also, if there are any physical
limitations, knowing these would help me immensely in accommodating for those. Such as
providing easy access to supplies, making sure the classroom is wheelchair accessible,
putting hearing and seeing impaired students closer to the front of the class. Students who
have a hard time sitting for a long time will be allotted the choice of flexible seating.
Students who struggle with emotional development can be supported by me knowing what
triggers them and avoiding this as to not cause further trauma or anxiety. If they struggle
with their self-esteem or confidence in their ability to complete assignments, I can check in
with them frequently throughout the unit. Socially, I can monitor those that need extra help
during group work.

Cultural and Health Considerations


1. What information that may influence instruction do you want to learn about your
students?
California is an extremely diverse state and therefore it is important to know, recognize and
celebrate all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. It is important to try and find different
literature or informational text that may represent as many different students as possible.
This will ensure that students that may need role models can find them through our studies.
Not only will students learn to respect and value other cultural norms thru this, but culture
can also affect how a student interprets language acquisition, how they perceive reading and
their attitude towards collaborative work.
Health considerations could range from epilepsy, diabetes, any allergies, and any other
diseases or concerns that may affect them while at school or keep them from attending
school and thereby falling behind. Other considerations that need to be taken into account
are students that may wear glasses or need them, a student that may have ADHD, or
knowing if they are have a hearing impairment.

2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why
you have chosen to use those particular methods.
It is important to know as much about all my students as early as possible. For example, for
health concerns it is important to know right when we meet each other. In case of health
concerns, I would look first to see if any student has an IEP. Then I would consult previous
teachers, parents, I could send a questionnaire with my students to find out if there are any
allergies or other health concerns that are new or not listed on the IEP or CUM file, as these
can change from year to year and semester to semester. In this questionnaire I can ask about
medications, conditions and physical activity that the students have at home or during extra-
curricular activities.

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As far as culture considerations, I would find out first and foremost who my English
Language learners are. This could be found by looking for ELPAC or IEPs. I would find
this out by looking thru CUM files or past teachers. I would also include this in a
questionnaire and possibly pair it up with the health considerations questionnaire. I could
reach out to parents, past teachers, or counselors to see if they are aware of any cultural
accommodations or experiences not listed on the CUM or IEPs. I can learn a lot directly
from students once they fulfill the “About Me” assignment for my class.

3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected
content area?
In regard to health considerations I would use this knowledge to make sure that I am
prepared if an emergency happened while a student with a health problem or situation is in
my class, especially if there are warning signs to look for that the student might present.
Also, knowing if there are food allergies would help me plan on substitutions or omitting
that food if I was bringing it in or using it for a lesson. Also, knowing about health concerns
can help me plan for group activities such as students with ADHD. I may not want to group
all my ADHD or more than one student with ADHD in a group as they will not get the work
done.
In regard to cultural considerations, it is important for students to see themselves reflected
in what they are learning or to find common ground. Otherwise it is not relevant, and they
will not want to be engaged. Cultural awareness would help not only all students in the class
but myself. It is important to know the background of my students so I can know when
certain behaviors arise if they can be explained thru a cultural norm. Also, living in
California it is important to bring the learning and appreciation of diversity in the classroom
and better prepare my students for the future they are building in our world and state.

Interests and Aspirations


1. What information that may influence instruction do you want to learn about your
students?
It is important for me to find out what my students’ interests are inside and outside of the
classroom. In the “About Me” assignment I could include a lot of this information. It is a
great way for me to get to know my students and find out what they like to do when not in
school, what subjects interests them, if they have any idea what they want to do when they
grow up, if they have any hobbies, who they look up to and what music they like. I could
include a question about what their dreams are and who they would choose to have a
conversation with (anyone from history).

2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why
you have chosen to use those particular methods.
I would use my “About Me” questionnaire/assignment. This is a great way to inventory
each individual student and use for future planning, such as grouping and collaborative
groups. I would also take time to observe students in the class and on campus as well as
consult a previous teacher. It is important to me to be aware those students that are shy or
extroverts and see what gets them in that zone to be able to monitor them and use this as a

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strength as opposed to a weakness. Also, for projects that will be given out. This would be a
great tool for me as I will be doing a lot of project-based learning. I could make sure that
there are projects that cater to different interests and personalities. Catering to students
needs and interests will help keep them on task and focused throughout the unit.

3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected
content area?
I could use all this information to group students that have similar interests. This would help
them open up and feel more comfortable at the beginning of the year. As the year progresses,
I would revalue their interests and see if anything has changed or if now, they have acquired
new interests. This also helps in building lessons as I could find a way to tie in their interests
to the social studies units. For example, if there are any students that are interested in
building things, I could find a way to talk about engineers in Ancient Rome and/or have
those students do a bit more research based on engineers in that time period.

Step 2: Learning about Two Focus Students


Directions:
Select two focus students from the class you identified in Step 1. Select one student who is an
English learner and one student who presents a different instructional challenge. Use some of the
methods you described in Step 1 to learn about these two students. Consider your selected
content area and subject matter when describing what you learned about the two focus students.
Complete the section below. In each box below include:
 a description of what you learned about each of the students
 an explanation of how the information will influence your academic instructional planning.

Note: Single subject candidates for a credential in Languages Other Than English who are
delivering instruction entirely in the target language may choose another student with a different
instructional challenge rather than an English learner.

Student 1: An English learner


Gender: Male
Age: 11

1. Why did you select this student?


This student was selected because he is an ELL student, he has recently arrived from Mexico
a couple years ago and continues to struggle to meet grade level standards. He still struggles
to decode fluently at grade level, and uses phonics to sound out unknown words. Although,
his speaking is at an intermediate level, his comprehension and listening skills are at a
beginning level. His writing and reading are progressing at an early intermediate level. After

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looking through his ELLevation profile I could see that he is at an overall minimally
developed level.
He will require individual and small group accommodations throughout the unit and lessons.
He will benefit from pairing with mentors/peers that can help him with vocabulary
acquisition. I will provide him with lots of scaffolding such as lists of new key terms,
possibly translated, and also using pictures to help him understand and put together the
meanings of the new words used in the lessons. He will also benefit from my providing
sentence frames to compose his thoughts when responding to close reading questions in a
small group setting.

2. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background?


I learned that this student is Spanish speaking by asking him where he was from. Being that I
speak Spanish gives me a bit of an advantage. He has been in the United States for almost
two years and currently is struggling with comprehension when reading. According to his
ELLevation profile he is speaking English at an intermediate level. Because he is still
reading at a third-grade level, he will not be able to read independently. In order to promote
his comprehension, the reading selections will have to be read first by myself, a teacher’s
aide, or parent volunteer. This would allow for further explanations or assistance in finding
the definitions to any key terms needed for the social studies unit. It would also benefit him
to have a second reading where I will read it out loud one more with him and check for
understanding. I would also try to find translations for him if at all possible and also an audio
of the reading so he can do a third reading if necessary, with the audio.

3. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this
academic content area?
The student’s reading comprehension and decoding is clearly three years below his expected
grade level. Therefore, he struggles to understand the concepts being taught in this unit when
reading the key terms and informational texts. Because the student has shown his reading,
listening, and comprehension to be at the beginning and intermediate stages, some of the key
terms and informative texts pose a challenge for him without significant scaffolding such as
repetition of text and usage of pictures, sometimes translations. Academic language is a
challenge for him as he has a difficult time with comprehension of the subject matter. He
does have the ability to communicate fairly well with his peers and the teacher. This makes
him a bit shy when it comes to offering answers or attempting to answer a question posed to
the class in discussion.

4. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject
matter?
After speaking to the student independently, I was able to confirm that the student struggles
with written expression. In talking to the master teacher, it is also conveyed that he is
meeting the minimum language arts requirements, which also coincides with social studies
as they are linked. The classes are cored, which mean the teacher has these students for both
Social Studies and Language Arts. I will need to modify the pace or completion expectations
as it is apparent, he struggles with comprehension of informational texts. When he is given
sentence frames or key terms prior to reading he can identify the storyline better and point
out key events or persons that are important. Although, he seems to understand the oral

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communication of the events in the lesson, if paced out a bit, it is the reading comprehension
and written part that he is struggling with. This will influence my lesson planning and
instruction because I will have to meet with him before hand to see his prior knowledge of
the subject and afterwards to see how much comprehension was attained. Also, I will provide
him with scaffolding such as a list of key terms and people with pictures if needed and
possible translations, as well as sentence frames for the assignments so he can focus on the
events and concepts while practicing his English.

5. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development
relevant to this academic content area?
The student does not have any physical inabilities that prevent him from successfully
completing his work. He is also physically average size for a sixth grader and is active. His
favorite time of the day is when he is at P.E. Soccer is a big influence at home and therefore,
he looks forward to going outside and playing with friends. This give him the perfect
opportunity to use both English and Spanish since the group of friends he plays with speak
both English only speakers and bilingual speakers.
Emotionally he seems to be happy. After speaking with him and his past teacher it seems has
taken time to adjust to life in the United States, but this is normal and there is nothing of
concern here. He does tend to be a bit shy when discussions are taking place about readings
because he does not always fully comprehend all that is being read in informational text.
This can have a lasting effect on his self-esteem and self-efficacy and therefore, I will look
for ways to frontload new or difficult vocabulary and have the student do the reading first
with myself or the support a classroom aide prior to the whole group. Because of his oral
communication being more intermediate this would provide him the opportunity to become
more engaged and fully participate in class discussions. Hence, positively impacting his
emotional development.

6. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background, including family and home
relevant to this academic content area?
The student is Mexican and has been in the United States just under two years. He comes
from a family of four and he is the oldest. The parents both are non-English speakers and
work a great deal. They work long hours. This gives the home involvement much to be
desired and requiring classroom intervention to be much greater and imperative to assist him
in being successful.
I can use the resource specialist at school to determine reasonable classroom and assignment
expectations for this student as well as try and communicate with the parents as soon as
possible and as much as time permits. I will be creating a Spanish copy of classroom
newsletter so they can be informed regularly on what their child is learning in their language.
Any key terms and events will also be sent home with appropriate translations when possible
asking parents to help him practice if at least once a week.

7. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues
relevant to this academic content area?
After speaking with school nurse and his parents this student does not have any health issues
relevant to this academic content area. What I will do is place him in close proximity to my

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desk and whiteboard. This will assist him in better comprehension and less distraction when
he does not understand something. Keeping him in close proximity to me, I will be able to
see where he is struggling, as well as provide him with guidance and encouragement for
trying. Also, the close proximity to my desk allows me to more efficiently help him out when
a question does arise.

8. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this
academic content area?
This student is very interested in playing and learning all he can about soccer. It is a family
passion. I learned this thru the “About Me” assignment and conversations. He says he likes
the colosseum of Ancient Rome but does not know much more about Ancient Rome. He
would like to be better at English so he can understand what is happening in class
discussions. In order for him to be able to grasp informational text in a more grade level pace
I will meet with him prior to any new unit and frontload him with mew vocabulary or terms,
we can go thru the expected readings and check for comprehension. I will help him set goals
and aspirations with regards to academic content area and point out when he is doing a good
job and give him plenty of praise and positive reinforcement to help him be more engaged in
class discussions. Hopefully, this will assist him in trying to answer or be more involved in
group or class discussions.

9. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about
the student (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities).
This student is rarely absent and also rarely late to class. He turns in all work even if not
correct or finished. He enjoys watching soccer with his father and also enjoys playing it. He
is not involved in any extra-curricular activities for two reasons, one he is not familiar with
all clubs offered and two he has to be home to watch has sister as parents sometimes leave
them alone while their work hours overlap. Since I know that he enjoys playing soccer I will
ask if I can come watch him at lunch while he plays with his friends. This may give him the
opportunity to show me something he is good at. Thereby, boosting our relationship and his
confidence in our classroom and in sharing.

Student 2: A Student Who Presents a Different Instructional


Challenge
Gender: F
Age: 11

1. Why did you select this student?


I selected this student because she is in sixth grade and has a hearing impairment. Her
hearing impairment has caused a slight speech and language impairment, but her past
teachers and parents have told me that she is slowly overcoming this. Her speech impairment
is particular in articulation of /r/ blends. This has caused a negative impact to her
participation and success with oral language standards. In this unit of Social Studies there are
a few discussions and a presentation that she will have to give. This will be challenging for
her. This slight impairment could impede her socio-emotional development overall. This

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student has some difficulty with reading and writing and has had an IEP since first grade.
Her CAasPP test shows she is at the basic level for English language arts. She is a very shy
child and keeps to herself. Also, has a hard time asking for help.
When it comes to accommodating instruction for this student, I know that she will do best in
smaller groups. She may require many of the same modifications as my EL student, small
group setting, checking for comprehension and understanding of figurative and descriptive
language, and working closely with me to make sure that there is comprehension and that
pace is correct. It would also do well to place a peer that is good with vocabulary and note
taking to work with next to her.

2. How is the instructional challenge that he or she presents different from that of the other
student?
First, her first and only language is English, while the other student’s first language is
Spanish. She has an IEP because of her hearing impairment which causes her to produce
sounds incorrectly, especially pertaining to /r/ blends. Also, in a cultural sense she comes
from a middle-class family that lives in a middle-class neighborhood in which they own a
home. The first student lives in a modest apartment and his family struggles to make ends
meet.
Because of her hearing impairment and shyness, I will need to wear a microphone to make
sure that she can hear all my instructions and directions clearly and when working in groups
I will have to go around and check for understanding. Also, working in smaller groups would
help her overcome her fear of sharing answers and having to project her voice.

3. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background?


This student is extremely shy and usually only answers questions if you are speaking with
her one on one. Even when called on she tends to stay quiet and look around. The student’s
first and only language is English. Her immediate family only speaks English and other than
school she is not really exposed to another language. She does not work well in group work
and lacks presentation skills. Her report card, in fact, reflects that presentations need
improvement.
In planning instruction for this student, I will encourage to share about her home life more
with students by planning share time. This will get her to open up and perhaps allow her to
become more comfortable sharing with groups. I will pair her up with a student that is a bit
more outgoing to have them share and help her connect with someone in class. This will give
her someone to go to on a personal level for any questions. This in turn will give her partner
a bit of pride in helping a classmate.

4. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this
academic content area?
I learned that this student has a difficult time with academic vocabulary both in reading and
writing. This can pose a challenge when asked to answer questions that are formatted with
academic language. Similar to my EL student she is better off and benefits from having key
terms, vocabulary, and persons frontloaded before the lesson. In planning instruction for this
student, I will use a graphic organizer to help her organize her thoughts and guide her as to
what she needs to include in her writing. I will also place an anchor chart on the bulletin
board, that will include academic terms, vocabulary, and important persons covered in small

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groups and in class discussion. This will help her feel a bit empowered when asked to work
independently, in a small group, or with a partner.

5. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject
matter?
Language Arts and Social Studies are not this student’s favorite subjects because she is
challenged by her ability to read and write. I do not know if this student has prior knowledge
of Ancient Rome, but it is part of the lesson to check for prior knowledge. It is important to
give students the flexibility to write about different topics to get them motivated to write and
keep them engaged. This unit will have a project that needs to be turned in and will take the
place of a test. I will give students a list of acceptable projects and the option to work with
me and come up with an original project. This will give students the opportunity to choose
something within the lesson that interests them and make it their own. This student would
definitely benefit from this opportunity.

6. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development
relevant to this academic content area?
I learned that this student is physically an averaged sized sixth grader who is extremely shy
and not very social. After talking to her parents, they told me they think this is in part
because of her hearing impairment. Although, she knows a lot of the students from
elementary school she tends to keep to herself and does not start conversations with peers.
She is a very nice girl and answers when her classmates ask her question, but she normally
does not start the conversation. She does like to draw and does this while at break and lunch
mostly alone.
In planning for this student, I will allow and encourage her to use her drawing capabilities to
complete her project for the Ancient Rome unit. This will excite her to find something she
likes about Ancient Rome and with individualized writing help she can complete the writing
portion of the assignment.

7. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background, including family and home
relevant to this academic content area?
This student comes from a middle-class family and lives with both her birth parents. Her
parents are both very supportive and are advocates for her to receive the extra help she
needs. Her mother tends to help out at school at least once a week or once every other week.
Both her parents are also of European decent. She has a baby brother, but their age difference
is big, so she was an only child for a while. This tied in with her hearing impairment could
explain a bit of her shyness.

8. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues
relevant to this academic content area?
This student is healthy and has no other health concerns. She has good attendance and is
rarely late to class. Her hearing is not at 100% but she can hear if the class is quiet, is in a
small group, or if I wear the microphone.

9. What did you learn about this student’s interest and aspirations relevant to this academic
content area?

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After observing this student and talking to her I found out that she is very interested in
drawing and is actually very good at it. She prefers this to being social or playing sports.
Since she is very shy and not at all social this is her outlet for expression. I will have her
focus her strength of drawing for her project in this unit. She wrote on her “About Me”
assignment that she likes to draw and wants to be an artist when she grows up.

10. Describe other information, relevant to this academic content area that you learned
about the student (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities).
This student has only been absent once since the school year started. She draws a lot and
uses all her free time to do so. Since she does not offer too much information this is all she
talks about doing as her favorite pastime. She does like to eat hamburgers and pizza. She is
not involved in any extracurricular activities and that may be in part to her great shyness.

Step 3: Planning for Academic Instruction for the Whole Class


Directions:
Consider your academic content selection in Step 1 and what would you want the students to
learn. As you begin to think about a lesson that falls within the selected unit of study, respond to
the questions below about your plan for academic instruction for the whole class.

1. At what point in the sequence of the unit is this lesson? Put an X next to one:
_______At the beginning of the unit of study
X _Between the beginning and the end of the unit of study
_______At the end of the unit of study

2. List the state-adopted academic content standard(s) or state-adopted framework you will
address in the lesson.
6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures
during the development of Rome.
6.7.2 Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written
constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).
6.7.4 Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome’s transition from republic
to empire.

Supportive standards:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6.10 By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social
studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

California English Language Development Standards- SL.6.1,3,6, L6.1,3,6, RL.6.1-7;


RH.6.1-10; RST.6.1-10; SL.6.2; L.6.1,3,6, SL.6.4; L.6.1, 3.

3. What is (are) your academic learning goal(s)? What specifically do you expect students
to know or be able to do as a result of the lesson?

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Students will be able to complete work in different situations, including independent work,
class discussion, group work, as well as multi-media work.
*The students will use Chrome books and textbooks to research what the schedule of a child
their age would be like and compare it to their own.
*The students will work in cooperative groups.
*Students will be asked to annotate and define unknown terms.
*Students will be able to participate in small groups and relate their own life experiences and
compare them with Ancient Roman Children.
*Students will analyze through a class discussion what is an empire and how Rome became
an empire.

4. How is (are) your academic learning goal(s) related to the state-adopted academic
content standards or state-adopted framework?
The academic learning goals for this lesson will show evidence of the students’
understanding of the content standards. California state standards require that students be
able to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown words in connection to informational
texts they read about the subject matter. Students also are expected to analyze historical
informational text and research information that pertains to the period they are studying. As
the students research the various topics covered from Ancient Rome, they will gain a more
in-depth understanding of the time period and the people that lived during that time and
compare it to their own time.

5. How will the content of the lesson build on what the students already know and are able
to do?
Students watch CNN10 every day and take notes. Many of the news clips they watch have to
do with the government so that opens up the discussion. Comparing American government
and American life with the structure of Ancient Rome and examples of everyday Roman life,
will provide students with a connection to the past and see how the Ancient Roman empire
influenced the west. Students have been learning how to take Cornell notes and extract
important information from informational text and from lectures. This is done with
scaffolding up until now. I have started by placing examples of what needs to be written
down in their notes and as the year has progressed, I ask them to tell me what should be
written down as notes. Most of the students are understanding how to do this with less and
less help.

6. How will the content of the lesson connect to the content of preceding and subsequent
lessons?
In preceding lessons students learned what was necessary to form early settlements and what
caused people to establish a home in different places, such as water, natural barriers to keep
them safe, and where food was abundant. Now students are being asked to identify and
analyze what processes are needed to take people from surviving to forming small
communities and later on empire states.
In subsequent lessons students will use what they have learned from taking Cornell notes and
extracting evidence from informational texts and research to work on their project
presentation at the end of this unit. Students will pick one of the projects on a list and
research using different media, be it textbooks, non-fiction books, the internet, expository

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texts, historical pieces, artifacts, videos, etc. Amongst the options for this project are an
essay, make a poster, do an oral presentation, make a pamphlet, make some food or recipe
book, and others.

7. What difficulties do you anticipate students could have with the lesson content and why
do you think these difficulties might arise?
I see a few difficulties that my students will have with the lesson content. First, I think that
students may encounter new academic terms that they may find abstract such as the word
empire, Caesar, and the concept of citizen as it relates to Ancient Rome and compares to the
United States. Second, I think it will be a challenge for students to use the limited amount of
time for the unit to choose a topic to base their project on and also which project they will
decide to do. Because there are so many interesting topics within Ancient Rome and the
information available is so vast it will be necessary for me to work with students in class on
a daily basis to make sure they are narrowing down their research and focused on what they
are looking for. I will also have a brainstorming session with the class as a whole to narrow
this down and assist them in finding appropriate focus and topics. Lastly, patience and
concise note taking during research will be a challenge for students of this age. It will be
easy for them to be distracted and want to be all over the place with the information they
collect and include. This could also cause them to feel overwhelmed. During group sessions
we could further the discussion of Cornell notes and I could guide and encourage individual
students navigate which information is important for their project.

