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Euler approach
The fluid properties p, ρ, v are written as functions of space and times.
The flow is determined by the analyzing the behavior of the functions.

Lagrange approach
Pieces of the fluid are “tagged”. The fluid flow properties are determined
by tracking the motion and properties of the particles as they move in
time.

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• Lagrangian description of fluid flow tracks the position


and velocity of individual particles. (eg. Brilliard ball on
a pooltable.)
• Motion is described based upon Newton's laws.
• Difficult to use for practical flow analysis.
– Fluids are composed of billions of molecules.
– Interaction between molecules hard to
describe/model.
• However, useful for specialized applications
– Sprays, particles, bubble dynamics, rarefied gases.
– Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian methods.
• Named after Italian mathematician Joseph Louis
Lagrange (1736-1813).

• Eulerian description of fluid flow: a flow domain or


control volume is defined by which fluid flows in and out.
• We define field variables which are functions of space
and time.
– Pressure field, P = P( x,y,z,t )
V  V  x, y , z , t 
– Velocity field,
V  u  x, y, z, t  i  v  x, y, z, t  j  w  x, y, z , t  k

a  a  x, y , z , t 
– Acceleration field,
a  a x  x, y , z , t  i  a y  x , y , z , t  j  a z  x , y , z , t  k

– These (and other) field variables define the flow field.


• Well suited for formulation of initial boundary-value
problems (PDE's).
• Named after Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-
1783).

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Euler approach Attach thermometer to


the top of chimney, point 0 . Record T as a
function of time. As different smoke
particles pass through O , the
temperature changes. Gives T(x0, y0, z0, t).
More thermometers to get T(x, y, z, t) .

Lagrange approach Thermometers are


attached to a particle, A . End up with TA =
TA(a) . Can have many particles and track T
for all of them. If we also know, position
of each particle of function of time, can
Contoh Lain : translate Lagrange
Bird migration example.
Ornithologists with binoculars count migrating birds moving past a
(Euler) or scientists place radio transmitters on the birds (Lagrange).

Nama lain dari material derivative adalah total,


particle, Lagrangian, Eulerian, and substantial
𝒅 𝑫 derivative.
Simbol ,
𝒅𝒕 𝑫𝒕 In the Eulerian method, the fundamental
property is the velocity field. The velocity
field does not track the behaviour of
individual partials, it describes the velocity
of whatever happens to be at a given
location. To do dynamics, need to apply F =
ma .

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dimana :

Sehingga jika kita ingin mencari percepatan:

Jika :

maka :

Secara umum untuk setiap partikel :

Percepatan di atas adalah sebuah


vector, yang setiap komponen
skalarnya dapat dituliskan
sebagai berikut :

components of the acceleration

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NOTASI UMUM :

Kadang untuk lebih


menyingkat penulisan
dapat dituliskan sbb :

Contoh : jika kita ingin mengetahui time rate of temperature, maka

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Uniform, unsteady flow in a Uniform, steady flow in a


constant diameter pipe constant diameter pipe

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(a) In control volume analysis, the interior of the control volume is treated like a black box.
(b) In differential analysis, all the details of the flow are solved at everypoint within the flow
domain.

Metode volume control akan bermanfaat jika kita tertarik pada keseluruhan karaktersitik dari
sebuah aliran, seperti massa alir masuk dan keluar volume control atau berapa jumlah gaya
yang diberikan pada sebuah bodi. JIKA TIDAK , maka diperlukan metode lain yang melibatkan
persamaan differensial dari gerakan fluida setiap titik dalam FLOW DOMAIN

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CONSERVATION OF MASS — THE CONTINUITY EQUATION

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