8. What evidence will you collect during the lesson or at the end of the lesson that will show
the extent to which the students have learned what you intended?
Students will use google documents to share their practice quiz and short
homework/classwork with me. If they answer at least 70% correctly that means they
understand the terms. I will be able to see their notes online as well. I will check in with
groups while groups are working on the handout about the roman child in comparison to
their life. These informal check ins will assist me in checking for understanding of
expectations and the texts. I will take anecdotal notes of my observations as students
collaborated. This will help me for planning future lessons and future small group meetings.
A rubric grading scale that includes the following skills: student was able to answer 70% of
terms and persons in Ancient Rome, student was able to use take effective Cornell notes
from lecture, student was able to use multi-media sources for research on a topic and use
Cornell notes, and student was cooperative and engaged during small group work.

9. Think about how you will sequence your instruction of the academic content to be
covered in this lesson. Describe your plan for instruction in the order in which it will be
implemented. Address each of the following prompts and provide a rationale for each of
your decisions:

Communicating the academic learning goal(s) to the students


Instruction Plan Rationale
A. I will start a class discussion as to what is A. An opening discussion is an attention
an empire. Answers will vary but should lead grabber. This one in particular will get
to asking if empires are only in movies, a students ready to learn about empires and

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thing of the past or if they in fact exist today. compare them to the world we live in today.
This will lead into an introduction of the It will make them try to find connections to
Roman empire. their lives and see how the past has
influenced the world we live in and what
B. I will display and discuss with the class similarities there are.
the academic learning goals and set the
standards in a kid friendly manner pertaining B. Students should be familiar with standards
to the unit we will commence. The learning and what is expected of them. Not only will
goals will be placed on butcher paper on the this answer the “why are we learning this”
white board and kept there to provide easy that is always asked, but it also gives
access to students and any adults that may students a concrete blueprint to follow in
enter my classroom. Students will be given regard to their learning. This can make them
the opportunity to ask what the learning more active participants in their learning
goals mean, if they are struggling to experience as opposed to having someone
comprehend the goals as they are presented. just tell them what to learn. It will also
remind students on a daily basis what they
C. I will begin by asking the paper monitor should be retaining from the lessons.
to pass out the Roman Empire handout by
Clarendon. They will also be asked to take C. Students are required to describe and
out their Social Studies notebook for notes identify the Roman Empire, and its events
and vocabulary. This text will introduce the and people during its period in history.
inception of Rome from city state to empire, Giving them a fun handout and reading it as
outlining important emperors and moments allows me to gauge where all students are in
in its history. comprehension.
It gives a brief summary of what is an empire
and starts with an introduction to the defined D. It is important to revisit the essential
area of the Roman Empire at its height. Also, question(s) throughout a unit. Going over
the handout leads into a basic introduction of questions and concepts will assist in the
Roman Life such as Roman jobs, family, retainment of the same. Giving students more
food, clothing, school, religion and leisure confidence and the concepts covered and
time. Ending with a brief conclusion on the allowing them to add connections and ideas
fall of the Roman Empire. In a big to the essential question(s).
highlighted bubble at the bottom of the last
page a question is posed “what part of E. This part of the lesson requires students to
Roman life interests you the most and why?” use different media to extract and reinforce
This positions the class for the assignment of information. Students are expected to use
schedule and life comparison. We will be Cornell notes, guided by me, on what is
reading this together as a class. covered in the video. This serves as a
reinforcement of what was covered in the
D. In order to reinforce the new terms the informational text and will underline the
class is getting I will now instruct them to important figures and concepts of the early
define all the words that are in bold. I will Roman empire.
project a list and go thru one word at a time
as a class. F. This activity asks students to collaborate
with a partner and research, analyze, and
E. At this point I will play a short video, compare their life to that of a Roman child
Ancient Rome: A New Power Rises- reading from Ancient Roman life.

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lesson for kids, from YouTube by


MrDowling.com. This video will reiterate G. During the activity, “Practice,” students
some of the information in the handout are expected to work independently. Again,
covering how Rome developed from a small using their skills of research, they will use
village on the Italian peninsula to a world the handouts, their notes, and the internet to
power. Students are expected to use the research for the correct answers. In order to
notebooks and take Cornell notes. During the get a passing grade, the students, will need to
video I will pause and check for get 70% of the answers correct. This will
understanding and also that students have reinforce the key terms and concepts that
enough time to write notes. After, a brief were discussed in the video and the handout.
discussion and questions period will ensue.
H. The homework is not very involved, and
F. At this point I will ask the paper monitor we will start it in class. Students must be able
to pass out the Activity page, “A Day in Our to analyze and research to get thru this unit.
Roman Life.” I will pair students together, It is important for students to be able to
boys w/boys, and girls w/girls, if possible connect what they are learning with the
since their daily events will be similar. They world they live in today. This will make
will use the handout section about family life history come alive and it will keep them
and research the internet to complete this engaged.
activity. I will call on students to share which
part of their day they enjoyed the most and I. Giving students this question at the end
which was the least. sets them up for thinking about what comes
next and prepares them to look at the subject
G. The next part of the lesson will require the manner in a way that connects to them. If
handout titled, “Practice.” I will ask the students have freedom to choose what their
paper monitor to hand this out to the class. learning focus is they are more apt to find
This handout requires that students research pleasure in it and be more engaged.
the answers from the packet and notes they
have taken. This part of the lesson is
independent work. I will walk around and
observe students to see who needs help and
who is able to research with minimal to no
help. Students will trade papers with the
person behind them and correct them.
Students will need to complete this with 70%
correct or they can redo it the next day we do
Social Studies.

H. After having the paper monitor hand out


the homework. I will read and review the
instructions with the class as a whole,
checking for comprehension. I will use
modeling by having the class as a whole do
the first box and making sure everything
understands how and where to find their
answers.

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I. The last part of the lesson for the day is to


go back to the packet and look at the
question posed at the bottom of the last page,
“What part of Roman life interests you the
most and why?” This serves as a precursor
to the final project they must complete in this
unit. I will allow enough time for responses
and a short discussion. I will also remind
them to give thoughtful reasons and time in
what interests them as they will be working
on research for the project that has to do with
Roman Life.

Instructional strategies
Instruction Plan Rationale
A. I will begin this lesson by opening up the A. This will allow students to make
class with a discussion on “what is an connections with the world they live in today
empire?” This opens up the floor for students and history. It also allows for the exchange of
to share what background knowledge they ideas. I will cover what is the definition of an
have and for sharing of ideas. This would empire. They will also be asked to think of
continue building on the knowledge those the possibility of empires existing today and
students may have and will expose those that if so, where are they? This gets them
do not have any background knowledge to thinking critically and analytically.
what an empire is.
B. Placing the expectations clearly at the
B. After the brief discussion I will let forefront of the unit allows students to be
students know what is expected of them for mindful of what is expected of them and
the next unit. I will bring out the list I what to look out for. Placing the expectations
previously made on butcher paper so that I on the board for a daily reminder will assure
can read it out loud or have volunteers read it that all students have access to them daily. It
off for the class. This is a great time for me also allows me to point out to them as we go
to also clarify any questions students may thru each expectation in the lesson. Doing
have as well as meet with my EL and lower this also gives me time to go with my
students to do the same. This is also the students that require individual attention,
moment that I will ask students to get with such as my lower students and my EL
their assigned partners. student. Assigning students at this moment
with their designated partner allows them to
C. Once all students have the handout and get comfortable and start working together in
they are sitting next to their partners we will the following activity.
begin the reading the informational text. This
text will begin a discussion and the process C. This reading is the basis for this lesson. It
of thinking about what Roman Life was like is informational and gives students most of
for all citizens. This will prepare students to what they need to know to do the two

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start thinking about what life was like in handouts, “A Day in Our Roman Life” and
comparison to their modern life. It goes into “Practice.”
Roman Jobs, family food, clothing, school,
religion and leisure time. I will ask questions D. This activity ties the learning goals
to incite this investigation. How was life directly as students must be able to annotate
similar to our life? What kind of jobs do you and define unknown terms. Through
see today that were around back then? What modeling I will also help them with
did students learn in school? Who went to comprehension and pronunciation.
school?
E. Studies have shown that when students
D. At this point I will turn to the ELMO scaffold their ideas, they are much more
projector and place the vocabulary necessary successful. In using an organized method of
to know and understand for the lesson. I will taking notes such as Cornell notes, students
point to the handout and show students that are able to access and organize their thoughts
all words new to them are in bold and they more effectively. This video in tandem with
must infer the definition from the content the informational reading will assist students
and/or use the definition given directly right to further be engaged with the class
in the text. Each student will write these into discussions and their partner, thereby
their notebook. I will project the list on the executing standard 6.7 Students analyze the
whiteboard using the ELMO and go thru the geographic, political, economic, religious,
list with them as a class. They will write the and social structures during the development
definitions down as we go thru them. of Rome.
Although, time is given to them, some
students will need extra time, which will be F. Collaborative discussions will allow
given at the end of this lesson or on another students to work through their ideas more
day. The important part is to go thru the list effectively. Peer discussion allows them to
as a class. not only understand the assignment in a
different perspective but also gives a break
E. I will ask students who remembers what from the need to be quiet and focused on
Cornell notes are and how to correctly write what the teacher is saying. It also gives me
them and use them. After this short review, I time to walk around the room and check for
will ask students to take out their Social understanding.
Studies notebook and prepare to take notes,
Cornell style about the short video we will G. This portion of the lesson is a short open
watch. notes quiz. It will also serve as an assessment
as to how the students are able to use their
F. This activity requires students to work in skills to extract information from their notes,
collaboration with a partner and research, informational text and memory.
analyze and compare their lives to that of
Roman children. I will place them in same H. I do not like to give homework so I will
gender partners because that they will have give students time to do some of this in class
the most in common. and get them started. This allows me to keep
students accountable as we went over
G. After the partner activity, students will directions and I also modeled the first que.
work on their “Practice” handout
independently. They will be given 20
minutes to work on this. They will use their I. As with all expectations I prefer to give

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notes and the informational packet. those to students and frontload them with
these. I choose to tell students about a major
H. First, I will be reading the directions with project right at the beginning of the lesson so
the class and modeling how to answer the they can start preparing and planning. This
ques for homework. I will work the first que also allows me to hold them accountable as
in the homework using the ELMO. Students to the amount of time they will be given.
will raise their hands to offer the answer to
the que as well. This is will also allow me
time to check for comprehension.

I. At the end we will have a brief discussion


about “What part of Roman life interests you
the most?” This is where I will brief students
on the expectations of their final project and
instruct them to start thinking about what
they will be researching.

Student activities
Instruction Plan Rationale
A. Students will be engaged in a discussion A. Discussions allow students to interact and
as to what is an empire. There will be exchange ideas from one another.
different answers, but this will get students
thinking about what an empire is and if there B. Allowing students to know up front what
is any power today that could be described as is expected and what they will learn allows
such. This is done as a frontloading and at them to feel engaged in their learning and a
the very beginning of class. part of it while also organizing themselves as
to what is important.
B. Students will read thru the academic
standards and expectations for this unit. They C. Student modeling helps students that are
will be expected to ask questions and give struggling with language because it provides
comments on what they think of the them with a peer example of appropriate
standards. Suggestions are also taken as a pronunciation. This also helps in students
way to have them feel involved and engaged staying on task.
in their own learning.
D. Studies show that writing something
C. Students will read as a class, the handout down helps memorization. Students copying
“The Roman Empire”, popcorn style (which and defining vocabulary words assists in the
means they take turns by picking the next memorization of the same.
student to read). Students will be briefed on
the inception of Rome as a city to an empire. E. Using videos will engage students and get
them ready for the lesson.
D. Students will copy all vocabulary words
and important events from The Roman F. Working collaboratively with a partner
Empire handout and define them from the will help guide struggling students in their
definitions given in the handout. own thought process and also allows for the
exchange of ideas without the fear of
E. Students will watch a short video that will speaking in front of the class.

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also go over the brief history of Rome from


city to empire. Students are expected to take G. Independently working on a handout
notes, Cornell Style, in their Social Studies allows the teacher to have informal
notebooks. assessment of the students’ ability to respond
to what is being taught as well as how well
F. Students will work collaboratively, with they can convey the ideas.
their partners, to discuss, analyze, and
research the schedules of Roman children. H. Modeling, especially from the teacher,
The students will use the research and reduces student error and positively affects
compare to their own life schedules and the students’ perception of the importance of
create a schedule for themselves as Roman a task.
children. They will then be expected to
volunteer what was their favorite part of the I. Collaborative discussions help students
day. learn how to ask good questions and become
better listeners, therefore deeper learning is
G. Students will fill out the “Practice” achieved.
handout given to them, using the handout
“The Roman Empire,” their notes from the
video, and their textbook. This is to be done
independently.

H. Students will follow me as I work thru the


first que of the homework and fill it in.
Following my modeling they will fill in the
rest of the ques for homework.

I. Students will participate in a teacher led


discussion answering the question at the end
of “The Roman Empire” handout, “What
part of Roman Life Interests you the most?”

Student grouping
Instruction Plan Rationale
A. Students will be grouped as a whole A. Having students grouped as a whole
group, as they discuss what is an empire. group makes it easier for me to introduce a
new concept to the entire class. This also
B. Students will remain in whole group for allows students to be able to raise their hands
this part of the lesson as well. and ask questions as needed. This will
prevent confusion, as everyone is getting the
C. Students will read as a class the Handout same instructions, at the same time.
“The Roman Empire.” As a whole class
allowing for discussions and questions. B. During whole group, it is important to
discuss what the expectations and standards
D. Students will independently copy down are for the upcoming unit. This will help
and define the vocabulary words from the prevent confusion when I ask students to

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informational text. This is a loose start their tasks, go to work independently, or


independent work. If they need help, they with their partners.
can ask their neighbor.
C. As a whole group the class can ask
E. Students will be taking notes about the questions on the informational text and be
video they are watching. able to hear questions from students that are
not shy and perhaps they are wondering for
F. Students will be assigned partners and clarity about.
asked to research and fill out the handout “A
Day in our Roman Life.” D. This allows for semi-independent work
with the option to ask for help, either from
G. Students are to work independently on the the teacher or their neighbor.
“Practice” handout.
E. This gives students the responsibility of
H. Students will now go back to their own listening to the video and practice taking
seat and work independently as I fill in the Cornell notes, which is the standard for note-
first que of the homework. taking at our school.

I. Students will be back in whole group and F. Having a partner gives students a more
discuss “What part of Roman Life interests intimate, less risky environment, to work out
you the most?” the responses to the handout. Some students
would like to share their ideas but are too shy
to do it in front of the whole class. Allowing
them to have partners may be a better option
for students.

G. Having students work on this handout will


allow me to move around the room and help
students who are struggling. I will also be
able to see who may need additional support
when we go thru the rest of the lesson.

H. Filling in the first response to the que


allows me to model how to do this and
allows the class to share ideas and receive
feedback from me to ensure they are on the
right track or not.

I. Having students share their thoughts with


the class will allow them to get feedback for
their final project, as well as help students
who are not sure of how to respond to this
question or what they are asked to do in the
final project. Student modeling is a great way
for students to learn from one another.

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Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other
adults in the room
Instruction Plan Rationale
A. I part “A” of the instruction plan I will A. The use of no materials for this part
start the class out with a discussion of what allows students to fully be engaged in the
an empire is and are there any today. This discussion without worrying about filling
will allow the entire class to view the anything out or reading a handout.
introduction to the lesson at the same time
and discuss. B. Posting the standards up at the front and
having the students’ undivided attention
B. In the “B” part of this lesson students will without having to write anything down give
not need anything. I will post up the me the ability to have the attention of my
standards on the board using butcher paper. students and answer any questions that will
This way the standards and expectations can come up. Also, having the standards posted
stay up at the front the entire unit. will keep a constant reminder of the
expectations and help the focus.
C. In part “C” students will use the teacher
provided handout “The Roman Empire.” C. Using a teacher provided handout allows
students to easily access informational texts.
D. In part “D” students will use pencils,
their Social studies notebooks, and the D. Pencils and their Social Studies notebooks
teacher provided handout “The Roman will allow students to keep notes organized.
Empire.” They will leave these notebooks in the
classroom.
E. For part “E” students are going to be
using pencils, their Social Studies notebooks, E. Using Pencils, their notebooks, and
and I will display a short video covering a Cornell notes will allow students to easily
brief history of Rome from city to empire. structure and organize their notes for
studying for quizzes and tests later. It is
F. In part “F” students will use pencils and important for students to be guided thru the
the teacher provided handout “A Day in our proper use of Cornell notes.
Roman Life.”
F. Using a handout that is to be turned in
G. Part “G” requires students to use pencils during class time and pencils allow students
and the teacher provided handout “Practice,” to easily have access to materials and keep
plus all the other handouts previously from losing their work.
provided.
G. Providing students with a handout makes
H. In part “H” students will use pencils and it easy to move on with tasks. It avoids the
the teacher provided handout, “Homework.” interruptions of not having lined paper

I. For part “I” no handout is necessary. The H. Providing students with the homework as
question will be on the handout, but I will a handout avoids having them not
also write it or project it up on the board with remembering to check Haiku for the
the ELMO. homework or writing down the assignment.

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I. No handout is necessary for this part of the


lesson only listening and discussing.

Progress monitoring of student learning


Instruction Plan Rationale
A. In part “A” of the instructional plan I will A. By having student volunteers share their
monitor their progress by having student answers to this front load question, I am able
volunteers share their responses. I want to see informally where everyone is
students to access their background understanding the concept of empires.
knowledge and apply it to what is being
discussed. B. By listening to student volunteers I can
evaluate students’ listening and speaking
B. In part “C” I will monitor and informally skills. This is especially important for my EL
assess student volunteers as they read and students.
see what level they are at. Also, I can ask
questions, and this will let me informally C. By circulating the room I can monitor
assess students that answer questions of multiple students and also pull students for
comprehension. some one-on-one help if need be. If, I
circulate the room I can ask students
C. In part “D” I will monitor student informally if they understand and ask them
progress by observing student work while also to explain what a word means.
circulating the room. Since the students will
be working independently on their D. By modeling I will give students an
vocabulary words, which is a basis for example of what needs to be written and
understanding the informational text. I want what is important. Stopping the video allows
to make sure they are copying down the those that work a bit slower to catch up and
correct words and defining them correctly. also allows for me to ask questions as to
On some of the words they will have to infer comprehension on what is being covered by
the definitions. the video. Circulating or scanning the room
while the video is playing allows me to see
D. In part “E” I will monitor student progress who is taking notes and not being distracted.
by pausing the video at important parts and
write some quick notes or project notes I E. Stopping by pairs of partner students
have written previously up on the board thru allows me to check in for understanding and
the ELMO. At this point I can also ask for also evaluate students’ listening and speaking
volunteers to see what they wrote down. I skills. This is especially important for my EL
will be sure to walk around as every time I students as they are still trying to grasp the
stop the video to make sure that all students language. Having EL students work in
are taking proper notes. partners will allow them to practice using
English, and new vocabulary in a less risky
E. In part “F” I will monitor student progress environment.
by dropping by every pair of partners while I
circulate the room. This allows for students F. Circulating the room allows me to monitor
to share and formulate their own ideas, also multiple students at a time. This allows me to
allowing them to see different perspectives work with individual students and make sure

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from their partners. they understand the assignment and


comprehend the concepts being taught.
F. During part “G” I will monitor student
progress by circulating the room and making G. As I model it is important to scan the
sure that I glance over all student work as I room to see if all students are paying
am doing this. attention to what is being shown. Circulating
the room will allow me to monitor multiple
G. In part “H” it will be important for me to students and help those that need extra
walk around to monitor students’ progress understanding. It is important to ask for
and check that all students follow my student volunteers as those that are shy can
modeling. It will also be important for me to hear the answers.
ask for comprehension and any questions
that students may have. H. By listening to student volunteers answer
this question allows me informally to assess
H. In part “I” I will monitor student progress different students as to what they understand
by having students volunteer what interests about the lesson. It also allows for shy
them the most. This will allow me to see who students to hear an answer to something they
has been listening to the lesson. may be too shy to ask.

10. Given the difficulties you anticipate students could have with the content, what
additional steps would you take to foster access and comprehension for all students?
I anticipate some students will struggle with taking notes, especially in Cornell style. For this
I will provide a simplified copy of notes that gives them the most vital information to answer
essential questions and meet the state standards for the unit. EL students will struggle more
than most to comprehend the vocabulary and important events. These students will meet
with me the day before (prior to the lesson) to go over difficult vocabulary with visual aids to
help with comprehension. When possible, I will provide them with a list of the words with
pictures and a possible translation.

11. How would you share the results of student academic learning with students and
families?
Prior to the lesson I will be sending out an email to all parents as a form of a newsletter
announcing what will be covered on the next unit. In the newsletter, I would inform them of
assignments that are coming up and what the standards for the unit will be. Throughout the
lesson students will receive oral feedback from me regarding their work and participation in
the class. Students and parents will be able to access Haiku, the online program for posting
all information about the class, including grades, description, copies of handouts, and
communication regarding changes to any assignments.

Step 4: Lesson Adaptations for the Two Focus Students

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Directions:
Consider what you have learned about the two focus students in Step 2, along with the
implications for instruction that you identified for each of them. For the two students, determine
what adaptations you will make to this lesson you have planned for the whole class. Describe
those adaptations for each of the two focus students. If you determine that no adaptations are
needed for a part of the plan for instruction, indicate and explain that decision. In each box below,
include:
 Your decisions about lesson adaptations
 A rationale for those decisions

Student 1: An English Learner

1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be
able to do as a result of this lesson
My ELL student will be able to meet learning goals of this unit through guided instruction.
He will be partnered with an English speaker and be able to participate in discussion where
he will be relating his life experiences and day to day schedule as well as discuss the content
of the lesson about Roman children schedules. Providing him with handouts that have
sentence frames will enable him to be able to start off support his responses correctly. I will
make sure to do frequent check-ins with the student and his partner to provide guidance and
support. If at all possible, his partner will be a bilingual student and they will be instructed
through my check-ins to use English as the primary language. This will him confidence that
if he does not understand something or is gets stuck, he can use his native language to
communicate. It is important to give him as much in-class support as his family is not
equipped to support him in with his English development.

2. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the
lesson
Throughout the lesson and unit, I will provide frequent check-ins for my EL student.
Approximately, every time I go around the room is appropriate for this. The day before I will
front load the EL student with the academic vocabulary. As there is a lot to grasp at this stage
of his development, I will provide him with extra time to do so, either during independent
work time or universal access. Checking that my EL student has correctly responded to the
queries is important to make sure that he is getting constant support and feels confident
going on to next assignment. Formative assessments throughout the lesson will be a key
factor in gauging if he is meeting the academic learning goals or not. Doing so will allow me
to make adjustments or spend extra time with him.

3. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student


A day before would be the first exposure to standards and expectations. I will front load the
student with a handout explaining everything and go over it with him. This give him time to
process what is about to start. Giving time for any questions to come out. During the
outlining of standard expectations and learning goals to class will be the second exposure for
this student. I will also check in with him independently and check for comprehension of
standards after this second exposure. I will expect the same standards to be achieved, but he

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will have accommodations and extra support. Providing him with sentence frames and a list
of vocabulary and important events with visuals aids and translations will provide extra
support. All students will be provided with a rubric for the final project so he will be able to
see what is expected. I will also provide class with examples of past exemplary work. The
student will be given extra time to complete the assignments as needed and I will provide
additional support from myself during partner-pairing and independent work time.

4. Instructional strategies
I will modify the instruction by being clear and concise for my EL student, as well as all
students. I will keep consistent with my cue words to describe the lesson and assignments as
found on the rubric. He will receive instruction at three different times, the day before,
during whole class, and individually to check for comprehension. It is important for me to
hang up the standards and expectations on butcher paper at the front of the class in order for
my ELL student to have to refer back frequently as needed. These adjustments will help with
his slower processing ability as well as give purpose to the lesson and his work. I will also
work with his partner and him to check-in for comprehension. This will promote his success.

5. Student activities
I will modify the lesson to have student work with the support of his bilingual (when
possible) partner or myself during independent work times. Front loading the student with
the expectations and standards, including instructions for the assignments assures that the
student understands the directions. He will be given a partner that can read with him so that
he can hear the instructions and what is being covered. Also, this intimate partner sharing
allows for a less risky environment and allows him to make mistakes freely. While reading
together this will also help him focus on decoding the text and reading comprehension.
When going over the assignment or asking for volunteers I will provide ample time for him
to gather his thoughts and be part of the discussion. Providing the class with exemplary
works from the past is especially crucial for this student as they can see visual examples of
what is being discussed as the assignment. Allowing him to gain confidence to share during
partner sharing and participate in class discussions is crucial for his self-esteem, self-efficacy
and academic success.

6. Student grouping
Partners will be given by myself at the beginning of the unit. I will not give students the
opportunity to choose their own partners precisely because there are students that I need to
group together to ensure success, such as my EL student that needs extra support. Since this
student needs additional support in English language comprehension, I will partner him with
someone who’s primary language is English or at least is bilingual and has a strong mastery
of it. I will allow these two to work together during independent work time. It is important
for me to provide continued and constant support in the class as he does not have support at
home for English comprehension.

7. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents,
or other adults in the room
This EL student will be provided with all the same materials provided to whole class, all
handouts, extra paper if needed, and pencils. The reading assignments are slightly above his

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reading level at this moment but providing him with support he can reach the expectations.
The final project has a small written portion. This is will required to be done on a computer
as a Word doc. This provides the student with additional support as he can check google
translate for words he may not know and also spell check. All new vocabulary words and
important events/concepts will be front loaded to the student the day before and will be
covered in class again. Having a hard copy of a dictionary and use of the internet either on a
Chrome book or cell phone will allow him to also get assistance. This student also has
English intervention as a class, and this will provide him additional assistance during the
week outside of my class.

8. Progress monitoring of student learning


As a class we will be discussing a great deal in this unit. I will model and scaffold answers to
questions given throughout the lesson. I will also provide examples of exemplary past works
for their final project. I will provide him with guided support in the given tasks. I will
monitor his understanding and comprehension of instructions and comprehension by
checking in on him during whole group, partner sharing, and independent work times. It is
important as well to independently go over his work with him and informally assess the
work to provide feedback as he is working.

Formative assessments will be used throughout the lesson in form of handouts. This is far
better for my EL student than a summative assessment because this can cause useless stress
and gives no time for progress. I can use these throughout the lesson including questioning
during partner sharing, independent, and whole group times, and the completion of the
handouts. As I am walking around helping students, including him and his partner I can take
anecdotal notes that I can reflect on later and use to see if he is meeting the learning goals of
the lessons and unit.

9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family
At the end of the unit those students that wish to present to the whole class may do so. They
will also be given the opportunity to present to me individually while the rest of the class is
working on an independent or group assignment. This will give me the opportunity also to
see how they convey what they have learned orally. Students are required to share their
typed-up portion of the Word doc with me and I will be using the rubric to grade this. This
Word doc along with a copy of the rubric will be sent home to families either with students
or thru email. If I see any concerns arising with the student’s progress, I will attempt to
contact parents either thru email or with a phone call. It is also important for me to
communicate with parents with their student is doing great so this communication with
parents should will not be reserved for negative feedback alone. It is important for EL
students to receive both negative and positive feedback in order to assist with progress in
English development.

Student 2: A Student Who Presents a Different Instructional


Challenge

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1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be
able to do as a result of this lesson
Student two has been diagnosed with a hearing impairment and has had an IEP since the first
grade. She attends speech twice a week, once during math and the second time either during
PE or Science. This helps because she will not be pulled from either ELA or Social Studies,
so it does not affect our classroom time and thereby not obstruct her from receiving the same
instruction as the rest of the core classes. During our core ELA we use Sytem44 as part of
our rotations and this will provide continued support for her as she is slightly below her
reading and writing level. However, with proper support from myself and her partner in this
lesson she will be able to fully participate. She has support at home as well. With this support
she will be able to complete the writing assignments, class discussions, and the written
portion of the final project.

2. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the
lesson
As with my EL student, I will provide constant check-ins with the student to assure that she
is properly answering and completing the assignments in class as well as participating. I will
opt for placing her close to my desk so I can support her quickly and also make sure that she
can hear my instructions. I will also use the microphone which allows for my mobility
around the room assisting other students. During and after the video I will check that she has
taken notes. It is also important for me to provide subtitles so she can follow along as any
comments made by other students could impede her from hearing the spoken word. I will
also place the video link up on Haiku so she can watch it a second time at home and
communicate this to her parents, so she has that option. I will constantly check-in with her
during independent and partner sharing to make sure that she is an active participant in the
lesson.

3. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student


Before the lesson, I will meet with student one and two together and front load them with the
vocabulary and important events/concepts needed for the lesson as well as a copy of
standards and expectations. I will make sure that I speak clearly and concisely, and she
comprehends the instructions, due dates, as well as the rubric for the final project. She will
be provided with all handouts, like all other students. During partner sharing and
independent work times I will check in with her to see that work is being completed. I will
go over with her the expectations and instructions for all assignments at least three times like
my EL student. I will intervene as needed to make sure that all necessary modifications and
additional support is available to her to be successful in completing this assignment and final
project.

4. Instructional strategies
Placing expectations and standards at the front of the class will assist this student in keeping
focused to what is expected. Through the support from myself, her partner, and her parents
she will be able to be participate in the same instruction I have planned for the rest of the
class. I will front load her, as my EL student, with all vocabulary and important

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events/concepts for this lesson and unit. This will allow her adequate time to understand and
thereby be an active participant in the lesson activities. I will provide the student with
frequent check-ins throughout instruction and when necessary, I will provide her with
modifications needed for her to be successful.

5. Student activities
This student will greatly benefit from having a partner that can give support to her during
this lesson. Front loading her with vocabulary and important events/concepts will allow her
to be an active participant during class discussions and partner sharing. I will also pull her
and my EL student and their partners and meet with them during independent work and
check for comprehension and responses to the handout questions. She would also be
provided with sentence frames as my EL student to assist her in writing.

6. Student grouping
Student two is very shy, so placing her in partners is the best option as she will be working
one-on-one with her partner in a less risky environment. Pulling her and her partner together
with my EL student and his partner will create a small group that can be intimate enough for
interchange of ideas and responses without them shying away. During this time, we can read
through the instructions of handout, answer questions, re-read the informational text or go
over any concepts orally that are a bit vague for them. I will support the students in this small
group by using questions to make sure they understand the informational text and
instructions for the handouts.

7. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents,
or other adults in the room
Student two will be provided with all handouts, extra paper, pencils and a Chromebook
connected to internet to assist her in looking for responses. Allowing her to use the
Chromebook and internet assists her by giving access to Dictionary.com and spell check for
her work. I will check-in with her frequently, every time I circle the room. This will give her
the support she needs to feel confident I am available and allows me to check her progress.
Giving her the front-loaded vocabulary and list of important events/concepts to rely on gives
her to quick access without having to ask a classmate/partner and gives her confidence in her
work.

8. Progress monitoring of student learning


The progress monitoring that will be used throughout this lesson is formative assessment.
Formative assessments are a better option for this student as a summative assessment would
cause unnecessary stress and would not provide room for progress feedback. I can use these
throughout the lesson including questioning during partner sharing, independent, and whole
group times, and the completion of the handouts. As I am walking around helping students,
including her and her partner I can take anecdotal notes that I can reflect on later and use to
see if she is meeting the learning goals of the lessons and unit. I can edit a rough draft of her
written portion of the final project, or we can use partner sharing as well. I would not use
direct questions during class discussions or question time since she is shy, but I would check
with her independently for comprehension. I will give her both oral and written feedback on
the handouts and final project during the unit. It is important for this student especially,

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because she is shy, to receive praise for good work as this will build her self-esteem and
confidence.

9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family
At the end of the unit those students that wish to present to the whole class may do so. They
will also be given the opportunity to present to me individually while the rest of the class is
working on an independent or group assignment. This will give me the opportunity also to
see how they convey what they have learned orally. Student two will be allowed to present to
me during lunch or break to ensure that she has additional privacy in regard to her shyness. It
is important to do this as to provide her with confidence building and self-esteem building.
Students are required to share their typed-up portion of the Word doc with me and I will be
using the rubric to grade this. This Word doc along with a copy of the rubric will be sent
home to families either with students or thru email. If I see any concerns arising with the
student’s progress, I will attempt to contact parents either thru email or with a phone call. It
is also important for me to communicate with parents with their student is doing great so this
communication with parents should will not be reserved for negative feedback alone. It is
important for EL students to receive both negative and positive feedback in order to assist
with progress in English development.

Step 5: Reflection on Connecting Instructional Planning to Student


Characteristics
Directions:
Read your responses to the questions in Steps 1-4. Think about what you have learned by
completing this task, including the characteristics of the two focus students, your instructional
planning for the whole class, and your adaptations for the focus students. Respond to the
questions below:

1. What information that you collected for the whole class and/or for the two focus students
most influenced your planning for this lesson? In your response, describe how and why
the information was influential and why you found it to be so.
After collecting data on both my students and searching for proper accommodations I was
able to conclude that both students can complete the required assignments and meet
expectations and standards with these modifications. These accommodations will vary by
students as I advance in my career, but it is my duty to find them. Through some or all of the
following means: modified assignments, redirection, scaffolding, explicit oral and written
direction, small group instruction or one-on-one instruction. Understanding that not all
students learn the same and differentiating instruction allows me to be malleable to them and
not try to force them to adapt to my way of instruction. I also find that it is essential to front
load myself with each individual student’s needs before starting instruction at the beginning
of the year and throughout the different units I will be ensuing. Assessing and addressing the

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individual needs of students prior to units and lessons allows me to efficiently go through the
lesson without as much redirection and thereby being more productive for all students.

2. How will you use what you have learned regarding connecting instructional planning to
student characteristics in the future?
I will adapt my lessons accordingly as the individual needs of my students and classes will
change not only by semester, but sometimes by the week as a new student may arrive,
students will inevitably progress in their understanding, comprehension, and skills. By being
aware of student’s weaknesses and strengths allows me to group them together or partner
them together in ways that are most beneficial not only to them but to the whole class to
avoid disruptions. Although, grouping and partnering is important and beneficial it is also
important to not discard one-on-one meetings with all students. It is important to give all
students positive and constructive feedback. This should be done as continuous as possible.
Because students’ needs are constantly changing, my monitoring and data collection will
allow me to modify, adapt, and change my lesson plans to fit those needs. To do this I will
use interviews, observations, assessments and data analysis with my teaching peers to
provide students with appropriate practices and feedback as well as parents.

July 2008 Copyright © 2007 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved 33